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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

ME 321

Manufacturing

Process I

Instructor : Prof. Dr. Omar Badran

Prepared by:

Dr. Naseer Ahmed

Department of Mechanical Engineering College of Engineering, Taibah University

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Mechanical Properties of Materials

Mechanical properties of a material determine its behavior when subjected to mechanical stresses.

These properties includes

Elastic Modulus

Ductility

Hardness

Various Measures of Strength

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Mechanical Properties

that are desirable to the designer,

such as high strength, usually make the manufacture of the product more difficult.

It is helpful for the manufacturing engineer to appreciate the design objective and for the designer

to be aware of the manufacturing objective

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Stress-Strain Relationship

Three types of static stresses

Tensile Stresses: tends to stretch the material

Compressive Stresses: tends to squeeze it

Shear stresses: tend to cause adjacent portions of the material to slide against each other.

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Stress-Strain Graph

Stress is given by

Process I Stress-Strain Graph • Stress is given by • Strain by e = (L -

Strain by e = (L - L o )/L o

Important Terms

= E e

(E = Modulus of Elasticity)

e

Yield Stress

Ultimate Strength

Fracture Stress (Stress immediately before fracture)

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Sample

Sample © Department of Mechanical Engineering ME-321 Manufacturing Process I
Sample © Department of Mechanical Engineering ME-321 Manufacturing Process I
Sample © Department of Mechanical Engineering ME-321 Manufacturing Process I
Sample © Department of Mechanical Engineering ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

© Department of Mechanical Engineering

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I
ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Tensile Testing Machine

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I Tensile Testing Machine © Department of Mechanical Engineering

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Stages

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I
ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

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Plot

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I
ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

More terms

Ductility: The ability of a material to plastically strain without fracture.

Elongation : EL = (L f L o ) / L o

Area reduction: AR = ( A o A f ) / A o

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Types of Stress-Strain Relationships

(a) Perfectly Elastic This material fractures rather than yielding to

plastic flow. Brittle materials such as ceramics

and cast irons are good examples.

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plastic flow. Brittle materials such as ceramics and cast irons are good examples. © Department of

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Types of Stress-Strain Relationships

(b) Elastic and Perfectly plastic

Once the yield strength Y is reached, the materials

deforms plastically at the same stresses levels.

Metals behave in this fashion when they have been heated to sufficiently high temperatures that they re-crystallize rather then strain harden during

deformation. Lead exhibits this behavior at room

temperature

strain harden during deformation. Lead exhibits this behavior at room temperature © Department of Mechanical Engineering

© Department of Mechanical Engineering

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Types of Stress-Strain Relationships

(c) Elastic and Strain Hardening Examples are ductile metals when cold worked.

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(c) Elastic and Strain Hardening Examples are ductile metals when cold worked. © Department of Mechanical

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Bending and Testing of Brittle Materials

Hard brittle materials, which posses elasticity but not plasticity, are often tested by method which

subjects the specimen to bending loads.

Also known as the three-point test

The strength value derived from this test is called Transverse Rupture Strength (TRS)

TRS = (1.5 F L ) / (bt 2 )

TRS in MPa: F in N: L in mm: b and t in mm

L ) / (bt 2 ) • TRS in MPa : F in N : L

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Bending test equipment

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I
ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Shear Properties

Shear involves application of stresses in opposite directions on either side of a thin element to deflect it. Given by = F / A

Shear Strain is given by = / b Units of strain are given in terms of in/in or mm/mm = (Deflection of the material, mm) b = (Orthogonal distance across which the load is applied,

mm)

material, mm ) b = (Orthogonal distance across which the load is applied, mm ) ©

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Torsion Test Setup

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I Torsion Test Setup Shear stress, Shear strain,   R  L
Shear stress,
Shear stress,

Shear strain,

R

L

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Where is the angular deflection (radians)

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Hardness

The hardness of a material is defined as its resistance to permanent indentation.

Good hardness generally means that the material is

resistant to scratching and wear

For many engineering applications, including most of the tooling used in manufacturing, scratch and

wear resistance are important characteristics

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Hardness Tests

These are commonly used for assessing the material properties because they are quick and convenient.

A variety of testing methods is appropriate due to

differences in hardness among different materials among different materials.

Types are

Brinell Hardness Test

Rockwell Hardness Test

Vickers Hardness Test

Knoop Hardness Test

Scleroscope

Durometer

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Brinell Hardness Test

This test is widely used for testing metals and nonmetals of low to medium hardness.

Named after Swedish engineer who developed it around 1900.

A hardened steel ball of 10-mm diameter is pressed into the surface of a specimen using a load of 500, 1500 or 3000kg.

The Brinell hardness number (HB) is then given by

HB

2 F

2 2 (  D )( D  D  D b b i b
2
2
(
D
)(
D
D
D
b
b
i
b

F = indentation load (kg)

D b = diameter of the ball (mm)

D i = diameter of the indentation on the surface (mm)

HB = Brinell Hardness number (kg/mm 2 )

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indentation on the surface (mm) • HB = Brinell Hardness number (kg/mm 2 ) © Department
indentation on the surface (mm) • HB = Brinell Hardness number (kg/mm 2 ) © Department

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Rockwell Hardness Test

• Named after the metallurgist who developed it in early 1920’s

A cone-shaped indenter or small-diameter ball (1/16 or 1/8-in

diameter) is pressed into the specimen using a minor load of

10kg, thus seating the indenter in the material.

A major load of 150kg is then applied, causing the indenter to penetrate into the specimen a certain distance beyond its initial position.

This additional penetration distance d is converted into a

Rockwell hardness reading by testing machine.

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distance d is converted into a Rockwell hardness reading by testing machine. © Department of Mechanical
distance d is converted into a Rockwell hardness reading by testing machine. © Department of Mechanical

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Vickers Hardness Test

This test uses a pyramid shaped indenter made of diamond.

Loads of various sizes are applied, depending on the

hardness of the material to be measures.

Vickers hardness (HV) is determined from the formula HV = (1.845F)/(D 2 ) F= applied load (kg)

D = the diagonal of the impression made by the indenter

(mm)

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F= applied load (kg) D = the diagonal of the impression made by the indenter (mm)

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Knoop Hardness test

This test uses a pyramid-shaped diamond indenter, but the pyramid had length-to-width ratio of about 7:1.

The applied loads in knoop test are lighter than in the vicker test.

Suitable for measuring small, thin specimens or hard materials that might fracture if a heavier load were applied. HK = (14.2 F)/(D 2 ) F = load (kg)

D = Long diagonal (mm)

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load were applied. HK = (14.2 F)/(D 2 ) F = load (kg) D = Long
load were applied. HK = (14.2 F)/(D 2 ) F = load (kg) D = Long

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Scleroscope

An instrument that measures the rebound height of a hammer dropped from a certain distance above the surface of the material to be tested

The hammer consists of weight with diamond indenter

attached to it

This measure the mechanical energy absorbed by the material when the indenter strikes the surface

The energy absorbed gives an indication of resistance to

penetration, which matches the definition of hardness.

If more energy will be absorbed, the rebound will be less, meaning a soft material and vice versa.

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Durometer

All previous test were based on resistance to permanent or plastic deformation (indentation).

The durometer is a device that measures the elastic deformation of rubber and similar flexible materials by pressing an indenter into the surface of the object

The resistance to penetration is an indication of hardness.

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of the object • The resistance to penetration is an indication of hardness. © Department of

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Effect of Temperature on Properties

Temperature has a significant effect on nearly all properties of material

At elevated temperatures, materials are lower in strength and high in ductility

Most materials can be formed more easily at elevated temperatures than when they are cold

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Tensile

Strength Yield Strength Ductility (% elongation) Strength and ductility
Strength
Yield
Strength
Ductility
(% elongation)
Strength and ductility

0 Temperature

ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Hot Hardness

A property often used to characterize strength and hardness at elevated temperatures is hot hardness

Hot hardness is simply the ability of the material to retain hardness at elevated temperatures; it is usually presented as either a listing of hardness values at different temperatures or as a plot of hardness versus temperature.

Good hot hardness desirable in the tooling materials used in

many manufacturing operations. Significant amount of heat

energy are generated in most metal working processes, and the tools must be capable of withstanding the high temperature involved.

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ME-321 Manufacturing Process I

Re-crystallization Temperature

Most metals behave at room temperature according to the flow curve in the plastic region. As the material is strained, it increases in strength due to strain hardening.

but if the metal is heated to a sufficiently elevated temperature

and then deformed, strain hardening does not occur.

Instead new grains are formed that are free of strain, and the metal behaves as a perfectly plastic material.

The formation of strain-free grains is a process called re-

crystallization, and the temperature at which it happens (nearly one half of the melting point) is called the re- crystallization temperature.

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