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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

A STUDY ON FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER


MONOPOLY

LALA LAJPATRAI COLLEGE OF COMMERCE AND


ECONOMICS
MAHALAXMI, MUMBAI-34

SUBMITTED BY:
SHRUTI GADA
TYBMS A
SEMESTER V

PROJECT GUIDE: PROF. ARUN POOJARI

YEAR OF SUBMISSION: 2012-2013

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

CERTIFICATE

I, Mr.Arun Poojari hereby certify that Shruti Gada of Lala Lajpatrai College of Commerce and
Economics of T.Y.BMS, Vth semester has completed his University project on FACTORS
RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY in the academic year 2012-2013.This
information submitted by her is true and original to the best of my knowledge.

Signature of Project Guide

Signature of the Principal of the College

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

DECLARATION

I, Shruti Gada, a student of Lala Lajpatrai College of TYBMS (Sem 5) hereby declare that I have
completed this project on A STUDY ON FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER
MONOPOLY in the Academic Year 2012-2013.I have done this project to the best of my ability
and my knowledge.

Signature of student
Shruti Gada,
No: 0000629
TYBMS-A

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My project titled FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY would not


have been completed without the help of a few individuals whom I would like to thank and
acknowledge for their efforts in helping me complete this project.
I would like to acknowledge my parents who have financially supported me during this project. I
would also like to thank my friends for their invaluable support during the project. With great
pleasure I thank Mr.Arun Poojari, Professor of Lala Lajpatrai College of Commerce and
Economics for being an inspiration in the completion of this project. I thank him for his
invaluable help provided during the completion of this project and also thank him for providing
me guidance and numerous suggestions throughout entire duration of the project. We are
thankful for invaluable help without which this project would not have materialized. Thanks to
all.

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Factors relating to Amul butter monopoly is the topic for my research methodology project. It
includes all the factors that directly or indirectly relate to Amul butter. The prime objective for
selecting this topic is to know whether the great marketing done by Amul by changing their ads
each week has paid off. How Amul butter has gain monopoly in the butter market. Their great
appealing ads have really attracted large amount of customers. The shortage of Amul butter
which had taken place, did it affect the customers, retailers & wholesalers. How did they manage
during the crisis? Amul has also advanced in other products except butter. Wide ranges of
products have been introduced in the market which has also captured good markets. Lets us
research more information about the popular ever known Amul butter.

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


INDEX
Sr.no
1.

Particulars
Introduction and Research methodology

Page no
7

1.1

General introduction of the project

1.2

Objectives of study

12

1.3

Scope of study

12

1.4

Research methodology

12

1.4.1

Formation of research problem

12

1.4.2

Hypothesis

13

1.4.3

Data collection

13

1.4.4

Research instrument

14

1.4.5

Sampling plan

14

1.4.6

Research limitation

15

2.

Review of Literature

16

3.

The three-tier Amul Model

40

4.

Product Details

43

5.

Product specification

43

6.

Product features

45

7.

Product application

45

8.

Reasons for success

46

9.

Facts- product portfolio

48

10.

Amul topical Story

49

11.

Data Analysis and Interpretation

53

12.

Conclusion

61

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


1. INTRODUCTION AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.1 General Introduction of Project
Amul the brand name came from the Sanskrit word "Amulya," which means Priceless. It was
suggested by a quality control expert in Anand.It was formed in 1946.It is
a dairy cooperative in India. It is a brand name managed by an apex cooperative organization,
Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd. (GCMMF), which today is jointly owned
by some 3.1 million milk producers in Gujarat, India.
Amul is based in Anand, Gujarat and has been an example of a co-operative organization's
success in the long term. "Anyone who has seen the dairy cooperatives in the state of Gujarat,
especially the highly successful one known as AMUL, will naturally wonder what combination
of influences and incentives is needed to multiply such a model a thousand times over in
developing regions everywhere." The Amul Pattern has established itself as a uniquely
appropriate model for rural development. Amul has spurred the White Revolution of India,
which has made India the largest producer of milk and milk products in the world. It is also the
world's biggest vegetarian cheese brand.
Amul is the largest food brand in India and world's Largest Pouched Milk Brand with an annual
turnover of US $2.2 billion (201011). Currently Unions making up GCMMF have 3.1 million
producer members with milk collection average of 9.10 million litres per day. Besides India,
Amul has entered overseas markets such
as Mauritius, UAE, USA, Oman, Bangladesh, Australia, China, Singapore, Hong Kong and a
few South African countries. Its bid to enter Japanese market in 1994 did not succeed, but now it
has fresh plans entering the Japanese markets. Other potential markets being considered
include Sri Lanka.
Dr Verghese Kurien, former chairman of the GCMMF, is recognized as a key person behind the
success of Amul. On 10 Aug 2006 Parthi Bhatol, chairman of the Banaskantha Union, was
elected chairman of GCMMF.

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


GCMMF Today
GCMMF is India's largest food products marketing organization. It is a state level apex body of
milk cooperatives in Gujarat, which aims to provide remunerative returns to the farmers and also
serve the interest of consumers by providing affordable quality products. GCMMF markets and
manages the Amul brand. From mid-1990s Amul has entered areas not related directly to its core
business. Its entry into ice cream was regarded as successful due to the large market share it was
able to capture within a short period of time primarily due to the price differential and the
brand name. It also entered the pizza business, where the base and the recipes were made
available to restaurant owners who could price it as low as 30 rupees per pizza when the other
players were charging upwards of 100 rupees.

Company info
The Gujarat Cooperative milk Marketing Federation Ltd, Anand (GCMMF) that is AMUL is the
largest food products marketing organization of India. It is the apex organization of the Dairy
Cooperatives of Gujarat. This State has been a pioneer in organizing dairy cooperatives and our
success has not only been emulated in India but serves as a model for rest of the World. Over the
last five and a half decades, Dairy Cooperatives in Gujarat have created an economic network
that links more than 3.1 million village milk producers with millions of consumers in India These
cooperatives collect on an average 9.4 million litres of milk per day from their producer
members, more than 70% of whom are small, marginal farmers and landless labourers and
include a sizeable population of tribal folk and people belonging to the scheduled castes.
The turnover of GCMMF (AMUL) during 2010-11 was Rs. 97.74 billion. It markets the
products, produced by the district milk unions in 30 dairy plants; GCMMF (AMUL)s Total
Quality Management ensures the quality of products right from the starting point (milk producer)
through the value chain until it reaches the consumer.

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


Product Ranges:
Here is the list of the products of Amul dairy cooperation LTD.
List of Products Marketed:
Bread spreads:
Amul Butter
Amul Lite Low Fat Bread spread
Amul Cooking Butter
Cheese Range:
Amul Pasteurized Processed Cheddar Cheese
Amul Processed Cheese Spread
Amul Pizza (Mozzarella) Cheese
Amul Shredded Pizza Cheese
Amul Gouda Cheese
Amul Malai Paneer (cottage cheese)
Mithaee Range (Ethnic sweets):
Amul Shrikhand (Mango, Saffron, Almond Pistachio, Cardamom)
Amul Amrakhand
AmulMithaeeGulabjamuns
Amul Mithaee Gulab jamun Mix
Amul Mithaee Kulfi Mix
Avsar Ladoos
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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


UHT Milk Range:
Amul Shakti 3% fat Milk
Amul Taaza 1.5% fat Milk
Amul Shakti Toned Milk
Amul Fresh Cream
Pure Ghee:
Amul Pure Ghee
Sagar Pure Ghee
Amul Cow Ghee
Fresh Milk:
Amul Taaza Toned Milk 3% fat
Amul Gold Full Cream Milk 6% fat
Amul Shakti Standardised Milk 4.5% fat
Amul Saathi Skimmed Milk 0% fat
Amul Cow Milk
Curd Products:
Yogi Sweetened Flavoured Dahi (Dessert)
Amul Masti Dahi (fresh curd)
Amul Masti Spiced Butter Milk
Amul Lassee
Amul Ice creams:
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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


Royal Treat Range
(Butterscotch, Rajbhog, Malai Kulfi)
Nut-o-Mania Range
(Kaju Draksh, Kesar Pista Royale,Fruit Bonanza, Roasted Almond)
Milk Drink:
Amul Kool Flavoured Milk (Mango, Strawberry, Saffron,Cardamom, Rose, Chocolate)
Amul Kool Cafe
Amul Kool Koko
Amul Kool Milk Shaake (Mango, Strawberry, Badam,Banana)

Mascot
Since 1967 Amul products' mascot has been the very recognizable "Amul baby" (a chubby butter
girl usually dressed in polka dotted dress) showing up on hoardings and product wrappers with
the equally recognizable tagline Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul. The mascot was first used for
Amul butter. But in recent years in a second wave of ad campaign for Amul products, she has
also been used for other product like ghee and milk.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

1.2. Objective of Study:

To study the customers preference towards Amul butter

To study the difference between the sales of Amul butter and other brands.

To study whether Amul butter truly has a monopoly or no.

To study which other brands give cut throat competition to Amul butter.

To study did the shortage of Amul butter affect the retailers/wholesaler and customers.

1.3. Scope of Study:


The scope of my research project is limited to only South Mumbai. Its limited to the wholesaler
and retailers of South Mumbai and the customers of South Mumbai. It will show whether there is
a kind of monopoly of Amul butter in south Mumbai.

1.4. Research Methodology:


1.4.1- Formation of Research Problem:
The pain area is the shortage in supply of butter by Amul. Amul being the largest exporter of
milk products in the country and having almost a monopoly in the butter market, how it failed to
meet the demand of customers. To know the problems faced by the customers, retailers,
wholesalers due to shortage. How did customer manage without butter? Which alternative
companys butter did they use in replacement of Amul butter? How did retailers, wholesalers and
distributers answer to the customers question regarding shortage? And many more such
questions are needed to be asked to know how the problem was managed by different people.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

1.4.2- Hypothesis:
Hypothesis means an assumption to be proved or disapprove. There are two types of hypothesis:
1. Null hypothesis
2. Alternative hypothesis
The following are the hypothesis stated for the project:
1. H0- There is no relation between Gender and preference of Amul butter.
H1- There is a relation between Gender and preference of Amul butter.
2. H0- There is no relation between monopoly & Amul butter.
H1- There is a relation between monopoly & Amul butter.
3. H0- There is no relation of shortage of Amul butter & its effect on customer.
H1- There is a relation of shortage of Amul butter & its effect on customer.
4. H0- There is no relationship between choice of other brand & age group.
H1- There is a relationship between choice of other brand & age group.

1.4.3- Data collection:


Source of data usually includes how why when and from where data was collected. There are
two types of data collection.
1. Primary
2. Secondary

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


1. Primary:
It includes data collected by researcher in different way. Either by personally interviewing
different people or by knowing the views of people through questionnaire. Collecting data by
going to the company itself. It basically includes information found personally.

2. Secondary:
Secondary Data can be collected from various sources, which include internet, magazines,
newspapers, articles, journal, research papers etc.

1.4.4- Research Instruments:


Research instrument is Questionnaire. Questionnaire is a written lists of questions to be answered
by large number of people to provide information for a survey or report. They are open ended as
well as close ended. Two questionnaires will be formed. One for customers and one for
wholesalers and retailers. Two questionnaires will have different questions as per the person
given. Different types of questions such as open ended, close ended; multiple choice etc will be
given to people.

1.4.5- Sampling Plan:


We use here Random sampling plan. Random sampling is the purest form of probability
sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected.
Here I sampled 80 customers and 20 retailers. I tried my best to collect a good amount of
accurate information so that it could lead to a real reliable conclusion.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

1.4.6- Research limitation:

As everything has a limit, even research has its own limitations. One does not get an accurate
result because of respondents biasness. Wholesalers and retailers are often busy doing their
business so they answer in hurry without thinking or giving proper answers. Customers may also
not answer truly due to lack of time factor. Also time factor and cost factor are other limitations.
We were given only 2 months to complete the research project which became a limitation.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1. Utterly Amul: The naughty turns forty
By: Mitul Thakkar
Date: Oct 3, 2007
Review:
This article is from Ahmedabad economic times. It talks about the amul butter girl which has
been a traffic-stopper since 1967. Her wit, her sharp sense of humour has really attracted large
public. Her style of analyzing current affairs have always drove attention of people. It futher says
that the hoarding placed on famous landmarks of all Indian cities has attracted more public then
the bollywood actresses. And even on turning 40 she still has same charm.
The famous Amul girl, apart from promoting a $1-billion brand, has been bringing smiles to
millions of people. And has spelt a huge success and changed the livelihood of over 2.5 million
Gujarat farmers. The sales figures of Amul butter have jumped from a few lakh rupees in 1966 to
over Rs 500 crore now. It has brought rapid growth and trustworthiness and has also ensured a
virtual monopoly for Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd (GCMMF) that sells
Amul brand of dairy products. It is also mentioned that GCMMF became a billion-dollar entity
in March 2007. In the last four decades, the girl has dealt with all the contemporary issues; be it
politics, sports, society, entertainment, art, weather, infrastructure, science or technology. But
here's something that would shock admen and brand managers. Despite the cut throat
competition in FMCG sector, GCMMF is not spending more than Rs 2 crore on Amul butter
advertisements annually on the countries oldest running campaign. It futher would surprise them
that the fact the agency, daCunha Communications, which gave a face to brand Amul, doesn't
need to run to the client every time for getting the art work approved. The agency says that even
the top management comes to know about the art work when the advertisement goes on the
hoardings.
DaCunha Communications has been handling the campaign since its promoter Mr. Sylvester
daCunha bagged the account in 1966. DaCunha created the moppet and also inked the tag line
'Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul'. In one of its first advertisements in late 1960s, the girl wearing
a white apron was called 'Taste Tube baby', referring to the developments in medical science.
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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


Since then, the Amul girl has never looked back.Amul Butter account with him after working on
it for 15 years. They say it was Verghese Kurien who said that GCMMF would like to continue
with them. He trusts talent blindly. there are also instances when the country's probably the most
appealing moppet that is Amul butter girl did not appear on the hoardings. Example given are the
hoardings with black background carried only text 'Avjo JRD' when the icon industrialist, JRD
Tata passed away. The amul girl also changed her get up and appeared in ghaghra-choli to sing,
'Roti Ke Niche Kya Hai?, Amul, Asalnayak' when the Bollywood blockbuster Khalnayak's 'choli
ke pichhe kya hai' song created ripples in 1993.
The butter girl has turned 40, but she has been able to retain the charm while dealing with
contemporary issues. When you ask to GCMMF CGM R S Sodhi, he says that: "What? Don't tell
me! She is just 4." He adds, "We have a policy to spend only 1% of our pervious year's turnover
this year for advertising. But for butter, we don't spend even 1% of revenues generated from its
sale." Mr Sodhi promises that the little girl will continue to tickle our funny bone in days to
come. GCMMF has no plans to alter its communication strategy for Amul butter as of now.

URL: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2007-10-03/news/28403654_1_amul-girlbrand-of-dairy-products-gcmmf

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


2. Amul Review
Review by: Hemi Chandak
The article talks about Amul : The taste of India. It says it is very true that Amul is utterly
buttery delicious Amul, has a huge product chain of dairy products. Major ones are Milk, Butter,
Yogurt and Ice- cream. Hemi Chandak says she still remember their one of the Ad, in which they
show how they collect Milk from rural areas. Thus they are providing source of income to rural
area as well as fulfilling corporate social responsibility. The Birth of Amul: It all began when
milk became a symbol of protest Founded in 1946 to stop the exploitation by middlemen
Inspired by the freedom movement All in all Amul is a legendary brand. In butter line, they have
monopoly. It is like Amul is a synonym of Butter. People go to the shop and ask "1 Amul dena",
that mean they want butter. She personally loves amul butter with bread, paratha and roti as well.
if sabji is of no taste, than she eats her roti with amul butter only. Crux of the story.. Utterly
buttery delicious Amul.

URL:
http://www.brandandme.com/guest/review/view?merchantname=Amul&merchantkey=agpicmF
uZGFuZG1lchALEghNZXJjaGFudBiLqFcM&conversationkey=agpicmFuZGFuZG1lchQLEgx
UZXN0aW1vbmlhbHMYs-liDA&postedby=Hemi%20Chandak&date=13-Oct-2011

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


3. Review by: Sakshi
She starts her article by saying she loves Amul ! And its advertising... most Indian families only
prefer Amul and she too, have been born and brought up on Amul so it remains her preferred
choice. Infact, for any cooking preparations like Pav Bhaji or other Indian and continental dishes,
she makes sure to use only Amul Butter because she knows it will make her dish tasty and
hygienic. If she sees delicious street snacks, she makes sure to check if the food vendor is using
Amul butter in his sandwiches and rolls, because only Amul butter is hygienic and safe to be
consumed when it comes to street food. Amul milk comes in various flavours, but she havent
tried all.. so maybe amul needs to focus their advertising on that. The present amul advertising is
centered on current topics and issues, and ofcourse that shouldnt be changed. She thinks
Management students have a lot to learn from them and she have a whole range of Amul Ads
saved just for her reference ! Amul cheese is also doing well and is a market leader. Most of my
family members prefer using Amul cheese only, sometimes even britainnia cheese is used..
There is not much difference in quality, though she personally prefers amul cheese cubes only.
she likes the mozzarella pizza cheese that Amul have come out with.. for young generation
people the ingredients they use in their cooking are of utmost importance so when she used the
amul pizza mozarella cheese,she liked it and it brought the authentic flavour of italian cheese in
my pizza.. Amul should just focus on their advertising getting centred on their candy bars and
milk products as there is not much awareness in this sector. she had the kacchi keri (green aam)
flavour in their candies, which is good, but she wasnt aware of it through their advertising .. she
went and enquired on her own.. So if Amul informs people about the flavours in their candy bars
and milk, they can reap good dividends from this sector too, like they are doing in cheese and
butter category. As for the Advertising, the amul butterlicious girl and her ads are the best on the
Indian scene !
URL:http://www.brandandme.com/guest/merchant/review?merchantKey=agpicmFuZGFuZG1lc
hALEghNZXJjaGFudBiLqFcM

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


4. Amul-Mother Dairy in bitter battle
By: Harish Damodaran
NEW DELHI, Jan. 22
Review:
Mother Dairy Foods Ltd is offering retailers margins as high as 10 per cent, compared to below
9.1 per cent by Amul. The difference comes to 10 paise for a 100 gram butter pack and 51 paise
for 500 gram packs. Even multinationals such as Nestle and Britannia, which have sought to
challenge Amul's hitherto unquestioned monopoly in butter, are not giving these margins.
Further, in the 900-odd bulk retail outlets owned by it in Delhi, Mother Dairy is offering its
concessionnaire operators margins of 96 paise (100 gram) and Rs 4.67 (500 gram). "When our
butter was being sold through these outlets, the concessionaires were given margins of only 50
paise and Rs 2.50. It shows how keen they are to push their butter," a GCMMF official noted.
Amul today has a roughly 80 per cent share in the 45,000-tonne butter market. In Delhi alone,
the Rs 2,500-crore co-operative dairy giant sells about 550 tonnes per month, leaving rivals
Britannia (40 tonnes) and Nestle (25 tonnes) way behind.
Amul has preserved its market dominance by keeping consumers prices unchanged for the last
four years and forcing others to follow suit. Nestle, only recently, had to reduce its maximum
retail price (MRP) from Rs 15 (100 gram pack) and Rs 65 (500 grams) to Rs 13 and Rs 63,
respectively. The other reason for Amul selling more despite offering lower retail margins
is strong consumer pull, resulting from its brand being virtually synonymous with butter.
But the Rs 950-crore Mother Dairy's entry could well queer Amul's pitch. "Being the market
leader, it is we and not Nestle or Britannia who will be mainly affected. We expect Mother Dairy
to do monthly business of 50 tonnes in the Capital. Our strategy is to prevent this from touching
100 tonnes," the official admitted.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


The extent of bad blood between the two co-operative brands is also borne out by other recent
developments. From January 1, Mother Dairy has stopped buying milk from GCMMF
altogether.
Till last year, Amul was supplying around one lakh litres of milk per day for the Delhi market.
Mother Dairy has now decided to discontinu sourcing milk powder from GCMMF.
Until a year ago, it used to buy roughly 10,000 tonnes of powder annually.
GCMMF, on its part, has pulled out of NDDB's Clean Milk Programme, conferring cooperatives the right to use the latter's `mnemonic' (milk drop) symbol on their products, subject
to meeting established hygiene norms. Amul's product packs no longer display the familiar
NDDB-owned logo.
URL: http://www.thehindubusinessline.in/2003/01/23/stories/2003012302340100.htmL

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


5. Amul - Evolution of Marketing Strategy
Review:
1.Organizational Structure
The cooperative model pioneered by Amul a
union of primary village dairy cooperatives- came
to be known as the "Anand pattern" cooperative
system. It was a three-tier structure that comprised
village societies, district level dairy unions and a
state level federation.Each tier was economically
independent of the others and comprised
representatives elected from the tier below it. The
organizations at each level were governed by their
own bylaws, and were managed by democratically
elected boards...
2. Product Development
Amul's product development was because of both by the spirit of the cooperative system and
profitability. Being a cattle farmers' cooperative, Amul was committed to buying all the milk
offered by the farmer. The perishable nature of milk made it imperative for Amul to process the
surplus milk and enter new product categories as production increased...
Butter
Launched in 1955, butter was one of the first milk products offered by Amul. It was also the first
time Amul successfully challenged the hegemony of an established brand. Amul's earliest
competitor, Polson had been the monopoly milk supplier to the Bombay Milk Scheme. Amul
displaced Polson to emerge as the undisputed leader in the butter market.
URL: http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Marketing1/AmulMarketing%20Case%20Study.html

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


6. The taste of India
By: ravidixit | Jan 27, 2002 11:00 AM
Review:
This article is written by Ravi Dixit and he says that he has been consuming Amul butter since he
was a kid and it really is The Taste of India. The brand is continuously made strong by the
billboards scattered all across the country week after week. The Utterly Butterly campaign has
been running for the last 30 years and is all set to enter the Guinness Book of world records as
the longest running campaign.
then he talks a bit of history of AMUL: Amul products have been in use in millions of homes
since 1946. It is produced and marketed by Gujarat Co-Operative Milk Marketing Federation, a
co-operative of more than 2.12 million members. He has personally been to one of their
production plants and the kind of quality checks they have is truly world class.
There has been very tough competition for the butter with both national and regional players
trying to break the monopoly of the product, but with little success.
he feel if AMUL butter has survived the test for all these years in face of competition and
managed to maintain its quality and distribution intact and also to keep the customer smiling, be
it with its product or the advertising campaign, it has to be good.
On a more personal level he says he is all for AMUL Utterly, Butterly, Delicious and The
Taste of India.
URL: http://www.mouthshut.com/review/Amul-Butter-review-ropopossm

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7. Butter, cheese scarce as Amul focuses on milk
By: Jayashree Nandi & Prerna Sodhi, TNN Oct 29, 2011, 03.09AM IST
Review:
NEW DELHI: If you love an utterly butterly toast in the morning, chances are, you would have
been missing Amul butter lately. For the past two months during the year 2011, Amul products
like butter, cheese have been in short supply because the cooperative has decided to prioritize the
supply of packaged milk.
Amul India representatives said the demand for branded milk had gone up sharply in all cities
and the cooperative was focused on meeting it.
They commented that :"We have cut down production of non-liquid milk products like cheese
and butter by about 15%. Our priority now is to meet the demand for liquid milk. But we hope to
meet the short supply of butter and cheese in a couple of weeks," R S Sodhi, MD of Gujarat
Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation told TOI.
Sodhi admitted there was a countrywide shortage of Amul butter for the past two months.
As a leader in the butter market, the Amul shortage had a strong effect. Harish Goyal who owns
a general store in Khan Market, said his business was getting affected. He said he sells only
Amul butter but since the last two months he has not been getting supplies. He got the feeling
that people have not being buying as much bread as before because of the shortage,"
Gaurav Singh, another provision store owner at South Extension said though other brands are
available, as also substitutes like Nutralite, butter sales had dropped. "People don't prefer other
brands so much especially for butter and cheese," he said.
"We have started buying another butter brand but I miss Amul," said Mrinalini Jaiswal, an IT
professional.
Restaurants and bakeries that use Amul butter for their products too are facing difficulties. At
Nathu's Pastry shop in Bengali Market, prices of biscuits and cakes have been increased by about
5% because of the short supply of Amul butter. "We prefer using Amul butter for cakes and
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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


biscuits. Amul cheese is also used for cheese biscuits. So naturally we had to increase our prices
as it getting difficult to procure Amul products," said Dilip Kumar, manager at the shop.
Shopkeepers said the supply of other brands of butter and cheese was normal. Thus the article
talks about the difficulties faced by the retailers and customers.
URL: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-10-29/delhi/30336068_1_butter-marketamul-butter-amul-products

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8. Butter crunch makes morning toast dry

By: Shailvee Sharda, TNN Nov 10, 2011, 06.55AM IST


Review:
LUCKNOW: This article is similar to the previous one, it talks about the butter shortage..If
bread-butter is part of your staple, you must be feeling the crunch. Amul butter was already out
of stock at your neighbourhood milk-bread-egg walla. Now, ask for a substitute -- like Parag -and chances are that you will get a pack not bigger than 50g. So, the morning toast is going dry,
the menu of school tiffin is witnessing a change and mothers are forced to spend extra time
preparing breakfasts writes Shailvee Sharda.
The shortage of butter was getting all over the country a few months back when the market
leader Amul started concentrating on liquid milk supplies keeping festival season in mind. UP's
Pradeshik Cooperative Dairy Federation, the producers of Parag products, however did
everything to fill up the shortfall. Though the shortage was for over eight weeks now, the stateowned cooperative has not been able cash in on the opportunity.
While Amul from Gujarat holds an 80% market shares of butter even in UP, Parag and other
non-milk products share the remaining 20%. Though Amul brought down production of butter
by 15%, the real shortage in the market was estimated to be around 40%. But Parag didn't make
much effort to fill the gap. Instead, even its normal supplies got less. Figures show that against
the average daily procurement of 6 lakh litres of milk, the procurement slipped to an average of
5.5 lakh litres in the last two months. Officials blame it on the festival season when milk
producers hold their produce in the name of high local demand. They claimed that the situation
would ease out by the week end.
"We admit that the market is full of opportunity for Parag as our products are of good quality and
are popular. There have been some issues in the past but now we are trying to resolve
everything," said Harsharan Das, managing director, PCDF. Though the officer didn't reveal
much about the issues, sources said that there was a lot of infighting in the department. The
employees were not satisfied because of administrative issues especially the ones relating to
26

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


salary and promotion. Of late, the cooperative has witnessed prolonged strikes by the employees.
"Poor state of affairs reflects in the slow death of the organisation. In the past one decade, seven
units in western UP have closed down," said an ex-officer who resigned from services because of
dissatisfaction. Not only this, the production of items other than milk has also reduced. In Meerut
unit, Parag's biggest, the production has been decreasing. In 2009-10, it produced 507 metric
tonnes of butter but in 2010-11, the production slipped to 498 metric tonnes and the production
figure for a period between April 2011 and October 2011 stands at 100 metric tones
approximately.
Consumers are feeling the crunch. "There are options like peanut butter or spreads in the market,
but milk butter is a matter of habit. Doing without it is difficult," said MK Srivastava, a
government officer. Housewife Anjali Singh said that shortage of butter made her work harder.
"My son likes butter parathas. He doesn't like anything else. So, I have to make things like poha
and bread-roles to ensure that he eats something during the lunch-break," she said. LL Verma, a
general store owner in Lalbagh noted a different trend due to shortage of butter in the market.
"Sale of butter has slipped while that of eggs has picked up," he told TOI.
Restaurants and bakeries are also finding it difficult to manage without butter. "Certain products
especially cakes and cookies have gone off the rack because there is no butter. We have used
cream in place of butter in some items, but that has increased the cost," said Arvinder Singh
Kohli, head of purchases of a city bakery. Availability of cheese has also gone down, which has
affected the supplies of cheese lings. Some bakery owners were asked if switching over to Parag
butter could help, they said, that Parag mainly manufactures yellow butter, which is of not much
use for bakery products. Kohli in fact said that if Parag was ready to guarantee sustained supply
of white butter, they would buy Parag and nothing else.
URL: http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-11-10/lucknow/30381649_1_paragamul-milk-producers

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


9.Shortage spike in butter price
A Staff Reporter
Review:
Mitali Mukherjee was shocked when her grocer demanded Rs 28 for a 100g packet of Amul
butter at Maniktala Market. The MRP is Rs 21, but he asked for an extra Rs 7, said the angry
homemaker.
The city has been facing an acute shortage of Amul butter for the past few months. Taking
advantage of the demand-supply mismatch, retailers are charging more than the MRP printed on
the packs.
At many markets like Maniktala, Lake Market, Tiretta Bazar and New Market, shopkeepers are
hiking up the butter prices by more than 30 per cent.
Tarak Sau, a bakery product seller in New Market said that he had only 35 100gm packets of
Amul butter. no shop in the market has any butter left. Given the shortage, people who are used
to having butter shouldnt mind paying a little extra. Since Amul accounts for more than 95 per
cent share in the citys butter market, the city is feeling the pinch dearly.
The chief general manager of Amul, R.S. Sodhi, told Metro from Ahmedabad that the company
had asked its local staff to check if any retailer was selling butter at a premium taking advantage
of the crisis.
Sodhi said the shortage was the fallout of the initially dry monsoon, which led to inadequate
production of milk. Summer is anyway a lean season for milk production. This year the drought
in the initial weeks of monsoon hiked up the prices of fodder. As a result, underfed cows could
not produce adequate milk.
He added that the shortage wont last for long as they have increased our production.
Another reason for the shortage of butter was the increased demand during the first quarter of the
year, Sodhi pointed out. We exhausted our stocks, he admitted.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


Though exact consumption figures for Calcutta are unavailable, sale figures at the retailer level
give an indication of the extent of the shortage.
An Amul Parlour owner in central Calcutta said he used to sell 40 to 50 100g packets and 12 to
15 500g packets of butter daily. For the past two months he has not received a single 500g pack
of butter and till last week, he received only 30 100g packets a week. Luckily he had picked up
1,000 packets of cholesterol-free butter a couple of months back. Even those were running out.
When Metro contacted Amuls Salt Lake office, an official said not a single pack of butter was
left in their warehouses. Retailers at Amul Parlours and city markets are constantly inquiring
about the supplies to the officer and they were running out of stock. They said they will inform
the retailers as soon as fresh stocks arrive.
URL: http://www.telegraphindia.com/1090914/jsp/calcutta/story_11480951.jsp

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


10. Healthy and Dietic Butter
By: amiqu | Jun 10, 2011 08:12 PM
Review:
The writer says he is a huge fan of AMUL products and a regular & heavy user of AMUL
pasteurized butter. When he came to join job 4 years back, his butter consumption started
increasing as it added taste and richness to everything- be it bread, roti or subzi. After four years
of heavy use he noticed that his tummy has increased a lot . And then he stopped using
pasteurized butter because of its heavy fat content. But he was missing his favorite butter very
much till the day he visited a mall.

He has seen many advertisements of Butter Lite, Nutrilite etc but never tried those. So on that
day he picked AMUL LITE and decided to try it.

Packing & pricing

The pack was very cute and different from the pack of pasteurized butter. It was made of
plastic so it was very easy to use and store. The box was in traditional color of AMUL- yellow
and white. Once he opened the lid, there was a golden covering over the box decorated with lot
of red hearts , with AMUL lite written over it. It seems that it is a gift from his girlfriend, but he
think the hearts are printed to indicate the healthiness in heart due to less cholesterol in it.

Features :
1. It contains 26% less fat and calorie content as compared to butter.
2. It has low cholesterol content in it.
3. It is rich in Vitamin A & D - good for vision and skin.
4. It is low in saturated fats and rich in poly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)- better for healthy
heart.
5. Calorific value is 189kcal/ 100gms less then AMUL pasteurized butter .
Nutritional information :
1. Total fat content is 11% less than butter.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


2. It contains only 10% milk fat where as butter contains 80%.
3. The major ingredient is vegetable fat (total 49%).
4. Cholesterol content is 26mgs per 100gms.
Taste :
he loved the taste of pasteurized butter which was a bit salty and very creamy in nature. But the
Butter lite is not creamy looking. It looks like a dried cream that can easily be parted in small
particles. Spreading butter over bread was always a delight to him that he missed after using
butter lite. Applying it on bread seems little difficult because of it non-creamy properties.
The taste was very different from the butter, but it is sufficient to satisfy your buttery needs.
It tastes much better when applied on toasted bread and consumed with jam. You may not be
able to differentiate it with butter in the combo of bread-butter-jam.
Recommendation :
1. Well suited for elderly people, to keep their heart healthy.
2. Recommended for persons who want to avoid fat and cholesterol.
3. Highly recommended for persons like me who doesnt want to forego their taste buds because
of weight gain.
URL: http://www.mouthshut.com/review/Amul-Lite-Butter-review-lqtuntpsmn

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


11. Consumer complaints and reviews about Amul
By: user633850, Dec 23,2011
Review:
CHARGING HIGHER THAN MRP,
The writer stays at Pretoria Street in kolkata. All the shops in this street were charging Rs.35 for
100gms Amul butter while the mrp was Rs.30.Due to shortage of supply from Amul,these
shopkeepers were hoarding the butter and charging higher prices.Some shopkeepers were even
asking for Rs.40/-.Amul has a monopoly in this business. But this doesnt mean that millions of
people will be looted by charging higher prices like this.So he wants the board to look into this
matter and take corrective action as soon as possible by writing the article.
URL: http://www.complaintboard.in/complaints-reviews/13864-l158583.html

12. Best butter


By: khosla8 | Dec 17, 2009 09:16 PM
Review:
He believes that Amul is the best butter in the town. He is not talking about village because in
village homemade butter is good for health.but in town amul butter is pure butter and good for
health too. He recommended amul butter.amul butter is good for health. so he recommends eat
Amul butter, which is very good for health.price issue is concerned amul quality is priceless for
others butters.so eat healthy and think better.i love amul butter and recommended to anyone who
dont eat amul butter .it is best butter in the town.
URL: http://www.mouthshut.com/review/Amul-Butter-review-mssmmllntm

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


13. Global Shared Feature: Deciding on Media and Measuring Effectiveness
Review:
Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) has successfully implemented its
Amul butter campaign primarily through the use of billboards at strategic locations on a panIndia level. The campaign uses a Amul butter mascot, popularly known as the Amul girl, which
has won the hearts of Indian consumers by playing the role of a social observer and commenting
on current events using humor. This has succeeded in enhancing the brand image of Amul
leading to a virtual monopoly for the GCMMF in the butter category. The success of the
campaign is reflected in the GCMMFs plan to nominate it to the Guinness Book of World
Records for the longest running campaign in India.
URL:http://wps.pearsoned.com/marketingmanagementindia/82/21063/5392298.cw/index.html

14. AMUL- simply best


By: nittinj | Sep 23, 2002 07:51 PM
Review:
AMUL...the name was synonymous to butter for her ever since she was a child ....butter bole to
amul ...it was quiet later (at the age of some 10-11 )that she realized that her mom to can prepare
it at home . there are few other companies too, but she says as far she knows no other brand
except Amul(n of course homemade!!)Was ever bought by her father . The reason behind the
huge success of amul she feels is the time , the era in which they evolved was very crucial
...because at that time consumerism was not much prevalent in society n at that time it emerged
as a leader then of course the consistency in delivering goods has made amul sachin tendulkar in
dairy products specially. Over the period of time they have evolved their brand and were able to
connect to common Indian in terms of price ,quality, taste & availability(all praise to greatest
supply chain management system in world !!) reaching masses .I think it is one thing/firm that
makes India proud and has re established the belief in how traditional ways of producing goods
when supported by modern technology can maintain quality n quantity at the same time !!
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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


Simply tremendous job!!
THE TASTE OF INDIA
URL: http://wps.pearsoned.com/marketingmanagementindia/82/21063/5392298.cw/index.html

15. Amul- perfect meal it makes


By: jinnie | Sep 04, 2007 05:08 PM
Review:
Jinnie has been consuming Butter since her childhood & it was either white homemade butter or
Amul she trusted. It was always fresh (do see expiry date on package).she continues It adds to
the delight & taste of any kind of meal. Whenever she use to visit Vadodara, Gujarat she use to
feel so happy on seeing its plant. It is all clean & machinery operated (so no humans to touch it).
It added to her trust & dependability to ask her kids to provide them with the same pleasure
while having any meal at any time (morning, afternoon, dinner or snacks). Its aroma simply
reminds her not to forget to keep it on the dining table. Although it is nice but she also takes it in
consideration not to over eat to get obese (excess of everything is bad).she tried 2-3 other brands
but nothing to match with Amul butter. Apart from adding it to the food , it also gives ideas how
to do more experiments with it & come out with another delicious dish. Not to forget its Amul
Girl - all time favorites cartoon character. She would like to suggest the company to make some
comic strips to appear in newspaper & depending on its publicity to go for a movie or series for
the same. She remember being a kid she did read few such strips but fail to recall where & how.
It was always to come up with new ideas to sustain in such a competitive market as children are
now more independent to make their decisions & Amul butter sure focuses on all age groups.
Keeps it up Amul!!
URL: http://www.mouthshut.com/review/Amul-Butter-review-mmsqnlrlom

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


16. Amul An Utterly, Butterly Love Story
Posted on May 26, 2011
Review:
Wow, where do I start? Says writer Amul butter is something delicious.
For those who have absolutely no idea what he is on about and what the heck Amul butter is
[you poor child], theres a great article in The Asian Age that vividly describes the origins of this
trailblazing brand Amul Butter Girl. It describes how the Amul Moppet literally took the bland
image of butter and gave it the Kaboom of guns .The Amul Moppet is Indias OG, Captain
Planet mash-up of Betty Crocker, the Pillsbury Doughboy, Capn Crunch et al. a far cry from
the seemingly necessary celebrity endorsements required by any and all brands today. It is a rare
gem of advertising that showcases that simple marketing principles can prevail in a celebrityobsessed society one based on product efficacy, veracity and humility. A copywriters dream,
Amuls campaign since the early 60s has been a steadfast source of humor, ingenuity and social
commentary. You read right, the same concept has the 45-year-old Amul Moppet registered with
Guinness World Records as the worlds longest running ad campaign.
In terms of the tangible success of this story, aside from being plastered on innumerable
billboards all over India, it is in the books. During the campaigns debut in 1966, Amul butter
was only generating sales figures of a few thousand US dollars. Taking that and developments in
technology, economic cooperatives and the Indian population [I kid, but no, seriously], Amul
butter by itself accounts for upwards of USD$110 million of the brands $1 billion portfolio, as
of 2007 figures. It has also ensured a virtual monopoly for Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing
Federation Ltd (GCMMF), the Indian parallel to the California Milk Processor Board which
launched the got milk? marvel in the early 90s (The Economic Times | Indiatimes). The
fascinating aspect of this phenomenon is that despite the Amul Moppet breathing life into a
stagnant brand and Wingardium Levi-O-sa-ing it to unimaginable heights, Amuls advertising
budget for butter is less than 1% of the revenue the segment generated the previous year. This is
the brand image utopia many corporations today would literally give their right arm for, one of
domestically universal recognition at minimal cost
The love story bit of this campaign is the keen curiosity that arrests the masses after any major
happening in the countrys political, athletic, or aesthetic realm. I personally know people who
go out of their way in Bombays apocalyptic traffic to steal a glimpse of Amuls take on current
events, a reverence usually reserved for cricket [rightly so] and the mind-numbing soap operas of
35

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


Ekta Kapoor [Google her]. The analogy to the human catastrophe that is Indian soap operas runs
deeper for Amul in terms of its longevity. A polar opposite to the snail-speed, dragged out
natures of these serials [yes, they're called that and are not to be mistaken with breakfast],
Amuls campaign constantly charts a colorful history of post-independence India. A montage
that subtly underlines and humorizes [oh yeah, FYI, I tend to make words up sometimes the
social inequalities, the political ineptitude, and just sometimes, the achievements of a nation.
The Amul Moppet dailyly dreams of ways to start a conversation with people and spark debate to
get them thinking about the world around them. This isnt a push marketing strategy and doesnt
rely on social media to interact and engage with its consumer base. It is an original recipe
manner in which the Amul Moppet has brought herself to life and forever embedded herself into
a billion households. I honestly cannot think of a more comprehensive way a brand intertwines
itself with its audience.
For more examples of advertising gold and a light-hearted glance at Indias past, post-Amul, I
strongly urge you to browse through the Moppets scrapbook Amul Hits. For those so inclined,
there are documentaries on YouTube that document in detail Amuls rise to prominence.
So, I suspect that after this post of Biblical proportions is where most of you will stop reading
this blog for good. To you, I say farewell this puppy love tryst was a pleasure. For the
remaining two of you, theres plenty more toast to go along with this utterly, butterly goodness.
URL: http://bwads.wordpress.com/2011/05/26/amul-an-utterly-butterly-love-story/.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


17. Amul: Bold attempts to diversify
Consider the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF)1, best known for its
Amul brand. For long, Amul has been equated with butter and cheese. Over the years, Amul has
moved into milk chocolate, ice-cream, curd, mozzarella, cheese and condensed milk. Its latest
move to offer pizzas at a price of Rs. 20 has created a furore in the markets. Amul is also
planning to launch a coffee brand, in association with the coffee cooperatives of south India.
Amuls low cost operations, zero debt and very low working capital requirement (Rs. 22 crore on
sales of Rs. 2300 crore, according to finance chief L S Sharda2), make it well placed to continue
offering products for the mass markets. Managing director BM Vyas is very confident 3: This
dairy, non diary thing is a producers distinction. For the consumer, Amul just stands for quality
foods. Chairman Verghese Kurien is equally upbeat4: Amul is a brand worthy of the trust of
100 million Indians. Why should it just be a label for butter?
But clearly Amul is taking some big risks in its bid to emerge as a diversified foods
company with a targeted turnover of Rs. 10,000 crore by 2006-07. The big question is whether
Amul can leverage its existing brand equity in these new businesses. As Amul diversifies, risk of
diluting its brand equity cannot be underestimated. Past experience indicates that diversification
is not all that easy. Take the case of chocolates, which Amul entered in the 1970s. Amuls
market share is only 2% against market leader Cadburys 70%.
However, Amul is no pushover. Its ability to keep prices low is well established. Moreover, its
distribution network includes 100,000 retailers with refrigerators, an 18,000 strong cold chain
and 500,000 non refrigerated retail outlets. In ice-creams, which Amul entered in the mid 1990s,
it has a creditable 27% market share compared to market leader HLLs 40%. The Amul girl has
proved to be an effective brand mascot. It has given the companys ads a great deal of visibility,
has helped it gain instant recognition and kept advertising expenses down to just 1% of its
revenues. Amuls competitors spend between 7 and 10% of their revenues on ads. Amul has also
got much more out of its advertising by allocating 40% of its advertising budget to umbrella
branding through its Taste of India campaign
URL:
http://www.google.co.in/#q=survey+on+amul+butter+monopoly&hl=en&prmd=imvns&psj=1&

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


ei=NXxKT_70JpHrrQfn9PHDQ&start=10&sa=N&fp=1&biw=1360&bih=667&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.,cf.osb&cad=b

18. Market analysis


By: Arpita Das
Review:
Market share of Amul butter is around 86%Market presence available in over 500,000 retail outlets across India.
Amul butter is made from- butter, common salt, permitted natural color (annatto)Amul comes under FMCG
sector. Product Specification- Meets AGMARK standards and BIS
specifications.No.IS:13690:1992.Product personality- It is a unisex product.USP- is its taste.
Amul butter is made from fresh cream by modern continuous butter making machines.(purely
vegetarian)Amul butter is in its Maturity stage , as it is the most profitable stage and definitely
Amul butter is making huge profits as it dominates the market with an overall share of 86%. The
sale is definitely increasing but at a slower pace, has a very strong Brand awareness and
advertising expenditure thus reduced.
URL: http://www.scribd.com/doc/14072642/Amul-Butter

19. Level of Brand Recall & Recognition:


Posted by Vilav Bhattat 9:06 AM
Review:
Amuls dominant presence in the dairy foods market has led to Amul becoming a household
name. Amuls fast moving products include butter, cheese, ghee, cheese, chocolates, ice cream
etc.
Amongst all the sub brands of Amul, Amul Butter has the most significant presence.
Before the likes of Britannia entered the dairy foods market and even now to a major extent, if
to think of buying butter, the most preferred brand is Amul butter.
Amul Butter today to a very great extent is identified due to its mascot THE AMUL MOPPET,
a chubby girl clad in a polka dotted dress. Well come to THE MOPPET in the next few posts.
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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


In late 2000, Amul got itself a tagline The Taste of India. Four words said it all. (at least most
of it). Amongst Indias oldest brands Amul has come of age to become a trusted that sprawls
across India and offers a wide variety of dairy foods products.
URL: http://amulthebrand.blogspot.in/

20. Amul Lit


Pricless by Achido on Mouthshut.com
Priceless??
Whats with the title? Want clues? Here are some real catchy ones:
Dudh Dudh Dudh....piyo glass full dudh heard that one on TV, didnt you?
Utterly Butterly Delicious. Now the cat is definitely out of bag!
The Taste of India. OK now there is nothing secret anymore. After the, little girl has been on
the hoardings for nearly 30+ years now and amusing us with the captions. I remember an old TV
ad, in which a weightlifter sweats out while lifting weight and the Amul girl simply enters like a
cleaner and lifts the dumb bells and the weight just like that. Somehow she disappeared from TV
and made her presence on hoardings, which were always fresh and humorous, pertaining to
current hot topics and events.
But priceless is something that is probably still not figured out, isnt it? Amoolya meaning
without moolya i.e. invaluable in Sanskrit, is where Amul got its name from. Its surprising
how Amul is a domestic
name here in India, its achievements so enormous and yet somehow its not as Blue Chip as
other corporates - Reliance, Birla, Tata, Hinduja, Jindal etc.
Thats because its White Chip - Milk products i.e....(my weird sense of humour). But Amul
is an asset to the nation and I wouldnt start my mornings without it. Just look at their product
range:
Amul Butter: I just love this product. Its a real tasty butter that doesnt differ from pack to pack,
from 1975 (my birth year) to 2002 (present). Consistently tasty. I like it with bread (several times
more than cheese or mayonnaise or jam, with Chapati. I even eat a spoonful of it.....its that
tempting. I often end up using it in place of ghee for that taste. And its Amul butter that is
responsible for fame of our Sardar Pav Bhaji stall at Tardeo, Mumbai. Amul Lite: The
above-mentioned product has 80% milk fat and rates at 720 Kcal/100g. So Amul Lite is for the
calorie conscious.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

The Three-tier "Amul Model"


The Amul Model is a three-tier cooperative structure. This structure consists of a Dairy
Cooperative Society at the village level affiliated to a Milk Union at the District level which in
turn is furthler federated into a Milk Federation at the State level. The above three-tier structure
was set up in order to delegate the various functions, milk collection is done at the Village Dairy
Society, Milk Procurement & Processing at the District Milk Union and Milk & Milk Products
Marketing at the State Milk Federation. This helps in eliminating not only internal competition
but also ensuring that economies of scale is achieved. As the above structure was first evolved at
Amul in Gujarat and thereafter replicated all over the country under the Operation Flood
Programme, it is known as the Amul Model or Anand Pattern of Dairy Cooperatives.
Responsible for Marketing of Milk & Milk Products Responsible for Procurement & Processing
of Milk Responsible for Collection of Milk Responsible for Milk Production
Village Dairy Cooperative Society (VDCS)
The main functions of the VDCS are as follows:

Collection of surplus milk from the milk producers of the village & payment based on
quality & quantity

Providing support services to the members like Veterinary First Aid, Artificial Insemination
services, cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed sales, conducting
training on Animal Husbandry & Dairying, etc.

Selling liquid milk for local consumers of the village

Supplying milk to the District Milk Union

Thus, the VDCS in an independent entity managed locally by the milk producers and assisted by
the District Milk Union.
District Cooperative Milk Producers Union (Milk Union)

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


The main functions of the Milk Union are as follows:

Procurement of milk from the Village Dairy Societies of the District

Arranging transportation of raw milk from the VDCS to the Milk Union.

Providing input services to the producers like Veterinary Care, Artificial Insemination
services, cattle-feed sales, mineral mixture sales, fodder & fodder seed sales, etc.

Conducting training on Cooperative Development, Animal Husbandry & Dairying for milk
producers and conducting specialised skill development & Leadership Development training
for VDCS staff & Management Committee members.

Providing management support to the VDCS along with regular supervision of its activities.

Establish Chilling Centres & Dairy Plants for processing the milk received from the villages.

Selling liquid milk & milk products within the District

Process milk into various milk & milk products as per the requirement of State Marketing
Federation.

Decide on the prices of milk to be paid to milk producers as well on the prices of support
services provided to members.

State Cooperative Milk Federation (Federation) The main functions of the Federation are as
follows:

Marketing of milk & milk products processed / manufactured by Milk Unions.

Establish distribution network for marketing of milk & milk products.

Arranging transportation of milk & milk products from the Milk Unions to the market.

Creating & maintaining a brand for marketing of milk & milk products (brand building).

Providing support services to the Milk Unions & members like Technical Inputs,
management support & advisory services.

Pooling surplus milk from the Milk Unions and supplying it to deficit Milk Unions.

Establish feeder-balancing Dairy Plants for processing the surplus milk of the Milk Unions.

Arranging for common purchase of raw materials used in manufacture / packaging of milk
products.

Decide on the prices of milk & milk products to be paid to Milk Unions.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

Decide on the products to be manufactured at various Milk Unions (product-mix) and


capacity required for the same.

Conduct long-term Milk Production, Procurement & Processing as well as Marketing


Planning.

Arranging Finance for the Milk Unions and providing them technical know-how.

Designing & Providing training on Cooperative Development, Technical & Marketing


functions.

Conflict Resolution & keeping the entire structure intact.

Today, we have around 176 cooperative dairy Unions formed by 1,25,000[quantify] dairy
cooperative societies having a total membership of around 13 million farmers on the same
pattern, who are processing and marketing milk and milk products profitably, be it Amul in
Gujarat or Verka in Punjab, Vijaya in Andhra Pradesh or a Nandini in Karnataka. This entire
process has created more than 190 dairy processing plants spread all over India with large
investments by these farmers institutions. These cooperatives today collect approximately
23 million kgs. of milk per day and pay an aggregate amount of more than Rs.125 billion to the
milk producers in a year.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

Amul Butter
Product Details
Product Name:

Amul Butter

Description:

Amul Butter (Made of pure milk FAT)

Packing:

100g, 500g, 50g, 20g, 8.1g

Product Specifications

Milk FAT, Min : 80%


Moisture Mix : 16%

Composition:

Salt, Max : 3%
Curd, Max : 1%

Nutritional Information*
Amount per 100 g

Nutritional
Information:

Energy, kcal

722

Energy from Fat, kcal

720

Total Fat, g

80

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


Saturated fat, g

51

Cholesterol, mg

180

Sodium, mg

836

Total Carbohydrate, g

Sugar, g

Protein, g

0.5

Vitamin A, mcg

65

Not a significant source of Dietary fiber, Sugars, Vitamin C, Calcium


and Iron.
* Approx Values

Shelf Life:

# Not Detectable

Best before 12 months from packaging when stored Refrigerated at 4C


or below

Storage
condition:

At 4C or below

44

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

Product Features

Amul is synonymous with Butter in India.

Several Generation of Indian consumers have grown up with the taste of Amul Butter for the six
decades.

Utterly Butterly Delicious taste of Amul Butter is must on breakfast table of almost every Indian
Household.

Utterly Cute Amul Buter Girl has been a part of Indian Consumers since 1950.

Amul Butter topical is recognized as one of the longest running advertisement campaign in the
world.

Product Application

Spread : On Bread, Parantha, Roti, Nans, Sandwitches.


Topping : Pav Bhaji, Dals, Soups, Salads, Dal, Rice.
Ingredient : Biscuits, Cakes, Breads.
Cooking Medium : Butter Paneer Masala, Butter Corn Masala and thousands of delightful
recipes.
Available in (Segments/Markets)
Amul Butter is available in India as well as other country like UAE / Bahrain / Kuwait/ Oman /
Hong Kong / Shi Lanka / USA / Malaysia / Singapore / Qatar/ New Zealand
Also Amul Butter is available in segments like Kirana Store / Modern Format store / Amul
Parlors / Hotel & Restaurant segment / Railway and Flight Kitchen etc

45

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

Reasons for Success


1. Robust Supply Chain
The vast and complex supply chain Hierarchical network of cooperatives
Stretches from small suppliers to large fragmented markets
2. Low Cost Strategy
Amul adopted a low-cost price strategy to make its products
Affordable and attractive to consumers by guaranteeing
the value for money
3. Diverse Product Mix
Amul Butter, Milk Powder, Ghee,
Amulspray, Cheese, Chocolates,
Shrikhand, Ice cream,
Nutramul, Milk and Amulya
4. Strong Distribution Network
Amul products are available in over 500,000 retail outlets across
India through its network of over 3,500 distributors.
47 depots with dry and cold warehouses to buffer inventory of the
entire range of products.

46

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

Members:

13 district cooperative milk producers' Union

No. of Producer Members:

2.79 million

No. of Village Societies:

13,328

Total Milk handling capacity:

11.22 million liters per day

Milk collection (Total - 2008-09):

3.05 billion liters

Milk collection (Daily Average 2008-09):

8.4 million liters

Milk Drying Capacity:

626 Mts. per day

Cattle feed manufacturing Capacity:

3500 Mts. per day

5. Technology and e-initiatives


New products
Process technology
Complementary assets to enhance milk production
E-commerce.

47

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

Facts
Amul Product Portfolio
Category

Market Share

Market Position

Butter, Ghee

85%

Milk Powder

40%

Cheese

50%

Ice-cream

24.75%

Sweets

50%

Chocolate Drink

90%

Chocolate

10%

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

AMUL TOPICAL STORY


Amul Butter Girl
The moppet who put Amul on India's breakfast table
50 years after it was first launched, Amul's sale figures have jumped from 1000 tonnes a year in
1966 to over 25,000 tonnes a year in 1997. No other brand comes even close to it. All because a
thumb-sized girl climbed on to the hoardings and put a spell on the masses.
Bombay: Summer of 1967. A Charni Road flat. Mrs. Sheela Mane, a 28-year-old housewife is
out in the balcony drying clothes. From her second floor flat she can see her neighbours on the
road. There are other people too. The crowd seems to be growing larger by the minute. Unable to
curb her curiosity Sheela Mane hurries down to see what all the commotion is about. She expects
the worst but can see no signs of an accident. It is her four-year-old who draws her attention to
the hoarding that has come up overnight. "It was the first Amul hoarding that was put up in
Mumbai," recalls Sheela Mane. "People loved it. I remember it was our favourite topic of
discussion for the next one week! Everywhere we went somehow or the other the campaign
always seemed to crop up in our conversation."
Call her the Friday to Friday star. Round eyed, chubby cheeked, winking at you, from
strategically placed hoardings at many traffic lights. She is the Amul moppet everyone loves to
love (including prickly votaries of the Shiv Sena and BJP). How often have we stopped, looked,
chuckled at the Amul hoarding that casts her sometime as the coy, shy Madhuri, a bold sensuous
Urmila or simply as herself, dressed in her little polka dotted dress and a red and white bow,
holding out her favourite packet of butter.
For 30 odd years the Utterly Butterly girl has managed to keep her fan following intact. So much
so that the ads are now ready to enter the Guinness Book of World Records for being the longest
running campaign ever. The ultimate compliment to the butter came when a British company
launched a butter and called it Utterly Butterly, last year.
49

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


It all began in 1966 when Sylvester daCunha, then the managing director of the advertising
agency, ASP, clinched the account for Amul butter. The butter, which had been launched in
1945, had a staid, boring image, primarily because the earlier advertising agency which was in
charge of the account preferred to stick to routine, corporate ads.

One of the first Amul hoardings


In India, food was something one couldn't afford to fool around with. It had been taken too
seriously, for too long. Sylvester daCunha decided it was time for a change of image.
The year Sylvester daCunha took over the account, the country saw the birth of a campaign
whose charm has endured fickle public opinion, gimmickry and all else.
The Amul girl who lends herself so completely to Amul butter, created as a rival to the Polson
butter girl. This one was sexy, village belle, clothed in a tantalising choli all but covering her
upper regions. "Eustace Fernandez (the art director) and I decided that we needed a girl who
would worm her way into a housewife's heart. And who better than a little girl?" says Sylvester
daCunha. And so it came about that the famous Amul Moppet was born.
That October, lamp kiosks and the bus sites of the city were splashed with the moppet on a horse.
The baseline simply said, Thoroughbread, Utterly Butterly Delicious Amul,. It was a matter of
just a few hours before the daCunha office was ringing with calls. Not just adults, even children
were calling up to say how much they had liked the ads. "The response was phenomenal," recalls
Sylvester daCunha. "We knew our campaign was going to be successful."

The Rebecca Mark favourite


For the first one year the ads made statements of some kind or the other but they had not yet
acquired the topical tone. In 1967, Sylvester decided that giving the ads a solid concept would
give them extra mileage, more dum, so to say. It was a decision that would stand the daCunhas in
good stead in the years to come.

50

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


In 1969, when the city first saw the beginning of the Hare Rama Hare Krishna movement,
Sylvester daCunha, Mohammad Khan and Usha Bandarkar, then the creative team working on
the Amul account came up with a clincher -- 'Hurry Amul, Hurry Hurry'. Bombay reacted to the
ad with a fervour that was almost as devout as the Iskon fever.
That was the first of the many topical ads that were in the offing. From then on Amul began
playing the role of a social observer. Over the years the campaign acquired that all important
Amul touch.
India looked forward to Amul's evocative humour. If the Naxalite movement was the happening
thing in Calcutta, Amul would be up there on the hoardings saying, "Bread without Amul
Butter, cholbe na cholbe na (won't do, won't do). If there was an Indian Airlines strike Amul
would be there again saying, Indian Airlines Won't Fly Without Amul.
There are stories about the butter that people like to relate over cups of tea. "For over 10 years I
have been collecting Amul ads. I especially like the ads on the backs of the butter packets, "says
Mrs. Sumona Varma. What does she do with these ads? "I have made an album of them to amuse
my grandchildren," she laughs. "They are almost part of our culture, aren't they? My
grandchildren are already beginning to realise that these ads are not just a source of amusement.
They make them aware of what is happening around them."
Despite some of the negative reactions that the ads have got, DaCunhas have made it a policy not
to play it safe. There are numerous ads that are risque in tone.
"We had the option of being sweet and playing it safe, or making an impact. A fine balance had
to be struck. We have a campaign that is strong enough to make a statement. I didn't want the
hoardings to be pleasant or tame. They have to say something," says Rahul daCunha.
"We ran a couple of ads that created quite a furore," says Sylvester daCunha. "The Indian
Airlines one really angered the authorities. They said if they didn't take down the ads they would
stop supplying Amul butter on the plane. So ultimately we discontinued the ad," he says
laughing. Then there was the time when the Amul girl was shown wearing the Gandhi cap. The
high command came down heavy on that one. The Gandhi cap was a symbol of independence,
51

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


they couldn't have anyone not taking that seriously. So despite their reluctance the hoardings
were wiped clean. "Then there was an ad during the Ganpati festival which said, Ganpati Bappa
More Ghya (Ganpati Bappa take more). The Shiv Sena people said that if we didn't do something
about removing the ad they would come and destroy our office. It is surprising how vigilant the
political forces are in this country. Even when the Enron ads (Enr On Or Off) were running,
Rebecca Mark wrote to us saying how much she liked them."

Amul's point of view on the MR coffee controversy


There were other instances too. Heroine Addiction, Amul's little joke on Hussain had the artist
ringing the daCunhas up to request them for a blow up of the ad. "He said that he had seen the
hoarding while passing through a small district in UP. He said he had asked his assistant to take a
photograph of himself with the ad because he had found it so funny," says Rahul daCunha in
amused tones. Indians do have a sense of humour, afterall.
From the Sixties to the Nineties, the Amul ads have come a long way. While most people agree
that the Amul ads were at their peak in the Eighties they still maintain that the Amul ads continue
to tease a laughter out of them.
Where does Amul's magic actually lie? Many believe that the charm lies in the catchy lines. That
we laugh because the humour is what anybody would enjoy. They don't pander to your
nationality or certain sentiments. It is pure and simple, everyday fun.

52

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Data analysis and interpretation is done to know whether to accept H0 or reject H0. We are testing
the hypothesis using Chi-square technique. Chi-square will help us to know whether two
variables or attributes are related or not.
1. Our first analysis is to see whether Gender is related to the preference of buying Amul butter
or not. We test it by using Chi-square.

Gender/Preference

Yes

No

Total

Male

30

35

Female

42

45

TOTAL

72

80

Observation

Observation

Expected

(O-E)2/E

Male + Yes

30

31.5

0.07

Male + No

3.5

0.64

Female + Yes

42

40.5

0.06

Female + No

4.5

0.5
=1.27

TOTAL

H0- There is no relation between Gender and preference of Amul butter.


H1- There is a relation between Gender and preference of Amul butter.
(O-E)2/E = 1.27
2cal = 1.27

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


2critical at 5% LOS and at 1 d.f is 3.84
2critical > 2cal
Hence accept H0
Therefore there is no relation between Gender and preference of Amul butter.

45
40
35
30
25

yes

20

no

15
10
5
0
male

female

54

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


2. Our second analysis is to see whether shortage of Amul butter which had taken place had

affected the customer or not. We test it by using Chi-square.

Satisfaction/Shortage Yes

No

Total

Yes

Somewhat

25

19

44

No

12

15

27

Total

42

38

80

Observations

Observations

Expected

(O-E)2/E

Yes + Yes

4.73

0.02

Somewhat + Yes

25

23.1

0.16

No + Yes

12

14.18

0.34

Yes + No

4.28

0.02

Somewhat + No

19

20.9

0.17

No + No

15

12.83

0.37
=1.08

TOTAL

H0- There is no relation of shortage of Amul butter & its effect on customer.
H1- There is a relation of shortage of Amul butter & its effect on customer.
(O-E)2/E = 1.08
2cal = 1.08
2critical at 5% LOS and at 2 d.f is 5.99
2critical > 2cal
Hence accept H0
55

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


There is no relation of shortage of Amul butter & its effect on customer.

30

25

20
yes

15

no
10

0
yes

somewhat

no

56

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


3. Our third analysis is to see whether Amul butter has a monopoly or no. We test it by using
Chi-square.

Amul butter

Yes

No

Total

yes

61

14

75

no

TOTAL

61

19

80

Observation

Observations

Expected

(O-E)2/E

Yes + Yes

61

57.19

0.25

Yes + No

14

17.81

0.82

No + Yes

3.81

3.81

No + No

1.19

12.20

use/monopoly

=17.08

TOTAL

H0- There is no relation between monopoly & Amul butter.


H1- There is a relation between monopoly & Amul butter.
(O-E)2/E = 17.08
2cal = 17.08
2critical at 5% LOS and at 1 d.f is 3.84
2calculated

>

2critical

Hence reject H0

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


Hence, there is a relation between monopoly & Amul butter.

70
60
50
40
yes
30

no

20
10
0
yes

no

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


4. Our fourth analysis is to see whether Age group has an effect on choice of butter brand. We
test it by using Chi-square

Age group/butter

Amul

Other brand

TOTAL

15-20

23

25

21-25

15

15

26-30

31-35

36-40

40 & above

24

24

TOTAL

75

80

Observations

Observations

Expected

(O-E)2/E

15-20+ Amul

23

23.44

0.01

15-20+ others

1.56

0.12

21-25+ Amul

15

14.06

0.06

21-25+ others

0.94

0.94

26-30+ Amul

3.75

0.82

26-30+ others

0.25

12.25

31-35+ Amul

7.5

0.03

31-35+ others

0.5

0.5

36-40+ Amul

3.75

0.02

36-40+ others

0.25

0.25

40&above+ Amul

24

22.5

0.1

40&above+ others

1.5

1.5

brand

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


=16.6

TOTAL

H0- There is no relationship between choice of other brand & age group.
H1- There is a relationship between choice of other brand & age group.
(O-E)2/E = 16.6
2cal = 16.6
2critical at 5% LOS and at 5 d.f is 11.07
2calculated

>

2critical

Hence reject H0
Hence there is a relationship between choice of other brand & age group.
30

25

20
Amul

15

others
10

0
15-20

21-25

26-30

31-35

60

36-40

40&above

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


CONCLUSION
Here by we conclude that through the research done on the topic FACTORS RELATING TO
AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY, we found that Amul butter has a true monopoly in the market.
It was proved by analyzing the data collected through questionnaire of customers by using Chisquare technique. We also came to the conclusion that there is no relation between Gender of a
person and its preference for Amul butter. Similarly there is no relation of shortage of Amul
butter and its effect on customers. But it was observed that there is a relation between age group
of people and their choice of butter brand. Amuls ads have put a great impression and have a
long lasting effect on customers mind. Many shops sell only Amul butter. Thus we conclude that
Amul has a great market capture in case of butter.

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

Bibliography

www.google.com
www.wikipedia.com
http://amulthebrand.blogspot.in
http://www.scribd.com/doc/14072642/Amul-Butter

http://wps.pearsoned.com/marketingmanagementindia/82/21063/5392298.cw/index.html

http://www.complaintboard.in/complaints-reviews/13864-l158583.html

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

ANNEXURE
QUESTIONNAIRE for customer
I, Shruti Gada, student of Lala Lajpatrai College of Commerce and Economics, Mumbai am doing research
work on Amul Butter Monopoly. Your response is important and the data furnished and the identity of the
respondent will be kept confidential and used for research purpose only.
i.
ii.

Answer all the questions honestly.


Please make tick mark in the circle for selection of options.
1. Name - ___________________________________________
2. Gender:
O Male

O Female

3. Age groupO 15-20 O 21-25

O 26-30 O 31-35 O 36-40

O 40 & above

4. How frequent do you use butter?


O daily O twice a week O rarely O never
5. Do you use Amul butter?
O yes O no
6. Which of these butter companies are you aware of?
O Nutrelite

O Mother dairy O Gowardhan

O Britania O other

7. Do you think Amul has monopoly in selling butter?


O yes O no
8. Does Amul Butter serve you with great quality and richness?
O yes O no
9. Is Amul Butter very convenient & affordable for regular usage?

63

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


O yes O no
10. What according to you helps Amul Butter to have a monopoly in the market?
O great taste

O good quality O affordable price O all of these

O according to you it does not have a monopoly


11. How is the availability of Amul butter in the market?
O Easy O Not that easy

O Difficult

12. Have you faced any shortage in the supply of Amul butter?
O yes O no
13. If you had faced the shortage, which other butter company you used in replacement of Amul?
O Nutrelite O Mother dairy O Gowardhan

O Britania O other

14. Did butter of other company satisfy you as replacement for Amul butter?
O yes O somewhat O no
15. Are you fully satisfied by using Amul Butter?
O yes O no
16. Write your views in few lines for Amul Butter & its Monopoly in the Market.

64

FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR RETAILER


I, Shruti Gada, student of Lala Lajpatrai College of Commerce and Economics, Mumbai, am doing research
work on Amul Butter Monopoly. Your response is important and the data furnished and the identity of the
respondent will be kept confidential and used for research purpose only.
i.
ii.

Answer all the questions honestly.


Please make tick mark in the circle for selection of options.
1. Name - ________________________________________
2. Shop Name-__________________________________________
3. Do you have a high quantitative sale in butter?
O YES

O NO

4. Which butter companies do you sell?


O AMUL

O NUTRALITE

O MOTHER DAIRY

O BRITANNIA

O ALL _______

5. Out of these butter manufacturing companies which companies has the highest sales?
O AMUL
_______

O NUTRALITE

O MOTHER DAIRY

O BRITANNIA

O OTHER

6. Which of these butter manufacturing companies has the least sales?


O AMUL
_______

O NUTRALITE

O MOTHER DAIRY

O BRITANNIA

O OTHER

7. Out of these butter manufacturing brands which provides with the quickest supply?
O AMUL
_______

O NUTRALITE

O MOTHER DAIRY

O BRITANNIA

O OTHER

8. Out of these butter manufacturing brands which provides you with the highest profit margin?
O AMUL

O NUTRALITE

O MOTHER DAIRY

O BRITANIA

O Other _______

9 . Do you agree with the fact that Amul butter has kind off monopoly in the market?

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY


O YES

O NO

10. From where is Amul butter supplied in your shop?


O DISTRIBUTOR

O WHOLESALER

O DIRECT

11. Which packing of Amul butter has more sales?


O 100g

O500g

12. Do customers show brand loyalty towards Amul butter?


O YES

O NO

13.How much did the shortage of Amul butter affect your earnings?
O NOT AT ALL

O VERY LESS

O ALOT

14. Did the shortage of Amul butter affect the sales of product related to butter like bread etc?
O STRONGLY AGREE

O SOMEWHAT AGREE

O SOMEWHAT DISAGREE

O STRONGLY DISAGREE
15. Write your views about Amul butter.
_____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________

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FACTORS RELATING TO AMUL BUTTER MONOPOLY

67