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GRAMMAR

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Grammar

GRAMMAR
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Remember the word SVOMPT. It will help you to construct English sentences:
S

Subj
ect
I

verb

object

saw

Robert

He

passed

the exam

manner

place

time

at school

on Monday.

easily.

Questions:
(W)
V
S
(V)
O
M
||
what who when where why which how

1. Yes/No questions:
Inversion: a. verb to be:
b. modal verbs:
c. have got:
Auxiliary: other verbs:

I am late. - Am I late? Yes, you are. / No, you are not.


He can type. - Can he type? Yes, he can. / No, he cant.
I have got a computer. - Have you got a computer? Yes, I have. / No, I havent.
They finished yesterday. Did they finish yesterday?
Yes, they did. / No, they didnt.

2. Wh- questions (using what, who, when, where, why, which, how):
No auxiliary when asking about the subject:
Who made the cake? Rosie made it.
Auxiliary when asking about the object, manner, place or time:
Who did you meet? I met Paul.
Where does he work?
Preposition at the end of the sentence:
Who do you live with? What are you looking at?

Whats the weather like?


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3. Alternative questions (choice):
Would you like tea or coffee? Tea, please.
4. Indirect questions:
Who are those people?
What does she want?
Can he help us?

Do you know who those people are? (no inversion: S - V)


I dont know what she wants. (no auxiliary)
I dont know if/whether he can help us. (yes/no questions)

Exercises:
1. Arrange these words in the right order.
a. in the lab / you shouldnt work / at night ...
b. this chapter / you should study / more carefully .
c. the project / when / finish / the students / did / ?
d. saw / the experiment / who / ? .
e. enjoyed / the lectures / have / the students .
f. decomposes / acid / at once / carbonic .
g. electricity / water power / can / make / cheap ..
h. smoke / students / in the lab / may / ? ..
2. Arrange these words in the right order.
a. your article / I / in / quickly / last night / bed / read
..................................................................................
b. till / afternoon / worked / 4 oclock / the students / this
...
c. gases / to / dioxide / allow / carbon / suns / and / enter / rays / other / the
......
d. climate / models / warming / indicate / computer / of / changes / consequences / of / some /
Earth / a
..
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e. oxide / released / in / coal / nitrous / of / burning / is / the
...
f. destroy / can / micro-organisms / cooking / the / only / completely
...
3. Make questions to ask about the underlined statements using who, what or where.
a. I met Dr Seusse last night. ..
b. The scientist has found a new chemical element.
c. David took the pictures. ..
d. This process occurs naturally under certain conditions. .
e. The researchers published their new findings..
f. We will have to redistill the compound...
g. The condensate flows down the column...
h. Distillation consists in vaporizing a substance.
4. Read the text, and then write questions for the answers.
The educational programme is divided into Academic Years, each year being divided into two
semesters, with the main vacation in July and August. The undergraduate studies take three years
for the Bachelor Degree and five for the Master Degree. In addition to these, the Institute provides
also postgraduate courses for PhD students.
All studies proceed on the basis of a curriculum of studies. At the end of each semester every
student must obtain a certain number of credits and pass several examinations.
Students may obtain certain scholarships. These may be granted either automatically for excellent
study results or on the basis of excellent research achievements, cultural or sports activities, and
also to aid in the cases of serious social problems.
Graduates of the Institute usually find employment in plants and research laboratories of chemical
and food industries as well as in various research institutes.
a. Academic Years ...
b. in July and August
c. three years
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d. postgraduate courses for PhD students
e. every student
f. excellent study results...
g. chemical and food
For more practice see:

L.G.Alexander: Longman English Grammar Practice, Longman 1990, pp. 2-9


Raymond Murphy: English Grammar in Use, Cambridge 2004, Third edition, pp. 98-99, 102-103
Michael Swan & Catherine Walter: How English Works, Oxford 1997, pp. 210-211

SLOVESN ASY - VERB TENSES


1. Ptomn as prost - Present Simple
Jedn se o pravideln se opakujc dj v ptomnosti v zkladnm vznamu. Tento slovesn as
je nejastji pouvanm v odborn, nap.chemick a jin literatue, protoe popisovan procesy a
stavy jsou prakticky vtinou bez jakhokoliv zetele ke specifick dob. Pouit ptomnho asu
slovesa pak nem nic spolenho jen s ptomnou dobou a ptomn as zde m vznam
nadasov, co plat veobecn. Ptomn as prost vyjaduje obecnou platnost danho tvrzen.
Forma : - ve 3.os.j.. pouvme koncovku -s: he, she, it speaks he, she watches,
he studies;
- zpor je tvoen pomocnm slovesem do not/dont, does not/ doesnt +
zkladnm tvarem ( infinitivem ) vznamovho slovem bez to:
I dont work, she doesnt study;
- otzka je tvoena pomoc pomocnho slovesa do, does + zkladnm tvarem
vznamovho slovesa bez to

We need a good technical dictionary in order to understand the article.


Chemistry is a science which deals with substances.
In the lab we dont use these dangerous chemicals.
He doesnt study at our university.
- forma trpnho rodu je tvoena tvary slovesa be a minulm pestm
participle ) vznamovho slovesa

(past

The laboratory is equipped with experimental technology.


Many scientific terms are unknown to non-scientists.

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2. Ptomn as prbhov - Present Continuous


Tento as se pouv k popisu dje, kter probh prv te, v danm okamiku. Tuto
ptomnost je ovem teba chpat e ne jen jako bezprostedn, prv probhajc okamik.
Nejen v odbornm jazyce, ale i v bnm vyjadovn to bv e pojman ptomn doba.
Forma: tvary slovesa be (am, is, are) + tzv. -ing tvar vznamovho slovesa.

At the moment Tom is analysing the substance.


Mary is studying at Cambridge this year.
forma trpnho rodu je tvoena tvary slovesa be + prbhovm tvarem being
+ minulm pestm (past participle) vznamovho slovesa

Polarographic methods are being used in the analysis of metals now.


The problem is being intensively studied these days.

Ptomnho prbhovho asu se pouv tak k vyjden tzv. blzk budoucnosti.


Budoucnost bv vyjdena pslovenm urenm asu, nap. tomorrow, next week, atd., kdy se
tak jedn o vyjden jistoty, e dj probhne, i dj a innost, kter jsou pipraveny a
naplnovny.

According to the programme we are carrying out the experiment next Monday.
I am seeing the director tomorrow at 5 oclock.

Prbhov tvary tvo slovesa akce, innosti (action verbs), nap. sing, teach, study, talk,
listen, play, sit, write, speak, travel atd. Toto pravidlo plat tak pro vechny dal anglick asy
tj. minul, budouc, pedptomn, pedminul, pedbudouc.
Pozor! Non-action verbs prbhov asy netvo!
Jedn se o slovesa mylen (verbs of thinking), nap. know, remember, recognize, notice,
understand, forget; ctn, pocitu (verbs of feeling), nap. like, love, want, hate; slovesa
smyslovho vnmn (verbs of senses) see, hear, smell, taste; nkter dal slovesa, nap. include,
matter, cost, prefer, mean, fit, need.

The matter consists of small particles.

Pozor! Nkter slovesa maj dva odlin vznamy:


a) aktivn = tvo tak prbhovou formu, nap. look at = dvat se na nco, taste sth. =
ochutnvat nco, feel a material = hmatat, zkoumat hmatem materil, have ve frzch = dt
si nco, think of / about = pemlet o, myslet na nkoho/nco.

She is having lunch at the moment.


Please be quiet! Im thinking.
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Why are you smelling the mixture?
b) neaktivn = netvo prbhovou formu: look = vypadat (he looks tired), taste = chutnat, feel =
ctit se, have = vlastnit, mt, think = myslet.

This juice tastes good.


I think youre right.
Shes got a headache.

3. Pedptomn as prost Present Perfect Simple


Tento as vyjaduje dj minul, kter se odehrval v neurit, nespecifikovan minulosti,
neoddlen od ptomnosti ostrou hranic, kter vak souvis s ptomnost, a to bu svmi
nsledky, nebo trvnm. Zpravidla vyjaduje nsledky minulho dje a do etiny jej pekldme
minulm asem dokonavho slovesa (asto meme doplnit ji, u). Jestlie vak perfektum
vyjaduje dj, kter zaal v minulosti a jet trv v ptomnosti, odpovd mu v eskm pekladu
vtinou as ptomn.
Nejastjmi asovmi urenmi, kter odkazuj na neuritou minulost a jsou spojovna s
pedptomnm asem, jsou nap: already, yet, not+yet, just, never, ever, always, often, once,
before, recently, lately, (three, several) times, so far, a t spojenmi s pouitm for(two
years), since.
Forma : tvary slovesa have have/ has + minul pest (past participle)
vznamovho slovesa

The rain has already ruined the tomato crops.


We still havent discovered life on other planets.
I have known him since we met at university.

forma trpnho rodu je tvoena tvary slovesa have have/has + been + minulm
pestm (past participle) vznamovho slovesa

Many uses of this method have been described in the literature.


The polarographic method has been known for many years.
These views have aroused considerable interest.

4. Pedptomn as prbhov - Present Perfect Continuous


Tento as vyjaduje dj, kter zaal v minulosti a pokrauje v dob, kdy se o nm zmiujeme,
i chceme-li vyjdit dlku tohoto dje. Tak pokud dj probhal po njakou dobu v
nespecifikovan, nejastji blzk dob minul a m v ptomnosti urit dsledky. Do etiny jej
pekldme ptomnm asem.
Forma: tvary slovesa have have/has + been + - ing tvar vznamovho slovesa

I have been working in this institute since 2000.


He has been waiting for the results for an hour.
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He cant drive. He has been drinking.


The barometer has been rising since yesterday.

Pedptomn prbhov as netvo trpn rod, pouv se trpn rod prostho pedptomnho
asu.

The laboratory has been reconstructed since 2007.


These results have been published regularly in some periodicals.
The problem has been solved for two months.

5. Minul as prost - Past Simple


Tento as vyjaduje dj, jen v minulosti zaal a v minulosti tak skonil, a to bez jeho
nsledk zasahujcch do ptomnosti. Minul as odkazuje na uritou identifikovatelnou dobu
minulou pouitm asovch uren typu yesterday, last week, three hours ago, when I was
young, the other day, in the eighteenth century atd. Minul dj me bt zaazen do urit doby
minul tak vedlej vtou. Zcela odpovd eskmu minulmu asu ve vidu dokonavm.
Forma: u sloves pravidelnch pouvme koncovku ed: he worked, I cried, we travelled;
u sloves nepravidelnch pouvme samostatn tvar, uren pro minul as

Becquerel discovered radioactivity in 1896.


Long ago, people built houses of wood.
It started during those first months when I moved there, after he went abroad.

forma trpnho rodu je tvoena tvary slovesa be - was/were a minulm pest


(past participle) vznamovho slovesa

6.

Oxygen was pumped into that container yesterday.


Prozac was discovered in 1972.

Minul as prbhov - Past Tense Continuous

Tento as popisuje minul dj, dj doasnho trvn, kter probhal v uritm minulm
okamiku nebo v dletrvajc dob minul. Tak vyjaduje dj minul opakovan. Velmi asto
tvo rmec i pozad pro hlavn dj vty. Pekldme do etiny nejastji minulm asem v
form vidu nedokonavho slovesa.
I was working on my thesis (for) several months.
Pracoval(a) jsem na sv diplomov (disertan) prci nkolik msc.
Forma: tvary slovesa be pro minul as - was/were + ing tvar vznamovho slovesa

He was working on his thesis several months last school term.


During the experiment he was using several beakers, test tubes and funnels.
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He started to carry on his experiment while I was still staying in the lab.
Fleming was studying influenza when he discovered penicillin.

forma trpnho rodu je tvoena tvary slovesa be - was/ were + being + minulm
pestm vznamovho slovesa

7.

That new element was being examined for a long time.


During the experiment both liquids were being slowly heated.

Pedminul as prost - Past Perfect Simple

Pedminul as vyjaduje a popisuje minul dj, kter skonil ped jinm djem minulm
nebo skonil i byl ukonen do urit doby v minulosti. Do etiny tento dj pekldme asem
minulm, piem pedasnost, kterou tento as vyjaduje v anglitin, zstv v estin formln
nevyjdena.
Na uritou pedminulou dobu lze odkazovat pouitm asovch uren v souvt, jako nap.
when, before, after, as, by the time, long, just, already, yet.
Pedminul as je asto pouvn ve strukturch nepm ei a souslednosti as.
Forma: pouvme tvar slovesa have pro minul as had + minul pest
vznamovho slovesa

After she had finished the experiment, she cleaned the entire laboratory.
Before he wrote the report, he had found out a lot of further information.
Everything was just as I had left it in the morning.
He showed me the latest issue of the periodical, which had just come out.

forma trpnho rodu je tvoena tvarem had + been + minulm pestm vznamovho
slovesa

8.

Before they started the new project, unfortunately, some known details had been omitted.
Before Columbus discovered America, people had believed that the Earth was flat.
By the time we got to the laboratory, the experiment had already started.

Pedminul as prbhov - Past Perfect Continuous

Pedminul pbhov as je pouvn pro vyjden minulho dje pedchzejcho ped


jinm djem minulm nebo ped bli dobou minulou a zdrazuje jeho doasn trvn.
Forma: pouvme tvar slovesa have pro minul as - had + been + ing tvar
vznamovho slovesa

The whole place was deserted, but it was obvious that someone had been staying
there.
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While I had been preparing all the equipment, Jim had escaped.
It was more than a month until I realized what had been happening.

Pedminul as prbhov netvo trpn rod, pouv se pouze tvar trpnho rodu v prost form.

9.

Budouc as prost a prbhov - Future Simple and Continuous


Budouc as prost - Future Tense Simple

Budouc as prost svoj formou vyjaduje dj, jen bude probhat v budoucnosti tzv. ist
budouc as (Pure Future) nebo stav budouc, oboj v tzv.neutrln budoucnosti. Lze tak vyjdit
jak budoucnost uritou, tak i neuritou.
Forma: tvome pomoc pomocnho slovesa will + infinitivu vznamovho slovesa
bez to
Will se pouv pro vechny osoby jednotnho i mnonho sla. Tvar shall byl a je
vyuvn pro vyjden budoucho asu pro 1.osobu jednotnho a 1.osobu mnonho sla; jeho
vyut zstv zejmna ve form otzek s modlnm zabarvenm.

This container will hold 5 liters of petrol


We will only perform a preliminary analysis.
I will return / I shall return to this possibility later.
This will be the beaker you are looking for.
Shall we do it again?
Shall I prepare the equipment for the experiment now?

forma trpnho rodu je tvoena pomocnm slovesem will + be + minulm pestm


vznamovho slovesa

This container will be filled with sulphur acid.


All the experiment will be repeated several times.
The conference will be held next week in London.

Budouc as prbhov Future Tense Continuous


Budouc prbhov as vyjaduje dj, kter bude probhat v uritm znmm nebo
uvedenm ase. as je uveden konkrtnm pslovenm urenm asu i jinm asovm
vyjdenm.
Forma: tvome pomoc pomocnho slovesa will + be + ing tvaru vznamovho slovesa

He will be leaving in a few days.


You will be hearing from us in any case.
We will be working in the lab whole day tomorrow.

Jin zpsoby vyjadovn budoucnosti :


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Ptomn as prost pro vyjden budoucho dje, jen je pesn uren, dn dle
programu, harmonogramu atd.
-

Ptomn as prbhov pro vyjden plnu i dje, kter je jist a pedem pipraven
-

I am seeing the new director tomorrow morning.


He is studying at Yale University next school term.

vazba going to - pro vyjden tzv. blzk budoucnosti budoucnost, kter je zvisla na
vli i myslu mluvho; vyjaduje mysl, chystn se, zmr; souasn ji lze vyut pro
vyjden predikce
-

10.

The lecture starts on Tuesday at 10.


The last train leaves at 20.40.

We are going to carry out the experiment again to gain some better results.
Dont worry! The wound is going to heal.
Look! The glass is going to fall.

Pedbudouc as prost a prbhov - Future Perfect Simple and


Continuous

Pedbudouc as prost zahrnuje budoucnost pedchzejc ped pozdj dobou budouc.


Pouvme jej pro dje a innosti, kter budou v njak okamik v budoucnosti, o kterm
mluvme, ji dokonen (tou dobou u to bude hotov). Vyskytuje se zpravidla s asovm
urenm i celou vedlej vtou asovou.
Forma: tvome pomoc pomocnho slovesa will + have + minulho pest
vznamovho slovesa

By the time we get to the classroom, the lecture will have started.
You will probably have heard the news.

forma trpnho rodu je tvoena pomocnm slovesem will + have + been + minulho
pest vznamovho slovesa

By the end of this year the new building of our university will have been finished.
We hope that by the end of this century a new drug against cancer will have been
found.

Pedbudouc prbhov as vyjaduje, co v njak moment v budoucnosti bude u njak


as probhat. Potek tohoto dje nebo innosti se me vztahovat k minulosti a trvat a do
uritho okamiku v budoucnosti.
Forma: tvome pomoc pomocnho slovesa will + have + been + ing tvaru vznamovho
slovesa
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Next year I will have been working at the Institute for fifteen years.
By the time I arrive there, they will have been waiting for me for two hours.

Souslednost as - Sequence of Tenses


A. Roentgen showed that the X-rays could penetrate matter.
Roentgen ukzal (objevil), e paprsky X mohou pronikat hmotou.
B. Roentgen reported that he had discovered a new kind of rays.
Roentgen oznmil, e objevil nov druh paprsk.
C. Roentgen reported that in 1891 he discovered a new kind of rays.
Roentgen oznmil, e r. 1891 objevil nov druh paprsk.
D. It was not known if the results of tests would be useful.
Nevdlo se (nebylo znmo), zda vsledky zkouek budou uiten.
E. Chemists found that all organic compounds contain carbon.
Chemici zjistili, e vechny organick sloueniny obsahuj uhlk.
Souslednost as (Sequence of Tenses, esk termn t asov souslednost) rozumme
zvislost tvaru uritho slovesa ve vedlej pedmtn vt na ase slovesa v hlavn i dc vt.
Podstatou asov souslednosti je pojet minulho dje, kter skonil v minulosti a
nepesahuje do reln ptomnosti nebo do budoucnosti, jako uzavenho celku, v nm nelze
uvat ptomn, minul a budouc as z hlediska nynj reln ptomnosti.
!!! Je-li vta hlavn v ase minulm (nap. he said, I asked, she thought), mus tomuto asu
odpovdat i asy ve vt vedlej (na rozdl od etiny). Prakticky dochz k posunu o jeden as
zpt.
Je-li v anglitin (tk se to i jinch jazyk) sloveso v hlavn vt v ase ptomnm,
pedptomnm nebo budoucm, as slovesa ve vedlej vt nen ovlivnn a nemn se.
Podobn je tomu, jedn-li se o stle i obecn platn tvrzen v tchto ppadech asov posun
nen nutn.
Pro peklad asov souslednosti z anglitiny plat tato pravidla:
Je-li v hlavn nebo dc vt minul as (past tense) nebo pedminul as (past perfect) nebo
podmiovac zpsob minul reln (skuten, resp. uskuteniteln - v anglitin se ve vedlej
vt asy posouvaj, ale v etin nikoliv.
a) angl. minul as ve vedlej vt se do etiny pekld ptomnm asem

He told me he was there the day before.


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b) angl. pedminul as ve vedlej vt se do etiny pekld minulm
asem

c)

He told them he had written the report the day before yesterday.

je-li ve vedlej vt asov uren, datum i letopoet, pekld


se angl. minul as do etiny tak minulm asem

Roentgen reported that in 1891 he discovered a new kind of rays.

d) angl. kondicionl ve vedlej vt se pekld budoucm asem

He informed us that he would prepare the the copy later.

Pro peklad z etiny do anglitiny je tedy teba dbt na posun as podle nsledujcch pravidel.
Po ase minulm a pedminulm a po podmnkovm zpsobu relnm (skutenm) minulm
nebo nerelnm (neskutenm) v ptomnosti i v minulosti v hlavn resp. dc vt se
v anglitin ve vedlej vt (tj. po spojkch e, zda, kdy, kde) mn:
a) ptomn as v minul
-

Pokud se ovem jedn o stle i obecn platn tvrzen, k posunu dojt nemus, tzn. ve
vedlej vt meme ut jak as ptomn, tak minul (nap. He proved that the earth
is/was round; Tom said he wants/wanted to visit Paris next year.).

b) pedptomn as v pedminul
c) minul as v pedminul
-

K tomuto posunu dochz zejmna, pokud by mohlo dojt k nesprvnmu pochopen. Jinak
je mon vty v minulm ase ponechat v nepm ei beze zmny, nap.:
direct
Lucy said: I woke up feeling ill, so I didnt go to school.
reported Lucy said she woke up feeling ill, so she didnt go to work.
or
Lucy said she had woken up feeling ill, so she hadnt gone to school.

d) will + INF se zmn ve would + INF, pokud nejde o platn tvrzen

Nepm e a nepm otzka Indirect speech and indirect question


Pravidla asov souslednosti se uplatuj v nepm ei, tj. v reprodukci pm ei nebo pm
otzky po slovesech s vznamem mluven, mylen a vnmn, nap. say, tell, ask, answer, reply,
announce, report, write, read, want to know, know, learn (dovdt se), fee. Vedlej vta se
pipojuje k dc vt spojkou that = e, kter se me vynechat (zejmna v hovoru), pokud se tm
neporu smysl vty.
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I told you I wouldnt forget.


ekl jsem ti, e nezapomenu.
She promised she would send some information. Slbila, e pole
njak informace.

Pozor na nepm otzky slovosled je stejn jako v oznamovac vt (S V pattern).

He often asks how you live.


She didnt know where her sister was.

asto se pt, jak ije.


Nevdla, kde je jej sestra.

Rozkaz nebo dost se uvd v nepm ei slovesy ask, tell, order apod.
Rozkazovac zpsob se pitom v nepm ei mn na infinitiv:
The teacher said to his students: Dont do it.
The teacher told (asked) his students not to do it.
Notice:

1) Pi zmn pm ei v nepmou se mn i osobn zjmena a psloven


uren asu a msta, nap.:
HERE
"I would love to live here."
THIS
"I didnt like this movie."
NOW
"I want to go there now."
"I don't want to do it now."
TODAY, THIS MONTH...
"I havent seen him today."
"I enjoy the classes this year."

THERE
He said he would love to live there.
THAT
He said he hadnt liked that movie.
THEN, AT THAT MOMENT
He said he wanted to go there at that moment.
He said he didn't want to do it then.
THAT DAY, THAT MONTH
He said he hadnt seen him that day.
He said he enjoyed the classes that year.

AGO

BEFORE

"I sent the email three days ago."


YESTERDAY, LAST MONTH
"I called you yesterday."
"Last month was very sunny."
TOMORROW, NEXT MONTH
"I'll buy it tomorrow."

He said he had sent the email three days before.


THE DAY BEFORE, THE PREVIOUS...
He said he had called me the day before.
He said the previous month had been very sunny.
THE FOLLOWING DAY...
He said he would buy it the following day.
He said he would travel there the following
summer.

"I'll travel there next summer."

Pm e (Direct speech):
Professor Green said: I was here, in this laboratory, yesterday.
Nepm e (Indirect/Reported speech):
Professor Green said that he had been there, in that laboratory, the day before.
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2) Must zstv v souslednosti as beze zmny, vyjaduje-li trvalou nutnost


nebo zkaz (jinak by se u posunu as pouval opis pomoc pslunch
tvar nap. slovesa have to):
The doctor said that I must not smoke.
3)

v nepm ei zstvaj beze zmny ve vt vedlej i minul modln slovesa


(nap.: would, should, might/must/cant/neednt have + past participle) a pedminul
as.

For more details see e.g. English Grammar in Use for intermediate students Raymond Murphy
Intermediate Language Practice - Michael Vince
First Certificate Language Practice Michael Vince

Exercises:
1. Choose the correct form of Present Tense. Give the reasons of your choice between
the simple and continuous forms.
1. Mary is working/work/ works in the laboratory with nitric acid every day. 2. George is busy
now, he test/tests/is testing the content of sugar in the specimen of a newly manufactured fruit
jam. 3. Are you regularly using/do you regularly use sweeteners in your morning tea or coffee?
4. Not all liquids boil/are boiling at 100C. 5. Antioxidants are playing/play an important role
in food preservation.
.
2. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.
1. Look at Annes vessel! She .. (dye) the solution inside with an intense
colourant.. The solution was was white and now it is red.
2. I . (lose) my goggles. I cant find them anywhere.
3. And I (lose) my glasses yesterday.
4. .anything. (change) in the laboratory since I last (see) you?
5. The experiment with nitrate acid (not finish) yet. Ill have to work overtime.
3. Simple or Continuous tense?
1. Professor Black studies/had studied/has been studying food additives since he has
started/had started/started work at this College in 2007.
2. Earlier, any chemicals added to food either as pesticides in primary production or
additives in processing, were considering/were considered suspect.
3. The increasing awareness of problems with food allergy and intolerance was
leading/led/has led to the requirement to state the source of certain emulsifiers on food
labelling.
4. The amount of water we were adding/we added for half an hour to the mixture was
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dependent on the pressure of the distillation.
5. They prepared/were preparing synthetic salt and therefore were placing/placed a piece
of sodium in a flask with chlorine.
6. Carbon is occuring/occurs in two crystalline forms that differ in their properties.
7. Lecithin, an emulsifier, not suitable for individuals with an allergy to soya, is not being
produced/produced in this factory.
8. When was the Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague being established/
established?
9. I prepared/was preparing the experiment with colouring foodstuffs the whole
afternoon yesterday.
10. Next year, Professor White will teach/will have been teaching/will be teaching at our
Institute for ten years.
4. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms.
1. Fleming .( study ) influenza when he ( discover )
penicillin.
2. I (never do ) anything I ( feel ) is against my principles.
3. Matter ..( consist ) of small elements.
4. Watson and Crick ..( identify ) the structure of DNA in 1953.
5. These special mixtures ..(prepare ) for two hours and they ..( not
be ) ready yet.
5. Fill in the gaps with fitting expressions.
1. By the time I arrived at the laboratory
..

a) acting on the appropriate


nerve receptor

2. When you return from abroad next week,


..

b) moderate consumption of
cola is completely safe

3. Researchers in Cagliari, Italy, have


uncovered scientific evidence that
. is the
result of chemicals.

c) the experiment will have


finished

4. The pills .
might cut out chocolate
cravings altogether, the researchers

d) my colleagues had left

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said.
5. While excessive consumption of cola
e) a consuming love to
can lead to weakness and even muscle paralysis,
chocolate
, a Soft Drinks Association
spokesperson said.
6. Translate the sentences from exercise 5 above into Czech.
7. Translate into Czech (taking into account that Czech does not apply the
principles of the sequence of tenses used in English).
One of our teachers remarked that many people were not aware of the fact that the food industry
using the achievements of chemistry that had been reached, in particular, in the preservation of
food along with the manufacture of synthetic additives, had made significant progress as early as
in the latter part of the 19th century, not speaking of the first half of the 20th century. At the same
time, the progress in physics was very fast. Let us mention that when Thomson discovered the
electron, he proved that there were particles which were smaller than the smallest atom known.
Roentgen found that the X-rays would pass through solid substances. In 1932 Chadwick reported
that he had discovered the neutron. The Curies found that pitchblende was several times more
active than uranium oxide. Becquerel noticed that salts of uranium possessed the property of
emitting rays.

PASSIVE VOICE
The passive voice is widely used in scientific texts due to the fact that what goes first in the
English sentence is considered to be the most important. Scientific texts tend to use passive voice
structures almost everywhere to make sentences sound more objective and avoid using personal
pronouns. In Czech we use passive structures less frequently.
Structure:
subject
(which is not the agent)
The thesis
The thesis

verb to be in appropriate
tense form
is/was/has been/will be etc.
is/was etc. being

3rd form of the


content verb
written
written

When the continuous form is needed, we insert being (-ing form of the verb to be) between the
verb to be and the content verb.
Structure of the passive voice in combination with the infinitive (which is not used
in Czech): subject + passive + infinitive
He is said to live here (it is said that he lives here the subject of the second sentence replaces it
from the first sentence and the rest is connected in the form of infinitive).
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The simple infinitive refers to the same time as that of the preceding verb:
This compound is expected not to react.
The perfect infinitive refers to a time before that of the preceding verb:
This decade is known to have been a decade of many discoveries.

Exercises:
1. Translate using the passive voice in the appropriate tense.
a/
b/
c/
d/
e/
f/
g/
h/
i/
j/

Tyto ltky se zde nevyrbj.


Ten program se prv instaluje.
Kdy byla zaloena tato kola?
Takovto vci nelze tolerovat.
Co tam je napsno?.
Byla ta sms dostaten ochlazena?
Druhou anci u nikdy nedostal.
Rozlili kyselinu po celm laboratornm stole.
V se, e tato slouenina je prudce jedovat.
Neoekvalo se, e to vybouchne.

2. Transform the following sentences into passive voice.


a/
b/
c/
d/
e/
f/
g/
h/
i/
j/

He has broken another vessel.


Unstable conditions influenced our experiment.
She has sent us new laboratory records.
She should have performed the tests more carefully.
The filter has caught poisonous substances.
We prepared a new compound yesterday.
She deleted all her experimental results by accident.
My teacher has explained this to me.
Students have spilt a dangerous chemical.
She has made a huge mistake in her calculations.

3. Transform the following sentences into the passive + infinitive.


ex. It is said he will return soon. He is said to return soon.
a/
b/
c/
d/
e/
f/
g/
h/
i/

It is believed that this new discovery can save many lives.


It is expected that this element can occur in two allotropic modifications.
It is known that many elements react this way.
It is thought that they have made a real breakthrough in the research of radioactivity.
It was supposed that citric acid does not display any harmful effects.
It is assumed this company does not use preservatives of any kind.
It is reported that all the devices have been calibrated for our experiment.
It is estimated that the experiment has failed due to incorrect temperature settings.
It was said he had really discovered seven new substances.
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For more practice see:

MURPHY, R. English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press, units 41 44


PETERS, S.; GRAF, T. Cviebnice anglick gramatiky, Polyglot, unit 13

RELATIVE CLAUSES
1/ defining relative clauses
2/ non-defining relative clauses
1/ Defining relative clauses are an essential part of the message of the sentence (they clearly
identify which person or thing we are talking about) and therefore cannot be omitted and are
not separated with commas.
2/ Non-defining relative clauses bring additional but non-essential information (facts, opinions),
so they are marked with commas and could be easily left out without the main sentence losing
its meaning.
Sometimes, the decision if the clause is defining or not is up to the author only, because it is very
subjective and depends on what we want to say.

relative pronouns: who for people, which for things and that for both categories. However who
is preferred for people and in defining clauses that is usually used for objects. We can drop the
relative pronoun if it defines the object of the the clause (this applies to defining clauses only)
e.g. My friend (who) I visited on Saturday has just called me.
In non-defining relative clauses that is not used, so we stick to who for people and which
for objects and we do not leave the relative pronoun out of the sentence.
Possessive whose is used for people and for things.
.the student whose diploma thesis
the laboratory whose windows.
relative adverbs: where, when, why describe place, time or reason. They have a close
relationship with the pattern : preposition + relative pronoun. Instead of a relative adverb, we can
use a preposition + which.
That was a year when I graduated. / That was a year in which I graduated.
Notice:
which may also be used in non-defining clauses to refer to the whole of the main sentence (this
corresponds with the Czech relative pronoun co), e.g. He didnt call me, which was
disappointing.
Notice:
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what cannot be used as a relative pronoun. It is a pronoun that introduces object clauses.
He told me what he did. (what = the thing that, everything that, all that) - object clause
He told me everything (that) he did. - relative clause

Exercises:
1. a/ Explain the following words using relative pronouns or adverbs.
ex.: knife a knife is a tool which..... or: a teacher is a person who...
dean, inorganic chemistry, optional subject, chemist, library, oxygen, lecture hall
thermometer, researcher
b/ In pairs, think of any word and describe it to your friend without saying what it is,

your friend will try to guess what your word is, then change roles. For descriptions use
again relative clauses (it is a thing that... etc).
2. Join the following pairs of sentences using relative pronouns.
Make the underline sentence the relative clause.
a/ Peter speaks German. His wife is from Austria.
b/ The teacher is strict. He teaches chemistry.
c/ The new dean is very popular. He gets on well with students.
d/ It was 2005. I met him for the first time.
e/ The summers are hot. I enjoy them.
3. Decide which relative pronoun is correct and where it could be omitted.
a/ The man who/which called is our schoolmate.
b/ Have you found the books who/that I lent (to) you?
c/ It is the best news that/which came today.
d/ It is the best news that/which I have heard so far.
e/ I sent her all the notes that/what I had.
f/ I sent her that/what I had.
g/ I went to a place where/which/that I could work undisturbed .
h/ This is the student who/that/whose work has won the first place in our competition.
i/ I work for a firm which/that sells chemicals.
j/ I couldnt complete my research, who/that/which was a pity.
For more practice see:

MURPHY, R. English Grammar in Use, Cambridge University Press, units 91 95


PETERS, S.; GRAF, T. Cviebnice anglick gramatiky, Polyglot, unit 23

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COMMON AFFIXES
Common noun suffixes:
-er
-or
-ist
-er
-or

person who does an activity

-er
-ee

person who does something


person who recieves or experiences
the action

-ity
-ing
-ment
-ance
-ence
-ation
-ion
-age
-hood
-ness

things which do a particular job

abstract nouns derived from


adjectives

researcher
director
chemist
stirrer
projector
employer
employee
purity, density
testing
measurement
appearance
difference
distillation
discussion
passage
childhood
bitterness

Common adjective suffixes


-al
-ous
-ic
-ive
-y
-able,-ible
-ful
-less

means can be done


often means full of+the meaning
of the adjective
means without+ the meaning of the
adjective

chemical, physical
dangerous
toxic, sulphuric
relative
milky
washable, visible
careful, useful
careless, hopeless

Common verb suffixes


-ify

to solidify, to purify
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-ize
-ate

to specialize
to separate, to evaporate

Common prefixes
Meaning: not or opposite of
uniminilirdismisnonde-

unusual
impossible
invisible
illegal
irregular
to disappear
to misunderstand
non-metal
to decompose

Meaning: again or back


re-

to redestill, to recycle

Meaning: self
auto-

automatic

Meaning: between
inter-

international

Meaning: out of
ex-

to extract

Meaning: bad, badly


mal-

maladjustment

Meaning: put in, make


en-

to encapsulate

Meaning: one
monouniMeaning: two
bidiMeaning: three
tri-

monoculture
unicellular
bipolar, bivalent
divalent
tripod
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Grammar

Meaning: many
multi- multivalent (having a valency of
3 or higher)
poly- polyvalent (having more than 1
valency)
Meaning: too much
over-

to overestimate

Meaning: not enough


under-

to underestimate

Meaning: behind, after


post-

postgraduate

Meaning: first, before


pre-

to predict

Meaning: half
semi-

semiconductor

Meaning: under, at lower level


sub-

subdivided

Meaning: across, change


trans-

to transform

Meaning: very, above a limit


hypersuperultra-

hypersonic (at least 5 times faster than


sound)
supersonic
ultralight

Excercises:
1. Form the words and fill the spaces

The of water through several filter-beds and the of traces of


chlorine make the water safe for drinking purposes (pass/add).
The and can be observed in everyday life (evaporate/condense).
The of a calcium compound increases the of water (contain/hard).
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Grammar
Archimedes principle tells us about the of water by solid bodies (displace).
The of rain depends on the and of tiny droplets of
water in the cloud (form/condense/combine).

2. Fill in the following table and then use the words in short sentences
Verb
produce
analyse
develop
explore
research
manage

Adjective

Noun (person)

Noun (thing/process)

ENGLISH SPECIFIC INFINITIVE STRUCTURES


Some infinitive structures that are used in scientific English do not have equivalent Czech
counterparts, and therefore need to be translated by using other linguistic tools.
1. To express result
e.g.Hydrogen burns in air to give water vapour.
Hydrogen is used in the hydrogenation of liquid fats to formsolid fats.
Translation: a (tvo), za (tvorby, vzniku)
Only a few verbs are used in this form (namely give, form, produce and yield) and they
usually follow a verb describing a chemical process or reaction, such as burn, react,
combine, unite, dissolve, decompose, boil, polymerize, hydrogenate,
2. To express purpose
e.g.a) The compound must be heated (in order / so as) to decompose.
(In this sentence the two verbs heated and decompose are linked to the same
subject compound, so we can simply use the infinitive to express the purpose of
the action.)
b) The reaction mixture must be heated for the reaction to occur. (In this sentence we
have two subjects mixture and reaction. Therefore we need to use for to introduce
the second subject.)
Translation: aby
3. To specify a noun
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e.g.: the condition to be controlled
Translation: podmnka, kter m bt/ bude sledovna

4. To provide information about knowledge or findings


verb + object + infinitive
e.g.:
She found the intensity to be greater. (= She found that the intensity
was greater.)
We know Roentgen to have discovered the X-rays. (= We know that
Roentgen discovered the X rays.)
Translation:

Zjistila, e je
Vme, e. objevil

The same information can be in the passive:


subject + passive verb + infinitive
e.g.:
The intensity was found to be greater.
Roentgen is known to have discovered the X-rays
Translation:

Zjistilo se, e
O Roentgenovi je znmo, e ..

Exercises:
1.Translate
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

We know carbon to occur in two crystalline forms that differ in their properties.
To prepare synthetic salt place a piece of sodium in a flask with chlorine.
The amount of water to be added is dependent on the pressure of the distillation.
The solution of carbon dioxide in water is found to colour blue litmus red, showing it to be
a weak acid.
The reaction mixture must be brought to a sufficiently high temperature for the reaction to
occur.
The material to be weighed is transported to and from balance room in a desiccator.
We found the value to depend on many various factors.
The alloy was found to be composed of silver and gold.

For more practice see:


R. Murphy: Essential Grammar in Use, Units 52, 53
R. Murphy:English Grammar in Use, Units 63, 64
M. Vince: Advanced Language Practice, Grammar 6 reporting verbs
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VERB PATTERNS, CLAUSES OF PURPOSE, GERUND, PARTICIPLE


Verbs + -ing
adore
can't stand
don't mind
enjoy
finish
look forward to
Verbs + to +
infinitive
agree
choose
dare
decide
expect
forget
help
hope
learn
manage
need
offer
promise
refuse
seem
want
would hate
would like
would love
would prefer
Verbs + sb + to +
infinitive
advise
allow
ask
beg
encourage
expect
help
invite

Notes
We often use the verb
go + -ing for sports
and activities:
I go swimming every
day.
I go shopping on
weekends.
Notes

doing
swimming
cooking

Help and dare can be


used without to:
We helped clean up
the kitchen.
We didn't dare
disagree with him.
to do
to come
to cook

We use have to for


obligation:
I have to wear a
uniform.
Used to (or would)
expresses past habits:
I used to smoke, but I
quit last year.

Notes
Help can be used
without to:
I helped him do the
dishes.
me
him
them
someone

to do
to go
to come
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Grammar
need
order
remind
tell
want
warn
would like
Verbs + sb +
infinitive (not to)
help
let
make

her
us

Do

Notes
To is used with make
in the passive:
We were made to
work hard.
Let cannot be used in
the passive. Allowed
to is used instead:
She was allowed to
leave.

Verbs + -ing or to +
infinitive
(with little or no
change in meaning)
begin
continue
hate
like
love
prefer
start
intend
Verbs + -ing or to +
infinitive
(with a change in
meaning)
remember
stop
try
regret
forget

doing
to do

doing
to do

Notes
I remember posting
the letter.
(= I have a memory
of the past action.)
I remembered to post
the letter.
(= I didn't forget to
do it.)
I stopped drinking
coffee. (= I gave up
the habit.)
I stopped to drink a
coffee. (= I stopped
in order to have a cup
of coffee.)
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I tried to sleep. (but it


was difficult)

Clauses of Purpose

Conjunctions

stejn podmt v obou 0


vtch
in order to (not to)
so as to (not to)
jin podmt v obou
vtch

Gerund (-ing form)


Heating is a
important for some
substances.
(= Zahvn je
dleit pro nkter
ltky.)

Example

I tried counting
sheep. (a way of
getting to sleep.)
Translation

The compound must


be heated 0/in
order/so as to
decompose.
The mixture must be
heated so that the
reaction
may/might/can occur.

Slouenina mus bt
zahvna, aby se
rozloila.

(in order) for st to do st

The mixture must be


heated (in order) for
the reaction to occur.

Sms mus bt
zahvna, aby dolo
k reakci.

What is it?

Translation

Prepositional
phrases
by heating (m):
Steam is made by
heating water.

so that

zpodstatnl
sloveso

podstatnm jmnem
nebo infinitivem

Sms mus bt
zahvna, aby mohlo
dojt k reakci.

in purifying (pi
em): Chlorine is
used in purifying
water.
on (v dsledku eho):
Gases expand on
heating.
without (ani by):
Coal gives heat
without producing
much smoke.

Participle
What is it?
The air was
- pechodnk
exhausted, the result
being/thus creating a
vacuum. (Vzduch byl
vyerpn, a tak se

Translation
na zatku vty:
skrze spojky kdy,
protoe, jestlie)
na konci vty: a,
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Grammar
vytvoilo vacuum.)
running water
(tekouc voda)
dealing with
(zabvajc se)

piem, a tak
-

pest

- pdavnm jmnem

For more practice see:

http://www.learn-english-today.com/wordgames/hotpot-quizzes/verb-patterns1.html
http://www.learn-english-today.com/wordgames/hotpot-quizzes/verb-patterns2.htm
http://www.helpforenglish.cz/testy/intermediate/c2008110205-Test---Verb-patterns--2.html
http://www.oup.com/elt/global/products/headway/intermediate/a_grammar/unit06/hwy_int_unit06
_2/
Exercises:
1. Choose the correct pattern for the word in the brackets
a) John wants (buy) a new catalytic converter.
b) Lucy enjoyed (eat) the bio-dinner last night.
c) Anne loves (drink) soya milk.
d) I planned (try) out my new research.
e) Pete had finished (work) on his project.
f) He started (clean) the laboratory immediately.
g) I will stop (work) in the lab when I am tired.
h) I needed (see) my advisor yesterday.
i) Joe will start (investigate) the reports this week.
j) Harry quit (smoke) for good last January.
k) I want (learn) (fly) an airplane.
l) John said he enjoys (practice) English.
m) Liza planned (discuss) (go) on her vacation in June.
n) Joan likes (discuss) her homework with a friend.
o) I used to like (study) every day.

2. Practice gerunds using the correct preposition


a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

We obtain ice (to cool water).


Vessels are used (to store liquids).
Hydrogen is used (to manufacture ammonia).
This substance burns (when it is heated).
The substance evaporated (when exposed to air).
Desiccators are used (to dry).

3. Choose the correct form of the verb


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a) The students have begun to carry / carry / carrying out the experiment in the lab.
b) You have to avoid using / to used / use unknown chemicals and substances.
c) He insisted on detailed report / to report / reporting after finishing / to finish / finish
the survey.
d) The new programme will help detect / to detect / detecting whether the substance
is toxic or not.
e) I dont mind wait / to wait / waiting in the lab until the experiment is finished completely.
f) The teacher advised the students following / to follow / follow all the laboratory rules
really carefully.
g) Although Im good at physics I dont think Ill manage pass / passing /to pass the exam.
h) John refused break / to break / breaking anything in the lab during the experiment.
i) He asked her to let / letting / let him know / to know / knowing about all the changes.
j) They hope agree / to agree/ agreeing on ways of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide.
4. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence,
using the word given. Do not change the word given.
a) Im sorry but we have decided that we cant accept your offer.
regret
I regret your offer.
b) I tried not to make a mistake during the measuring.
avoided
I avoided .during the measuring.
c) The students have already stopped the distillation.
give
The students .... the distillation.
d) It is forbidden to smoke and eat in the laboratory.
allowed
Smoking and eating in the laboratory.
e) They finally made him decide to take part in the new research.
persuaded
They . in the new research.

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GRAMMAR

KEY

SENTENCE STRUCTURE
1. Arrange these words in the right order.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.

You shouldnt work in the lab at night.


You should study this chapter more carefully.
When did the students finish the project?
Who saw the experiment?
The students have enjoyed the lectures.
Carbonic acid decomposes at once.
Water power can make cheap electricity.
May students smoke in the lab?

2. Arrange these words in the right order.


a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.

I quickly read your article in bed last night.


The students worked till 4 oclock this afternoon.
Carbon dioxide and other gases allow the suns rays to enter.
Computer models of climate changes indicate some consequences of a warming Earth.
Nitrous oxide is released in the burning of coal.
Only cooking can destroy the micro-organisms completely.

3. Make questions to ask about the underlined statements using who, what or where.
a.
b.
c.
d.

Who did you meet last night?


What has the scientist found?
Who took the pictures?
What occurs naturally under certain conditions?
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e.
f.
g.
h.

Who published their new findings?


What will we have to redistill?
Where does the condensate flow?
What does distillation consist in?

4. Read the text, and then write questions for the answers.
The educational programme is divided into Academic Years, each year being divided into two
semesters, with the main vacation in July and August. The undergraduate studies take three years
for the Bachelor Degree and five for the Master Degree. In addition to these, the Institute provides
also postgraduate courses for PhD students.
All studies proceed on the basis of a curriculum of studies. At the end of each semester every
student must obtain a certain number of credits and pass several examinations.
Students may obtain certain scholarships. These may be granted either automatically for excellent
study results or on the basis of excellent research achievements, cultural or sports activities, and
also to aid in the cases of serious social problems.
Graduates of the Institute usually find employment in plants and research laboratories of chemical
and food industries as well as in various research institutes.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

What is the educational programme divided into?


When is the main vacation?
How long do the undergraduate studies take for the Bachelor Degree?
What does the Institute also provide?
Who must obtain a certain number of credits and pass several examinations at the end of
each semester?
f. What may certain scholarships be granted for?
g. In what kind of industries do graduates of the Institute usually find employment?

VERB TENSES

1. Choose the correct form of Present Tense. Give the reasons of your choice between
the simple and continuous forms.
1. works

2. is testing

3. do youuse

4. boil

5. play

2. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.


1. has dyed
2. have lost
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3. lost
4. Has anything changed .. I last saw you
5. has not finished

3. Simple or Continuous tense?


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

has been studying


started
were considered
has led
we were adding
they were preparing placed
occurs
is not produced
was established
was preparing
will have been teaching

4. Put the verb in brackets into the correct form.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

was studying
have never done
consists
identified
have been preparing

discovered
feel

have not been

5. Fill in the gaps with fitting expressions.


1d)

2c)

3e)

4 a)

5b)

6. Translate the sentences from exercise 5 above into Czech.


1. Kdy jsem piel do laboratoe, moji kolegov u byli pry.
2. A se pt tden vrt ze zahrani, experiment u bude ukonen.
3. Vzkumnci v Cagliari v Itlii zskali vdeck dkazy e neodolatelnou (muivou,
sravou, vnivou) oblibu okoldy psob chemiklie.
4. Pilulky psobc na pslun nervov receptor by mohly zcela odstranit touhu po
okold, jak uvedli vzkumnci.
5. Zatmco nadmrn povn koly me vst k oslaben a dokonce k ochromen sval,
umrnn konzumace npoj kola je zcela bezpen, ekla mluv Soft Drinks
Association.

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7. Translate into Czech (taking into account that Czech does not apply the principles
of the sequence of tenses used in English.
Jeden z naich uitel podotkl, e mnoho lid si nen vdomo, e potravinsk prmysl
vyuvajc spch chemie, kter byly dosaeny zejmna v konzervovn potravin spolu s
vrobou syntetickch psad, doshl vznamnho pokroku ji ve druh polovin 19. stolet,
nemluv o 1. polovin 20.stolet. Zrove byl velmi rychl pokrok ve fyzice. Zmime se, e
kdy Thomson objevil elektron, dokzal, e jsou stice, kter jsou men ne nejmen
znm atom. Roentgen zjistil, e paprsky X projdou pevnmi ltkami. R. 1932 oznmil
Chadwick, e objevil neutron. (Manel)Curieovi zjistili, e smolinec je mnohokrt aktivnj
ne kyslink uranov. Becquerel zjistil, e soli uranu maj schopnost (=vlastnost) vyzaovn
paprsk.

PASSIVE VOICE
1. Translate using the passive voice in an appropriate tense.
a/
b/
c/
d/
e/
f/
g/
h/
i/

These substances are not produced here.


The program is just being installed.
When was this school established?
Such things cannot be tolerated.
What is written there?
Has this mixture been cooled sufficiently?
He has never been given a second chance/A second chance has never been given to him.
An acid has been spilt all over the laboratory table (by them).
It is known (that) this compound is highly poisonous./This compound is known to be
highly poisonous.
j/ It was expected (that) it would explode./It was expected to explode.
2. Transform the following sentences into passive voice.
a/ Another vessel has been broken (by him).
b/ Our experiment was influenced by unstable conditions.
c/ New laboratory records have been sent to us (by her).
d/ The tests should have been performed more carefully (by her).
e/ Poisonous substances have been caught by the filter.
f/ A new compound was prepared (by us) yesterday.
g/ All her experimental results were deleted by accident.
h/ This was explained to me (by my teacher) last lesson.
i/ A dangerous chemical has been spilt (by students).
j/ A huge mistake has been made in her calculations.

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3. Transform the following sentences into the passive+infinitive.
Ex. It is said he will return soon. He is said to return soon.
a/
b/
c/
d/
e/
f/
g/
h/
i/

This new discovery is believed to be able to save many lives.


This element is expected to occur in two allotropic modifications.
Many elements are known to react this way.
They are thought to have made a real breakthrough in the research of radioactivity.
Citric acid was supposed not to display any harmful effects.
This company is assumed not to use preservatives of any kind.
All the devices are reported to have been calibrated for our experiment.
The experiment is estimated to have failed due to incorrect temperature settings.
He was said to have discovered seven new substances.

RELATIVE CLAUSES
1. a/ Explain the following words using relative pronouns or adverbs.
ex.: knife a knife is a tool which..... or: a teacher is a person who...
dean, inorganic chemistry, optional subject, chemist, library, oxygen, lecture hall
thermometer, researcher
b/ In pairs, think of any word and describe it to your friend without saying what it is, your

friend will try to guess what your word is, then change roles. For descriptions use again
relative clauses (it is a thing that... etc).
2. Join the following pairs of sentences using relative pronouns.
Make the underline sentence the relative clause.
a/ Peter speaks German. His wife is from Austria.
Peter, whose wife is from Austria, speaks German.
b/ The teacher is strict. He teaches chemistry.
The teacher who teaches chemistry is strict.
The teacher, who teaches chemistry, is strict.
c/ The new dean is very popular. He gets on well with students.
The new dean, who gets on well with students, is very popular.
d/ It was 2005. I met him for the first time.
2005 was the year in which I first met him.
e/ The summers are hot. I enjoy them.
The summers, which I enjoy, are hot.
3. Decide which relative pronoun is correct and where it could be omitte d.

a/
b/
c/
d/

The man who called is our schoolmate.


Have you found the books (that) I lent (to) you?
It is the best news that/which came today.
It is the best news (that/which) I have heard so far.
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e/
f/
g/
h/
i/
j/

I sent her all the notes (that) I had.


I sent her what I had.
I went to the place where I could work undisturbed.
This is the student whose work has won the first place in our competition.
I work for a firm which/that sells chemicals.
I couldnt complete my research, which was a pity.

COMMON AFFIXES
1. Form the words and fill the spaces
The passage of water through several filter-beds and the addition of traces of chlorine make the
water safe for drinking purposes (pass/add).
The evaporation and condensation can be observed in everyday life (evaporate/condense).
The content of a calcium compound increases the hardness of water (contain/hard).
Archimedes principle tells us about the displacement of water by solid bodies (displace).
The formation of rain depends on the condensation and combination of tiny droplets of water in
the cloud (form/condense/combine).
2. Fill in the following table and then use the words in short sentences
Verb
produce
analyse
develop
explore
research
manage

Adjective
producing/produced
analytical
developing/developed
exploring/explored
researching
managerial

Noun (person)
producer
analyst
developer
explorer
researcher
manager

Noun (thing/process)
product
analysis
development
exploration
research
management

ENGLISH SPECIFIC INFINITIVE STRUCTURES


1. Translate
1. Vme, e uhlk se vyskytuje ve dvou krystalickch podobch, kter se li svmi
vlastnostmi.
2. Abyste pipravili umlou sl, umstte kousek sodku do banky s chlrem.
3. Mnostv vody, kter se m pidat, zle na tlaku destilace.
4. Zjistme, e roztok oxidu uhliitho ve vod barv modr lakmusov paprek na erveno,
tm ukazuje, e jde o slabou kyselinu.
5. Aby reakce nastala, reakn sms se mus pivst na dostaten vysokou teplotu.
6. Materil ke zven se pepravuje do a z vhovny v suice.
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7. Zjistme, e hodnota zvis na mnoha rznch faktorech.
8. Zjistilo se, e slitina se skld ze stbra a zlata.

VERB PATTERNS, CLAUSES OF PURPOSE, GERUND, PARTICIPLE


1. Choose the correct pattern for the word in the brackets
John wants to buy a new catalytic converter.
Lucy enjoyed eating the bio-dinner last night.
Anne loves to drink/drinking soya milk.
I planned to try out my new research.
Pete had finished working on his project.
He started to clean/cleaning the laboratory immediately.
I will stop working in the lab when I am tired.
I needed to see my advisor yesterday.
Joe will start to investigate/investigating the reports this week.
Harry quit smoking for good last January.
I want to learn to fly an airplane.
John said he enjoys practicing English.
Sinead planned to discuss going on her vacation in June.
Joan likes to discuss/discussing her homework with a friend.
I used to like to study/studying every day.
2. Practice gerunds using the correct preposition
We obtain ice by cooling water.
Vessels are used for storing liquids.
Hydrogen is used in manufacturing ammonia.
This substance burns on heating.
The substance evaporated on having been exposed to air.
Desiccators are used for drying.

3. Choose the correct form of the verb


a) The students have begun to carry / carry / carrying out the experiment in the lab.
b) You have to avoid using / to used / use unknown chemicals and substances.
c) He insisted on detailed report / to report / reporting after finishing / to finish / finish
the survey.
d) The new programme will help detect / to detect / detecting whether the substance
is toxic or not.
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e) I dont mind wait / to wait / waiting in the lab until the experiment is finished completely.
f) The teacher advised the students following / to follow / follow all the laboratory rules
really carefully.
g) Although Im good at physics I dont think Ill manage pass / passing /to pass the exam.
h) John refused break / to break / breaking anything in the lab during the experiment.
i) He asked her to let / letting / let him know / to know / knowing about all the changes.
j) They hope agree / to agree/ agreeing on ways of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide.

4. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence,
using the word given. Do not change the word given.
a) Im sorry but we have decided that we cant accept your offer.
regret
I regret not to accept your offer.
b) I tried not to make a mistake during the measuring.
avoided
I avoided making a mistake during the measuring.
c) The students have already stopped carrying out the distillation.
give
The students have already given up carrying out the distillation.
d) Smoking and eating is not allowed in the laboratory.
forbidden
It is forbidden to smoke and eat in the laboratory.
e) They finally made him decide to take part in the new research.
persuaded
They persuaded him to take part in the new research.

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