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Human Anatomy Notebook

Fourth Edition

Marcos Gridi-Papp, Ph.D.


Department of Biological Sciences
University of the Pacific

Title:
Human Anatomy Notebook
Author:
Marcos Gridi-Papp
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information
storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the author, except for the
inclusion of brief quotations in a review.
Copyright 2013, 2014 by Marcos Gridi-Papp
Fourth Edition
Cover illustration by Olga Bachour.
Published in the United States of America.

Contents
1 Introduction

2 Body tissues

3 Integumentary system

21

4 Bone

29

5 Axial skeleton

37

6 Appendicular skeleton

45

7 Articulations

51

8 Skeletal muscle

59

9 Axial musculature

65

10 Appendicular musculature

73

11 Heart

81

12 Blood vessels

89

13 Blood

95

14 Nervous system

99

15 Spinal cord and spinal nerves

105

16 Brain and cranial nerves

111

17 Autonomic nervous system

119

18 Senses

123

19 Respiratory system

135

20 Digestive system

143

21 Lymphoid system

153

22 Urinary system

159

23 Endocrine system

165

24 Reproductive system

171

Human Anatomy

1. Introduction

1. Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 What is anatomy?
The study of the structure of the body.
Mechanisms are studied in physiology and its development in embryology.

1.1.2 Why study anatomy?


Framework for discussing mechanisms
Conditioning, physiotherapy
Medication, surgery
Devices that interface with body (headphones, running shoes)
To understand ourselves
Why not three eyes?

1.1.3 How to study the body?


1. Expand on your imaginary 3D map of the body.
2. Learn how to refer to parts of your 3D map using anatomical terminology.
3. Understand the relationships between structure and function..

1.2 The human body


1.2.1 Levels of organization
atoms
molecules
cells
Multiple

types with common role form

Multiple

with common role form

Multiple

with common role form


1

Human Anatomy

1. Introduction

1.2.2 Organ systems (11)


System

Main role
Protection from environment
Support, protection
Locomotion
Control of immediate responses to stimuli
Control of slower responses to stimuli
Internal transport of substances
Drainage of tissues, defense against infection
Transport of air for gas exchanges
Processing of food and absorption of nutrients
Elimination of excess water, salts and wastes
Production of gametes

Next class => tissues


Rest of the course => organ systems, one at a time

1.3 Talking anatomy


1.3.1 Standard terms
Mostly from
Names of people are being replaced by descriptive terms
Ex: Eustachian tube => auditory tube
Terminology is
Our

in literature - source of confusion


is the reference for this course

1.3.2 Superficial anatomy


1.3.2.1

position
Standing, looking forward (not up), legs together, feet flat on the floor.
Hands near body, palms facing forward, eyes open, mouth closed.

1.3.2.2

position
In anatomical position but laying with belly facing up.
2

Human Anatomy
1.3.2.3

1. Introduction
position

In anatomical position but laying with belly facing down.

1.3.3 Landmarks

1.3.4 Directions
1.3.4.1

= in front x behind
The mammae are

1.3.4.2

to the dorsum.
= above x below

OR
The cervicis is

to the thoracis.

Note: Humans are biped. The terms are different for quadruped animals.
3

Human Anatomy
1.3.4.3

1. Introduction
= toward x away from the midline
(longitudinal axis) of the body

The kidneys are


1.3.4.4

to the vertebral column.


= toward or away from the attachment

The manus is
1.3.4.5

to the carpus.
= toward or away from the surface of the body

The skin is

toward the bones.

Human Anatomy

1. Introduction

1.4 Sectional anatomy


1.4.1 Planes and sections
: line connecting the ends (top of head to feet)
: imaginary flat surface
: surface exposed by a cut

1.4.1.1
Separates anterior from posterior

1.4.1.2
Separates superior from inferior

1.4.1.3
Separates left from right
Common to specify
1.4.1.3.1
through the longitudinal axis of the body
equal sized right and left sides
1.4.1.3.2
lateral to the longitudinal axis of the body
Left and right refer to the patient, not to the observer

1.4.1.4
At an angle with the other planes.
5

Human Anatomy

1. Introduction

1.5 Body cavities

1.5.1

cavity
Skull and vertebral column

1.5.2

cavity

1.5.2.1

cavity
Rib cage and diaphragm
Lungs, heart and other
structures

1.5.2.2

cavity
Below diaphragm
Many organs (digestive,
urinary, reproductive)

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues

2. Tissues
2.1 Contents
Neural tissue
Muscle tissue
Epithelial tissue
Connective tissue

2.2 Neural tissue


Role: Communication between parts of the body
It uses

signals along cells

and

signals between cells

Cell types:
conduct

stimuli

support neurons
Studied in detail with neural system

2.3 Muscle tissue


Cells can shorten. Produce movement.
Types of muscle:
- move the body under voluntary control. Striated.
- movement without voluntary control. Not
striated.
- the heart. Pump blood through the body. Striated.
Studied in detail with muscular system

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues

2.4 Epithelial tissue


Form two types of structures:
sheets that cover or line structures
glands that produce secretions

2.4.1 Properties

Mostly cells. Barely any intercellular space.


Polarity
Cells have

and

which differ from each

other.
Layers
One to many layers (strata) of cells
Regeneration
Continuous duplication and replacement of cells
No blood vessels (

)
is a layer of protein fibers, produced by

epithelium and underlying connective tissue

2.4.2 Specializations
These are not exclusive of epithelial cells but common in them.
2.4.2.1 Apical surface
Beat to move fluid (mucus).
10

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues
Respiratory, uterine tube
Do no move.
Increase surface area for absorption or secretion
Intestines, kidneys
Longest. Can bend but not by themselves.
Inner ear and male reproductive tract.

2.4.2.2 Junctions
Interlocking of cell membranes
Attached like pieces of a puzzle
junctions
Transmembrane proteins external connection
Internal fibers anchor to cytoskeleton (tonofibrils)
- at one point
- forms a belt in the cell

11

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues
junctions
Proteins bind cell membranes
No passage between cells
junctions
Connect cytoplasms
Also in cardiac and smooth muscles

2.4.3 Classification of epithelia


2.4.3.1 Diagnostic properties:
Number of layers
One: simple
Two or more: stratified
Shape
Flat:
Square:
Tall:
Where would you use each type?
2.4.3.2 Types of epithelium:
Reduced transport and abrasion or when important to be thin
Capillaries, lungs, serous membranes
Resist abrasion.
Mouth, skin
Secretion and absorption.
Glands and kidney.
Rare
Ducts of sweat glands.
12

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues
Lots of secretion and/or absorption, usually with apical specializations.
Digestive tube
Rare. Various locations
Looks like stratified but actually simple.
Respiratory tubes
Changes number of layers as organ stretches
Urinary bladder

2.4.4 Glands
Secrete into intercellular spaces. Diffuse into blood = hormones
Secrete onto skin or tubes connecting to external environment
Unicellular or multicellular
2.4.4.1 Secretions
- watery sweat
- mucus digestive and respiratory tracts
- lipids - oil glands in skin
2.4.4.2 Secretion mode
- exocytosis
Mucus glands
- parts of cytoplasm break off with product. Cell survives.
Lactiferous glands (milk).
- cells fill with product and break apart
Sebaceous glands (wax on hairs)
2.4.4.3 Types
Tubular, alveolar, tubuloalveolar
Simple x compound
13

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues

What else is there in your body, other than epithelium, muscle and neural?

2.5 Connective tissue


2.5.1 Components:
Matrix
Ground substance
Extracellular protein fibers
Cells

2.5.2 Ground substance


Surrounds cells. Mostly produced by
Varies in chemical

among types of connective tissue.

2.5.3 Fibers
straight, very thick and strong, flexible
branched, thin, flexible
straight, thin, very elastic

14

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues

2.5.4 Cells
2.5.4.1 Fixed
(stem) cells originate the rest
produce most matrix
surrounded by matrix, maintain it (matured fibroblast)
lipid reservoir
produce melanin brown pigment to protect from UV
Engulf pathogens and signal
2.5.4.2 Wandering
(equivalent to white blood cells)
Engulf pathogens while moving around
release histamine in injury or infection, produce
inflammation
produce antibodies
phagocytic, attracted by signals from
macrophages and mast cells

2.5.5 Types of connective tissue


Major types
Connective Tissue Proper fill spaces and wrap
Fluid - blood and lymph
Supporting - cartilage and bone
2.5.5.1 Connective Tissue Proper
2.5.5.1.1 Loose fill spaces
tissue
deep to the epithelia of skin and lining of tubes to exterior
all fiber and cell types
tissue
mostly adipocytes
layer of fat under skin
tissue
Rich in reticular fibers
15

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues
Make framework of certain organs (liver, spleen)

2.5.5.1.2 Dense - anchors and wraps


connective tissue
Rich in collagen, fibers parallel
Tendons and aponeuroses muscle to muscle or
bone
Ligaments bone to bone
Elastic tissue lots of elastic fibers
blood vessel walls, between vertebrae
connective tissue
Rich in collagen, fibers randomly oriented
Protective capsules
2.5.5.2 Fluid
Red and white cells, plus platelets
Fluid matrix
Some white blood cells
Interstitial fluid absorbed into lymphatic system
2.5.5.3 Supporting
2.5.5.3.1 Cartilage
2.5.5.3.1.1 Composition
Matrix - gel of carbohydrates + proteins. Collagen and elastic
fibers
Cells
Chondroblasts not surrounded by matrix
Chondrocytes surrounded by matrix
Avascular slow recovery

16

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues
2.5.5.3.1.2 Growth

growth
Perichondrium surrounds cartilage
(fibrous layer out + cellular layer in)
Stem cells differentiate into chondroblasts
Chondrocytes produce matrix, remain in
lacunae

growth
Chondrocyte divides

17

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues
2.5.5.3.1.3 Types of cartilage
Most common
Collagen fibers
Respiratory tubes, articular cartilages
Rich in elastic fibers
External ears, epiglottis, tip of nose?
Lost of collagen, little ground substance, resist
high stress
Between vertebrae, between pubic bones
2.5.5.3.2 Bone
Osteoblasts and osteocytes
Mineralized matrix. Canaliculi. No interstitial growth

2.6 Membranes
A sheet of epithelium over a sheet of connective tissue
membrane
skin
membrane
Lining of tubes to the exterior
digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproductive
membrane
Line body cavities and wrap moving organs
Pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
membrane
Articulations

18

Human Anatomy

2. Tissues

2.7 Body wall


Skin (cutaneous membrane)
Fascia
Layers of connective tissue seen in dissection
fascia (subcutaneous layer)
Between

and deep fascia

Fat for

and energy reserve

fascia
connective tissue
Separate
Interwoven with dense
forms

connective tissue that


around organs

Subserous fascia
Loose

connective tissue

19

Human Anatomy

3. Integumentary system

3. Integumentary system
3.1 Contents
Composition of integument
Cutaneous membrane
Accessory structures
Hairs, nails, exocrine glands
Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer) not really part of integument

3.2 Functions

3.3 Cutaneous membrane


3.3.1 Epidermis (5 layers)
3.3.1.1 Stratum

(stratum basale)

single layer of cells


cell types:
cells (stem cells) produce keratinocytes
division rate increased by irritation - =>
cells = most external pressure sensors in skin
produce melanin (tan color) granules
protect deeper layers from
granules passed to keratinocytes
skin color (tan) = depends on

, not number of melanocytes

= lack of melanin, not melanocytes


= local death if melanocytes
3.3.1.2 Stratum
21

Human Anatomy
several cell layers

3. Integumentary system

cells
keratinocytes
tonofibrils connecting desmosomes
spiny when cytoplasm shrinks over tonofibrils
few melanocytes
cells immune defense against pathogens, cancer
3.3.1.3 Stratum
keratinocytes fill with

(filaments) and
(granules)

form water resistant cover of lipids


cells start degenerating
keratin also forms hairs, nails, horns, feathers and scales
3.3.1.4 Stratum
found in thick skin only looks glassy no nucleus or organelles
3.3.1.5 Stratum
thickest: 15-30 layers of cells
mostly keratin and

left
(cornified) in regions exposed to external environment

covered by sweat and oil from glands


Each cell goes from stratum

in

days

3.3.1.6 Thick vs. thin skin


(30 layers, 5 strata, no hairs) vs
rest of the body (few layers, 4 strata)
3.3.1.7 Epidermal

and dermal

wavy interface between epidermis and dermis


stronger attachment
originate

22

Human Anatomy
3.3.1.8 Skin color

3. Integumentary system

supply
pale or blush depends on dilation of most superficial
(blue) reduced circulation due to cold or cardiac problem
(orange, from diet, used for vitamin A maintain skin)
(yellow) excess bilirubin in circulation, liver or kidney problems
common in newborns
(brown, absorb uv)
uv stimulates melanin production, but response takes a week
uv can cause

in stem cells and melanocytes and originate

uv can damage

, form abnormal fibers in dermis =

3.3.2 Dermis
3.3.2.1

layer
Loose (areolar) connective tissue
network of blood vessels

3.3.2.2

layer
Dense irregular connective tissue
fibers
abnormal fibrocyte activity - wrinkles
pregnancy, weight gain
Tretinoin (derive vit. A) increase dermal blood flow

* Hypodermis (not integument)


Layer of

connective tissue
energy, thermal insulation, cushioning
plexus network of blood vessels

23

Human Anatomy
3.3.2.3 Lines of

3. Integumentary system
orientation of collagen fibers

Surgical incisions are oriented to not rupture fibers,


so that the skin can heal faster
3.3.2.4 Cuts proliferation of fibroblasts
produce lots of collagen fibers to connect cut sides
scar tissue has excess fibers
slowly replaced by normal areolar connective tissue
are abnormally thick scar tissue

3.4 Accessory structures

3.4.1 Hair follicles


Most hairs not on head. The main difference between head and body hair is just
3.4.1.1 Anatomy of the hair
Epithelium extends into dermis
Hair
Hair

- connective tissue (capillary, nerve)

Hair

epithelium around hair papilla


Hair

produce keratin
soft keratin in center, hard keratin surrounding, cuticle

Hair

from matrix up to where hair structure completed

Hair

from there out


24

Human Anatomy

3. Integumentary system
muscle that can erect the hair, producing goose bumps

3.4.1.2 Hair color


Determined by type of

(red, brown) and

resulting in blond, brown or black hair.


Gray hair

pigment production

White hair

instead of granules of pigment

3.4.1.3 Hair growth


Cycles
: 2 to 5 years, then
phase: matrix inactive, forms club hair, then
: club hair drops for new growth and matrix active again

3.4.2 Nails
Nail

covers nail

Production in nail

near bone

Stratum corneum attaches to nail to provide a seal


(above root)
(under tip)
Most nail looks pink because the translucent body allow one to see the
in deeper layers of connective tissue
is white lots of elastic fibers under it
25

Human Anatomy
3. Integumentary system
Nails have fast growth. Their color, shape, thickness indicate

3.4.3 Exocrine glands


3.4.3.1

glands (oil glands)


Secrete

lubrication, inhibits bacteria

2 types:
sebaceous glands
Secrete in hair follicle
Sebaceous
Have no hair, follicle only. They secrete

of skin

Found in face, back, chest, nipples, penis


Acne is an infection that occurs when the

gets blocked by

excess
Common at

, when hormone levels are

glands very
3.4.3.2

glands
2 types:
3.4.3.2.1

sweat glands

Produce most
Have

of the body
hair, found at highest density in

skin

Help with thermoregulation, excretion, and protection (with germicide)


Its activity is controlled by
by
3.4.3.2.2

system
of the body
sweat glands

Secrete in a
Found in axilla, nipples, groins.
Secretion more

with stronger

It is used in other mammals for


26

Human Anatomy

3. Integumentary system
glands are specialized apocrine sweat glands
(earwax) is formed by combining secretion
with that of

glands in the

glands are also specialized apocrine sweat glands


They produce
More details on it when we study the reproductive system.

27

Human Anatomy

4. Bone

4. Bone
4.1 Contents
Composition
Compact and spongy bone
Formation
Growth
Fracture and remodeling
Types by shape
Surface features

4.2 Functions
of the weight of the body
- Ca salts
- in the red marrow of long bones
- of internal organs (skull, vertebrae, ribs)
- structure for muscles to work on

4.3 Composition
Bone is

tissue

Matrix
Like
crystals resist compression, flexible element to prevent shattering
2/3 of weight
1/3 of weight
Cells
(stem cell)
in periosteum and endosteum
produces matrix
trapped in
communicate through
maintain matrix
no mitosis, no interstitial growth
secrete
29

Human Anatomy

4. Bone

4.4 Bone structure


4.4.1 Types of bone tissue
4.4.1.1

bone
is the structural unit
central canal (blood vessels)
lamellae
lamellae remains of old lamellae
lamellae in periphery, surround the whole bone

4.4.1.2

bone
, if wide enough, also osteons
Lighter
30

Human Anatomy

4. Bone
Can resist stress from any direction

4.4.2 Typical bone parts


shaft, mostly compact bone and medullar cavity
bone makes walls
bone surrounds medullary cavity (marrow)
marrow adipocytes
marrow forming blood cells
ends, mostly spongy bone
between the other two, where growth in length occurs

4.5 Formation and growth


Mineralization and calcification not the same as
4.5.1

(dermal) ossification
bone forms from fibrous connective tissue.
Ex:
1- stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form matrix (ossification
center)
2- trap blood vessels, form spongy bone
3- remodeling forms medullary cavity and/or compact bone

31

Human Anatomy

4. Bone

4.5.2

ossification
bone forms from hyaline cartilage model. Ex:
1- center of cartilage

, chondrocytes die

2- perichondrium differentiates into


3- capillaries and osteoblasts invade cartilage and produce
spongy bone (

ossification center)

4- osteoclasts erode center to form


Growth in length
5- centers of epiphyses calcify, form

ossification

centers
6- epiphyses filled with
Remain

cartilages

Growth in diameter
1- As circumferential lamella grows, periosteum wraps around
2- trapped
produce

surrounded by endosteum
and form osteon

32

Human Anatomy

4. Bone

4.6 Fracture and remodeling


1- bleeding, clot =
2-

with cartilage and fibers

3- cartilage in callus converted into bone


4- remodeling recreates original structure
Look up the types of fractures in the book (curiosity)

4.7 Classification based on shape


Long, flat, (sutural), pneumatized, irregular, short, sesamoid

4.8 Surface features


any projection on a bone
angle
Tendon and ligament attachments
large round
small, round
pointed
rough
prominent ridge
less prominent ridge
Articulation with other bones
expanded articular head of long bone
narrowing between epiphysis and diaphysis
smooth, round articular process
smooth, grooved articular process
flat articular process

Depression
33

Human Anatomy

4. Bone
shallow depression
narrow groove (elongated)

Opening
round passageway (nerves, vessels)
elongated passageway
passageway through the core of the bone
Chamber
normally filled with air

34

Human Anatomy

5. Axial skeleton

5. Axial skeleton
5.1 Contents
Skull
Cranium
Face
Associated bones (hyoid and auditory)
Vertebral column
Rib cage

5.2 Human skeleton


206 bones
repeated patterns

5.3 Axial vs. Appendicular skeleton


80 vs. 126 bones
predominates in most animals
Moving in one direction
many segments, facilitate elongating body
sensory organs in the head to anticipate responses

5.4 Skull
5.4.1 Roles explain complexity
cranium multiple ossification centers
face
mouth
nose, mouth
Sinuses
thermal insulation by sinuses, resonating chamber for voice
= inflammation of the lining membrane
37

Human Anatomy

5. Axial skeleton

5.4.2 Sutures
parietal and occipital
parietals
frontal and parietals
parietal and temporal
Articulations not ossified allow deformation
Close very early
Dense irregular connective tissue

5.4.2 Bones of the cranium (8)


Superior temporal line
Inferior temporal line
insertion of muscle mastication
Foramen magnum
Occipital condyles
External occipital protuberance
Superior and inferior nuchal lines
Jugular foramen

Squamous part
Frontal suture
Supra-orbital margin and foramen
Orbital part
lacrimal fossa
notch for ethmoid
Squamous part
zygomatic process
mandibular fossa
38

Human Anatomy
Tympanic part

5. Axial skeleton

external acoustic meatus


Petrous part
internal acoustic meatus
auditory ossicles
mastoid process
styloid process
Body has sinuses, greater and lesser wings
Pterygoid processes insertion of jaw muscles
Sella turcica holds pituitary gland
Optic canal
Cranial floor, orbital wall, roof of nasal cavity, nasal septum
Cribriform plate and olfactory foramina
Perpendicular plate
Nasal conchae

5.4.2 Bones of the face (14)


2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, 2 inferior nasal conchae
2 maxillae, 2 zygomatic, 2 palatine
1 mandible, 1 vomer

body, angle, rami


condylar and coronoid processes
alveolar processes
mental and mandibular foramina
zygomatic arch temporal bone
floor of orbit, hard palate
maxillary sinus
39

Human Anatomy
alveolar processes

5. Axial skeleton

cleft palate lack of union of the parts


L-shaped, dorsal end of hard palate, also part of orbit
Inferior part of nasal septum
Lacrimal groove
3 Sworls 2 by ethmoid
nasal septum

5.4.3 Accessory bones of the skull


Auditory ossicles
All found within the petrous part of temporal bone
No articulation, suspended by muscles of tongue, neck and pharynx

5.5 Vertebral column


5.5.1 Components
24 vertebrae
7 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
sacrum
coccyx
Referring to vertebrae
Initial of region + position top down
Ex: C5, T2, L3

5.5.2 Spinal curves


(posterior surface)
40

Human Anatomy

5. Axial skeleton
concave
convex
- concave
convex

Abnormal conditions
thoracic curve exaggerated development, osteoporosis,
tension
lumbar curve exaggerated weight in the abdomen
lateral curvature development

5.5.3 Vertebrae
5.5.3.1 Structure of a vertebra
weight
- protection
pedicles
laminae
vertebral foramen
spinous process
transverse process
41

Human Anatomy

5. Axial skeleton
4 articular processes stability
form an X
superior and inferior
facets
inferior vertebral notch

5.5.3.2 Structures located between vertebrae


Intervertebral
Intervertebral
5.5.3.3 General patterns of variation in vertebral structure
Vertebral body enlarges
Vertebral foramen enlarges
5.5.3.4 Specific features
5.5.3.4.1

vertebrae (7)
spinous process
processes reduced ribs
form transverse foramina

Exceptions
C1 atlas
no

arches

oval superior articular surfaces to say


C2 axis
, transverse ligament - no
C7 vertebra
long, round spinous process
attaches to external
occipital protuberance
5.5.3.4.2

vertebrae (12)

Costal facets - ribs


5.5.3.4.3

vertebrae (5)

Largest and thickest

42

Human Anatomy
5.5.3.4.4

5. Axial skeleton
of 5 vertebrae (start at

, end at 25-30)

Has

, superior articular processes

Sacral

, medial sacral crest (fused spinous processes), sacral

Sacral

, lateral sacral

surface and sacral


5.5.3.4.5
of 3-5 vertebrae (start at

, end at

5.6 Rib cage


5.6.1
joints clavicles separated by jugular notch
receive costal cartilages
process
Attachment of rectus abdominis muscle.
5.6.2
ribs 1-7 = connected to sternum by their own
ribs
8-10 connected by

to costal cartilage of

11-12 free end (

ribs)

Structure
Head, neck, tubercle, body
Articulations
costal facet on vertebral body
transverse costal facet, lacking in floating ribs

43

Human Anatomy

6. Appendicular skeleton

6. Appendicular skeleton
6.1 Contents
Pectoral girdle
Upper limbs
Pelvic girdle
Lower limbs

6.2 Pectoral girdle


: one or more supporting bones, connect limb to trunk
more versatile,

stronger

Pectoral girdle only articulates with


6.2.1
S-shaped
(broader and flatter) ends
Fractures in the middle when falling on palms with arms stretched

6.2.2
Superior, medial and lateral
Superior, inferior and lateral
45

Human Anatomy

6. Appendicular skeleton
fossa glides over ribcage
spine (trapezius attachment)
Supraspinous fossa
Infraspinous fossa

Acromion
process
Glenoid cavity (fossa)

6.3 Upper limb


6.3.1
Head articular surface
neck - constriction
neck common fracture site
tubercles several muscle attachments
Intertubercular sulcus tendon of biceps brachii
Shaft
tuberosity deltoid muscle
Condyle
medial, ulna - hinge
lateral, radius
(anterior) and

(posterior) fossae extend

angle
fossa (anterior) extend angle
epicondyles muscle attachment
Ulnar nerve on medial epicondyle hit makes numb
6.3.2
Medial to radius
elbow
notch for trochlea of humerus
process give stability to joint
notch head of radius, pronation-supination of the hand
46

Human Anatomy
Antebrachial

6. Appendicular skeleton
membrane

Ulnar head
process - stabilize wrist
Ulnar notch ulnar head, pronation-supination of the hand
6.3.3
Lateral to ulna
Head disc-shaped, articulate w/ capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna
Neck
tuberosity biceps brachii
Distal extremity larger than proximal, larger than ulnar
process stabilize wrist
6.3.4 Carpal bones (8)
4 proximal:
4 distal:
6.3.5 Metacarpal bones (5)
long bones
6.3.6 Phalanges (14)
bones, numbered from thumb to little finger
proximal, middle and distal
thumb lacks

phalanx

6.4 Pelvic girdle


6.4.1
Pelvis = hip bones + sacrum and coccyx (axial skeleton)
Fusion of
Composed of hip bones
Posteriorly separated by sacrum
Anteriorly by pubic symphysis (fibrous cartilage)
(vinegar cup)
surface
fossa
47

Human Anatomy

6. Appendicular skeleton
Acetabular
foramen - sheet of collagen fibers muscle insertion
Iliac crest (palpate)
Greater

notch (posterior)

Lesser

notch (posterior)

Ischial

sit on

Ischial ramus
Inferior and superior rami
Pubic symphysis
Hip bones (dorsal view)
Iliac fossa
surface - sacrum
Iliac tuberosity

6.5 Lower limbs


6.5.1
Longest and heaviest bone
acetabulum
ligament of the head
Neck
Shaft
Greater and lesser

muscle insertion

Medial and lateral


fossa and patellar surface
Medial and lateral
6.5.2
(superior) quadriceps tendon
(inferior) patellar ligament
48

Human Anatomy
6.5.3

6. Appendicular skeleton
to fibula

Medial and lateral


Tibial tuberosity patellar ligament
margin
Crural

membrane

Medial
6.5.4
Lateral to tibia
Head articulates tibia, not femur
Lateral malleolus
6.5.5 Tarsal bones (7)
3 proximal:
receives weight, it is on the calcaneus
articulates with the distal tarsal bones
transfers weight to ground - heel (palpate)
Calcaneal tendon
4 distal: medial, intermediate and lateral
6.5.6 Metatarsals bones (5)
long bones
6.5.7 Phalanges (14)
bones, numbered from

to little toe

proximal, middle and distal


halux lacks

phalanx

6.5.8 Arches of the foot


arches
Ligaments and tendons
Arches prevent compressing

, and absorb

impact
feet feet hurt when walking much

49

Human Anatomy

7. Articulations

7. Articulations
7.1 Contents
Joint types and structure
Movement types
Types of synovial joints
Examples of joints

7.2 Types of articulations


=

= contact between two bones

Types by function:
No movement (

Bony fusion
fused sutures (frontal bone), epiphyseal lines
Fibrous
fibers, interlocking
fibers, in alveolus (teeth)
Cartilaginous
cartilage (epiphyseal plate)
Little movement (

Fibrous
ligament (tibia-fibula, talus-calcaneus)
Cartilaginous
fibrous cartilage (hip bones, vertebrae)
(3-4 mm wide, allow 1 mm move, pregn. 4-5 mm wide, alow 4-5 mm
move)
Extensive movement (

)
capsule with fluid (elbow, hip)

51

Human Anatomy

7. Articulations

Types by structure
Bony fusion
Fibrous joint
Cartilaginous joint
Synovial joint

7.3 Structure of the synovial joint


Components
Articular

dense connective tissue

Articular

hyaline cartilage

Articular cavity filled with

lubrication,
nourishment, cushioning

membrane produces fluid


52

Human Anatomy
Accessory structures

7. Articulations

Articular discs (

) - cartilage

Pads of fat
(intra or extra-capsular)

Sensory nerves and blood vessels

7.4 Types of motion


motion,
,

motion or rotation
or triaxial

Movements

Source: http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest

Linear motion. Clavicle with

, between

vs. adduction
Away from longit. axis in frontal plane
vs. extension
Reduces angle between elements in sagittal plan

53

Human Anatomy

7. Articulations

Source: http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest

Left vs. right (anterior aspect)


Medial vs. lateral (anterior aspect)
Pronation vs. Supination

Source: http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest

Especial movements
vs. inversion
(ankle flexion) vs. plantar flexion (ankle
extension)
Lateral

vertebral column
vs. retraction jaws, clavicle
vs. reposition thumb
vs. depression mandible, shoulders

54

Human Anatomy

7. Articulations

7.5 Types of synovial joints


gliding
angular, monaxial elbow and knee
rotation, monaxial atlas, axis
angular, biaxial - oval on depression - metarcarpo-phalangeal
angular, biaxial, concave in one direction, convex in the other
(saddle)
Extensive angular motion but no rotation
angular, rotation - triaxial head in cup shoulder, hip
Extensive angular motion with rotation

7.6 Importance of ligaments


Limit displacement, variable elasticity
Naming (2 bones)

7.7 Examples of articulations


7.7.1
Synovial
Capsule, ligaments, articular disc
7.7.2
Symphysis
Ligaments
Intervertebral discs
Distorted disc
Hernia
7.7.3
Synovial, gliding
Ligaments
7.7.4
Synovial, ball-and-socket
Ligaments
55

Human Anatomy

7. Articulations
Coracoid process
Tendon of biceps brachii in intertubercular sulcus

Articular, capsule, cartilages, synovial membrane, glenoid labrum


7.7.5
ligaments
ligament
7.7.6
Proximal and distal joints
Supination and pronation
7.7.7
Types of articulations
Collateral ligaments
7.7.8
, fat pad
Transverse

ligament

Ligament of femoral head


7.7.9
, fat pads and bursae
7 main ligaments (patellar, collateral, popliteal, cruciate)
are intracapsular
7.7.10
syndesmosis (distal joint)
Types of articulations

56

Human Anatomy

8. Skeletal muscle

8. Skeletal muscle
8.1 Contents
Functions
Structure
From fiber to muscle
Performance and conditioning
Biomechanics

8.2 Skeletal muscle


organ attached to bones (directly or indirectly)

8.3 Functions
(tonus)
of soft tissues
entering and exiting of materials from body
production

8.4 Structure
From muscle to molecule to understand contraction
Bones tendons
Embedded in
Muscle

(deep fascia)

Fascicles

areolar loose connective tissue

Fibers (cells)

reticular or areolar loose

connective tissue
Mostly
contain

filaments (banded)
slide past each other to produce
mostly
59

Human Anatomy
cells muscles formed by

8. Skeletal muscle
of cells

(multinucleated)
Blood vessels and nerves

8.5 Innervation
per muscle fiber (cell)
Near the

of length
junction

Stimulus

and

for contraction

unit a motor neuron and all fibers that it stimulates


Each neural stimulus

fibers in motor unit contract contraction is

Muscle has many

, with

mixed

Gradation of contraction
Number of

recruited
of stimulation

8.6 Hypertrophy and atrophy


Exercise increases
Number of
reserves
of glycolytic enzymes
Number of
Atrophy due to cast

8.7 Slow vs. fast fibers


Fast fibers are adapted for
Many

(large fiber diameter)


= few mitochondria

Glycogen reserves (energy)


Slow fibers are adapted for
Fewer

(small fiber diameter)


60

Human Anatomy

8. Skeletal muscle
= many mitochondria

Myoglobin reserves (red, store oxygen)


All fibers same type within
Muscles have both types
Strong

effect on proportion of fiber types in each muscle. Exercise can

optimize but not change fiber type.

8.8 Levers

8.8.1 First class (seesaw)


Displacement in

to force
in force or displacement

Ex: head on occipital condyles

8.8.2 Second class (wheelbarrow)


Allows to

a heavy weight with

force but

displacement
Displacement in same direction as force
Ex: standing on toes

61

Human Anatomy

8. Skeletal muscle

8.8.3 Third class (fishing rod)


Allows to produce

displacement with

shortening but

force
Displacement in same direction as force
Ex: biceps brachii moving antebrachium

8.9 Anatomical pulleys


Change

of movement
acting like a rope

Ex: quadriceps on tibia, fibularis longus extension at the ankle

8.10 Terminology
8.10.1 Movements. It is ok to:
Refer to moved bone
The biceps brachii muscle produces

the

antebrachium
Refer to articulation
The biceps brachii muscle produces

the elbow

8.10.2 Roles in movement:


8.10.2.1 Prime mover (

Main effector of a movement


8.10.2.2
Has a secondary contribution to the movement
8.10.2.3
Opposes the movement
8.10.3 Muscle attachments
62

Human Anatomy

8. Skeletal muscle
: does not move, broad
: moves, narrow

8.11 Muscle fiber organization


8.11.1

biceps brachii

8.11.2

pectoralis major

8.11.3 Pennate
extensor digitorum
rectus femoris
deltoid

8.11.4

orbicularis oris

63

Human Anatomy

9. Axial musculature

9. Axial musculature
9.1 Contents
Head and neck
Vertebral column
Oblique and rectus
Perineum and pelvic diaphragm

9.2 Muscles of the head and neck


9.2.1 Facial expression
Attachments to
Scalp
epicranial
Around eye
supercilii
palpebrae superioris
oculi
Nose
move nostrils
depresses tip of nose, move nostrils
Mouth
oris

, depressor,

and mentalis

muscles

65

Human Anatomy
9.2.2 Extra-ocular

9. Axial musculature

the eye. Intra-ocular are smooth muscles, focus lens and close pupil
Superior, inferior, medial and lateral
Superior and inferior
9.2.3 Mastication
Mandible zygomatic arch
Temporal lines of skull through arch - coronoid process of mandible
Protraction, retraction and lateral excursion of mandible
Sinergists in elevation and depression
9.2.4 Tongue
Show tongue of the giraffe
- chin
hyoid bone
- palate
styloid process of temporal bone
9.2.5 Pharynx
3 tasks when swallowing:
Palatal muscles
(petrous temporal; sphenoid)
veli palatini
Pharyngeal constrictors
Superior, middle and inferior
(sphenoid and mandible; hyoid; larynx)
Laryngeal elevators
Insert in thyroid cartilage
66

Human Anatomy

9. Axial musculature
(palates)
(auditory tube)
(styloid of temporal)

9.2.6 Anterior muscles of the neck


Head hyoid (all depress mandible and elevate hyoid)
Muscles of buccal pump
(mandible to mandible, floor of mouth)
(chin)
(chin to mastoid of temporal)
(styloid of temporal)
Larynx - hyoid
elevate larynx
Clavicle - hyoid
depress hyoid and larynx
Sternum - hyoid
- depress hyoid and larynx
Sternum - larynx
- depress larynx
Sternum clavicle - temporal
Flex or rotate neck

9.3 Muscles of the vertebral column


9.3.1 Extrinsic
9.3.1.1
9.3.1.2

- Move pectoral girdle


Move ribs for respiration

9.3.2 Intrinsic
9.3.2.1 Deep
9.3.2.1.1 Superficial
(capitis and cervicis)
67

Human Anatomy

9. Axial musculature
(spines of lower cervical vert skull or upper vert)
Extension of the neck, lateral flexion
9.3.2.1.2 Intermediate
Many muscles
Together form
Extension of the back, lateral flexion
group (medial)
group (intermediate)
group (lateral)
9.3.2.1.3 Deep
Produce rotation and slight extension
(like erector, but close, groove between spinal and transv
(transverse to spinous, span 1-4 segments)
(paired, link spinous, each side of interspinal
ligament)
(link transverse)
(transverse to adjacent sup spinous)

9.3.3 Spinal flexors


Anterior to vert column
muscles (capitis or colli, transv of lower C and upper T to skull or upper
Flexion or rotation of neck
(iliac crest to rib 12 and L vert transverse)
Flexion or lateral flexion, depress ribs

9.4 Oblique and rectus muscles


9.4.1 Oblique
General pattern of the trunk
Dorsal vert column
Lateral - 2

muscles, 1

Ventral - 1

muscle or sternum
68

Human Anatomy
Cervical

9. Axial musculature
(ribs to neck)
Flex or rotate neck, elevate ribs

Thoracic
External

(oblique) elevate ribs

Internal

(oblique) depress ribs


(transverse) depress ribs

Abdominal
External

compress abdomen, flexes or rotates vert column

Internal

same as above
compresses abdomen
(elevates ribs) and
(depresses ribs)

9.4.2 Rectus
Cervical anterior muscles of the neck
Thoracic
expands abdominal cavity
Abdominal
(pubis to xiphoid process)
Main flexor of vert column
Main depressor of ribs
Main compressor of abdomen

9.5 Perineum and pelvic diaphragm


Pelvic diaphragm supports organs
External anal sphincter close anus
Anal triangle
Urogenital triangle
Urogenital diaphragm
Deep transverse
69

Human Anatomy

9. Axial musculature
External urethral
Superficial transverse

70

Human Anatomy

10. Appendicular musculature

10. Appendicular musculature


10.1 Contents
Pectoral girdle
Upper limb
Pelvic girdle
Lower limb

10.2 Muscles that move the pectoral girdle


Multiple layers on back

10.2.1 Scapula and clavicle


Elevation
{cervical vertebrae scapula}
Depression and protraction
{ribs (anterior) - scapula}
{rib 1 (anterior) - clavicle}
Protraction
{ribs (anterior) - scapula}
Retraction
{thoracic vertebrae - scapula}
{vertebrae C7-T1 - scapula}
Complex
{occipital bone to thoracic vertebrae clavicle and scapula}

10.3 Muscles that move the arm


10.3.1 Brachium
Abduction
(also flexion or extension if only anterior or posterior parts)
{clavicle, scapula - humerus}
{scapula - humerus}
73

Human Anatomy
Adduction

10. Appendicular musculature


{scapula - humerus}
{clavicle, sternum upper ribs - humerus} +

{thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - humerus}


Flexion
{ clavicle, sternum upper ribs - humerus}
{scapula - humerus}
Extension
{thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - humerus}
Medial rotation
{scapula - humerus}
{scapula - humerus}
Lateral rotation
{scapula - humerus}
{scapula - humerus}
= Supraspinatus, Subscapularis, Teres minor, Infraspinatus
Tear of tendons in swinging motion: sports, music conductors and drum players

10.3.2 Antebrachium
Flexion
{scapula - radius}
{humerus - ulna}
{humerus - radius}
Extension
{humerus, scapula - ulna}
{humerus - ulna}
Pronation
{radius ulna}
{humerus - radius}
Supination
74

Human Anatomy

10. Appendicular musculature


{humerus, ulna - radius}
{scapula - radius}

10.3.3 Wrist
Flexion
Flexor carpi

{humerus - metacarpal} <palpate tendon>

Flexor carpi

{humerus, ulna pisiform, hamate} <palpate


tendon>
longus {humerus flexor retinaculum}

Extension
Extensor carpi

{humerus, metacarpal 5}

Extensor carpi

longus and brevis {humerus metacarpals 2,3}

Flexor and extensor


syndrome

10.3.4 Hand and fingers


Extrinsic muscles
Flexion
Flexor digitorum

{humerus, ulna, radius middle

phalanges 2-5}
Flexor digitorum

{ulna distal phalanges 2-5}

Extension
Extensor

{humerus posterior phalanges 2-5}

Thumb
pollicis longus {ulna, radius metacarpal 1}
pollicis longus and brevis {interosseous membrane distal
phalanx of thumb}
pollicis longus {radius distal phalanx 1}
Index
Extensor

{ulna proximal phalanx 2}

Little finger
Extensor

{humerus - proximal phalanx 5}


75

Human Anatomy
Intrinsic muscles

10. Appendicular musculature

Abduction of digits
interossei {metacarpal proximal phalanges 2-4}
Adduction of digits
interossei {metacarpal proximal phalanges 2-4}
Special
{tendons of flexor digit. profundus proximal
phalanx 1} (metacarpophalangeal flexion and
interphalangeal extension)
{palmar aponeurosis skin of hand} (medial
border skin palmar aponeurosis)
Thumb
pollicis {metacarpal and carpal proximal phalanx 1}
pollicis brevis {carpal bones metacarpal 1}
pollicis brevis {carpal bones proximal phalanx 1}
pollicis {trapezium metacarpal 1}
Little finger
digiti minimi {pisiform proximal phalanx 5}
digiti minimi brevis {hamate proximal phalanx 5}
digiti minimi {hamate metacarpal 5}

10.4 Muscles that move the pelvic girdle


10.4.1 Pelvic girdle
Very reduced movement before the parts of the sacrum and coccyx fuse
Caused by muscles of the pelvic diaphragm

76

Human Anatomy

10. Appendicular musculature

10.5 Muscles that move the lower limbs


10.5.1 Thigh
Extension
Gluteus

{ilium, sacrum, coccyx - femur}

Flexion
(Iliacus + psoas major) {ilium, T12-L5 - femur}
Abduction and medial rotation
Gluteus

and

Tensor

{ilium - femur}
{ilium iliotibial tract}

Abduction and lateral rotation


externus and internus {obturator foramen - femur}
{sacrum - femur}
superior and inferior {ischium - femur}
{ischium femur} (no abduction)
Adduction and flexion
brevis, longus and magnus {pubis - femur} (magnus post.
part - extension)
{pubis - femur}
{pubis - tibia}
Complex
{ilium - tibia} (flexion hip and knee, lateral rotation hip)

10.5.2 Leg
Extension
Quadriceps
medialis, intermedius and lateralis {femur - patella}
{ilium - patella}

77

Human Anatomy
Flexion

10. Appendicular musculature


femoris {ischium, femur fibula, tibia}
{ischium - tibia}
{ischium - tibia}

Complex
{ilium - tibia}
{femur - tibia} (flexion and medial rot of tibia rel. femur)

10.5.3 Ankle
Flexion (dorsiflexion)
anterior {tibia metatarsal 1}
Extension (plantar flexion)
{femur - calcaneal tendon}
{fibula, tibia - calcaneal tendon}
{femur - calcaneus} (also flexes knee)
{tibia, fibula tarsals, metatarsal 2-4}
brevis and longus {fibula metatarsal 5 or 1}
Eversion
brevis and longus {fibula metatarsals 5 or 1} (see above)
Inversion
anterior and posterior {tibia, fibula tarsals and metatarsals} (see
above)
Flexor and sup. and inf. extensor retinacula

10.5.4 Foot and toes


Extrinsic muscles
Extension
digitorum longus {tibia, fibula phalanges 2-5}
Flexion
digitorum longus {tibia distal phalanges 2-5}
78

Human Anatomy
Hallux

10. Appendicular musculature


hallucis longus {fibula distal phalanx 1}
hallucis longus {fibula distal phalanx 1}

Intrinsic muscles
Abduction of digits
interossei {metatarsals phalanges 2-4}
Adduction of digits
interossei {metatarsals phalanges 3-5}
Special
{tendons of flexor digit. longus insertions of extensor
digit. longus} (metatarsophalangeal flexion and
interphalangeal extension)
Extension
digitorum brevis {calcaneus phalanges 1-4}
Flexion
digitorum brevis { calcaneus proximal phalanx 1}
{calcaneus tendon of flexor digit. longus}
Hallux
hallucis {calcaneus proximal phalanx 1}
hallucis {metatarsals 2-5 proximal phalanx 1}
hallucis brevis {tarsals - proximal phalanx 1}
Small toe
digiti minimi {calcaneus - proximal phalanx 5}
digiti minimi brevis {metatarsal 5 - proximal phalanx 5}

79

Human Anatomy

11. Heart

11. Heart
11.1 Contents
The cardiovascular system and the heart
Surface anatomy
Internal anatomy
Cardiac cycle
Stimulation

11.2 Composition of the cardiovascular system


Heart

11.3 Pericardium
membrane in
Involve the heart
Visceral and

layers

11.4 General organization of the heart


Pumps from

pregnancy to death

In adult,

l/min

Extreme of

11.4.1 The heart wall


= visceral pericardium
epithelium + areolar connective tissue
= cardiac muscle, thickest layer
= simple squamous epithelium

11.4.2 Cardiac muscle tissue


Striated like skeletal fibers but:
Smaller, shorter, one or two nuclei
81

Human Anatomy

11. Heart
More
Stimulated by
Connected by

discs

Desmosomes
transmit stimulus
anchored to sarcolemma

11.4.3 Connective tissue framework


Elastic and tough
Forms heart
insulates atria from ventricles

11.5 The position of the heart in the body


Heart placement render body asymmetrical in

ways

of body midline
Oblique angle with longitudinal axis of body
Apex points to the
Rotated to the
Right atrium

to left one

11.6 Surface anatomy


Left and right atria and ventricles
Base,
Borders (heart is tilted)
= base (vessel attachments)
= right atrium
= left ventricle
= right ventricle
Grooves
groove
sulcus atria, ventricles
sulcus - ventricles
82

Human Anatomy

11. Heart

11.7 Internal anatomy


Right atrium
(Drains superior and inferior

muscles
septum
Fossa

(foramen ovale before birth)

Opening of coronary sinus


Right atrioventricular valve (tricusp)
Chordae
Right ventricle
3

muscles
83

Human Anatomy

11. Heart
Trabeculae
septum
Pulmonary

valve

(Pulmonary

=> pulmonary arteries)

Left atrium
(Left and right pulmonary veins)
No pectinate muscles (smooth)
Left atrioventricular valve (bicusp or mitral)
Chordae
Left ventricle
2

muscles
semilunar valve

(Aorta)
side has thicker walls
Higher pressure for

circulation

Birds and mammals only (endotherms)

11.8 Valve prolapse and heart murmur


AV valve flaps do not close perfectly
makes audible sound

11.9 The cardiac cycle


contractions - atria then ventricles
= contraction phase
= relaxation phase
Heart completely

, most of the time, pressure downstream high


complete filling of ventricles

Ventricular systole
valves close (first sound)
Ventricular pressure
Semilunar valves
84

Human Anatomy
Ventricular and atrial diastole

11. Heart

Ventricular pressure
Semilunar valves

(second sound)

11.10 Cardiac stimulation


self-depolarizing cells
(SA) node posterior wall of left atrium
Conducting fibers distribute stimuli
(AV) node
(bundle of His)
fibers
Delay of

between SA node and ventricular contraction


delay produced at the AV node

What is a heart attack?


Heart tissue

for lack of irrigation

Heart might stop, but not always.

85

Human Anatomy

11. Heart

11.11 Coronary circulation


11.11.1 Arterial
coronary artery
Right

branch

Posterior

branch

coronary artery
branch
Anterior

branch

11.11.2 Venous
Left -

cardiac vein

Right -

cardiac vein

Posterior

cardiac vein

Coronary
11.11.3 Coronary artery disease
Fatty deposit in arteries

flow

Lack of irrigation causes


Pain in
expand coronary artery from inside
metal mesh to keep artery expanded
surgery coronary artery by-passed with vessel
grafted from another region of the body

11.12 Heart attack


million in US per year
die before medical assistance
die within a year
electrically reset cardiac cells
(CPR)
Mechanically maintain oxygenated blood flow
compressions 2 in deep, 100/min
30:2 compressions/ventilations
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9T25SMyz3A
86

Human Anatomy

12. Blood vessels

12. Blood vessels


12.1 Contents
General organization of the wall in blood vessels.
Characteristics of the three types of arterial vessels
Structure of capillary bed
Characteristics of each type of venous vessel
Pumps that return blood to the heart
Venous blood reserve
Pulmonary and systemic circuits, and hepatic portal system

12.2 Structure
General organization of blood vessel walls
3 Layers
- external
Dense connective tissue lots of

fibers

- intermediate
Contains a thin external elastic membrane (elastic fibers) next to adventitia
It is mostly made of

muscle

- internal
elastic membrane (elastic fibers) next to media
epithelium (called endothelium) internally
3 Types of blood vessels
Arteries, capillaries and veins

12.3 Arteries
(take blood away from the heart)
12.3.1
Intima and adventitia relatively

, and rich in elastic

fibers
89

Human Anatomy
Stretch to

12. Blood vessels


the pressure peak produced during ventricular

During ventricular

, pushes blood ahead through elastic

recoil.
Extend the

and reduce the

produced by ventricular contraction.


12.3.2 Muscular
Media relatively
Vasodilation and vasoconstriction used to

flow to organs in the

body
12.3.3 Arterioles
Adventitia very
Media present
Muscle contraction used to divert blood flow

12.4 Capillaries
Have only

surrounded by basal lamina

3 types:
12.4.1

no pores
Endothelial cells with tight junctions
Most common in body

12.4.2

with pores
Pores (fenestrae) allow passage of large molecules
Kidneys and endocrine glands

12.4.3

with larger pores


Found in endocrine glands, liver and bone marrow

90

Human Anatomy

12. Blood vessels

Capillary bed
From

to
from arteriole to thoroughfare channel, which crosses the bed
Capillaries branch off, interconnect and connect back
Entrance to each capillary contains
Smooth muscle that cycles
the passage
Flow constant in
<General term:

but variable in each capillary


merging of vessels that had

branched apart>
More than one route for blood to reach a certain area
Anastomosis near
Provide a bypass route

12.5 Veins
(return blood to the heart)
91

Human Anatomy
General

12. Blood vessels

Blood reaches veins after passing through


Blood pressure drops further, so much lower in veins than in arteries
walls than similar sized arteries, therefore

internal

diameter
media and elastic membranes
12.5.1
very reduced
Contain

- foldings of the endothelium


Allow flow only towards the heart

12.5.2
(same as above)
12.5.3

12.6 How does blood return to the heart?


Venous

only allow flow towards the heart

12.6.1

pump
Contraction of surrounding muscles

veins

Why do you prefer to walk than to stand still?


12.6.2

pump
Respiratory movements (expansion of thoracic cage) and
Contraction of abdominal muscles
Make thoracic internal pressure

than

abdominal
Helps

move up to the heart

12.7 Distribution of blood in the body


blood reserves
of the blood in the body contained in venous vessels
during bleeding maintains blood pressure in cardiovascular
system
of the blood volume can be lost without loss in pressure
92

Human Anatomy

12. Blood vessels

12.8 Blood circulation


12.8.1 Pulmonary Circuit
Arteries conduct blood

in oxygen, Veins conduct blood rich in oxygen

12.8.2 Systemic Circuit


12.8.2.1

system

<General definition: a portal vessel connects


removes excess nutrients
Complements lacking nutrients
12.8.2.2

circulation

Arteries connect to placenta via


No mixing with mother's blood
From umbilical cord, veins connect to liver

93

Human Anatomy

13. Blood

13. Blood
13.1 Contents
Roles
Composition
Plasma
Formed elements
Hematopoiesis

13.2 Roles
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

13.3 Composition
13.3.1 Hematocrit
Centrifuge: blood + anticoagulant
% is

cells (actually all formed elements)

% is

13.3.2 Whole blood


13.3.2.1 Plasma is composed of
(92%)
(7%)
(60%) osmotic pressure, transport lipids
(35%) antibodies, transport lipids
(4%) fibers in clotting
Other (1%)
Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, HCO3-, HPO4-, SO4-, aminoacids, urea
95

Human Anatomy
13.3.2.2 Formed elements

13. Blood
blood cells (99.9%) = 5 million / ul
blood cells (0.1%)
(tiny volume)

2 Slides + drop of blood


Cell size and shape
count

13.4 Red blood cells (erythrocytes)


, 8 um diameter
Formed in

in adults

Loose

and organelles

Circulate for 4 months


new cells / second
Reservoir of
Red color
Four subunits
Each subunit has a

with one Fe++

Bind
interactions, affected by concentration

96

Human Anatomy

13. Blood

13.5 White blood cells


13.5.1 Granular
(62%) neutral stains, nucleus with 4-5 lobes
Mobile, engulph bacteria
(3%) stain in acid, nucleus bilobed
Increase in allergic or parasitic reactions
Engulph foreign + antibodies
(1%) basic stain, many granules, cant see nucleus
Release histamine and heparin, increase inflammation
13.5.2 Agranular
(6%) large, has bean-shaped nucleus
Phagocytic, turns into macrophage
(28%) rel large round nucleus, little cytoplasm
Kills foreign and abnormal cells by direct contact
Attacks cells and substances remotely with antibodies

13.6 Platelets
Proteins and enzymes enclosed in
Produced by

in red bone marrow

During clotting
Release substances active in clotting
damaged vessel wall
(myosin and actin) to harden clot

13.7 Hemopoiesis
cells originate all formed elements
Sites of blood production change during
=>

=>

97

Human Anatomy

14. Nervous tissue

14. Nervous tissue


14.1 Contents
Role and organization of the nervous system
Cell types and their roles:
Neurons
Glial cells
Neural regeneration
NOTE:

and

are the same and can be used interchangeably

14.2 Role
Control of the activities of

(together with endocrine)

Allow for

between parts of the body

Signals

within cells and

between cells

14.3 Organization of the nervous system


General terms:
- brings stimuli toward CNS,
- takes stimuli away from CNS

14.3.1 Central nervous system (CNS)

14.3.2 Peripheral nervous system (PNS)


All the

tissue

14.3.2.1

the CNS
Division (sensory)

signals

CNS
- receptors in skeletal muscles, joints, skin

99

Human Anatomy

14. Nervous tissue


- receptors in internal organs and special senses

14.3.2.2

Division (motor)
signals

from CNS

nervous system (SNS)

commands skeletal muscles

nervous system (ANS)

commands smooth and cardiac muscles and glands

Path of a signal
=>

=>

=>

=>

14.4 Neural tissue


Neural tissue is formed by
(form action potentials)
(also called

; do not form action potentials)

14.4.1 Neurons
Conduct

(form action potentials)

100

Human Anatomy

14. Nervous tissue

Parts
(soma)
bodies formed by ribosomes and rough endoplasmic reticulum
Synthesize proteins to make neurotransmitters
Most neurons lack

. Cannot divide. No regeneration.

conduct stimuli to soma


takes stimuli away from soma
fatty insulation - accelerates stimulus transmission
Forms sheaths separated by
Synaptic

(terminal boutons)

Chemical transmission of stimulus to another cell


Neurotransmitters constantly produced and transported along
Neural tissue color
- cell bodies - Nissl bodies
myelinated axons
Neural tissue organized in
Groups of

Gray matter

Groups of

White matter

101

Human Anatomy

14. Nervous tissue

Types of neurons by shape


soma connected to several dendrites and single axon (can later branch) .
Motor neurons
dendrites merge into single dendrite that connects to soma.
Soma also connected to single axon.
Sensory neurons in vision, hearing and olfaction.
Dendrites connect to single axon. Soma has only one connection (to axon).
Most sensory neurons
Impossible to distinguish dendrites from axon based on anatomy
In CNS.

Types of neurons by position


afferent neurons bring stimuli from sensory receptors
efferent neurons take commands to muscles and glands
in CNS between sensory and motor neurons, process signals and produce
commands

102

Human Anatomy

14. Nervous tissue

14.4.2 Neuroglia
Support neurons, 6 types: 4 in CNS and 2 in PNS
14.4.2.1 Neuroglia in CNS
neurons
. Cellular processes cover capillaries
Nutrients have to pass through astrocyte to reach neurons
Protection against pathogens and toxins
Produce myelin sheaths
Each cell emits several processes that produce myelin sheaths
Each cell can produce myelin sheaths on several axons
Smallest glial cells, related to macrophages
Engulf particles and pathogens
Line brain ventricles and spinal cord's central canal
Monitor composition of

(CSF)

Some of them actually produce CSF


14.4.2.2 Neuroglia in PNS
Involve all axons, can produce

sheath or not

If producing myelin sheaths, each cell produces a single sheath


Nourish cell bodies in
<General term: ganglion is a structure containing neuronal cell bodies out of the CNS>

103

Human Anatomy

15. Spinal cord and spinal nerves

15. Spinal cord and spinal nerves


15.1 Contents
Spinal cord
Function, protective layers, anatomy
Spinal nerves
Anatomy, organization, plexuses

15.2 Spinal cord


15.2.1 Functions
Highway for signals between

(wired internet)

processing of stimuli

15.2.2 Protective layers


(internal to external)
3 meninges
mater simple squamous epithelium
mater - simple squamous epithelium
space

fluid (CSF)

mater dense irregular connective tissue


Adipose connective tissue (

space)
during labor

Needle passes through

disc

Vertebrae
Muscles of the back

105

Human Anatomy

15. Spinal cord and spinal nerves

15.2.3 Anatomy
Extends from base of brain to between L1 or L2
Crosses

. Spinal nerves cross intervertebral foramina


than vertebral column in adults stops growing at
enter vertebral column below their insertion points to the spinal cord

Caudal end forms

below it (space contains nerves and CSF)

CSF sampled between L2 and sacrum

In transverse section
sulcus
median fissure
canal contains CSF
is internal, white matter is external
matter (contains mostly cell bodies)
- sensory, anterior gray horns - motor
- only in thoracic region
106

Human Anatomy

15. Spinal cord and spinal nerves


<General term:

: connection between left and right sides>


commissures: anterior and posterior to central canal

matter (contains mostly axons)


, containing tracts
Left and right anterior, lateral and posterior columns
tracts carry stimuli to brain
tracts carry stimuli away from brain
carries stimuli from one side to the other

15.3 Spinal nerves


= bundle of afferent and/or efferent axons + accessory elements (in PNS)
= aggregation of cell bodies out of the CNS

107

Human Anatomy

15. Spinal cord and spinal nerves

15.3.1 Interface with spinal cord


Each spinal nerve connects to the spinal cord through two roots
root
Brings in sensory information
Dorsal root ganglion (contains bodies of unipolar sensory neurons)
root
Takes motor commands to effectors
nerve crosses intervertebral foramen and branches into rami
Rami
leads to nerves that innervate posterior body wall (back)
- leads to nerves that innervate anterior body wall (chest, abdommen)
horizontal band of skin containing all the sensory receptors that
deliver stimuli to the CNS through a same spinal nerve
lead to nerves that innervate viscera
<General term:

when pain is attributed to a region

of the body that is not where the pain is originating>


Referred pain commonly due to brain attributing visceral stimuli to the
ventral or dorsal ramus
Ex: heart condition causing pain in the left arm

108

Human Anatomy

15. Spinal cord and spinal nerves

15.3.2 Organization of spinal nerves


One pair per vertebra + one pair between skull and C1
There are

nerves, but

Nerve number matches vertebra

vertebrae
to it in the neck and

to it in other regions

15.3.3 Anatomy
Axons are surrounded by connective tissue organized in three levels
Organization and terminology are similar to those of skeletal muscles
Axons are bundled in

, which are bundled to form a nerve

Connective tissue cover


surrounds nerve continuation of dura mater
surrounds fascicle
surrounds axon

15.3.4 Plexuses
Joinings of ventral rami (only bundled together, axons do not merge)
(C1-C5)
Innervate head, neck, shoulders and diaphragm
(C5-T1)
Innervate upper limbs
(T1-L4)
Innervate pelvis, genitals and lower limbs
Innervate lower limbs

109

Human Anatomy

16. Brain and cranial nerves

16. Brain and cranial nerves


16.1 Contents
Regions of the brain
Protective layers
Cerebrospinal fluid
Limbic system
Cranial nerves

16.2 Roles of the brain


Conscious thinking and also

111

Human Anatomy

16. Brain and cranial nerves

16.3 Regions of the brain


16.3.1
Continuation of spinal cord
Tracts of

carry information between body and brain

Main nuclei
center together with nuclei in pons, adjust breathing rate
center adjust cardiac rate

16.3.2
centers together with nucleus in medulla, adjust breathing rate
peduncle white matter connecting to cerebellum
Ascending and descending

<General terms>
= outer layer of an organ
= inner layer of an organ

16.3.3
Two

connected by
Anterior and posterior lobes

3 peduncles with tracts linking to


Folded

and medulla oblongata

, parallel ridges called

Gray matter in
Cortex contains

, white matter in
neurons

Very expanded

, each cell receiving up to 100,000 synapses

Signals from most sensors and commands to most

pass through cerebellum

Main role -

16.3.4

(midbrain)
contains ascending and descending tracts of white matter

112

Human Anatomy

16. Brain and cranial nerves


4 bodies on posterior surface

superior

visual processing

inferior

- auditory processing

: Brain region formed by: medulla oblongata, pons and mesencephalon

16.3.5
Brain region formed by: thalamus, hypothalamus and epithalamus
16.3.5.1

major relay station before cerebrum

Many nuclei involved in many functions


Medial

auditory

Lateral

- visual

16.3.5.2
Many processing nuclei with autonomic function
Bridges neural and endocrine systems through connections with pituitary gland
16.3.5.3
gland
Helps establish

rhythm.

16.4 Neural pathways


Sensory and motor neurons do not link the body directly to the cerebral cortex, but instead make
synapses in the

and nuclei of the

16.5 Protection of the brain


Cranial bones
Meninges

113

Human Anatomy

16. Brain and cranial nerves


Has two layers with

in between
sinus - reabsorbs CSF

4 internal extensions of dura mater


- separates cerebral hemispheres
- separates cerebellum from occipital lobe
- separates cerebellar hemispheres
- wraps pituitary gland
extend into sagittal sinus
CSF passes from subarachnoid space into dural sinus
also contains blood vessels over the pia mater
very thin, attached to the neural tissue
Ventricles and CSF
4 ventricles total: 2

, 3rd and 4th

CSF produced in

in parts of all 4 ventricles

CSF circulations: 2 laterals to 3rd and 4th ventricles, from there to


space, then up to arachnoid

or
and reabsorption into

sinus (venous blood)


4th ventricle has 4 drains of CSF: 2

apertures, 1 medial, 1 and the central

canal of the

16.5 Regions of the brain (back to them)


16.5.1
Structure of surface of cortex
Sulcus (plural sulci = grooves) and gyrus (plural gyri = ridges)
16.5.1.1

(left and right)

16.5.1.2 Lobes (named after bones next to them) cortex produces conscious processing
lobe
Anterior - conscious thinking
114

Human Anatomy

16. Brain and cranial nerves


Posterior - Primary motor cortex
Last stop in cerebrum of commands to effectors
lobe
Anterior - Primary sensory cortex
First stop at cerebrum, of information from the general senses
lobe visual cortex
lobe auditory cortex and olfactory cortex
gustatory cortex

16.5.1.3 Gray matter in

, white matter in

opposite of spinal cord

Also, several basal nuclei = gray matter deeper than the cortex
Basal nuclei (unconcious motor functions and limbic system)
16.5.1.4 White matter
fibers connect neighboring gyri
fibers connect anterior-posterior within cerebrum
sides within cerebrum
fibers cerebrum to rest of brain

16.6
Responsible for
It is a

group, with components spread in various regions of the brain


Cerebrum:
Several nuclei in
Throughout the brainstem:

16.7 Cranial nerves


Learn all 12: name, function and destination.
The book is pretty concise, but the slides have them summarized.
I will not ask the roman number, the origin in the brain or the foramina that they use to pass
through the cranium

115

Human Anatomy

16. Brain and cranial nerves

nerve (N I)
Primary function: special sensory (smell)
Sensory end: receptors of olfactory epithelium

nerve (N II)
Primary function: special sensory (vision)
Sensory end: retina of eye

nerve (N III)
Primary function: motor, eye movements
Motor somatic end: superior, inferior, and medial rectus muscles; the inferior oblique muscle; the
levator

palpebrae superioris muscle

Motor visceral end: intrinsic eye muscles

nerve (N IV)
Primary function: motor, eye movements
Motor end: superior oblique muscle

nerve (N V)
Primary function: Mixed (sensory and motor)
Ophthalmic branch (sensory): face (nose and above)
Maxillary branch (sensory): face (nose and below)
Mandibular branch (mixed): mouth (sensory), muscles of mastication (motor)

nerve (N VI)
Primary function: motor, eye movements
Motor end: lateral rectus muscle

nerve (N VII)
Primary function: mixed (sensory and motor)
Sensory: taste receptors on anterior 2/3 of tongue
Motor ends: muscles of facial expression and
116

Human Anatomy

16. Brain and cranial nerves

salivary, nasal mucous and lacrimal glands

nerve (N VIII)
Primary function: special sensory: balance and hearing
Sensory end: receptors of the inner ear (vestibule and cochlea)

nerve (N IX)
Primary function: mixed (sensory and motor)
Sensory end: Mouth and carotid arteries of the neck
Motor end: Pharyngeal muscles and paratoid salivary gland

(N X)
Primary function: mixed
Sensory end: mouth, ears and viscera
Motor end: mouth and viscera

nerve (N XI)
Primary function: motor
Motor:
Internal branch - voluntary muscles of palate, pharynx, and larynx
External branch - sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles

nerve (XII)
Primary function: motor, tongue movements
Motor end: muscles of the tongue

117

Human Anatomy

17. Autonomic nervous system

17. Autonomic nervous system


17.1 Contents
Subdivisions of ANS, autonomic function
Sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
Enteric nervous system

17.2 Efferent PNS


Nervous System
: cell body in CNS, axon terminals in skeletal muscle

Nervous System
Innervation requires

neurons
soma in CNS, axon terminals in ganglion
soma in ganglion, axon terminals in effector

Subdivisions
division fight or flight response
division rest and digest response
nervous system (ENS) local control of digestion through visceral reflexes
100 million neurons in walls of

tube

119

Human Anatomy

17. Autonomic nervous system

17.3 Sympathetic (

) division
neurons

Cell bodies in

, connect through spinal nerves T1 to L2

Cell bodies in
Neurotransmitter secreted in ganglion =
neurons:
Cell bodies in

near vertebral column

Ganglia
Sympathetic

ganglia

Out through sympathetic nerve


ganglia
Suprarenal gland the gland itself is the ganglion. Very short ganglionic neurons
secrete
Routing of signal
Preganglionic axons can branch, emitting
Chain ganglia are

, axons can pass from one to another

Only

before reaching organ


Axon can pass through without synapses in

120

Human Anatomy

17. Autonomic nervous system

17.4 Parasympathetic (

) division
neurons

Cell bodies in
Neurotransmitter

(same as in sympathetic)
neurons:

Cell bodies in ganglia near or inside


Neurotransmitter

Responses of sympathetic are more

(different from sympathetic)

but less

Response through stimulation of

is strong and comprehensive

when norepinephrine and epinephrine fall into

17.5 Enteric nervous system


Will be studied with digestive system

121

Human Anatomy

18. Senses

18. Senses
18.1 Contents
Contents
Introduction to sensory receptors
Nociceptors, thermoreceptors, chemoreceptors
Olfaction and gustation
Mechanoreceptors
Pressure
Stretch
Hair cells
Balance
Hearing
Photoreceptors - Vision

18.2 Introduction to sensory receptors


Sensory receptor
Cell that responds to environment, altering the

of a sensory neuron.

Can be the neuron itself or a separate cell.

General senses
structure, receptors spread over the body
Ex:

Special senses
structure, receptors grouped together
Include

123

Human Anatomy

18. Senses

18.3 Types of receptors by structure

nerve ending receptor is the exposed dendritic end of the sensory neuron
nerve ending receptor is the dendritic end of the sensory neuron in a capsule
receptor cell separate from sensory neuron

18.4 Types of receptors by type of stimulus


18.4.1
Detect

. Stimulus perceived as painful.


in skin, muscles, joints and viscera

18.4.2
Sense
in skin
There are various types, each responds to a range of temperatures
Most also respond to chemicals (

18.4.3 Chemoreceptors
Detect chemical composition
18.4.3.1

in aorta, carotid artery, medulla oblongata

detect O2, CO2, pH


Sensory receptor cells for
18.4.3.2

(special senses)
(smell)

124

Human Anatomy

18. Senses
Located on the roof of the
Sensory epithelium contains
stem cell
Olfactory

(sensory neuron)
cell
glands

Axons of sensory neurons cross


50 primary smells, but brain analyses proportion of each in total, with an
infinite number of combinations
18.4.3.3

(taste)

Receptors in
Taste buds in
papillae
largest, forms V on surface of tongue
papillae small, mushroom-shaped
papillae
smallest
4-6 primary tastes, but brain analyses proportion of each in total, with an
infinite number of combinations
Processing of taste is affected by smells. Do not feel taste when nasal
cavity taken by mucus (cold)

18.4.4
Detect
18.4.4.1 Skin
Not encapsulated
cells always associated to tactile discs
Very superficial, in epidermis detect pressure
plexus dendritic terminals wrap around root of hair

125

Human Anatomy

18. Senses
detect touch and wind

Encapsulated (in dermis)


corpuscle superficial in dermis detect
corpuscle deep in dermis detect
corpuscle deep in dermis detect
dendritic terminals wrap around bundle of collagen fibers
18.4.4.2 Skeletal muscles (receptors for

dendritic terminals wrap around modified muscle fiber


stretching indicates position of body part
dendritic terminals wrap around tendon fibers
protection of bones and tendons
relax muscle if tension in tendon too high and fibers are about to rupture
18.4.4.3 Joints (

18.4.4.4 Walls of hollow organs (

blood vessels, digestive tube, bladder, lungs


Dendritic terminals in wall of organ. When wall

, cell is stimulated

Visceral reflexes to move fluids and control blood pressure


Show video of auditory transduction
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PeTriGTENoc

126

Human Anatomy

18. Senses

18.4.4.5 Ears
18.4.4.5.1 Receptors called
Epithelial cells with

forming

Bending of hair bundles triggers release of


18.4.4.5.2 Sensory regions and organs (6)
(balance)
Saccule and utricle
Detect

of the head
Displacement of

(Ca crystals)
(different orientation)

Detect

of the head
Displacement of fluid in the semicircular canals
Bend gelatinous

and hair-bundle

3 canals for 3D positioning


(hearing)
Hair cells detect acoustic vibrations (more below)
18.4.4.5.3 The pathway of sound in the ears
External ear
direct sound into ear canal
Sound reflections on ridges allow us to perceive elevation
of the source
External
Deep to protect delicate
(wax) helps by trapping insects
Middle ear
Cavity
Filled with air
Auditory (

) tube connects to mouth


127

Human Anatomy

18. Senses
Stays

most of the time


Swallow or yawn to open
Release pressure when plane takes off

Increase pressure when diving


Eardrum Bulges when hit by
Ossicles transmit eardrum movements to inner ear
(lateral),

(intermediate) and
(medial)

bones of the body


Inner ear
Made of

and

filled with fluid

Stapes kicks

=> round window bulges

Vestible (seen above, provides balance)


Cochlea
Spiral hollow tube inside

portion of temporal bone

Tube divided in
in between
e moves when pressure
wave passes by it
Hair cells on top of basilar membrane
Hair bundles touch
membrane which remains still
Hair-bundles bend
1 inner row of hair cells (sensory)
3 outer rows (adjust ear sensitivity)
18.4.4.5.4 Why is the cochlea long?
Basement membrane vibrates more at bottom or tip
depending on sound frequency
This is how we tell

128

Human Anatomy

18. Senses

18.4.5 Photoreceptors
Detect light
18.4.5.1 Eyes (vision)
(palpebrae) protect and lubricate
produce oily secretions
epithelium in contact with eye
inflammation of conjunctiva
Lateral, produce tear
cells in cornea
Drained medially into superior and inferior lacrimal canals,
then into nasal cavity
Cavities
Anterior cavity filled with

(watery)

Replaced every 90 min.


is excess pressure due to insufficient drainage.
Posterior cavity filled with

(gelatinous)

Produced once during development.


are dark spots in vision due to debris in vitreous humor

129

Human Anatomy

18. Senses

Eyeball (3 layers)
tunic (external)
anterior cover of the eye
Very transparent, nourished by tears
Epithelium, connective tissue, epithelium
No blood vessels, no rejection after transplants
posterior cover, ends at cornea
White portion of eye. Dense irregular connective tissue.
Gives round shape to eye
130

Human Anatomy

18. Senses

tunic (intermediate)
line sclera, blood vessels and melanocytes
Nourish and capture scattered light
posterior to cornea
Secrete aqueous humor
surrounds pupil, pigments produce color of eyes
Pupil just a passage for light
Circular and radial smooth muscles adjust diameter
Control amount of light to the retina
posterior to iris, focuses light on the retina
Muscle and ligaments to deform lens
tunic (internal)
Retina
blind spot, where optic nerve and vessels enter eye
aligned with lens and pupil and cornea
Ideal position for best image
High density of photoreceptors
Most photoreceptors are cones
No blood vessels to distort the light

131

Human Anatomy

18. Senses

Layers of the
layer (most external)
Melanocytes absorb light
Red eyes when flash illuminates retina
Reflective in nocturnal animals
layer (intermediate)
more sensitive to light, black and white image
3 types, color vision, sharper image
Several layers of neurons (internal)
Local image processing

132

Human Anatomy

19. Respiratory system

19. Respiratory system


19.1 Contents
Functions
Conduction and respiratory portions
Upper and lower respiratory tracts
The larynx and voice
Lungs, asthma, respiratory exchanges
Respiratory movements, birth

19.2 Function
Exchange
to and from the exchange surface
Conduction and respiratory exchange
of respiratory surfaces from external environmental conditions and pathogens
Regulation of

(by releasing CO2 from blood)

19.3 Divisions
portion (transport air)
From external nares to bronchioles
portion (surfaces where respiratory gas exchange occurs)
Respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
respiratory system above larynx
Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses
External and internal nares
Pharynx
nasopharynx (internal nares to end of soft palate)
Auditory tubes to ears
135

Human Anatomy

19. Respiratory system


oropharynx (end of soft palate to larynx)
laryngopharynx (larynx to esophagus)
respiratory system larynx and below

Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

19.4 Lining
of epithelium in respiratory system
Oropharynx and laryngopharynx non-keratinized stratified squamous
Alveoli simple squamous
Elsewhere pseudostratified ciliated columnar and goblet cells
Mucus is moved towards esophagus
both above and below the pharynx

19.5 Pharynx
Shared for passage
Air =>
Food and fluids =>

10.6 Larynx
Elevated during
Epiglottis bends and covers entrance into larynx
Cartilages
- protects airways from food
- largest laryngeal cartilage
Easy to feel the laryngeal prominence (Adams apple), a salience on the neck
cartilage - ring of cartilage attached to trachea
Forms the single complete cartilage ring in the respiratory tree
Two

cartilages pivot on cricoid


Vocal ligament extends from arytenoid to thyroid

Two

cartilages pivot on arytenoids


Vestibular ligament extends from corniculate to thyroid
136

Human Anatomy

19. Respiratory system

Vocal folds
Superior:

(ventricular, vestibular) vocal folds extend from corniculate to thyroid

Inferior:

vocal folds extend from arytenoid to thyroid

Muscular action on true vocal folds cause


(pivoting of arytenoids) => exhalation with voice
=> increase sound frequency (pitch)
Ventricular folds have

role

Reflex quickly adducts them if

inside larynx

19.7 Trachea
From larynx to T5 anterior to the esophagus and then splits into primary bronchi
- 16 to 20 incomplete rings of

cartilage

Maintain tube fully expanded, for easy passage of air


Open side faces esophagus, allows for passage of large food item

19.8 Lungs
surfaces
Right lung - oblique and horizontal

- 3 lobes

Left lung - oblique fissure only - 2 lobes


notch
Taller (diaphragm is higher

, making right lung shorter)

Blood vessels and airways enter lungs at

19.9 The branching of bronchi


bronchi enter lungs
bronchi branch within each lung
bronchi- have cartilage plates, not rings

137

Human Anatomy

19. Respiratory system

No cartilage cover
Layer of smooth muscle layer in their walls can contract
Allow to divert airflow to well vascularized parts of lung
causes generalized bronchoconstriction
Not enough air reaches respiratory surfaces
bronchioles
Respiratory exchanges occur in alveoli attached to the walls
Round aggregations of alveoli, end of respiratory tree

19.10 Alveoli
150 million/lung
simple

epithelium, wrapped by capillaries, also some elastic fibers

Cells

138

Human Anatomy

19. Respiratory system


pneumocytes: where

occurs

simple squamous
pneumocytes
secrete

- reduce superficial tension - prevent collapse

Alveolar

(dust cells) - remove debris and pathogens

19.11 Pleura cover lungs


Double membranes with pleural fluid in between
Protect tissues from damage by friction

19.12 Respiratory movements


(quiet breathing)
inspiration active but exhalation passive
(deep, stomach breathing)
lower diaphragm to increase thoracic volume
(shallow)
expand rib cage by lifting ribs to increase thoracic volume
(forced)
Both inspiration and exhalation active during exercise
Mechanism
Thoracic wall is rigid
When volume is increased, internal pressure drops
Air pressure in lungs < air pressure out of body
Air flows in
When volume is decreased, internal pressure increases
Air pressure in lungs > air pressure out of body
Air flows out
muscles

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Human Anatomy

19. Respiratory system

External

muscles

Also: sternocleidomastoid, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor, and scalene muscles


muscles
Not needed in eupnea due to elastic recoil of lungs and thoracic cavity
In hyperpnea, transversus thoracis, oblique, rectus abdominis and internal intercostal
muscles

140

Human Anatomy

20. Digestive system

20. Digestive system


20.1 Contents
Overview
Oral cavity, teeth
Pharynx, esophagus, stomach
Small and large intestines
Accessory organs

20.2 Functions

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Human Anatomy

20. Digestive system

20.3 General wall structure


4 layers
- visceral peritoneum (in abdominopelvic cavity) or adventitia (mouth, pharynx,
esophagus, rectum)
circular and longitudinal thick layers of smooth muscle, myenteric plexus
- dense irregular connective tissue, blood vessels, submucosal plexus
- mucus, simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells, areolar connective tissue,
two thin layers of smooth muscle
Note:

plexus and

plexus form the

nervous system
Cell bodies and axons.
Part of the autonomic nervous system.
Controls contractions of the walls of the digestive tube through reflexes.

20.5 Surface extensions


Increase surface of contact between absorptive epithelium and material in digestive tube
From large to small scale
circular foldings of mucosa and submucosa
finger-like projections of mucosa
finger-like projections of each cell membrane

20.6 Membranes
does not cover abdominopelvic cavity completely (dorsal
and caudal ends are out)
Membrane folds around organs, leaving them connected by
= mesentery connecting stomach to liver
= mesentery connecting stomach to intestine
Contains lots of adipose reserves

144

Human Anatomy

20. Digestive system

20.7 Regions of the digestive tract


20.7.1 Oral cavity
space limited by cheeks or lips and teeth or gums (gingivae)
space between soft palate and tongue
hanging prevent unintentional swallowing
Two

arches
muscle helps move tongue
muscle helps elevate larynx for swallowing

20.7.2 Salivary glands (3 pairs)


palpate anterior and inferior to pinna
palpate medial to mandible
not easy to palpate, ducts can be seen under tongue
Saliva contains enzymes
Digestion starts in
Salivary

breaks down starch

20.7.3 Tongue
muscles studied before

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Human Anatomy

20. Digestive system

20.7.4 Teeth
socket for each tooth in mandible and maxilla
Do not confuse with alveolus in lung
gums. Skin tightly attached to bone.
exposed portion of tooth
point where gingiva attaches firmly to tooth
Separation between external and internal environments
Do not want bacteria in the internal environment
portion of tooth below gingiva
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Human Anatomy

20. Digestive system


narrow passage for nerves and vessels. From pulp to tip of root.
soft tissue in the center of the tooth. Well vascularized and
innervated, contains the live cells of the tooth
mineralized matrix that involves pulp. No cells. Maintained by
cells in pulp through canaliculi
mineral cover of dentine in crown. Hardest material made by
organisms. Visible surface of teeth.
- hard mineral cover of dentine in root.
Types of teeth
8 front teeth, sharp ridge for cutting, single root
(canines) 4 teeth, pointed tip for puncturing, single root
(premolars) 8 teeth, flattened crown for grinding, 1-2 roots
12 teeth, flattened crown for grinding, 3-4 roots

Dental succession
20

(milk) teeth
Replaced by permanent teeth during infancy

32

teeth add 2 premolars and 1 molar


3rd molars only erupt at adult age (wisdom teeth)

147

Human Anatomy

20. Digestive system

20.7.5 Pharynx
Swallowing involves
lifting soft palate to prevent food in nasopharynx
lifting larynx to prevent food in airways
pressing food down into esophagus
20.7.6 Esophagus
Connects pharynx to
epithelium
No major digestive role. It mostly transports food past neck and thorax.
Collapsed except when swallowing.
Upper and lower esophageal sphincters
Both open in response to food pressing cranially
Prevent reflux from stomach
20.7.7 Stomach
extra muscular layers
Mucosa has extra

layer

Muscularis externa has extra

layer

Simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells


Secrete

(hydrocloric acid), produce very low pH = 2


protects cells from acid and abrasion

Cells

at high rate

20.7.8 Small intestine


25 cm receive pancreatic juices and bile - neutralize acids
Mucus protects cells from acids
2.5 m most absorption occurs here
Plica and villi longest at this portion
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Human Anatomy

20. Digestive system


3.5 m more absorption
Many lymphoid nodules protect from bacterial growth

20.7.9 Large intestine


(longitudinal muscles) and

(pouches) give appearance

Ileum connects to
Cecum
elongated narrow extention of cecum
infection can rupture organ immediate threat
Colon (

) and rectum

20.8 Accessory organs


20.8.1 Liver
Lobes:
Main roles
Remove and store or supplement

in blood

Break down old


Break down of hemoglobin produces
Bilirubin used to produce
Bile salts solubilize

in food for digestion

Irrigation
Hepatic

brings oxygenated blood

Hepatic

brings blood potentially rich in nutrients from

digestive tract
Hepatic

takes blood to vena cava

20.8.2 Gall Bladder stores bile


Bile

produced in
Flow stopped at closed

sphincter (sphincter of

Bile accumulates in
Hormone is released when fatty food enters

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Human Anatomy

20. Digestive system


Hepatopancreatic sphincter
Gall bladder

20.8.3 Pancreas produces digestive juice


99%

tubuloacinar, 1% endocrine

Like gall bladder, secretes juice through hepatopancreatic sphincter into duodenum in
response to hormone when food enters duodenum

150

Human Anatomy

21. Lymphoid system

21. Lymphoid system


21.1 Contents
Functions
Vessels, lymph, lymphoid tissues, lymphoid organs

21.2 Functions
into venous circulation
Remove

from lymph

21.3 Lymphatic vessels


capillaries next to cardiovascular ones
Dead-ended
endothelial cells with loose connections one-way inflow of fluid
vessels very thin walls, have internal valves like veins do
Transport lymph from capillaries to subclavian veins
The main lymphatic vessels in the right side are:
Right

trunk - drains the right side of the head

Right

trunk - drains the right arm

These drain into the:


Right

duct - drains right side of the trunk above the


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Human Anatomy

21. Lymphoid system


. It drains into the right

vein.

The main lymphatic vessels in left side are:


Left jugular trunk - drains the left side of the
Left subclavian trunk - drains the left
These merge into the:
duct - drains the left side of the trunk above the
diaphragm plus the whole body below the diaphragm
It drains into the left

vein.

The thoracic duct originates at the

, which

collects lymph from both sides of the inferior

, pelvis and lower limbs.

In
Parasites block lymphatic

cause chronic swelling of tissues

21.4 Lymph
like blood plasma but with fewer proteins
(produced in red bone marrow)
B cells mature in bone marrow, release
T cells mature in thymus, attack through
NK (natural killer) cells - mature in bone marrow, attack through direct contact
(produced in red bone marrow)
Engulf pathogens and debris

21.5 Lymphatic tissues (very simple structure, many lymphocytes)


Diffuse lymphatic tissues

of lymphocytes

in walls of respiratory and urinary tracts


Lymphatic nodules structured by
walls of digestive tract
in mouth (2 lingual, 2 palatine, 1 pharyngeal)
Many

in walls of intestines

154

Human Anatomy

21. Lymphoid system

21.6 Lymphatic organs


Primary (where cells are

)
produce and mature B and NK lymphocytes
- mature T cells

Secondary (where

occur)

General term:
: concavity in organ, a common point of connection of nerves and
vessels
Found along lymphatic vessels
Many inputs, output at hilus =>
155

Human Anatomy

21. Lymphoid system


Most common next to openings to the
Ports of entry for
In case of a localized

, closest lymph nodes tend to increase

in size and harden (groin, axils, neck)


= venous sinuses
= lymphocytes and macrophages, surround red pulp
white pulp surrounds red pulp and pathogens contact lymphocytes and
macrophages

156

Human Anatomy

22. Urinary system

22. Urinary system


22.1 Contents
Functions
Kidneys structure and filtration
Ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Micturition reflex

22.2 Functions
Adjust

in urine regulate

Regulate concentrations of

in blood

pressure

Regulate blood
Filter

from blood while conserving

21.3 Kidneys
Left side slightly
is above right kidney
Protected by

tissue

internal, attached to kidney


intermediate, for cushioning
external, for anchoring
Anatomy
with renal vein, renal artery and ureter
capsule
Cortex
arteries and
Medulla
Renal
Urine in

and
=>

calyx =>

=> ureter

159

Human Anatomy

22. Urinary system

Blood circulation
Arteries
enters kidney and branches
crosses columns between renal pyramids
arches around renal pyramid
crosses cortex pointing away from medulla
Form glomeruli, where filtration happens
Wrap nephron for active absorption and secretion of materials
Veins
Interlobular,

and Renal
160

Human Anatomy

22. Urinary system

Nephron
capsule, proximal
convoluted tubule,

, loop of Henle
duct

Functional unit of kidney


filtration by size
Fluid and small molecules pass from glomerular capillaries into nephron
reabsorption
Small nutrients, ions and water actively transported out of filtrate in nephron
to peritubular capillaries and vasa recta
secretion
Actively add wastes from blood (urea)
from peritubular capillaries and vasa recta into filtrate in nephron

161

Human Anatomy

22. Urinary system

21.4 Ureters
30 cm,

, enter posterior wall of urinary bladder


Does not modify urine after it leaves the kidneys

Tissue layers
Lined by mucosa
Muscular layer (urine flows by

epithelium
)

21.5 Urinary bladder


Greatly expandable
Same lining as ureter
Group of smooth muscles called

21.6 Urethra
Short in women
Long in men because it extends across the penis

21.7 Micturition (term for urination)


Requires
Relaxation of
Inferior portion of detrusor muscle
Smooth muscle, controlled by autonomic nervous system
Indirect control must be learned
Relaxation of
Urogenital diaphragm
Skeletal muscle
Voluntary control
Contraction of
Detrusor muscle
Smooth muscle, controlled by

nervous system

Indirect control must be

162

Human Anatomy

23. Endocrine system

23. Endocrine system


23.1 Contents
Hypothalamus and pituitary gland bridging neural and endocrine
Hypophyseal portal system
Thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, suprarenal, pancreas, pineal
Organs with secondary endocrine function

23.2 Roles
Employs

glands to:

Control the behavior of the organs of the body, through the release of
Hormones are chemical signals, molecule travels in
circulation

23.3 Hypothalamus and pituitary gland (hypophysis)

165

Human Anatomy

23. Endocrine system

23.3.1 Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus can release hormones in three ways:
influence pituitary gland
Neurons in hypothalamus secreted neurotransmitter near capillaries of
hypophyseal portal system in the hypothalamus
Hormones stimulate or inhibit adenohypophysis
effects on body
Neurons in hypothalamus have axons extending into neurohypophysis
Secrete neurotransmitter into interstitial spaces near capillary bed
Neurotransmitter in blood becomes hormone
of suprarenal gland sympathetic stimulation
Suprarenal responds secreting epinephrine and norepinephrine

23.3.2 Pituitary gland (

Inferior to hypothalamus
Parts
Infundibulum
Posterior pituitary gland (

Anterior pituitary gland (


Hypophyseal

)
system

veins link capillary bed in hypothalamus with capillary bed in


adenyhypophysis
Hypothalamic hormones stimulate or inhibit activity of adenohypophysis
Hormones
Affect the body directly
Anterior
Affect other endocrine glands
Except prolactin, which stimulates mammary glands (exocrine)

166

Human Anatomy

23. Endocrine system

23.4 Thyroid gland


Involves

, inferior to larynx

Secretes
, triiodothyronine

(3 or 4 iodines in molecule)

These hormones influence the

of our metabolism

Regulates Ca++ contents in blood


Gland stores

in

as a reserve for when it is not available in

develops if not enough

available

Add iodine to salt

23.5 Parathyroid gland


4 small bodies on

surface of

gland

No follicles
Secretes

hormone (> Ca++)


167

Human Anatomy

23. Endocrine system

23.6 Thymus
In

, posterior to sternum

Largest at

, but diminishes in size with age

Maturation site for


Secretes

(hormone group) that promotes the maturation of

23.7 Suprarenal gland


Cortex - hormones based on fat (cholesterol)
Zona

(external) aldosterone (kidneys reabsorb water and


sodium)

Zona

(intermediate) cortisol (stress hormone)

Zona

(internal) sex hormones

Medulla
Sympathetic stimulation
Secrete

and norepinephrine

23.8 Pancreas
99% of gland is

, secretes digestive enzymes into small intestine

1% endocrine - Pancreatic (
Secrete

) islets
(reduce blood glucose) and

(increase

blood glucose)
= glucose concentration in blood too high
Various possible mechanisms, most of them involving

23.9 Organs with hormone secretion as a secondary function


23.9.1
23.9.2

sex hormones
atrial and brain natriuretic peptide stimulate water loss at kidneys if
pressure high

23.9.3
Erythropoietin - produce red blood cells if blood pressure or oxygen
concentration low in kidneys
Calcitriol - increase Ca++ absorption in intestines
168

Human Anatomy
23.9.4

23. Endocrine system


melatonin secretion responds to light exposure
more in dark, less in light

Helps entrain cyrcadian rhythm into day-night light regime

169

Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system

24. Reproductive system


24.1 Contents
Reproductive system: gametes, hormones, gonads, tracts and accessory glands
Male
Testes: descent, structure, spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis
Spermatozoon, reproductive tract, accessory glands, penis
Female
Ovary, tracts, ovulation, vulva
Mammary glands

24.2 Functions
Produce

: haploid cells single set of chromosomes


male
female
fusion of gametes - produces

Produce
Adjust other systems for reproduction
Short and long term changes
Including development of adult characters but also monthly ovarian
cycles

24.3 Male reproductive system


24.3.1 Components
Reproductive organs (gonads)

(singular testis, also called

Reproductive tract epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct


Accessory glands seminal gland, prostate gland, bulbo-urethral glands
External genitalia scrotum, penis

24.3.2 Descent of the testes


Move from near

to
does not grow and contracts on 7th month of
171

Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system


pregnancy
Testes are gradually pulled into
when descent is incomplete
3% of newborns
Process completes itself naturally in most cases within a few weeks
If it does not, surgical intervention might be necessary

Why descend?

must be 1.1 C below body for

gametes to develop normally

24.3.3 Scrotum
Skin
wrinkles skin of scrotum bring both testes closer to
body
external medial line of fusion of skin
internal medial separation
Individual wrappings of each testis
External

, cremaster muscle, internal spermatic


fascia
muscle brings testes near body

Tunica

- peritoneum

Tunica

dense irregular connective tissue capsule


attached to testis

Testes connect to

, nerve, blood and lymphatic

vessels
cord connects to testis, and is formed by ducts and
wrappings mentioned above

172

Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system

24.3.4 Testes
Divided by septa in 200-300
2-3

tubules per lobule site of sperm formation


Among seminiferous tubules

(Leydig) cells secrete

Inside tubules:
< Concept:

= formation of gametes>

stem cell, diploid, differentiates

1 Primary

diploid, enters meiosis I

2 Secondary spermatocytes haploid, enter meiosis II


4

haploid, need to differentiate

gametes

< Concept:

= differentiation of spermatids into

spermatozoa>
Loose most cytoplasm and organelles
Golgi forms

cap in front of nucleus

Enzymes to penetrate cover of female gamete


Centrioles form long

(tail)
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Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system


Mitochondria concentrate around base of tail
No gas tank?
Energy will be provided as carbohydrates in fluids of male
and female reproductive tracts
Formed spermatozoa are
They are

by chemicals in secretions
of seminal vesicles

Start beating the tail vigorously


(

) cells wrap around sperm cells

From spermatogonium to spermatozoa


Support them, form blood-testes barrier
is the release of spermatozoa from nurse cell into
lumen of
seminiferous tubule
From seminiferous tubules => straight tubules => rete testes => epididymis

24.3.5 Epididymis
Long convoluted tubule
columnar epithelium with
Nourish and select spermatozoa store them

24.3.6 Ductus (vas) deferens


42 cm, pseudostratified columnar epithelium w/ stereocilia, and smooth muscle
From epididymis to prostate gland
Store dormant sperm for months
contractions for transport of spermatozoa
Terminal portion is

duct

Inside prostate, merges into urethra

24.3.7 Urethra
Passage for

and

3 portions
174

Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system


inside prostate gland
short portion that crosses urogenital diaphragm
inside penis

< Concept:

= sperm and fluid from testes and glands>


= amount of semen expelled at once

Typical 2.5 5 ml containing 50 150 million cells/ml

24.3.8 Accessory glands


Secretions
to neutralize vaginal acid
to nourish spermatozoa
substances that activate spermatozoa to start
vesicles - contribute with 60% of the volume in semen
A pair, located near attachment of vas deferens to prostate gland
gland contribute with 30% of the volume
Single gland, directly inferior to urinary bladder
gland contribute with 5% of the volume in semen
A pair, at the base of the penis, in contact with the urogenital diaphragm
Remaining 5% volume of semen brought with spermatozoa from testes

24.3.9 Penis
Passage for urine and semen
Parts
Erectile tissues
Contain many sinuses that can fill with blood, stiffening and enlarging the organ
2 corpora
1 corpus
Wrap around
Forms the whole
175

Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system

Loose

that covers glans

Surgically removed in
Can help reduce risk of infection if hygiene precarious
Muscles
stiffens the penis
wraps around penis and pushes semen out

24.4 Female reproductive system


24.4.1 Components
Reproductive organs (gonads) ovaries
Reproductive tract uterine (Fallopian) tubes, uterus, vagina
External genitalia vestibule within vulva
Accessory glands mammary glands

24.4.2 Broad ligament


Fold of

along coronal plane in the caudal portion of the


abdominopelvic cavity
embedded in broad ligament
Cranial portion of uterus and uterine tubes form cranial ridge of broad
ligament
at posterior to broad ligament, attached by mesovarium

176

Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system

24.4.3 Ovaries
Form

(oogenesis)
Like spermatogenesis with all cell names starting with

instead of

spermato
(see slides)
Other differences in

In both divisions,

keeps all the

cytoplasmatic resources
The other is discarded as a

, a non-functional

haploid nucleus
When the cell is released from the

, meiosis is not yet complete

The released cell is a secondary

, not yet an ovum

If the secondary oocyte is fertilized, then meiosis is completed and one of


the haploid nuclei fuses with that of the

Ovarian cycle
Each month, hormones lead

to develop
177

Human Anatomy
Each follicle contains an

24. Reproductive system


.
cells nourish it and produce hormones (

The follicle grows bulging the surface of the ovary, and it accumulates fluid. Some
follicular
cells remain attached to oocyte forming the
Under

action, the walls of the ovary and follicle


Oocyte is

with corona radiata =

Oocyte loose in

24.4.4 Uterine tubes


are extensions of the ends of the uterine tubes
Localize

and move it into

Uterine tube lined with ciliated and non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium
Cilia beat and transport

in 3-4 days

If sexual intercourse occurs


Spermatozoa are deposited in the
They swim up across the
They meet the oocyte at some point along the
in the acrosomal cap loosen connections between
cells

and oocyte, allowing spermatozoon to touch the


membrane of the oocyte and fertilize it

24.4.5 Uterus
Very muscular structure
Layers
Perimetrium
Cover produced by
Myometrium
Three layers of
Contracts to

during labor

Endometrium
Glandular tissue (epithelial + connective)
178

Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system


Two layers
closer to myometrium, structure stable over time
lines the uterus. Grows and degenerates at each ovarian

cycle, in response to hormonal changes. Growth include development of blood vessels.


Degeneration includes rupture of blood vessels.

is elimination of

degenerated functional layer and blood.

24.4.6 Vagina
Elastic muscular tube, from uterus to external genitalia
Roles
baby during labor
menstrual fluids
and semen during sexual intercourse
Distal end partially or completely closed by

(epithelial fold) in virgin

females

24.4.7 External genitalia


or pudendum
Large folds
Contain

related to corpus spongiosum of

penis
Have same development origin as

in males

Small folds delimit


entrance (might be closed by hymen)
opening
at anterior end
Erectile tissue related to

in

penis

179

Human Anatomy

24. Reproductive system

24.4.8 Mammary glands


A type of
Glands surrounded by

tissue in hypodermis of

breasts
Variation in

among woman relates mostly to amount of adipose

tissue
But breast size increases when mammary glands stimulated during pregnancy
Milk produced in gland accumulates in lactiferous

and lactiferous

Squeezed during
Ducts merge and open into
is dark skin surrounding nipple
Might look granular due to large

180