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TEACHING STRATEGIES: Introduction

TEACHING
refers to the activities of educating or instructing or teaching; activities that
impart knowledge or skill
STRATEGY
the science or art of combining and
employing the means of war in planning and directing large
military movements and operations
SUBTOPICS:
DISCOVERY APPROACH
CONCEPTUAL APPROACH
PROCESS APPROACH
INQUIRY APPROACH
UNIFIED APPROACH
DISCOVERY APPROACH
This approach pertains basically to cognitive aspect of learning; the
development and organizations of concepts, ideas and insights, and the use of
reference and other logical processes to control a situation.
Roles of the Teacher
Patience is needed in this approach. He does not pressure his students but he
gives them enough time to formulate the expected generalization.
The teacher should not answer for the students; he can give clues and hints
instead. He does not generalize for them.
Advantages
The increase in intellectual potency
The shift from extrinsic to intrinsic motivation
The learning of the heuristics of discovery (how to learn)
The aid to conserving memory
CONCEPTUAL APPROACH
This approach requires the categorization of content from simple to complex
level. Students need not go into an actual investigation or experimentation, which is
usually required in discovery approach. A simple act of recalling facts will suffice like
asking students to state certain phenomena that they observe.
Roles of the Teacher
The teacher using conceptual approach should be able to master the
cognitive hierarchy of discipline. He should be able to categorize all
knowledge pertinent to his area; from facts to concepts; from concepts to
generalizations; from generalizations to principles; and all of these should be
organized around conceptual schemes which are pervasive ideas embodying
the whole discipline.
The teacher should help students to gather sufficient data to enable them
form the expected generalization.
The teacher should not conceptualize for his students. The students should
conceptualize for themselves.
Advantages

Since conceptualization as process involves an active use of mind, certain


intellectual processes are being developed like classification, discrimination,
synthesis, and judgment. While knowledge is being processed, students have
to think logically and holistically.
One value of the students ability to generalize is that they can make use of
the insights gained in certain problematic situations.
They could see and realize that bits of information, which seem to be isolated
can be organized and pierced together like a jigsaw puzzle around a context
in the broader fundamental structure of a field of knowledge. Thus, they
become aware that every time the teacher presents a set of facts, the lesson
is to be approached in its totality. Thus, meaning is drawn out and derived
from it.

PROCESS APPROACH
The process approach may be defined as teaching in which knowledge is
used as a means to develop students learning skills.
This approach originated from and used to be a monopoly of science
instruction. Today, it is identified primarily with skill-oriented subjects like
practical arts and home economics and even with knowledge-laden subjects
like social studies.
The essence of the process approach lies on three major points:
emphasis on process implies a corresponding de-emphasis on the subject
content ( the concern is how to learn and not what to learn).
it centers upon the idea that what is taught to students should be functional
and not theoretical (e.g. if you learn mathematics do what mathematicians
do; if you learn science, do what scientists do; and if you learn music, do
what musicians do)
it introduces the consideration of human intellectual development (produces
the consideration of human intellectual development processes may refer to
intellectual skills).
Advantages
Teaching a man how to catch fish is must better than giving him fish every
time he needs it this is the adage recognized by process approach.
By developing the skills of the students, the teacher is preparing him to be
independent, self-sufficient, and productive person. This gives substance to
education as a process of preparing one for his own life.
INQUIRY APPROACH
The concept of inquiry refers to ones attempt to understand fundamental
issues and concerns that may affect ones status in life. From the point of
view of teaching and learning, the concept of inquiry gives premium to the
process of discovering what may be of help in motivating and in facilitating
proper accumulation of knowledge.
Characteristics:
Its emphasis is placed upon the aspects of search rather than on the mere
acquisition of knowledge. It addresses itself primarily to learning concepts,
although an end product of any inquiry lessons may be production of a new
idea of concept or a new invention. It is the search for truth, information or

knowledge. It pertains to research and investigation and to seeking for


information by asking questions.
This approach views a given discipline more as an attitude than as a body of
knowledge or as a method. Emphasizing the affective aspects of learning, it
uses both the content and processes as means toward the development of
the qualities of the mind as curiosity, skepticism, intellectual honesty and the
like.
In using this approach, the questions should proceed from the very factual to
thought-provoking questions that is from the what questions to the how
and why questions. More opportunities should be provided to students to
respond to questions that call for analysis, interpretation, evaluation, and
judgment.
The inquiry approach simply calls for the use of systematic method of
studying a problem so that solutions therefore be equally prepared and
implemented.
This approach encourages teacher to be open-minded, and to be gracious in
accepting criticisms and challenges with an end in view of insuring the
carrying out of school activities as planned.
ADVANTAGES:
it requires them to go beyond the knowledge and skills levels of learning
toward the affective dimensions like their attitudes, values, appreciations and
the like.
They are expected to become more analytical and less gullible.
When students have adopted the spirit of inquiry, they become more curious
and observant individuals.
Teachers by and large present knowledge in its isolated and fragmented bits,
as if each bit is an independent entity by itself. Once presented to students,
these unrelated bits of information seem to be likely unattractive and
meaningless to them. They might be able to memorize them for sometime
but there is no guarantee that they will retain them. Their tendency is to
recite them by rote, especially when there is an examination scheduled in a
days time or two.

UNIFIED APPROACH
Teachers by and large present knowledge in its isolated and fragmented bits,
as if each bit is an independent entity by itself. Once presented to students,
these unrelated bits of information seem to be likely unattractive and
meaningless to them. They might be able to memorize them for sometime
but there is no guarantee that they will retain them. Their tendency is to
recite them by rote, especially when there is an examination scheduled in a
days time or two.
But after the test is given, such bits are surely relegated to oblivion.
The unified approach is defined as means of treating relationships that exist
among the significant components making up a given body of knowledge. It
is a thorough process of weaving and integrating topics into a general
framework or a conceptual scheme. This simply means that the teacher does
not treat each concept as an island by itself but rather he relates the
previously learned concept with the new concept, until finally the students

are able to see the interrelationships among the various concepts that serve
as the mainstays or as the cognitive pillars of an academic subject. Its
primary aim is to enhance the students learning by making him view things
in their entirety or totality.
CHARACTERISTICS:
it is highly cognitive
it leads students toward insightful and meaningful learning ( concepts on
comparison, linking up, ascertaining the cause and effect, determining
prerequisites, predicting results, synthesis)
it is holistic in treatment

TEACHING STRATEGIES AND METHODOLOGIES FOR TEACHING & LEARNING


I. Traditional Teaching strategies
Lecturing
Discussion
Questioning
Using audio-visuals
II. Activity based strategies
Cooperative learning
Simulations
Problem based learning
Self-learning modules
III. Computer teaching strategies
Computer-assisted instructions
Internet
Virtual reality
IV. Distance learning
Interactive television
Classes via internet
V. Teaching psychomotor skills
Approaches
Assessment of pscyhomotor skills learning
VI. Clinical Teaching
Purpose of clinical laboratory
Models of clinical teaching
Preparation of clinical instruction
Conducting a clinical laboratory research
I.

TRADITIONAL
a. Lecturing

b. Discussion
c. Questioning
d. Using Audio-visual
a.
1.

LECTURING
TRADITIONAL ORAL ESSAY
The teacher is the orator and ONLY speaker
Expositions done on topic inspirational or information

2. PARTICIPATORY LECTURE
Begins w/ brainstorming from what students read
3. LECTURE W/ UNCOMPLETED HANDOUTS
Resembles traditional oral essay but w/ handouts (blank spaces)
4. FEEDBACK LECTURE
Consists of mini-lectures interspaced w/ 10 minute small group discussions
5. MEDIATED LECTURE uses media such as films, slides or Web based images +
traditional lecture
PURPOSES OF LECTURES:
1. Efficient means of introducing learners to new topic and sets the stage of
learning
2. Stimulates learners interest
3. Helps to integrate and synthesize a large body of knowledge
4. For clarification of difficult parts (arrythmia, acid-base balances)
5. To advance knowledge when textbooks are not available
ADVANTAGES OF LECTURING:
1. It is economical. Great deal of information shared.
2. Supplies and textbooks become true to life theater
3. Teacher serves as model students see a creative mind at work
4. Helps students develop their listening abilities
DISADVANTAGES OF LECTURING:
1. Puts learners in the PASSIVE ROLE of a sponge
2. Focuses on the TEACHING OF FACTS with little focus on PS, DM, analytical
thinking or transfer of learning results in SURFACE learning
3. Does not meet students individual learning needs
4. Students have little attention time span (15 minutes)
ORGANIZING LECTURES:
Take time to plan for the objective of a lecture
Make an outline
HEIRARCHICAL/CLASSICAL
LECTURE
o Ex. Research Design

DELIVERING THE LECTURE:


Plan your delivery
Rehearse
Consciously think of the delivery to maximize effectiveness
2. DISCUSSIONS
TYPES OF DISCUSSIONS:
1. FORMAL DISCUSSIONS
Announced topic
Reading, watching movie done in advance
2. INFORMAL DISCUSSIONS
Spontaneous
PURPOSES & ADVANTAGES:
1. Learns problem solving method (groups)
2. Opportunity to apply principles, concepts & theories
3. Clarifies information & concepts
4. Assists to evaluate beliefs/positions (professional, societal or ethical issues)
change in attitudes & values
DISADVANTAGES:
1. Takes a lot of time
2. One person/few participants (monopolies)
3. Gathering of uninformed opinions
DISCUSSION TECHNIQUES:
1. Make expectations clear.
Students know exactly what they have to do for discussion Ex. Chapter
to read, watch a video
2. Set ground rules.
Limitations (e.g. time, no. of speakers, interruptions during speech)
3. Arrange physical space.
Circle sitting arrangement
4. Plan a discussion starter.
Ask participants to come up with opening questions
Study questions handed out prior to meeting
5. Facilitate, do not discuss.
Refrain from talking. Watch group progress. Keep everyone engage in
discussions.
6. Encourage quiet members to participate.
Make eye contact and smile.
Give direct, simple questions: Mary, what do you think?
7. Dont allow monopolies.
Eye contact.
Be blunt when needed.. Weve been hearing a lot fro Sarah. Now, let us
hear of the rest of you think.
8. Direct the discussion among group members.

Leaders facilitate.
9. Keep the discussion on track.
We seem to have strayed a little from our topic. Lets pick up on the last
topic that Lot was talking about.
10.
Clarify when confusion reigns.
Recording may help the group. Let them learn the act of clear selfexpression.
11.
Tolerate some silence. Silence gives everyone a chance to
think.
12.
Summarize when appropriate.
4. QUESTIONING
FUNCTIONS OF QUESTIONS:
1. Places the learners in an active role
Simple recall
Helps students analyze concepts
Evaluate worth of ideas
Speculate if
2. Assesses baseline knowledge retention
3. Helps review content enlightens gray areas
4. Motivates students
Stimulates thinking & curiosity
5. Guides learners thought process
LEVELS OF QUESTIONS:
1. According to WINK classification
A. CONVERGENT Qs
specific, usually short & unexpected answers
PURPOSE -- recall and integrate information
Ex. What happens to the bronchioles when a client has pneumonia versus
an asthma attack?
B. DIVERGENT Qs
Generates new ideas, draws implications, formulates a new perspective
Ex. What might happen if you relocate an elderly person with dementia to
another type of residence where he or she is presently living?
2. According to BARDEN
A. LOWER-ORDER QUESTIONS
Recall information, read or memorize
B. HIGHER-ORDER QUESTIONS
Requires comprehension and critical thinking
TYPES OF QUESTIONS:
1. FACTUAL QUESTIONS
Requires simple recall questions
Assess learners understanding
To check if students are listening
2. PROBING QUESTIONS

3.
4.

5.

6.

7.

Seeks further explanation


Ex. Can you explain that?
MCQs
Tests recall or used to begin a discussion
OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS
All questions that request learners to construct an answer
Ex. When shall you use clean versus sterile dressing technique?
DISCUSSION-STIMULATING Qs
Uses various questions to promote the topic
Ex. Do you agree with Johns position?
QUESTIONS THAT GUIDE PS
Guides learners through problem solving thinking
Ex. What information do you need to have before we can solve this
problem?
RHETORICAL QUESTIONS
Stimulates thinking
Guides learners into asking some of their own questions

QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES:
Supportive teachers promote questioning
1. Prepare some questions ahead of time
Match with objectives
2. State questions clearly and specifically
Ex. Can you give me an example of how respnodeat superior can be
practiced?
3. Tolerate some silence.
4. Listen carefully to responses.
Dont interrupt.
5. Use the beam, force, build technique.
BEAM send Q to the class
FORCE call one student at a time
BUILD redirect the question to other students
6. Provide feedback.
Allow a few seconds of silence and ask, Can anyone add to the answer?
7. Handle wrong answers carefully.
I am sorry Edward but its not quite it.
Yvette, you are correct in saying that ____, but that is not the best way to
go.
STIMULATING LEARNERS TO ASK QUESTIONS:
Learners should be rewarded for asking good questions.
Thinking is driven not by answers by good questioning.
HOW TO ENGAGE?
Thank or praise the student for asking questions.
Talk to the whole class not only the questioner. This keeps the whole
class / group involved.

5. USING VISUAL AIDS


Can enhance teaching
Can add interest to the classroom
Issues:
Correct choice?
Available?
Effective?
FACTORS TO CONSIDER: SELECTING MEDIA:
Learning objectives
Opt for variety
Availability of materials / technical assistance
Level, ability
TYPES OF TRADITIONAL AUDIOVISUALS
HANDOUTS
Printed materials communicate facts, figures, concepts
Saves a lot of time for information
CHALKBOARDS/ WHITEBOARDS
Useful for mathematical problems
OVERHEAD TRANSPARENCIES (OHP)
Saves time, helps organize and illustrates content
Costly
SLIDES
Used to show pictures, project diagrams, charts and word
concepts
ADVANTAGES OF SLIDES:
Affordable
Easy to store
Easy to update/ recognize
DISADVANTAGES OF SLIDES:
Costly projector bulbs dont last long
5. VIDEO TAPES
In-house filming, video-clips
Used during:
role playing;
communication;
counseling skills
ADVANTAGES OF VIDEOTAPES:
Provides personal touch
Standardized exposure in spite of distance
Used at learners own pacing
DISADVANTAGES OF VIDEOTAPES
Costly
Communication is one way learners become passive

II. ACTIVITY BASED TEACHING STRATEGIES


1. Cooperative learning
2. Simulations
3. Problem based learning
4. Self-learning modules