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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

Abstract

This study was designed to determine the significance between emotional intelligence
and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level. The participants of the study were twentyseven (27) elementary students of Santolan Table Tennis Club. All members of the population,
which consisted of 11% females and 89% males with a mean age of 8.52, were selected. The
study used a correlational research design where the two variables of interest were measured
using Sullivans Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder Risk Level. Upon statistical analysis, an obtained value of -.603 was found to be greater
than the tabled value of .381 under a .05 level of significance. Results suggested that emotional
intelligence was significantly different from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level and
that the relationship between the two was negative.

Nikki Angeli Sarmiento, October 2011

Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

CHAPTER I
PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION
We worry about what a child will become tomorrow, yet we forget that he is someone today.
~ Stacia Tauscher

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common


neurobehavioral disorders of children, which may start in early childhood and becomes more
pronounced in middle and late childhood (Santrock, 2006). This is relatively understandable
since the child is in a stage when formal schooling becomes a part of his or her environment and
he or she is now faced with academic and social demands that may be particularly stressful.
When a child experiences such pressure, it is normal to develop concentration and behavior
problems at some point or another. However, children who have attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder exhibit a number of maladaptive behaviors that persist consistently for a long period of
time and can impede productivity at school and can cause faulty relationships with parents,
siblings, teachers, classmates and friends (CDC, 2010).
Children with ADHD are usually low in emotional intelligence because such disorder
debilitates certain areas of the brain that regulate emotions. Emotional intelligence is defined as
the ability to perceive, understand and manage feelings and may be assessed by standardized
instruments that quantify a childs Emotional Quotient (EQ). Diminished competencies in
empathy, emotion management and self-motivation are risk factors that can cause school failure,
conduct disorders, delinquent activities and antisocial personalities. The main problem linked to
Nikki Angeli Sarmiento, October 2011

Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

ADHD is poor self-regulation, which is synonymous to poor self-control. According to Ruenzel,


it is also noteworthy to consider that the degree to which a child is disliked in the first to third
grade of elementary school is the most significant predictor of school dropout, juvenile
delinquency and future mental health issues. To ones dismay, children with ADHD are found to
be more disliked by their peers than any other group (Moore, 2010).
The mind of a child with ADHD is somewhat similar to that of a video game, where
everything is coming at you at once and every sight, sound and sensation is a distraction. Such
experience describes an unusual day for the child. This helps us understand why children with
the disorder have impaired concentration, memory, impulse control, thought processing speed
and ability to follow orders. One major breakthrough in finding the treatment for ADHD is the
discovery of the brains neuroplasticity which poses that the human brain is capable of growing
additional neurons or modifying the function of the existing nerve cells. It also suggests the
application of cognitive exercises to develop such physiological change in the human brain
which affects the thought processes that can produce more adaptive behaviors (Myers, n.d.).

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The first main framework provided for this literature review is Erik Eriksons Stages of
Psychosocial Development, particularly in middle and late childhood. Eriksons argument that
developmental changes happen throughout a humans life span led to the construction of the
eight life-span stages. According to him, each stage includes an exclusive developmental task
that presents the individual with a crisis that he or she must resolve. The middle and late
childhood pertains to children aged six years to puberty or those in their early elementary school
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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

years. The developmental task in this stage is industry versus inferiority which implies that
children must learn to develop their intellectual skills and enhance their productivity or else they
will develop a sense of inferiority or the feeling of incompetence. At no other time is the child
more enthusiastic about learning than at the end of early childhoods period of expansive
imagination. As such, teachers play a major role in this stage of the childs life to accomplish
the task. Erikson also noted, Teachers should mildly but firmly coerce children into the
adventure of finding out that one can learn to accomplish things which one would never have
thought of by oneself (Santrock, 2006).
The second main framework is Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development. He posed that
children maintain an active construction of their understanding of the world by going through
four stages of cognitive development. Children in the middle and late childhood stage possess a
preoperational to concrete operational stage but mostly of the latter. Children aged six to seven
years tend to represent the world through words and images that reflect symbolic thinking
beyond the connection of sensory information and physical action. Later on, usually up to the
eleventh year of the child, he is able to perform internalized mental actions. This is the stage
where concrete operations and logical reasoning is exhibited. An important skill of the concrete
operational child is the ability to classify objects or concepts into different sets and subsets and to
analyse their interrelationships, which is also referred to as hierarchical representation (Santrock,
2006). This implies that children in middle childhood are capable of more complex thought and
reasoning.
The study was conducted at Santolan Table Tennis Club in Pasig City on school year
2011-2012. The participants consisted of elementary students aged five to twelve years old.
There were two psychological variables in the study, namely emotional intelligence and attention
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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk level, which were assessed to determine their
significant difference.
Figure 1 presents the model of conceptual framework or the research paradigm of the
study.

RESEARCH PARADIGM
Figure 1

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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS

This study aimed to determine the relationship between emotional intelligence and
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level. Included in this study are elementary students
of Santolan Table Tennis Club in Pasig City Year 2011-2012. Specifically, it aimed to answer
the following questions:
1. Who are the participants in terms of:
a. Age
b. Sex
2. What is the level of emotional intelligence among elementary students of Santolan
Table Tennis Club?
3. What is the level of risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among elementary
students of Santolan Table Tennis Club?
4. Is there a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder risk level among elementary students of Santolan Table Tennis
Club?

OBJECTIVES

1. To describe the participants in terms of:


a. Age
b. Gender

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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

2. To determine the level of emotional intelligence among elementary students of


Santolan Table Tennis Club.
3. To identify the level of risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among
elementary students of Santolan Table Tennis Club.
4. To distinguish the relationship between emotional intelligence and attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder risk level among elementary students of Santolan Table Tennis
Club.

HYPOTHESIS

1. There is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and attention


deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level among elementary students of Santolan Table
Tennis Club.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is estimated that there are 1.3 million Filipino children diagnosed with ADHD (Grecia,
2008). Another fact: this childhood behavioral problem affects 3 to 4 percent of the countrys
population with its social, academic and emotional impacts affecting an approximate 4 million
Filipinos nationwide (Arroyo, 2003). The list goes on but one thing is clear: ADHD is real and
our developing country is not immune to a condition first described by the Western world.
To explain the chosen measure of the study, the researchers believe that emotional
intelligence is a more significant predictor of future success in life in a child with ADHD. Most
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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

adults who have ADHD are more likely to jump from one relationship or career to another. They
seem to move aimlessly, as if trying to look for the suitable partner or job which they perceive
can help them achieve their best. The fact that they are indecisive or unsure about their life
decisions suggests that the psychosocial impacts of their disorder have something to do with a
weakness in emotional intelligence, rather than in intellectual capacity. John Mayer, who coined
the term Emotional Intelligence, argues that those who have gained success, have worked
their way up the ladder, and have strong coping skills are those who have developed their
emotional intelligence and that intrinsic skills, education and high IQ are just all secondary
(Shafir, n.d.)
This study may be used as a reference in distinguishing the relationship of a childs
emotional intelligence to that of his or her risk level for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It
can serve as an implication that the development of emotional skills is fundamental during the
childhood stage because it can greatly help the individual cope with future anxiety throughout
the adulthood stage.
The study is particularly significant to the elementary students of Santolan Table Tennis
Club for it enables them to determine their level of emotional intelligence and level of risk for
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Such information will help them create an awareness to
maintain adaptive behaviors and modify maladaptive ones.
It is also significant to adolescents and adults with ADHD as the results of the study may
make them consider adopting educational and behavioral programs that aim to enhance ones
emotional intelligence.
Since the most effective intervention for ADHD entails the collaboration of the childs
family and school, the study may benefit parents and teachers in the same way that it may benefit
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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

their children and students. Through this study, parents can understand the importance of taking
extra steps to ensure their child is getting the most help he or she can get. These may include
choosing schools that offer specialized education, seeking the guidance of a child counselor and
using behavioral interventions that emphasize social and emotional aspects. On the other hand,
teachers can better understand the implications of ADHD and promote the most feasible ways
that can help make the life of the child easier.
Among the other people who can benefit from the study are child psychologists and
therapists, government institutions and non-profit organizations dedicated to making a difference
in the ADHD childs life and other researchers who are interested in analysing the characteristics
of ADHD as well as in finding out the most effective prevention.

SCOPE, DELIMITATION AND LIMITATIONS

The scope of the study involved the utilization of Sullivans Emotional Intelligence Scale
for Children (EISC). The test consisted of twenty-four items which aimed to measure the ability
of the child to perceive, understand and manage emotions of the self and others. It also involved
the use of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Rating Scale (ADHD-SRS).
The instrument was designed to identify, diagnose, treat and monitor ADHD symptoms in
children with ages ranging from five (5) to eighteen (18) years.
The researchers chose elementary students of Santolan Table Tennis Club in Pasig City
as the participants for the study. The symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are
usually distinguished during the elementary school years due to the increased academic and
social demands of formal education. These also include a stricter set of standards for behavioral
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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

control (Santrock, 2006). Also, Ruenzel argued that the extent to which a child is disliked in the
elementary school determines school dropout, juvenile delinquency and future mental problems
(Moore, 2010). This implies that assessment and intervention is most appropriate in the middle
and late childhood developmental stage. Furthermore, to justify the population chosen, the
researchers believe that a small number of participants will well suffice for understanding human
behavior with regard to the research topic and methodology.
With regard to the type of research design, the main limitation of employing the
correlational research design was its inability to draw cause-and-effect conclusions. This means
that only correlational relationships were derived from the results since the variables were not
manipulated in the study. However, such design was useful in determining potential causal
relationships that can allow the development of hypotheses and can be further tested in
experimental conditions (Bordens and Abbott, 2008).

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms are defined operationally or as used in the study to give the readers a
more coherent understanding of the study.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It referred to the childhood behavioral disorder that
causes the child a multitude of maladaptive behaviors, especially in the cognitive and
psychosocial areas.
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level. It referred to the score of the participant
in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Rating Scale.
Emotional Intelligence. It was measured by obtaining the emotional quotient of the participant.
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Emotional Quotient. It referred to the score of the participant in Sullivans Emotional


Intelligence Scale for Children.
Middle and Late Childhood. It refers to the developmental stage of first to sixth grade
elementary students.

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CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter presents various foreign and local literature and studies which are
significantly related to the present study. The references cited are used by the researchers to
obtain a greater understanding about the topics on emotional intelligence and attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder, with specific regard to middle and late childhood developmental stage.

Related Literature
Foreign
According to the American Psychiatric Association, there are 3 to 7% school-aged
children who have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also known as ADHD). Other
statistics show us that as of 2007, 5.4 million children aged 4 to 17 years or approximately 9.5%
of the population have ever been diagnosed with the behavioral disorder. The rates of diagnosis
have also shown an increasing mark, gaining an average of 3% each year from 1997 to 2006 and
even increased 5.5% from 2003 to 2007 (CDC, 2010). These data suggests that ADHD is one of
the most prevalent neurobehavioral disorders of childhood which may first present itself during
preschool or early school years and may last until adulthood (Sternberg, 2006).
ADHD is but one classification among several other behavior disorders common in
childhood and the disorder can be further classified into three subtypes: predominantly
inattentive type, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive and combined type. Most children possess
the latter classification, which is characterized by the presence of six or more of the symptoms of
inattention and six or more of the symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity as indicated by the
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Children whose characteristics lean more
towards the inattention type usually find it difficult to sustain attention and organize behaviors
and tend to lose and forget things often. The hyperactivity characteristic makes children fidgety,
talkative and restless while impulsivity is manifested by impatience and a tendency to cut people
off while they are still talking (Hoeksema, 2008). A complete list of the diagnostic criteria for
ADHD can be viewed in the appendix.
The disorder was first described in 1845 by a certain Dr. Heinrich Hoffman and since
then, the condition has been a great interest to researchers. Various factors were attributed to be
the cause of ADHD, such as heredity, maternal smoking and drinking, lead exposure, brain
injury and food additive (Sternberg, 2006).
As with any neurobehavioral condition, ADHD can produce various effects on the
socioemotional development of the child. Especially in elementary years, it can cause difficult
peer relationships. Rejection by peers may result at a higher risk for anxiety, behavioral and
mood disorders, substance abuse and juvenile delinquency. Studies suggest that children
diagnosed with the predominantly inattentive type may be perceived as shy or withdrawn by
their peers while those classified under predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type tend to exhibit
aggressive behaviors which other children may generally dislike and reject (CDC, 2010).
Additionally, children who possess the disorder typically have a lower emotional
intelligence than those who do not. This may be attributed to the fact that ADHD affects areas of
the brain that controls emotions. Even though the child has a great intellectual potential, he or
she is at risk for academic problems, alcoholism and delinquent behaviors because such emotion
management is impaired. According to Howard Garner, the proponent of the Multiple
Intelligences theory, no intelligence is more important than the interpersonal. An individual
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who lacks interpersonal skills may conduct poor choices such as in marriage, career, and other
significant life decisions. He therefore recommends schools to supply children with adequate
interpersonal skills that they will find immensely useful later on. Dr. Daniel Goleman also agrees
that different components of a persons emotional quotient, such as empathy, emotion
management and self-motivation, are fundamental factors for a successful life. Fortunately, the
emotional lessons that are learned in childhood are intrinsically flexible (Moore, 2010). This
implies that if intervention should be made to address the childs lack in emotional capacity, the
childhood stage is the best time to apply it.
Once the child enters formal education, he or she is exposed to an apparent increase in
academic and social demands as well as a stricter implementation of rules which serve to control
the childs behaviors. The school problems that a child with ADHD faces are difficulty working
independently, completing seatwork, organizing work, restlessness, distractability and boredom
during repetitive tasks (Santrock, 2006).
Stimulant medications, such as Ritalin, Dexedrine and Adderall, are the most widely used
treatments for children with ADHD. A study by Joshi found that a 70 to 85 percent of children
with the disorder showed decreases in demanding, disruptive and noncompliant behavior and
increases in positive mood, goal-directedness and quality of social interactions when they were
administrated with the stimulant drugs. The side effects of medication consist of diminished
appetite, insomnia, edginess and gastrointestinal problems and increased frequency of behavioral
tics. On top of that, the benefits acquired from pharmacotherapy, when applied alone, seem to be
short-term and temporary. The best alternative is to administer stimulant medication along with
behavioral interventions that aim on strengthening attentive, goal-directed and prosocial
behaviors and on eradicating maladaptive behaviors (Hoeksema, 2008).
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Among the behavioral techniques that improve self-regulatory brain processes in


individuals with ADHD are hypnotherapy, guided visual imagery, biofeedback and relaxation
training. According to Donney and Poppen, relaxation training reduces maladaptive behaviors
and enforces adaptive ones in hyperactive children. Such training enables children to be selfaware of the changes in their bodies when faced with stress, like sweaty palms, butterflies in the
stomach and elevated heartbeat. Once the children have become aware of these stress-induced
changes, they are capable of using relaxation techniques such as visual imagery to aid in selfregulation (Moore, 2010).

Local
According to the World Health Organization, 10% of the childrens population in
developing countries such as the Philippines suffer from incapacitating conditions. Drug and
alcohol abuse and HIV/AIDS are some of the factors which are connected to child disability.
While the disability may be characterized physically, like fetal alcohol syndrome, it can also be
manifested through behavioral problems. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a devastating
condition where the stricken child is unable to deal with the demands brought on them. The
major symptoms of the disorder consist of weak attention span, impulsiveness and irritability or
aggressiveness. An organization, called the ADHD Society of the Philippines, was founded to
provide psychoeducation among parents of children with special needs. This includes the
description of the disorder, its characteristics and how families, relatives and teachers can help
(PCCO, 2002).
An estimation of three to five percent of school-aged children is diagnosed with ADHD.
The three primary characteristics of ADHD can be addressed to students by various ways.
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Symptoms of inattentiveness, for one, can be undertaken by utilizing seating arrangements that
allow the children to exercise self-independence in school works, by maintaining a quiet
environment while administrating knowledge, by encouraging attention and concentration
exercises, by providing frequent breaks or distributed practice, by giving brief assignments, by
constructing an organized plan of activities and by employing multisensory materials. For
hyperactivity symptoms, these may be addressed by providing the children with kinaesthetic and
tactual tasks, by encouraging learning tasks that require the use of movement, by encouraging
students to utilize dance, drama and pantomime as a means of learning and by allowing the
students to assist in more mature tasks. Symptoms of impulsivity among children with ADHD
can be alleviated by encouraging them to consider several options before coming up with the
final answer, by completing a plan of activities, by requiring students to raise their hand before
giving a response, by allowing students to check their own works before submitting and by
allotting enough time for students to think of an answer before responding. The most effective
strategy for dealing with such children is the one that requires the cooperation and contribution
of several significant people in the childs life, such as parents, teachers and other adults
(Tenedoro, 2010).
Marc Daniel Amuyot, who was in grade six at the time, graduated his primary education
with third honor in his class despite being a special child with mild ADHD. Among his dreams is
to be the first Filipino to join the National Basketball Association. He believed that proper
intervention from parents and school enables every student to become good members of a
normal society. He was grateful to his classmates who did not criticize him or make him feel
different because of his condition. On the contrary, they provided him with patience and
understanding. Encouraging parents, helpful teachers, understanding friends and the presence of
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special education facilities along with regular schooling of his elementary school were the right
ingredients necessary for Amuyots extraordinary success. He further added, This is to show
that people like me can be just as important members of the society (Villafania, 2011).
In fact, even internationally successful motivational speaker Francis Kong recounted
having suffered from ADHD when he was a child. He remembered he couldnt sit still, had
trouble following rules, talked a lot but refused to participate in class discussions and failed high
school three times earning him a PhD or Passing High-School with Difficulty. At that time
though, the disorder was not yet well-established and appropriate medications and interventions
were unavailable. Nonetheless, he succeeded and beat the odds. He believed that God has a plan
for him and that he is wonderfully and beautifully made (Kong, 2010).
In her term, former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo issued the Proclamation No. 472
or declaring the third week of October of every year as National Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity
Disorder (AD/HD) Awareness Week. The proclamation defines the disorder as a common
serious neuro-biological disorder in every country affecting some three (3%) percent to four
(4%) percent of the countrys population and as a chronic brain disorder with social, academic
and emotional impacts which can affect an estimated four (4) million Filipinos nationwide. It
further states that absence in understanding and awareness about ADHD contributes to
misconceptions and undesired social stigma which may prevent Filipino with ADHD access to
effective treatment and puts them at risk for further complications such as conduct disorder,
oppositional defiant disorder and anti-social disorder. Up to seventy percent of juvenile offenders
and forty percent of incarcerated adults were found to have ADHD and such condition may
produce increased occurrence of out-of-school youths, child abuse and neglect. It also
acknowledges that most Filipinos with ADHD possess above average intelligence and are
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immensely creative, energetic, efficient multitaskers and have the potential to become pathbeaters. The proclamation finally concludes that right management and support are the two
things that can pave the way to productive and meaningful lives and thereby contribute to the
Philippines moral, financial and spiritual recovery (Arroyo, 2003).

Related Studies
Foreign
The maladaptive behaviors of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD) were found to improve after they were exposed to a program that focused on
emotional intelligence. Learners with ADHD have different levels of emotional intelligence from
peers who do not have the disorder. The former (experimental group) were found to follow a
decreasing pattern of scores after they were exposed to an emotional intelligence program, while
the former (control group) showed the opposite. However, it was interesting to note that the
learners with ADHD maintained an initial self-perception of having higher levels of emotional
intelligence than their peers without ADHD. This signifies that children with ADHD have a hard
time performing an accurate evaluation of them although after the application of the program,
they were able to perceive having average levels of emotional intelligence. It can be further
concluded that a program on emotional intelligence will be useful in promoting awareness of
emotional intelligence and in enhancing the maladaptive symptoms and behaviors of children
with ADHD (Wooton, 2009).
It has been found that children with ADHD showed a significantly below expectation of
performance in reading, writing and mathematical skills and exhibited a greater discrepancy
between actual and expected achievement than children without ADHD. This suggests that
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children with more severe symptoms and behaviors related to ADHD are more likely to produce
negative school performance (Barry, Lyman and Kliner, 2002).
In relation to the aforementioned findings, it was also revealed that emotional
intelligence, age and motivation were powerful predictors to academic achievement of children.
This implies that schools should greatly consider integrating emotional intelligence in the school
curriculum and that teachers, counselling and educational psychologists should cultivate a potent
achievement motivation within each student by providing significant counselling interventions
and conducive environment. By doing so, the students can improve on their academic
performance (Ogundokun and Adeyemo, 2010).
Skill building technique is an alternative method of treatment for children with ADHD.
This includes techniques that aim to teach the children skills to improve attention, promote
relaxation and achieve better self-control over their maladaptive behaviors. A common
perception is that medications or drug treatment can induce a significant difference in the childs
quality of life. However, these only deal with the symptoms of the disorder. They can create
chemical modifications within the brain but are unable to make structural changes and eradicate
the root cause or underlying problem. Although skill building techniques require time investment
and constant practice, they can encourage the development of the brain to the point that
pharmacotherapy is no longer required or greatly reduced. Such techniques include autogenics,
meditation, self-hypnosis, progressive muscle relaxation and visual imagery (Moore, 2001).

Local
Approximately 1.3 million Filipino children, and growing, have ADHD. In the Filipinos
point of view, especially parents of children with ADHD, the disorder is viewed as a challenge or
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source of confusion. Parents question their capacity to take care of their child. A study sought to
understand the struggles of Filipino children diagnosed with the condition and the necessary
adjustment they have to make in their daily activities. Moreover, it explored the impact of
ADHD on the inner world of a Filipino school-aged child by utilizing the phenomenological
approach and multiple case study design. The result was a comprehensive documentation of the
struggles, views, feelings, adjustment strategies, sources of support, self-esteem, anxiety, needs
and desires, occupations and occupational performance of school-aged Filipino children. It was
suggested that ADHD confronts the childs sense of proficiency and acceptance particularly on
interpersonal relationships and academic activities. It was also found that the childrens values,
roles and interests were related to the needs of their inner world (Grecia, 2008).
Another Filipino study attempted to identify important policies, present institutional
programs and available intervention techniques of teachers and parents with regards to the
education of Filipino children with ADHD. It revealed that concrete measures were followed by
various educational institutions to cater the needs of their students with ADHD. Such procedures
were categorized into four models of intervention that contain ten institutional programs. The
end result of the study is an ideal program proposal with relevant elements that will guarantee the
academic success of students with ADHD. The model focuses on inclusive environment and
individualized educational program which will facilitate the cause. As with the previous related
studies, the strong partnership of the childs family and school forms the foundation of any
educational programs progress and effectiveness (Manaligod, 2005).
In terms of intervention for behavior-related childhood problems, it was suggested that
shadow teaching scheme is useful in educating and training children with special needs, such as
in the case of autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Shadow teaching scheme, a
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form of collaborative teaching, is described as having two teachers inside the classroom where
one provides the learning content or material while another assists with the seatworks or
exercises. In the study, the child with special needs is put in regular class where a regular teacher
provides the lesson while a therapist or special education teacher (shadow teacher) is in charge of
curriculum planning, behavior management, social skills management and team working with
the regular teacher. The study implied that both regular teacher and shadow teacher believes that
their collaborative efforts contribute to the improvement of the childrens academic performance,
psychosocial skills and self-independence (Manansala and Dizon, 2008).

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Synthesis of Related Literature and Studies

The relevant literature and studies regarding emotional intelligence and attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tells us several things. First, ADHD is a behavioral disorder that
usually occurs among school-aged children because its symptoms are most pronounced in the
middle and late childhood. Second, various physiological and environmental factors were linked
to the disorder, such as heredity, maternal smoking, lead exposure, brain injury and food
additive, although it may also be attributed to the increased academic and social demands
brought about by school. Third, ADHD produces quite a number of maladaptive behaviors such
as poor attention and organizational skills and lack of self-independence. These maladaptive
behaviors in turn affect the cognitive and psychosocial functioning of the child later in life, as
evident by poor judgment and decision-making skills in life choices and social relationships.
Fourth, children who are diagnosed with ADHD are found to have lower emotional intelligence
as opposed to children who are not. This implies that children must be supplied with adequate
interpersonal skills and emotional lessons as early as possible so that they can reduce their risk
for academic problems, delinquent behaviors and other future adulthood disorders. Fifth,
educational programs that emphasize the importance of emotional intelligence are useful in
helping the students adapt to the pressure and anxiety they experience at school.
Given the previous information, the present study sought to establish a correlational link
between the emotional intelligence of young children and their corresponding risk level for
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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CHAPTER III
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the method used in the study. It includes the research design
employed, the nature of the participants, the sampling technique applied, the data-gathering
procedure utilized and the statistical treatment of data.

RESEARCH DESIGN

The study made use of a correlational research design to determine the relationship
between the two variables of interest, namely emotional intelligence and attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder risk level. This implies that the variables were merely observed by the
researchers and were not manipulated. A couple of psychological instruments, such as Sullivans
Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Symptoms Rating Scale, were utilized to obtain a measure of the variables. After data was
gathered, appropriate statistical treatment was applied to analyze them.

RESEARCH LOCALE

The study was conducted at Santolan Table Tennis Club located at 11 Sgt. De Leon
Street Santolan, Pasig City under the supervision of its president, Mr. Andrei Hans Hugo. Figure
2 presents a map of Santolan Table Tennis Club showing the main route, Evangelista Avenue,
and major landmark, Santolan Elementary School (Google, 2011).
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Emotional Intelligence & Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Elementary Students

MAP OF SANTOLAN TABLE TENNIS CLUB


Figure 2

POPULATION, SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The population consisted of twenty-seven (27) elementary students who were members
of Santolan Table Tennis Club. It had a mean age of 8.52 years and was comprised of three (3)
females and twenty-four (24) males. They are currently in the developmental stage of middle and
late childhood which, as discussed earlier, is the period when signs of attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder becomes more pronounced because of significantly increased academic
and social demands (Santrock, 2006) thus making the chosen population appropriate for the
study.

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No sampling technique was employed since all members of the population were selected.
As a result, this greatly enhanced the internal and external validity of the study.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS

One of the main instruments utilized in the study was Sullivans Emotional Intelligence
Scale for Children (EISC). The test consisted of twenty-four (24) items which measured the
childs ability to perceive, understand and manage emotions of the self and others. It comprised
of a qualitative component and a quantitative component, wherein the child was presented with
three responses: Yes, Dont know and No. A correct response was coded as a 1 or one
point while an incorrect or Dont know response was coded as a 0 or no point (Sullivan,
1999).
The other main instrument was the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms
Rating Scale (ADHD-SRS), which was devised by Dr. Melissa Lea Holland, Dr. Gretchen A.
Gimpel and Dr. Kenneth W. Merrell. According to the product information on its website, it is a
standardized, norm-referenced ADHD rating scale that may be used for clinical assessment or
research purposes and was constructed to aid in symptom identification, diagnosis, treatment
planning, and monitoring treatment progress in children and adolescents ages 5-18 years. The
ADHD-SRS is a highly reliable and valid tool consisting of fifty-six (56) items that provide
comprehensive assessment of the disorder on two subscales, such as Hyperactive-Impulsive and
Inattention, based on the fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
(PAR, 2011).

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Other research instruments consisted of a personal computer (Samsung N150 Plus) which
was used to tabulate and analyze the data obtained from the study. Pencils and paper were also
used to administer the psychological tests.
An informed consent agreement was secured from the president and sports instructor,
who served as the teacher and guardian of the students, to adhere to the ethical guidelines in
conducting a research study. The agreement can be viewed in the appendix.

DATA-GATHERING PROCEDURE

The following procedures were performed to gather data and facilitate greater
understanding of the problems stated earlier in the first chapter.
1. The researchers requested the informed consent of the president of Santolan Table Tennis
Club to conduct the study on its students.
2. All members of the population were selected to take part in the study.
3. Sullivans Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children was administered to twenty-seven
(27) participants to obtain their level of emotional intelligence.
4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Rating Scale was administered to the
president-instructor of the sports club to obtain the childrens risk level for ADHD.
5. The collected data were analyzed and used as basis for intelligent discussion.
6. The president of the sports club was debriefed regarding the results of the study.

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STATISTICAL TREATMENT OF DATA

After the data was gathered, it was presented and analyzed by using the following
formulas:
1. Frequency Count
The frequency count was presented to determine the percentage distribution of the
participants in terms of age and sex.
2. Mean for Grouped Data

Where:
= sample mean
Am

= assumed mean

fd

= summation of the product of the frequency and deviation

= sample size

= interval
The mean for grouped data was used to measure the central tendency. It pertained to the

average value of all the data.


3. Standard Deviation

Where:
SD

= Standard Deviation

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fd

= sum of the products between the deviation and fd

= sample size

= interval
The standard deviation was used to measure dispersion or variation of the data and to give

more meaning to the mean.


4. Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation r

Where:
r

= Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation

= sample size

xy

= sum of the product of x and y

xy = product of the sum of x and the sum of y


x

= sum of squares of x

= sum of squares of y
The Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation r was used to determine the

index of relationship between emotional intelligence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
risk level.
For the sake of convenience and accuracy, an internet-based statistical program, called
the VassarStats, was also used wherein the specific tool utilized was the Basic Linear Correlation
and Regression (Lowry, 2011).

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CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the findings, analysis and interpretation of the acquire data. These
are introduced in tabular and textual form based on the problems stated earlier.
1. Who are the participants in terms of:
a. Age
b. Sex

Table 4.1
Frequency Distribution of Twenty-Seven Participants According to Age
Age

Frequency

Percent

11.11

7.41

18.52

11.11

14.81

10

14.81

11

14.81

12

7.41

TOTAL

27

100

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Table 4.1 shows the frequency distribution of the twenty-seven (27) participants
according to age. This shows that all of the participants belong to the age bracket of five (5) to
twelve (12). It suggests that most of them are in the middle and late childhood stage of
psychosocial development. It also implies that the population is homogenous in terms of age
since all participants fall within the range of five (5) to twelve (12) indicating that they are in the
elementary years.

Table 4.2
Frequency Distribution of Twenty-Seven Participants According to Sex
Sex

Frequency

Percent

Female

11.11

Male

24

88.89

TOTAL

27

100

Table 4.2 shows the frequency distribution of the twenty-seven (27) participants
according to sex. This shows that 89% of the participants is male and only 11% is female. It
implies that the number of participants in the study is mostly male.

2. What is the level of emotional intelligence among elementary students of Santolan Table
Tennis Club?

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Table 4.3
Frequency Distribution of Emotional Intelligence of Twenty-Seven Participants
Scores

Frequency

Percent

9-11

3.70

12-14

11.11

15-17

29.63

18-20

11

40.74

21-23

14.81

TOTAL

27

100

Table 4.3 shows the frequency distribution of emotional intelligence of the twenty-seven
(27) participants. This shows that most of the participants obtained scores within the range of
eighteen (18) to twenty (20) indicating that they have a moderate level of emotional intelligence.
Only one participant obtained score within the range of nine (9) to eleven (11) and only three
participants obtained scores within the range of twelve (12) to fourteen (14) indicating that they
have a low level of emotional intelligence.

Table 4.4
Mean Score of Emotional Intelligence of Twenty-Seven Participants
Mean Score

Description

17.33

Moderate

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Table 4.4 shows the mean score of emotional intelligence of the twenty-seven (27)
participants. The table also shows the description of the mean score. It shows that the
participants got a mean score of 17.33 with a moderate description. It implies that the
participants have an average level of emotional intelligence which enables them to function
normally

3. What is the level of risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among elementary
students of Santolan Table Tennis Club?

Table 4.5
Frequency Distribution of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of
Twenty-Seven Participants
Scores

Frequency

Percent

43-48

3.70

49-54

3.70

55-60

7.41

61-66

22.22

67-72

13

48.15

73-78

7.41

79-84

7.41

TOTAL

27

100

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Table 4.3 shows the frequency distribution of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk
level of the twenty-seven (27) participants. This shows that most of the participants obtained
scores within the range of sixty-seven (67) to seventy-two (72) indicating that they are at normal
risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Table 4.6
Mean Score of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Risk Level of Twenty-Seven
Participants
Mean Score

Description

67.07

Normal Risk

Table 4.4 shows the mean score of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level of the
twenty-seven (27) participants. The table also shows the description of the mean score. It shows
that the participants got a mean score of 67.07 with a normal risk description. It implies that the
participants are at normal risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This does not indicate a
sufficient number of reported hyperactive and impulsive symptoms to be of concern.

4. Is there a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and attention deficit


hyperactivity disorder risk level among elementary students of Santolan Table Tennis
Club?

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Table 4.7
Summary of Findings in the Correlational Research Design

Emotional
Intelligence
Vs ADHD
Risk Level

M1

SD1

M2

SD2

Computed
r

Critical
Value

17.33

2.88

67.07

8.42

-.603

.381

Significant
Difference
at 0.05
Significant

Table 4.7 shows the summary of findings upon statistical treatment in the correlational
research design. It shows the comparison between the emotional intelligence and attention deficit
hyperactivity risk level of the participants. With regard to emotional intelligence, they got an
overall mean of 17.33 with a standard deviation of 2.88 while in attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder risk level, they got an overall mean of 67.07 with a standard deviation of 8.42. Upon
statistical analysis using the Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation under a .05
significant level of difference, it was found that the obtained value, which is -.603, is greater than
the tabled value under 25 degrees of freedom, which is .381. The researchers further reject the
null hypothesis and conclude that a significant relationship exists between emotional intelligence
and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level. The computed value also indicates that the
two variables show a negative relationship. It implies that as emotional intelligence increases,
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level decreases and vice-versa.

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CHAPTER V
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Summary of Findings
Based on the analysis and interpretation of data, the following findings are obtained:
1. In the Sullivans Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children, the participants got a mean
score of 17.33 which suggests that they possess an average level of emotional
intelligence, thus making them capable of perceiving, understanding and managing their
own emotions and of others.
2. In the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Rating Scale, the participants
got a mean score of 67.07 which suggests that their presenting symptoms are not enough
to warrant serious risk or concern.
3. The participants got an overall mean of 17.33 with a standard deviation of 2.88 in their
emotional intelligence scores while they obtained an overall mean of 67.06 with a
standard deviation of 8.42 in their attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level
scores. The obtained value from the Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation
is -.603 and is higher than the tabled value at .05 level of significance which is .381.
These results indicate that there is a significant negative relationship between emotional
intelligence and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level or that as the former
increases, the latter decreases and vice-versa.

Conclusion
Based on the summary of findings, the following conclusion is drawn:
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1. There is a significant negative relationship between emotional intelligence and attention


deficit hyperactivity disorder risk level.

Recommendations
In line with the conclusion, the following recommendations are offered:
1. The participants of the study and young children in general may develop more resistance
to maladapative behaviors caused about by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by
being more sensitive to their own emotions and those of others.
2. Teachers in the elementary level may aid young children by developing a curriculum that
integrates the promotion of emotional intelligence so that even at an early age, the
children are equipped with the decision-making skills they need later on in life.
3. Parents may help their young children by encouraging them to engage in enriching
activities, such as sports, that increase desirable emotional and social skills.
4. The Department of Education (DepEd) may develop programs for children, parents and
teachers that aim to promote self-awareness against maldapative behaviors among young
children and adopt activities that seek to increase their emotional intelligence.
5. Child psychologists and counselors may consider incorporating techniques that increase
childrens ability to perceive, understand and manage emotions in traditional behavioral
interventions for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
6. Other researchers who are interested in the same topic may conduct:
a. A correlational study that could measure the significance between emotional
intelligence and risk level for other childhood disorders such as mental

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retardation, reading disorder, expressive language disorder, autistic disorder,


Aspergers disorder and Tourettes disorder.
b. An experimental study that could determine the effect of emotional intelligence
on risk level for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among young children.
c. An experimental study that could determine the effect of emotional intelligence
on risk level for other childhood disorders such as mental retardation, reading
disorder, expressive language disorder, autistic disorder, Aspergers disorder and
Tourettes disorder.
d. An experimental study that could determine the effect of sports on emotional
intelligence of young children, adolescents and adults.
e. A psychological test construction, evaluation and documentation of a highly
reliable and valid measure of childrens emotional intelligence which could be
used as a primary research instrument in other studies.

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