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Q1.

COMPARISON OF QUALITATIVE-QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH


A:
CHARACTERISTICS
Research Objectives

QUALITATIVE
Discovery of new ideas,
insights and feelings

Type of research
Type of question

Usually exploratory
Open-ended, semistructured, unstructured,
probing
Sociology, psychology
Non-probability
sampling: purposive,
convenient, snow poll
and quota sampling

Research Skills
Sampling technique

Sample size
Data collection tool

Small
FDG, KII,II, case studies
etc.

Type of Analysis

Subjective, interpretive

Representativeness

Limited

QUANTITATIVE
Validation of facts,
estimates and
relationships
Descriptive and casual
Mostly structured
Statistics
Probability sampling:
simple random sample,
systematics sampling,
cluster sampling, and
stratified sampling
Large
Qnaires, checklist,
counting process,
observational case
control etc.
Statistical: descriptive
and inferential
Good

Q2: Qualitative Research Design


Introduction
Qualitative research is collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data and observes what
do people say and way. Qualitative research refers to the meaning, concepts,
definitions, characteristics, metaphors, symbols, and description of things.
Target Population
Population from which we are sampling, in this case the population that we will go
to survey and collect data on them are women of reproductive age.
Data Collection Methods (Tools)
Qualitative research is subjective and uses very different methods for collection
information, including
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Focus Group Discussion (FDG)


A loosely structured interview conducted by a trained moderator among small group of
informants simultaneously.
Goal: to learn and understand what people do say and why?
Key Informants Interviews (KII)
A conversation about a given topic between the respondents and an interviewer
Goal: to collect information as much as memory, attitudinal and behavioural data from
the subject.
Projective techniques
These are unstructured prompts or stimulus that encourages the respondents to project
their underlying motivations, beliefs, attitudes and feelings onto an ambiguous
situation. Projective techniques including

Sentences completion

Respondents are required to complete a sentences or story in their own words. e.g. I
drink Coca-Cola usually when......

Picture interpretation

A technique whereby respondents are shown on a picture and are asked to tell story
describing it

Word association
Role playing
Third person
Cartoons

Sampling Techniques
The appropriate sampling method for this case is non-probability sampling methods (is
often used for collecting qualitative information), which will can be
Purposive Sampling: relies upon belief that participants fit characteristics
e.g. Women in reproductive age, Traditional Birth Attendants and FGM
administrators.
Note: in this case we use purposive sampling because we focused on
Women in reproductive age.
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Snow Poll Sampling: relies upon respondent referrals of others with like
characteristics. e.g. People Living with HIV
Convenient Sampling: relies upon convenience and access. e.g.
collecting the information as intentionally people you may know already.
Quota Sampling: emphasize representation of specific characteristics.
Sample Size Determination
The determination of the sample size depends on the sampling design and the indicator
to be measured. Therefore in this case our sampling technique is non-probability
sampling design so that the sample size for this qualitative research will be between 1850 respondents.
1. Conducting FGD Study
Characteristics

6-12 people with each group


Lead by a trained moderator
In-depth discussion on 1 particular concept or topic
1-3 hour duration

Analysing and Reporting the Results


Combining the responses and writing-up of results, highlighting the areas where and
why the responses are concentrated or by using Atlas Software and then finally
reporting to the audience
2. Key Informants Interviews
Characteristics

Well trained interviewer + interviewee


Usually face to face
Interviewee is exposed to set a probing questions
Interviewer encourages the interviewee to talk more

Analysing and Reporting the Results


Combining the responses and writing-up of results, highlighting the areas where and
why the responses are concentrated or by using Atlas Software and then finally
reporting to the audience

Q3: Quantitative Research Design


Introduction
Quantitative research is interested in using formalized, standardized structured
questions whereby responses are already pre-determined. Deals with numbers and data
can be measured.
Target Population
The population from which we are sampling, in this case the population that we will go
to survey and collect data on them is the who use the media.
Data Collection Methods (Tools)
Questionnaires: when need a quickly and/or easily to get a lot of information
from a people in a non-threatening way.
Checklists
Sampling Techniques
The appropriate sampling method for this study is a probability sampling (is often used
for collecting quantitative information) which will can be
Simple Random Sampling
SRS can be used for small population that contains more than 1000 Basic Sampling Unit
(BSU) or HHs. This method requires a complete and updated list of BSU, which may be
difficult to obtain in emergency situation. Since in most contexts the BSU is large, the
SRS procedure can be conducted by numbering each BSU and then choosing the
number of units from the random number table.
Two Scenarios are possible

List of target population is available: if there is an updated list of target


population, the needed number of the target population can be drawn randomly
from this list.
List of HHs is available: if there is only list of HHs is available, the desired
number of HHs can be drawn randomly from this list.
Systematics Random Sampling
SRS is based on selection of units at a certain predetermined interval called sampling
interval. It is applicable for small scale surveys (approximately 1000 to 5000 BSU) and

of its main advantage is using without having a list, where dwelling are well organized
in rows, blocks, main road or river.
Three Scenarios are Possible

List of target population is available: sample of individuals can be drawn


randomly from this list.
List of HHs is available: sample of HHs can be drawn randomly from this list.
No list is available but HHs are arranged in an easy and geometric pattern: you
need to know the boundaries of your survey areas and to determine what could
be your it start point and end point and which direction you will be following
when walking or arriving through the area.
Cluster Sampling:
In case where your survey area is too large (country, provenance, district for example)
and/or geographically dispersed, cluster sampling can be used. This method is most
frequently used in field. Th BSU is selected within groups named clusters (villages,
administrative areas, and camps). The objective of this method is to choose a limited
number of smaller geographical areas in which simple or systematic can be conducted.
It completes two stages
Random selection of clusters
Random selection of HHs
Stratified Sampling
Method of dividing population into homogeneous subgroups then selected random
samples from each stratum then combinesamples from each stratum into a single
sample.
Sample Size Determination
The determination of the sample size depends on the sampling design and the
indicator to be measured. In this case, the sampling technique is probability
sampling design therefore the sample size of this quantitative research can be large
and not limited.
Executing the Data Collection Methodology
The data should be collected from the survey areas with filling a limited number of
questionnaires in each day by conducting and checking at end of each enumerators and
supervisors, respectively.

Data Set (Design)


Design the questionnaire into the computer using SPSS, Lime-Survey, and Excel, etc.
Data Entry
Entering the data into the computer by using the intended file
Data Filtering and Cleaning
Verifying, correcting or combining data from several sources
Data Analysis, Interpretation and Report writing
Prepare statistical charts and tables and interpreting what the mean and reports as
required.
Q4:

INDICATORS

Ever
used
BS

Never
used
BS

OR

Sig.

N=779
N=640
54.9%
45.1%
ABILITY
%

Has discussed birth spacing with husband

43.9

28.1

3.06

***

Has discussed birth spacing with family members

36.2

26.0

2.14

***

46.2

55.1

.65

**

Social Support

MOTIVATION

Belief
Advantage of many children: improves family economy
(R)
Advantage of many children: clan acceptance (R)
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Advantage of many children: religious reasons (R)

43.5

37.3

1.34

40.8

47.1

.73

Disadvantage of many children: stress

57.4

39.1

2.25

***

Disadvantage of many children: health problems

50.1

36.3

1.82

***

Disadvantage of many children: financial problems

44.9

37.4

1.42

**

Disadvantage of many children: family conflict

36.4

30.2

1.34

Disadvantage of many children: busy

25.2

18.9

1.50

**

54.3

46.1

1.44

**

27.8

20.5

1.48

**

40.2

27.2

1.85

***

Disadvantage of many children: tiredness

Traditional methods of birth spacing are effective (R)

POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS

Education (has attended school)

OR Interpretation
The respondent who have discussed birth spacing with their husbands were 3.06
times more likely to have ever used birth spacing than those who have not
discussed with their husbands.
The respondents who believed many children can improve family economy were
0.65 times less likely to have ever used birth spacing than those who do not
believe many children.
The respondents who believe many children can lead tiredness were 2.25 times
more likely to have ever used birth spacing than those who do not believe many
children can lead tiredness.
The respondents who attended school were 1.85 times more likely to have ever
used BS than those who do not attended to school.
Sign Interpretation
These stars show how significant the association is: the more stars you have, the more
Significant it is.
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