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Brighton Business School

Referencing Handbook 2009

Brighton Business School


Referencing Handbook
2 nd Edition - 2009

Editor: Tracey Taylor


Design: Simon Letchford

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Brighton Business School Brighton Business School
Referencing Handbook 2009 Referencing Handbook 2009

1 Contents Page

1 Introduction: Referencing your work 3 Examples: electronic sources


1.1 Why reference? 4 3.1 Citing in the text 23
1.2 Are all sources equally useful for referencing? 4 3.2 What’s a ‘corporate’ author? 23
1.3 Where to reference? 5 3.3 Reference section 24
1.4 What’s a bibliography and how does it differ from a reference 3.4 Search engines are not valid sources 24
section? 5 3.5 Electronic article reference 25
1.5 Harvard Referencing System 5 3.6 International electronic journal article 25.
1.6 Are there any exceptions? 6 3.7 Journal abstract from online database 26
1.7 Citing within the text 6 3.8 Online newspaper articles with author byline 26
1.8 How do I cite within the text? 3.9 Online newspaper articles with no author byline 27
1.9 What about page numbers and quotes? 7 3.10 Websites/Company websites 27
1.10 One page only 7 3.11 Multiple references to website/company website 28
1.11 More than one page 8 3.12 Figures – tables – graphs - diagrams 28
1.12 Indented quotations 8 3.13 Electronically sourced lecture notes – two examples: 30
1.13 Importance of accuracy 9 3.14 Emails 31
1.14 When to use quotations 9 3.15 E-book 31
1.15 When you don’t need to acknowledge sources 9 3.16 CD-ROM 32
1.16 Can you quote too much in a piece of work? 10 3.17 Radio or TV broadcast 32
1.17 Are there any variations to this? 10 3.18 Video or DVD 33
2 Examples: books, journals, newspapers etc. 4 Example: Government publications
2.1 One author 10 4.1 Official publications/command papers: example 1 34
2.2 Two authors of one work 11 4.2 Official publications/command papers: example 2 35
2.3 Three authors of one work 11 4.3 Official publications/command papers: example 3 35
2.4 More than three authors of one work. 12 4.4 A House of Commons Report 36
2.5 Authors of two different works 12 4.5 A House of Lords Report 37
2.6 An author with more than one cited publication in the same year 13 4.6 An Act of Parliament 38
2.7 Citing secondary sources 14 5 Creating the reference section 39
2.8 Edited books 15 6 Glossary 44
2.9 Chapter in book – two examples below 16 7 Bibliography and notes 46
2.10 Encyclopedia or dictionary 17 8 Notes: 48
2.11 Journals - article reference 17
2.12 Conference proceedings 19
2.13 Newspaper articles 19
2.14 Corporate authors, reports, etc. 20
2.15 Annual report 20
2.16 Lecture notes or in-house publications 20
2.17 Letters & other forms of personal communication 21

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2.18 Figures – tables – graphs - diagrams 22

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1. Introduction: Referencing your work 1.3 Where to reference?

Please make sure that you read the following information. References need to be cited in two places.

1.1 Why reference? I: You need to make an abbreviated in-text citation when you refer to an
author’s material in the report or essay you are writing. This is sometimes
References are essential. also known as referencing in the text or source referencing.

• They acknowledge the sources of your information, ideas and II: You will also need to make a full reference at the end of your report or
arguments. essay. All sources that have been directly referred to within your piece
• The reader must be able, from your reference list, to follow up all your of work must be listed, in full, in alphabetical order, by surname, in the
sources of information independently. reference section as the end of your piece of work.
• Your references will demonstrate how widely you have read in a particular
area.
• They will ensure that your ideas, opinions and arguments will be supported 1.4 What’s a bibliography and how does it differ from a reference
and strengthened by published and ‘peer reviewed’ authors. system?
• Careful and meticulous referencing will mean that you do not lay yourself
open to accusations of plagiarism. Remember that failure to acknowledge A bibliography differs from a reference section in that it will reflect your wider reading
sources constitutes cheating – leading to penalties and the probability of in a particular area even though you have not made direct use of the material in
at least a lower class degree. your own work. However, both the reference section and any bibliography need
• Importantly, good referencing will lead to better marks. to include the full bibliographic description of each source. This means you must
learn the academic habit of consistently noting all the elements required for the
You are also strongly advised to consult the University’s Plagiarism Awareness reader to find the information source: eg Author, date, title, publisher etc. Should
Pack, handed out at the start of the year and available on Studentcentral. your lecturers require you to produce a bibliography in addition to a reference
section they will indicate this to you clearly.

1.2 Are all sources equally useful for referencing?


1.5 Harvard Referencing System
The straightforward answer to this is no. As University students you must endeavour
to select valid, pertinent and authoritative sources. Lecturers will always assist The following is generalised guidance based on the Harvard referencing system
you by furnishing you with relevant reading lists. You should also ensure you are which is the preferred and accepted system of referencing within Brighton
familiar with ‘Business Source Premier’ (BSP) and `Emerald’ which you will find Business School. It is an author-date system and demands that the bibliographic
on Studentcentral on the online databases via the online library. This is a quick information be structured in a specific and consistent order.
route to up-to-date journal articles which will need to figure prominently in your
research.

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1.6 Are there any exceptions? For example, let’s say you have been reading a single authored text by Wendy
Bloisi which was published by McGraw Hill Higher Education in 2006 called
There are other forms of referencing, most commonly used in History and Law, An Introduction to Human Resource Management. When you use this author’s
and you may come across these ‘footnote’ and ‘endnote’ styles in your reading. material in your own work you need only include the author’s surname and date of
Please note that special conventions apply to the presentation and referencing publication - (Bloisi, 2006) - as this will take the reader directly to the work which
of legal scholarship. Therefore, if you are submitting a piece of law coursework will be arranged alphabetically by author surname in the reference section. For
please refer to the detailed guidance in the Studying Law at Brighton Business example, you might write in your work:
School Handbook. An electronic copy of the Handbook is available on the School
area of Studentcentral. Bloisi (2006) comments that human resource management is an
essential aspect of successful business. (Sometimes called author-
Note too, that the absolutely essential point regarding referencing is that the reader prominent referencing)
can go back and find the exact same source as you used. So, while you may see or
that there are variations of Harvard referencing regarding punctuation, use of italics Human resource management is an essential aspect of successful
and underlining etc, if your lecturer can track down your sources with ease you will business (Bloisi, 2006). (Sometimes called information prominent referencing)
not have too much to worry about.
You do not need to include the title of the work, or its publisher, or the author’s initial
1.7 Citing within the text when you are citing within the text. So, remember, you need the smallest amount
of essential information. This nearly always consists of AUTHOR(S) SURNAME
This is a crucial skill to learn. A precise source reference will enable the reader to and YEAR OF PUBLICATION.
locate the material referred to easily and is the hallmark of good quality work.

1.9 What about page numbers and quotes?


1.8 How do I cite within the text?
When citing in the text you need only include page numbers when you make a
You need to include the minimum essential units of information that will directly direct quote. For example:
link the reader to the full bibliographic details in your reference section. It should
be organised in such a way that it causes the least amount of disruption to the
reader’s understanding of your sentence. Usually this means that in-text citations 1.10 One page only
are positioned at the very end or the start of sentences.
Peacock (2008, p47) states that ‘self-selection is the process where a job seeker
is given information about the negative aspects of a vacancy…’

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1.11 More than one page 1.13 Importance of accuracy

If the quote used is longer and goes across more than one page the Harvard When using quotations you need to integrate them as well as you can into your
convention is to precede the number range with ‘pp’. This would appear as: text. Furthermore, you need to take care that you are absolutely accurate in how
you reproduce the words. You must keep to the author’s spelling, punctuation,
‘The costs of staff turnover can be significant both financially and also in terms of grammar and choice of vocabulary.
the impact on an organisation’s reputation and internal morale’. (Lanigan, 2008,
pp48-49) If there is an error of spelling or other ‘oddity’ in the original text the word [sic]
should be inserted immediately after in square brackets to indicate that this is how
1.12 Indented quotations it appears in the original.

Longer quotes (more that 3 lines/30 words) need to be indented on a new line, in For example
a smaller font size and do not need quotation marks.
‘This in death [sic] research showed…’ (Student meant to write ‘in depth’)
Barry (2001, p3) observes of the modern, technology-driven world -

1.14 When to use quotations


We live in a technological society…to the extent that specific technologies
dominate our sense of the kinds of problems that government and politics
Quotations can be used where the author has used an especially elegant phrase
must address, and the solutions that we must adopt. A technological society
is one which takes technical change to be the model for political invention. or, for example, outlined a major point that you need to use as evidence. They
or, are also useful when you need to construct an argument for or against an idea
Communication to the employee’s immediate supervisor is, perhaps inevitably, expressed. Used in this way quotations are an excellent way of underpinning your
the most important form of direct upward communication. However, we can also own work.
include here direct access to senior management, quality circles and suggestion
schemes as ways in which some organisations have tried to provide channels to
encourage employees to make their individual grievances known or to draw on 1.15 When you don’t need to acknowledge sources
the innovative and entrepreneurial skills of their workforce. (Brewster, Sparrow &
Vernon, 2007, p196) Occasionally it will not be necessary to reference. If you cite the Bible or Shakespeare
(doesn’t often happen in the Business School) or, if an idea can be considered to
be in the public domain, then a reference may not be required. However, take
care. At undergraduate level you will not be penalised for over-referencing work
you have read and the academic convention of supporting your work with well
sourced references is one you must grasp and master.

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1.16 Can you quote too much in a piece of work? 2.2 Two authors of one work

Yes. Remember that we are looking for evidence that you have understood
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
the texts that you have read. This means that you must learn to paraphrase
and summarize the ideas, information and theories of the published authors – referencing in the text)
obviously with correct references. A list of long quotations in the words of the Kotler & Keller (2008) maintain that…
original author(s) does not show your tutor/lecturer that you have understood the References
material. Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2008) Marketing Management. 13th ed, London:
Prentice Hall
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
1.17 Are there any variations to this?
must appear
Clearly not all texts are written by a single author and, as well as journals and books, Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher (list author
you will need to make use of conference proceedings, electronic publications, names in the order they appear on the title page)
official government publications as well as other forms of publication. In every
case you will need to find the minimum, essential units of information that will
make a clear link to the full bibliographic details in your reference section. 2.3 Three authors of one work

Below, therefore, we give examples of standard Harvard referencing practice for In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
the various types of publications you will more commonly use in your research at referencing in the text)
University.
Slack, Chambers & Johnston (2006) argue persuasively that…
References
2 Examples: books, journals, newspapers etc.
Slack, N. Chambers, S. & Johnston, R. (2006) Operations Management.
2.1 One author 5th ed, London: FT Prentice Hall
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text) Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher
Mullins (2007) discusses the relevance of … (list author names in the order they appear on the title page)

References
Mullins, L.J. (2007) Management and Organizational Behaviour.
8th ed, London: FT Prentice Hall
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher

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2.4 More than three authors of one work 2.6 An author with more than one cited publication in the same
year
Note: et.al. which is Latin for et alli means ‘and others’ and, when
used, should always be italicized Note: Distinguish these by adding lower case letters (a, b, c,
etc.) after the year and within the brackets:
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text) In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing
or referencing in the text)
Brewster et al. (2003) state that retention is an advantage of flexible
Or, Arnold (2004a) proposed that…
patterns of work…
It has been argued by Arnold (2004b) that…
References Reference
Brewster, C., Carey, L., Dowling, P., Grobler, P., Holland, P. & Arnold, G. (2004a) Financial Times Guide to Investing: the definitive
Warnich, S. (2003) Contemporary Issues in Human Resource companion to investment and the financial markets. London: Financial
Management: gaining a competitive advantage. Cape Town: Oxford Times
University Press Arnold, G. (2004b) Handbook of Corporate Finance: a business
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail companion to financial markets, decision & techniques. New York:
must appear Financial Times
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher (list
must appear.
author names in the order they appear on the title page)
Author surname, Initial. (datea) Title. edition, Place: Publisher
Author surname, Initial. (dateb) Title. edition, Place: Publisher
2.5 Authors of two different works

Note: The references in brackets are in alphabetical order.

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or


referencing in the text)
According to a number of surveys (Holbeche, 2001, Jay, 1998), the
main reasons people leave a job include…
References
Holbeche, L. (2001) Aligning Human Resources and Business
Strategy. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Jay, D. (1998) The Essential Personnel Sourcebook. 2nd ed. London:
Financial Times Pitman
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher

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(references should appear in alphabetical order)

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2.7 Citing secondary sources 2.8 Edited books

I: Best practice is to cite from the original source. However, this is not In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
always possible especially when students are directed to introductory referencing in the text)
text books which survey a large body of knowledge. In these
instances it is incumbent upon you to ensure that the reader knows There is no doubt that computer aided process and product engineering
you discovered the material from a secondary source. are hugely valuable to business (Puigjaner & Heyen, 2006).

II: In the example below you will see that the reference section needs References
full details of Huczynski & Buchanan because you have not read the
Puigjaner, L. & Heyen, G. (eds) (2006) Computer Aided Process and
original original work by Deborah Tanner. You must, therefore, direct your
Product Engineering. Chichester: Wiley
reader to the find the reference to it in Huczynski & Buchanan.
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
Author surname, Initial. (editor(s)) (date) Title. Place: Publisher (list
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or editors’ names in the order they appear on the title page)
referencing in the text)

Tanner (1998, cited in Huzcynski & Buchanan, 2007) claims that girls
are disadvantaged by….
References

Huczynski, A. & Buchanan, D. (2007) Organizational Behaviour: an introductory


text. 6th ed, London: Prentice Hall
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
Author surname, Initial. (date) Title. edition, Place: Publisher (list
author names in the order they appear on the title page)

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2.9 Chapter in book – two examples below 2.10 Encyclopedia or dictionary

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or Note that you need to arrange this work by ‘O’ for Oxford not
referencing in the text) ‘ T’ for when you complete your reference section and that title is
As stated by Roberts (2003, p91)… used as Author.

Shukla & Cheng-Ting (2008) make the point… In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text)
References The Oxford English Dictionary (2001) defined it as…
Roberts, L. (2003) ‘Capital accumulation. Tourism and development References
processes in Central and Eastern Europe’, in D Hall (ed) Tourism and
Transition: governance, transformation and development. Oxfordshire: The Oxford English Dictionary. (2001), Vol 3, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon
Cabi Publishing, pp53-64.
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
Shukla, P. & Cheng-Ting, C. (2008) ‘Buying behaviour in consumer must appear
to consumer (C2C) online auction commerce’, in C Veloutsour Title as author, (Date) Volume, Edition, Place: Publisher
& N Papadopoulos (eds) Marketing in Dynamic Environments:
Contemporary Research Advances. Athens: Atiner, pp207-220 2.11 Journals - article reference
Note: even if you retrieve a journal article electronically using the online
• Editor’s initial precedes the surname as the person’s name
library and its databases,( Emerald or Business Source Premier, for
is irrelevant when arranging the reference list alphabetically.
example), this does not mean that the article is an ‘e’journal article.
Note too, that only the book title is italicized – not the chapter
It simply means that you have gained access to a print journal via an
title
online database. You need to be clear about this. Any journal that is
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail published in print format does not need online details in the reference
must appear section.

Author surname, initial. (Year) ‘Title & subtitle of chapter’, in Editors


(eds), Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher, pages of chapter

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So, the following example shows you how to do this CORRECTLY. 2.12 Conference proceedings

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text) referencing in the text)
Holscher, Bachan & Stimpson (2008) note that… Farache (2008) makes this point clearly.
References References
Holscher, J., Bachan, R. & Stimpson, A. (2008) Oil Demand in China:
An Econometric Approach, International Journal Of Emerging Market. Farache, F. (2008) ‘How corporate social responsibility is publicized
Vol 3, No 1, p14-18 through print advertisements in Brazil and the UK: the case of Banco
Real and Chevron’. Conference on Corporate Communication, June
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail 6-9, Wroxton College, New York: Baruch College/City University of
must appear New York, pp115-129
Author. (Date) Article title, Journal Title. volume, part, pages
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
To do it as below is INCORRECT. You do not need a URL/web address must appear
for an article that has been published in a print journal. Please avoid Author surname, initial. (date) ‘Title of paper’. Conference Name,
doing this. Date of conference, Location of conference, Place of publication:
Publisher, pages
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or referencing in
the text)
2.13 Newspaper articles
Holscher, Bachan & Stimpson (2008) note that…
References
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or referencing
Holscher, J., Bachan, R. & Stimpson, A. (2008) Oil Demand in China: An
in the text)
Econometric Approach, International Journal Of Emerging Market. Vol 3,
No 1, p14- [online] 18http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/ViewConten Schofield (2008) describes…
tServlet?contentType=Article&Filename=Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/
Articles/3010030103.html [accessed 6 June 2008] References
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail must appear
Schofield, J. (2008) ‘Can Jerry Yang survive at the top of Yahoo?’ The
Author. (Date) Article title, Journal Title. volume, part, pages Guardian. 19 June 2008, p2
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
Author, (date) Title of article, Title of Newspaper. detailed date, page
number(s)

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2.14 Corporate authors, reports, etc 2.17 Letters & other forms of personal communication
Many pieces of work are not the responsibility of one individual as they
Note: Ordinarily personal forms of communication would not appear
are produced by an organization. This is known as a corporate author. In
a in a published reference section as they would not be available to the
such instances the organization should be listed as the author. general reader.
2.15 Annual report
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text)
Note that the ‘author’ in this instance is a ‘corporate author’.
Oakley (2008) pointed out…
References
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text) Oakley, P. (2008) ‘Discussion on grade inflation’. [Personal
communication] 22 April 2008
With profits rising (Marks & Spencer, 2007)…
References Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
Marks & Spencer (2007) Annual Review and Summary Financial must appear
Statements 2007. London: Marks & Spencer Author. (date)’ Title/Topic of communication’. [Medium] date
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear

Corporate Author (year), Report Title. Place, Publisher

2.16 Lecture notes or in-house publications


Note: provide the best details that you can.

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or


referencing in the text)
Harris (2008) highlighted the …
References
Harris, C. (2008) ‘Performance Related Pay’. [Lecture notes] Brighton:
University of Brighton Business School, Unpublished
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear

Author. (date) Title of Lecture. [Medium] Place of publication: Publisher

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2.18 Figures – tables – graphs - diagrams


In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text)
Note: figures, tables, graphs and diagrams must always be numbered
and labelled. They must also be included in your contents page. Relevance trees, such as figure 1 above (Cameron, 2001, p125)
show…
For example, if you were to include a figure you had accessed from the MBA References
Handbook: Study Skills for Postgraduate Management Study, you would need
to number the figure and, below the figure, give its source or, state that it was Cameron, S. (2001) Relevance Tree, The MBA Handbook: Study Skills
‘adapted from’ plus the source. For example: for Postgraduate Management Study. London: FT Prentice Hall

Figure 1: Relevance tree Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
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Book
Wh

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Meetings
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Convergence/divergence
Review Students often have trouble referencing correctly from electronic sources - in
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part because this is a still an emerging area but mostly because they mistake
Pro

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fere something that they access via the internet as an electronic source when it is
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not. It is, therefore, particularly important that you read the following section
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lvin

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Remember that the same principle applies to electronic sources as apply to
Diagrams:
ent

Planning
paper based sources. The reader must be able to track back to your source.
orts
gem

Rep
Use
The information that appears in your in-text citation must be the minimum
ana

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Tren amount of information that will take the reader directly to the ‘author’ in your
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Visual A
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enc When citing in the text you need only ‘author, date’, and remember, it may well
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be a ‘corporate author’.
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3.2 What’s a ‘corporate’ author?
‘P

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Source: (Cameron, 2001, p125) ssio
n Where there is no personal author it is usual to reference by the body that
commissioned the work, for example, government departments, companies and

s s
organisations.

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3.3 Reference section 3.5 Electronic article reference


Note: The ‘clues’ that this is an ‘e’ jounal article and not a print article
In the reference section you need: are1) in the title of the jounal which is plainly called ‘Sociological Research
Online’ and 2) the absence of page numbers. Because it it only available
• Full bibliographic details as well as the type of medium; e.g. CD-
online you must include the URL address as shown below.
Rom or Online, and this will appear in [square brackets].
• The full web address with chevrons at the beginning and end; e.g.
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
<http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3714851.stm>
referencing in the text)
• And finally, in square brackets, you need to include the date you
According to Hammersley and Gomm (1997)…
accessed the material; e.g. [accessed 24th April 2008].
References
3.4 Search engines are not valid sources Hammersley, M. & Gomm, R. (1997), ‘Bias in social research’.
Sociological Research Online [Online], Vol 2 (Issue 1) Available at
You must be careful not to mistake a search engine for the correct web address. <http://www.socresonline.org.uk/socresonline/2/1/2html> [Accessed
Students should be reminded that ‘Google’, for example, is a search engine and 16 June 1998]
therefore not to be used in your references. Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
The following is an example of a URL from Google for the Stern Report on climate
Author(s), (year) Title, Journal Title. [Online], volume (issue). Available
change:
at <URL> [Accessed date]
http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q=stern+report&btnG=Google+Search&meta=
3.6 International electronic journal article
This just shows the search terms put in – not the result of the search. The first Note: If you include a foreign language article you must translate the
result from Google is the link to the URL: t title into English.

http://www.hmtreasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_ In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or


change/sternreview_index.cfm referencing in the text)
Farache, Wanderley & Perks (2007) discuss this point…
This would be the correct URL to include in the online part of the reference. The
same applies to Altavista and Ask Jeeves etc. References
Farache, F., Wanderley, L. & Perks, K. (2007) ‘Responsabilidade Social
das Empresas na web: estrategias de divulgacao adotadas por empresas
no Brasil e na Franca’. (‘Corporate Social Responsibility in the web:
communication strategies adopted by French companies in Brazil and
France’) Gestão.Org [ Online], Vol 5 (Issue 3), p. 414-435. Available at <http://
www.gestaoorg.dca.ufpe.br/edicoes/N3_V5/GESTORG_2007_N3_V5_
PARCERIAS_EXIB_01.pdf > [Accessed on 23 June 2008]
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
Author(s), (year) ‘Title’. (‘Translated title’), Journal Title [Online], volume

s s
(issue). Available at <URL> [Accessed date]

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3.7 Journal abstract from online database 3.9 Online newspaper articles with no author byline

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or referencing In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
in the text) referencing in the text)
Boughton’s (2002) proposal examines… The latest university drop out rates (The Mail Online, 2006) show an

References
References
Boughton, J.M. (2002) ‘The Bretton Woods proposal: an in-depth
look’. Political Science Quarterly, [Online] Vol 42 (Issue 6). Abstract The Mail Online (2006) University Drop Out Rates. The Mail Online, 7th August
from Blackwell Science Synergy database, <http://www.pol.upenn/ 2006 [Online]
articles, Blackwell Science Synergy [accessed 12 June 2005] <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-396598/University-dropout-rates.
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail html%3E>
must appear [Accessed 15 March 2008]
Author, (Date) Title of article. Title of Journal, [Medium] Volume (issue/ Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
part), page(s) <URL> [Accessed date] must appear

3.8 Online newspaper articles with author byline Author (date) Title of page/article. Title of Newspaper, detailed date
[Medium] <URL> [Accessed date]

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or


referencing in the text) 3.10 Websites/Company Websites
According to Grimston (2008)…
References In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text)
Grimston, J. (2008) ‘Nearly a quarter of students do not finish their university L’Oreal (2009) offers oppurtunities in 5 major areas...
courses. What is going wrong?’ The Times, 24th February 2008 [Online]
<http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sitesearch.do?query=student+retention+un At Corus (2009) new business development is an important…
iversity>’ [Online] <http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sitesearch.do?query=stu
References
dent+retention+university> [accessed 15 March 2008]
L’Oreal (2009) Careers [Online] < http://www.loreal.co.uk/_en/_gb/
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
index.aspx> [accessed 14 June 2009]
must appear
Author, (date) Title of page/article. Title of Newspaper, detailed date Corus (2009) Technology [Online] < http://www.corusgroup.com/en/
[Medium] <URL> [Accessed date] technology/> [accessed 14 June 2009]

Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail


must appear

s s
Author, (date) ‘Title’. [Type of Medium], <URL address> [date
accessed]
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Referencing Handbook 2009 Referencing Handbook 2009

3.11 Multiple references to website/company website Table 1

6
Note: Where you have cause to refer multiple times to a particular

properties in possession
BTL-mortgaged
website it is useful to the reader if you differentiate the pages clearly

at end perio d

% of all loans

0.06
0.06
0.06
0.08
0.12
using the a/b/c system as shown below.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text)

BTL-mortgaged

% of all loans
properties taken
5

into possession
in perio d
According to recent studies of PlayStation gaming habits (BBC News 2004a,

0.06
0.07
0.07
0.10
0.09
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
BBC News 2004b) there is a lot of....
References

newly appointed in perio d


BBC News, (2004a) ‘New PlayStation set for May debut’. [Online]

Mortgages 3+ month s
4

LPA reciever of rent


<http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3886991.stm> [accessed

% of all loans
in arrears, with
12th July 2004]

0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
BBC News, (2004b) ‘Gaming pleasures to come’. [Online] <http://
news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3714851.stm> [accessed 12th July
2004]

acting on lende r’s behalf,


Mortgages 3+month s
3

LPA receiver of rent

at end perio d

% of all loans
in arrears, with
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail must

0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
0.05
appear

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Author, (date) ‘Title’. [Type of Medium], <URL address> [date
accessed]

% of all loans
+3 months in
arrears at end
2
3.12 Figures – tables – graphs - diagrams

Mortgages

perio d
Buy-to-let mortgage arrears and possessions

0.70
0.45
0.50
0.39
0.47
0.55
0.55
0.43
0.40
0.39
0.33
0.37
0.54
0.70
0.65
0.64
0.58
0.63
0.73
Note: figures, tables, graphs and diagrams must always be
numbered and sourced. They must also be included in

at end of perio d
outstanding
your contents page

1
Mortgages

1,024,300
120,300
144,700
185,000
232,900
275,500
332,500
417,500
473,200
526,300
632,600
699,400
755,000
835,900
926,500
28,700
58,800
73,200
89,000
number
For example, if you were to include a table you had accessed from the Council
of Mortgage Lenders, you would need to number the table and, below the table,
give its source or, state that it was ‘adapted from’ plus the source. It would look

H2
H1
H2
H1
H2
H1
H2
H1
H2
H1
H2
H1
H2
H1
H2
H1
H2
H1
H2
like this: (see next page)

Perio d

1998
1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007
s -28-
Source: Council of Mortgage Lenders, 2008
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3.14 Emails
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text)
Note: Ordinarily personal forms of communication would
We can see in Table 1 above (CML, 2008) that… not appear in a published reference section as they would not be available
References gggggg to the general reader.
Council of Mortgage Lenders, (2008) Table 1 Real GDP Growth.
CML Housing and Mortgage Market Forecasts. Council of Mortgage In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
Lenders [Online] referencing in the text)
<http://www.cml.org.uk/cml/statistics> [Accessed 22 June 2008] Berry (2004) suggested that…
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail References
must appear Berry, A. 2004. Business education in Sussex. [Email] Personal email
Author, (year) Title of table, Title. Publisher [Medium] <URL> [date to J. Smith. [28 Feb 2004].
accessed]
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
3.13 Electronically sourced lecture notes – two examples: must appear
Author, Year. Subject line from email posting. [Email] Type of posting (personal,
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or to group, memo) [date accessed]
referencing in the text)
Bachan (2008) states… 3.15 E-book
Greener (2008) refers to…
References In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text)
Bachan, R. (2008) Lecture 11: The Labour Market. [Online
lecture notes] delivered for EC161, Brighton University Business Fishman (2005) notes that…
School <https://studentcentral.brighton.ac.uk/webapps/portal/ References
frameset.jsp?tab=courses&url=%2Fbin%2Fcommon%2Fcourse.
pl%3Fcourse_id%3D_50054> [27 June 2008] Fishman, R. (2005) The Rise and Fall of Suburbia. [e-book] Chester:
Castle Press, Available at <libweb.anglia.ac.uk/E-books [accessed 5
Greener, S.L. (2008) Collecting & Analysing Qualitative Data. [Online June 2005]
lecture] delivered for Research Methods module on 19th May 2008, Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
Manchester, available from <https://studentcentral.brighton.ac.uk/ must appear
webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab=courses&url=%2Fbin%2Fcommon%2Fcour Author, (date) Title. [Medium] Place of publication: Publisher, <URL>
se.pl%3Fcourse_id%3D_50054> [Accessed 25.05.08]
[Accessed date]
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear
Author, (date) Lecture title. [online lecture] delivered for module
on date, Place, available from <URL> [date accessed]

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3.16 CD-ROM 3.18 Video or DVD

Note: This medium is now frequently used for the publication of


ddddddconference proceedings. In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
referencing in the text)
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or According to Orient Overseas (International) Limited (2004)…
referencing in the text)
Reference
Farache & Perks (2008) discussed legitimacy…
Orient Overseas (International) Limited, (2004) ‘About Orient
References
Overseas (International) Limited’. [Video]
Farache, F. & Perks, K. (2008) ‘CSR in the oil industry’. 37th EMAC <http://www.ooilgroup.com/corporate/corporatevideo/> Hong
conference 2008, 27-30 May 2008, Brighton: EMAC, [CD ROM] Kong: OOIL
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear must appear
Author, (date) ‘Title of article’. Title of Conference Proceedings. date, place: Corporate Author, (date) Title of Video or DVD. [Medium] Place of
publisher, [medium] publication: Publisher. (Other relevant details if required)

3.17 Radio or TV broadcast

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or


referencing in the text)
Money Box Live (2008) revealed an interesting…
References

Money Box Live, (2008) [Online] Radio 4, 2 June 2008:15h02


<http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/moneybox/7425294.stm>
[accessed 15 June 2008)

Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail


must appear
Title of Broadcast, (year) [medium] Station or Channel , date, month,
year: time of broadcast, <web address> [date accessed]

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4 Example: Government publications 4.2 Official publications/command papers: example 2

There are many kinds of Government publications and for a more In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
comprehensive account we advise you to refer to The Stationery Office referencing in the text)
website @ www.parliament.co.uk.
Government publications which are presented to Parliament are known as According the recent report by the National Audit Office (2007)…
Command Papers. Most Command Papers are published in a numbered series.
References
They can include State Papers; White Papers; Green Papers; government
consultation documents; some government responses to Select Committee
National Audit Office, (2007) Staying the Course: the retention of
reports; Reports of Royal Commissions and some other Committees of Inquiry
students in higher education. [The Comptroller And Auditor General]
and, statistics and annual reports of some government bodies.
HC 616 Session 2006-2007, 26 July 2007, London: The Stationery
Office [Online] available at <http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_
4.1 Official publications/command papers: example 1 reports/06-07/0607616es.pdf> [accessed 12 June 2008]

Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail


In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or must appear
referencing in the text)
Author/Name of committee, (Date) Title of Report. [additional
According to the National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education identifying details] Place of publication: Publisher, [Medium] <URL>
(1997)… [date accessed]
References
4.3 Official publications/command papers: example 3
National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education, (1997) Higher
Education in the Learning Society. [Dearing report] London: HMSO.
• Note that although this may commonly be referred to as the In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or
‘Dearing’ report it should not be listed under the name of the referencing in the text)
Chairman of the committee
These recently published figures (HM Treasury, 2008) clearly indicate…
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear References
Author/Name of committee, (Date) Title of Report. [additional HM Treasury, (2008) Central Government Supply Estimates: Main
identifying details] Place of publication: Publisher Supply Estimates. HC 479, 21 April 2008, London: The Stationery
Office [Online] available at <http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/9/1/
mainest08_fulldoc.pdf>
[accessed 22 June 2008]

Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail


must appear
Author/Name of committee, (Date) Title of Report. [additional identifying
details] Place of publication: Publisher [Medium] <URL> [date accessed]

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4.4 House of Commons Report 4.5 House of Lords Report

Note: that the abbreviation HC (House of Commons) is sometimes


Note: that the abbreviation HL (House of Lords) is sometimes used.
occused

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or


In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or referencing in the text)
referencing in the text)
In Jobs for the Girls, The House of Commons Business and Enterprise The House of Lords European Union Committee (2008) data on the
Committee (2008) reported… Euro’s progress…
References References
House of Commons, (2008) Great Britain Parliament Business and House of Lords, (2008) Great Britain Parliament European Union
Enterprise Committee, Jobs for the Girls: Two Years on: Government Committee 13th Report The Euro. London: The Stationery Office (HL
Response to the Committee’s Second Report. London: The paper; 90; Session 2007-08)
Stationery Office (HC paper; 634; Session 2007-08 Fourth Special Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
Report of Session 2007-08) must appear
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
Author/HL, (Date) ‘Great Britain Parliament’ Committee details,
must appear
report title & number. Place of publication: Publisher. (paper details,
Author/HC, (Date) ‘Great Britain Parliament’ Committee details, report number; Parliamentary Session)
title & number. Place of publication: Publisher. (paper details, number;
Parliamentary Session)

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4.6 An Act of Parliament 5 Creating the reference section

Note: There are some complex issues regarding numbering which


• The reference section is one listing and must be arranged in
dddare clearly discussed in House of Commons Information Office (2003)
alphabetical order by author surname.
cccFactsheet 12: Tracing Acts of Parliament
• Books, journals and internet publications do not have separate
lists.
In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or • Consistency and accuracy are very important.
referencing in the text) • Where an author has published more than one work, list the
oldest work first.
The Community Care Act (Act of Parliament, 1990) confirms that… • The reference section must list every author to whom you have
or referred in your own work.
The Higher Education Act (Act of Parliament, 2004) considers…
or Putting all this together, the reference section for the examples used
The Data Protection Act (Act of Parliament, 1998) rules that… in this guide would appear as follows.
References
Act of Parliament, (1990) Great Britain Parliament. National Health Service
Act of Parliament, (1990) Great Britain Parliament. National Health and Community Care Act 1990. (Chapter 19) London: HMSO
Service and Community Care Act 1990. (Chapter 19) London: HMSO
Act of Parliament, (1998) Great Britain Parliament. The Data Protection
Act of Parliament, (2004) Great Britain Parliament. Higher Education Act 1998. (Chapter 29) London: HMSO
Act 2004. (Chapter 8) London: HMSO
Act of Parliament, (2004) Great Britain Parliament. Higher Education Act
Act of Parliament, (1998) Great Britain Parliament. The Data 2004. (Chapter 8) London: HMSO
Protection Act 1998. (Chapter 29) London: HMSO
Arnold, G. (2004a) Financial Times Guide to Investing: the definitive
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail companion to investment and the financial markets. London: Financial
must appear Times
Act of Parliament, (Year) Great Britain Parliament. Title of Act and
date. Chapter number, Place of publication: Publisher Arnold, G. (2004b) Handbook of Corporate Finance: a business companion to
financial markets, decision & techniques. New York: Financial Times

BBC News, (2004a) ‘New PlayStation set for May debut’. [Online] <http://
news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3886991.stm>[accessed 12th July
2004]

BBC News, (2004b) ‘Gaming pleasures to come’. [Online] <http://news.


bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3714851.stm> [accessed 12th July 2004]

Boughton, J.M. (2002) ‘The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look’. Political

s s
Science Quarterly, [Online] 42 (6). Abstract from Blackwell Science Synergy

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Referencing Handbook 2009 Referencing Handbook 2009

database, <http://www.pol.upenn/articles, Blackwell Science Synergy> [accessed Greener, S.L. (2008) Collecting & Analysing Qualitative Data. [Online lecture]
12 June 2005] delivered for Research Methods module on 19th May 2008, Manchester,
available from <http://campus.nccedu.com/resources/dotlrn/uowba/RM_9/
Brewster, C., Carey, L., Dowling, P., Grobler, P., Holland, P. & Warnich, S. (2003)
pages/frames.html> [Accessed 25 May 2008)
Contemporary Issues in Human Resource Management: gaining a competitive
advantage. Cape Town: Oxford University Press
Grimston, J. (2008) ‘Nearly a quarter of students do not finish their university
courses. What is going wrong?’ The Times, 24th February 2008 [Online] <http://
Brewster, C., Sparrow, P. & Vernon, G. (2007) International Human
www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sitesearch.do?query=student+retention+university>
Resources Management. 2nd ed. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel
[accessed 15 March 2008]
and Development
Hammersley, M. & Gomm, R. (1997), ‘Bias in social research’.
Cameron, S. (2001) Relevance Tree, The MBA Handbook: Study Skills for
Sociological Research Online [Online], 2 (1) Available at
Postgraduate Management Study. London: FT Prentice Hall
<http://www.socresonline.org.uk/socresonline/2/1/2html> [Accessed 16 June
1998]
Corus (2009) Technology [Online] <http://www.corusgroup.com/en/
technology/> [accessed 14 June 2009]
Harris, C. (2008) ‘Performance Related Pay’. [Lecture notes] Brighton: University
of Brighton Business School, unpublished
Council of Mortgage Lenders, (2008) Table 1 Real GDP Growth. CML
Housing and Mortgage Market Forecasts. Council of Mortgage Lenders
HM Treasury, (2008) Central Government Supply Estimates: Main Supply Estimates.
[Online]
HC 479, 21 April 2008, London: The Stationery Office [Online] available at <http://
<http://www.cml.org.uk/cml/publications/research>
www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/media/9/1/mainest08_fulldoc.pdf> [accessed 22 June
[Accessed 22 June 2008]
2008]
Farache, F. & Perks, K. (2008) ‘CSR in the oil industry’. 37th EMAC conference
Holbeche, L. (2001) Aligning Human Resources and Business Strategy.
2008, 27-30 May 2008, Brighton, EMAC, [CD ROM]
Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann
Farache, F., Wanderley, L. & Perks, K. (2007) ‘Responsabilidade Social das
Holscher, J., Bachan, R. & Stimpson, A. (2008) Oil Demand in China: An
Empresas na web: estrategias de divulgacao adotadas por empresas no Brasil e
Econometric Approach. International Journal of Emerging Markets, Vol 3, No 1,
na Franca’. (‘Corporate Social Responsibility in the web: communication strategies
p14
adopted by French companies in Brazil and France’) Gestão.Org [Online], V. 5
(3), p. 414-435. Available at <http://www.gestaoorg.dca.ufpe.br/edicoes/N3_V5/
House of Commons, (2008) Great Britain Parliament Business and Enterprise
GESTORG_2007_N3_V5_PARCERIAS_EXIB_01.pdf> (Accessed on 23 June
Committee, Jobs for the Girls: Two Years on: Government Response to the
2008]
Committee’s Second Report. London: The Stationery Office (HC paper; 634;
Session 2007-08 Fourth Special Report of Session 2007-08)
Farache, F. (2008) ‘How corporate social responsibility is publicized through
print advertisements in Brazil and the UK: the case of Banco Real and Chevron’.
House of Lords, (2008) Great Britain Parliament European Union Committee 13th
Conference on Corporate Communication, June 6-9, Wroxton College, New York:
Baruch College/City University of New York, pp115-129 Report The Euro. London: The Stationery Office (HL paper; 90; Session 2007-
08)
Fishman, R. (2005) The Rise and Fall of Suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press,

s s
Available at <libweb.anglia.ac.uk/E-books> [accessed 5 June 2005]

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Referencing Handbook 2009 Referencing Handbook 2009

Huczynski, A. & Buchanan, D. (2007) Organizational Behaviour: an introductory Puigjaner, L. & Heyen, G. (eds) (2006) Computer Aided Process and Product
text. 6th ed, London: Prentice Hall Engineering. Chichester: Wiley

Jay, D. (1998) The Essential Personnel Sourcebook. 2nd ed. London: Financial Roberts, L. (2003) ‘Capital accumulation. Tourism and development
Times Pitman processes in Central and Eastern Europe’, in D Hall (ed) Tourism and
Transition: governance, transformation and development. Oxfordshire:
Kotler, P. & Keller, K. (2008) Marketing Management. 13thed, London: Prentice Cabi Publishing, pp53-64
Hall
Schofield, J. (2008) ‘Can Jerry Yang survive at the top of Yahoo?’ The Guardian,
L’Oreal (2009) Careers [Online] <http://www.loreal.co.uk/_en/_gb/index.aspx> 19 June 2008, p2
[accessed 14 June 2009]
Shukla, P. & Cheng-Ting, C. (2008) ‘Buying behaviour in consumer
The Mail Online. (2006) University Drop Out Rates. The Mail Online, 7th August to consumer (C2C) online auction commerce’, in C Veloutsour & N
2006 [Online] Papadopoulos (eds) Marketing in Dynamic Environments: Contemporary
<http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-396598/University-dropout-rates.html> Research Advances. Athens: Atiner, pp207-220
[Accessed 15 March 2008]
Slack, N., Chambers, S. & Johnston, R. (2006) Operations Management. 5th ed,
Marks & Spencer, (2007) Annual Review and Summary Financial Statements London: FT Prentice Hall
2007. London: Marks & Spencer

Money Box Live, (2008) [Online] Radio 4, 2 Jun 2008:15h02


<http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/moneybox/7425294.stm>
[accessed 15 June 2008)

Mullins, L.J. (2007) Management and Organizational Behaviour. 8th ed, London:
FT Prentice Hall

National Audit Office, (2007) Staying the Course: the retention of students in higher
education. [The Comptroller and Auditor General] HC 616 Session 2006-2007,
26 July 2007, London: The Stationery Office [Online] available at
<http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/06-07/0607616es.
pdf>[accessed 12 June 2008]

National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education, (1997) Higher


Education in the Learning Society. [Dearing report] London: HMSO.

Orient Overseas (International) Limited, (2004) ‘About Orient Overseas


(International) Limited’. [Video]
<http://www.ooilgroup.com/corporate/corporatevideo/> Hong Kong: OOIL
The Oxford English Dictionary, (2001) Vol 3, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon

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6 Glossary n.d. This means ‘no date’. If you are unable to track down a date you
should use the abbreviation n.d. (no date). This would appear in the
text as ‘Harris (n.d.) has written about…
Anon This is the abbreviation for anonymous and can, if one is
absolutely stuck, be used to signify author but, to be avoided if op cit.
possible.
This is the Latin for ‘opere citato’ meaning in the work
quoted and commonly used as ‘as opposite’.
Bibliographic order
This is the order in which each detail of the source Peer reviewed
must appear.
This means that a journal article has been reviewed by
other respected academics in the field.
Circa This is Latin for ‘about’. It can be abbreviated to c1989,
for example, when you are uncertain of the exact date.
s.l. This is an abbreviation of the Latin for ‘sine loco’ meaning,
no place of publication.
Cite This means to quote or refer to.

s.n. This is the Latin for ‘sine nomine’ meaning, no named publisher.
Corporate author
Many pieces of work are not the responsibility of one individual as they
are produced by an organization. This is when we use the term, Source
‘corporate author’. In such instances the organization should be This is the place from which you gathered your information
listed as the author. or ideas

Ellipsis TSO This stands for The Stationery Office.


If you omit any part of a quotation you should use an ellipsis which is
3 dots…

et al.
This is the abbreviated form of et allia and means ‘and others’.
Et al is always italicized

HMSO
This stands for Her Majesty’s Stationery Office

ibid. This is Latin for ‘in the same place’ and when used is always italicized
in the text.

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7 Bibliography and notes The Stationery Office (2008) [Online]


http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.com/pa/ld/ldeucom.htm
Anglia Ruskin University (2007) Harvard Referencing Guide [Online] Publications and records for Hansard, House of Commons, (HOC), House of
<htp://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm?harvard_id=2#2> [Accessed Lords, (HOL) and Committees. The Stationery Office [Accessed 22 June 2008]
2 May 2008) Excellent source of information on all government publications
Good resource – helpful guide
Taylor’s College (2007) Harvard Referencing [Online] <http://iportal.taylors.
The Blue Pages; Brighton Business School, Undergraduate Modular Programme, edu.my:8000/cgibin/gw_46_4_2/link/vtls_link.pl?file=/Harvard/hvbooks.html>
Framework Regulations for the Undergraduate Modular Courses & General [Accessed 12 April 2008]
Notes for Guidance, The Blue Pages (2007) Brighton: Brighton Business School, I need to include my debt to layout of bibliographic information which has
University of Brighton been adapted from the above
My starting point but now replaced by the new course handbooks.
University of Southern Queensland (2005) [Online]
The Central University of Queensland (2007) References/Bibliography HARVARD <http://www.usq.edu.au/library/Breeze/Fac_Business/Harvard_Referencing_A_
STYLE Brief_Guide/>
Based on AGPS 5th ed. How-to guide [Online] A powerpoint presentation which takes you through the main principles of
<http://www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/harvard_5.pdf> Harvard referencing with linked interactive exercises on the last slide
[Accessed12 April 2008]
For a comprehensive look at referencing, particularly books and
journals along with points of style

Coventry University (2007) Harvard Reference Style Guide, Coventry University


[Online] <http://www.coventry.ac.uk/caw
[accessed 2 May 2008]
A good overall guide – can be downloaded as an Adobe document

Fisher, D & Harrison, T (1998) Citing References, Oxford: Blackwell


Handy sized and cheaply priced. (£1.00)

House of Commons Information Office (2003) Tracing Acts of Parliament:


Factsheet L12: Legislation series [Online] available at
<http://www.parliament.uk/documents/upload/L12.pdf>
[accessed 22 June 2008]
Useful information for a complex task

s -46- -47- s
Brighton Business School Brighton Business School
Referencing Handbook 2009 Referencing Handbook 2009

8 Notes: In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or referencing


in the text)

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or referencing


in the text)

References

References

Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail


must appear
Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail
must appear

In-text citation (sometimes referred to as source referencing or


referencing in the text)

References

Bibliographic order – this is the order in which each detail


must appear

s -48- -49- s
Brighton Business School Brighton Business School
Referencing Handbook 2009 Referencing Handbook 2009

Notes:

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