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Chapter 2

Neuroscience

Brain and Mind

T h e P e rs o n
T h e B r a in

T h e M in d

P h y s ic a l

P s y c h o lo g ic a l

Topics to Explore
1.The Neuron
2.The Peripheral Nervous System
3.The Central Nervous System
4.

Part One

Neuron

Neuron and Its Parts


Neuron: Individual nerve cell; 100 billion in brain
- Dendrites: Receive messages from other neurons; have
thousands of branches
- Soma: Cell body; metabolic center of neuron; contains genetic
material
- Axon: Carries information away from the cell body; longest
part of neuron
- Axon Terminals: Branches that link the dendrites and soma of
other neurons
- Synaptic Gap: Space between the end of the axon of one
neuron and the dendrites of an adjacent neuron

Picture of a Neuron

The Nerve Impulse

Resting Potential: Electrical charge of an inactive neuron


Threshold: Trigger point for a neurons firing
Action Potential: Nerve impulse

Resting Potential
Resting Potential: Tiny charge between inside & outside of
neuron
Created by electrically charged particles (ions)
- Some concentrated outside the cell (sodium and chloride
ions)
- Some concentrated inside the cell (Potassium ions)
How is the charge maintained?
- Sodium-potassium pump
- Selectively permeable cell membrane

Action Potential
Action potential: Change in potential, primarily
because of messages from other neurons
Excitatory messages: Cell loses the negative charge;
Depolarization
Inhibitory messages: Cell becomes more negatively
charged; Hyperpolarization

Resting vs. Action Potential

Graphic: Action Potential

Graphic: Action Potential

Graphic: Synaptic Gap

Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that alter activity in
neurons; brain chemicals. Messages from one
neuron to another pass over the synapse, the
microscopic gap between neurons
Receptor Site: Areas on the surface of neurons
and other cells that are sensitive to
neurotransmitters
Antagonist: drug that decreases activity of a
neurotrans-mitter

Some Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine: involved in learning, memory, and muscle contractions.
Botulism toxin prevents release of acetylcholine, resulting in paralysis
Dopamine: involved in arousal, mood, and movement. In Parkinsons,
receptors in brain fail to react to dopamine, leading to tremors, rigidity and
problems initiating movement
Serotonin and Norepinephrine: involved in arousal and mood.
Cocaine blocks re-uptake of both neurotransmitters, resulting in high
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): main inhibitory neurotrans-mitter;
lowers arousal and anxiety
Endorphins: lower pain perception. Morphine and heroin bind to
endorphin receptors, increasing endorphin activity.

Nerves and Neurons


Nerves: Large bundles of neurons
Myelin: Fatty layer of tissue that coats axons
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) occurs when myelin layer is destroyed;
numbness, weakness, and paralysis occur

A Little Exercise

Demonstrationofthespeed
ofaneuralimpulse.

An Organizational Pause

Organization of
the CNS

Major Sections of
the Nervous System
Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System: All parts of the nervous system
outside of the brain and spinal cord
- Autonomic System: Serves internal organs and
glands; controls automatic functions such as heart
rate and blood pressure
- Somatic System: Links spinal cord with skeletal
muscles and sense organs; controls voluntary
behavior

Organization of Nervous System

Graphic: Nervous System

Part 2
The Peripheral Nervous System
The Autonomic Nervous System

See in class!

The Somatic Nervous System

Divisions of Autonomic System

Sympathetic: Arouses body; emergency system


Parasympathetic: Quiets body; most active after an
emotional event

Functions of
Autonomic Nervous System

Three Components of Emotion


Physical component: state of physiological arousal
triggered by autonomic nervous system

Behavioral component: outward expression of the


emotion, including facial expression & behavior
Cognitive component: appraisal of the situation to
determine which emotion we are experiencing and why

James-Lange Theory of Emotion

Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion

Schachter-Singer Theory

Comparison of
Three Theories of Emotion

Somatic Nervous System


MotorNervousSystem:transfersmessagesfromCNS
tocontrolfunctionofvoluntarymuscles
SensoryNervousSystem:transfersmessagesfrom
sensoryorganstoCNS;bringsinformationfromoutside
thebodytothebraintobeprocessed

Structures in Somatic System


Sensoryneuron:neuronthattransmitsinformation
fromsensoryorgantoCNS
Motorneuron:neuronthattransmitsinformationfrom
CNStovoluntarymuscle
Connectorneuron:neuroninspinalcordconnecting
sensoryandmotorneuronstoformreflexarc.
Reflex:Aninnate,automaticmotorresponsetoa
specificsensorystimulus

Graphic: Somatic Nervous System

Motor & Somatosensory Areas


in Cerebral Cortex

Motor Homunculus

homunculus =
a diminutive human
being

Somesthetic Homunculus

A Little Exercise
A demonstration of the somatosensory
system, using toothpicks and little rulers.

Part 3
The Central Nervous System
See
in
class!
The Spinal Cord
The Brain
- The Central Core
- The Limbic System
- The Cerebral Cortex

The Spinal Cord


Spinal Nerves: 31 of them; carry sensory and motor
messages to and from the spinal cord
Cranial Nerves: 12 pairs that leave the brain directly; also
work to communicate messages

Spinal cord functions to connect peripheral nervous system


to the brain

The Central Core


(aka the old brain)
Medulla: Connects brain with the spinal cord and controls vital
life functions such as heart rate and breathing
Cerebellum: Regulates posture, muscle tone, muscular
coordination, and procedural learning
Reticular formation: Associated with levels of arousal and
consciousness, as well as some reflexes (breathing, coughing,
sneezing, vomiting)
Thalamus: serves as a relay station for incoming sensory
Information
Basal ganglia: involved in physical movement

Graphic: Central Core

The Limbic System


At the top border (limbus in Latin) of the brain stem.
Hypothalamus: controls pituitary gland (directing activity of
endocrine system) and autonomic nervous system; involved in
basic drives (eating, drinking, sex)
Hippocampus: involved in formation of memories
Amygdala: involved in regulating emotional experiences,
particularly initial emotional responses

Graphic: Limbic System

Neocortex
Cerebral Cortex: Outer layer of the cerebrum
Cerebrum: Two large hemispheres that cover upper part of
the brain
Corticalization: Increase in size and wrinkling of the cortex
Cerebral Hemispheres: Right and left halves of the cerebrum
Corpus Callosum: Bundle of fibers connecting cerebral
hemispheres

Graphic: Relative Size

Graphic: Corpus Callosum

Left & Right Hemispheres

Left Brain/Right Brain

About 95 percent of our left brain is used for language


Left hemisphere better at math, judging time and rhythm, and
coordinating order of complex movements
- Processes information sequentially
Right hemisphere good at perceptual skills, and at expressing
and detecting others emotions
- Processes information simultaneously

Graphic: Left vs. Right

Lobes of the Neocortex


Occipital Lobe: Back of brain; vision center
Parietal Lobe: Just above occipital; bodily sensations
such as touch, pain, and temperature (somatosensory
area)
Temporal Lobe: Each side of the brain; auditory and
language centers
Frontal Lobe: Movement, sense of smell, higher mental
functions; contains motor cortex; controls motor
movement

Graphic: Lobes