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BILCANS

GRAMMAR WORLD
WITH

FIRSTHAND ASSISTANCE ON COMPOSITION


A STUDENT INTRODUCTION TO GRAMMAR

Researched & Written


by

SYED MUHAMMAD WAQAS

A Project by:

BAB-UL-ILM RESEARCH FOUNDATION


(BIRFThe Gateway to Knowledge)

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OUR AIM
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To

The Honorable Syed Family


(The SYEDS of Sohawa Dilowana)
Whose Patron was the Saintly Personality of Syed Qutub Shah
Bukhari and from whose Lineage Emerged such Great Names as,

Syed Naik Aalam Shah


and

Syed Muhammad Kamaal Ali Shah


(May Gods Peace and Mercy be upon Them)

To them I owe all my intellectual heights and the power I found in my language.
The words that flow from my being are, in fact, a benediction of these saintly
figures.

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

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Acknowledgement
I appreciate the services of all those who contributed in the making of this valuable
book. On a number of occasions I dictated things to my students who took personal
interest to write down every word of I spewed, taking it for a great asset. In this
regard, Noraiz, Mohsin, and Faisal are thanked in particular. Besides, Syed Junaid
Ifzaal deserves a great credit for his untiring cooperation. It is due to his remarkable
contribution that I equally regard him as the second writer of this grammar book.

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Preface
Read! Read in the name of thy Lord, Who created man with the hanging clot of
blood. Read! Thy Lord is most bounteous; Who Taught by Pen.
(Surah Alaq 96:1-4)

It is our aim that all who read this book get a deep insight into, and understanding of
the world of English grammar. The book offers a firsthand access to the study of
grammar viewed from an American-cum-Pakistani point of view. The spellings and
mode of writing used in this book orient American English. For instance, labour has
been written as labor (colour-color; neighbour-neighbor; honour-honor etc.); this is
to say that wherever -our has occurred as ending of a word, it has been changed
into the American spellings by dropping the middling u. Moreover, words like
theatre, metre, litre (British spellings) etc. have been used, wherever occurred, in
their American spellings as theater, meter, liter etc. In addition to this, everything
included in this book has been discussed in brief given the mentality and approach
of Pakistani students. We have, in fact, adopted a very scientific approach in this
book for the analysis of English grammar. And this approach radically makes our
present book into a systematic study of English grammar. It has been observed on
quite a number of occasions that students have been taught on the same old, drab
lines for several decades in our academics. There has been introduced no real
change as far as English grammar is concerned. Our students, even at graduation
levels, are generally unaware of the exact number of Parts of Speech, let alone
naming all of them one by one.
Almost all of the books on English grammar available in the market bear certain
drawbacks. A great many areas of English grammar have constantly been ignored,
some not even well-understood. And the matter of the fact is that these ignored areas
are such problematic gaps that desperately need to be filled to bring a revolution in
the study of grammar in Pakistan. Moreover, another lamentable thing that has been
observed in the area of grammar writing in Pakistan is the act of plagiarism. It is
simply true that a goodly number of the local grammars, including some of those
ranked as the first class, copy other sources verbatim without source-mention. For
instance, two high-profile grammar books of our country, which I would not like to
name here, appear to have bluntly copied other sources, word for word, without
mentioning the source material for their statements. Another reputed grammar
printed in our neighbor-country suffers with the same stumbling block and I was so
amazed to discover this awful reality that intellectual corruption has been done on so
high a level. We cannot at this stage say for sure which book copied which source
either the first one I saw copied the second or the second one copied the first, or
both of them copied yet another source. Whatever the reality, plagiarism is not
acceptable in any form.
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It is not only an undeniable fact, but in the nature of the case could not have
been otherwise that, while writing grammar books, we have to trust other
grammarians and linguistic scholars. We cannot on our own become an authority in
the issues of grammar, for the people who have already worked to understand the
systems of language cannot be overlooked in this case. We can indeed develop
certain concepts in grammar, as I have done in this book, but, to this end, we must
read those earlier scholars between the lines to find support for our thesis from their
writings. Sometimes not only the definitions, but even the examples and illustrations
have to be imported, and indubitably we cannot but simply put our trust in other
authorities. However, the intellectual honesty and justice to the area of research will
be the act that we quote whenever and wherever we import something from others.
Since this book primarily addresses the student folk, therefore, instead of
introducing a great much of multiplicity, we have tried to bring uniformity the
whole way through. Things will appear to be repetitious on certain occasions, and
this has indeed been done deliberately. Psychologically, it is because a recurring
word, phrase or idea will stick to the minds of the readers and they will feel at home
on a number of places due to their habit of going through recurring points.
We are hopeful that Bilcans Student Introduction to Grammar will become a
standard book in the field of English Grammar. Similarly, we pray that the book
may greatly benefit the students. Amen!

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INTRODUCTION
What is Grammar?
English word grammar derives its origin from the Greek word Grammatika, which means
the art of letters.1 However, the word in question witnessed a long history of evolution to
become from Grammatika to Grammar. Grammatika of Greek language was transcribed
into Latin language as grammatical and afterwards during the Middle Ages the French
language borrowed the word from Latin to give it a French texture as gramaire. English, in
fact, received this word from French traditions and identified it in the way we have
discussed below.
Grammar is, in the simplest expression, the system of the arrangement of a
language. It may be interesting to note that people sometimes describe grammar as the
"rules" of a language; but the matter of fact is that no language has rules.2 If we use the
word "rules", we thereby suggest that somebody created the rules first and then spoke the
language, very much like a new constitution. However, no natural language started like that.
Languages started by people making sounds which evolved into meaningful words, phrases
and sentences. No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages are subject to change
over time. What we call "grammar" is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time
in the history of that language.
Do we need to study grammar to learn a language? The short answer is "No". Very
many people in the world speak their own, native language without having studied its
grammar. Grammar, in many ways, functions within a language as does Logic in
argumentation. As Logic deals with fallacies of propositions and arguments,3 grammar
addresses the problems of a natural language to understand them in a scientific way. A
natural language, which is indeed a social phenomenon according to Anthropology, does
confine itself to the bounds of grammar, and thus grammar has to be invented. It is
interesting that children start to speak a language before they even know the word
"grammar", and it is why their language is full of pleasing errors. However, if you are
serious about learning a foreign language, the pulled answer of the above question is "yes,
grammar can indeed help one to learn a foreign language more quickly and more
efficiently." It is important to perceive of grammar as something that can help you, like a
friend. When you understand the grammar or system of a language, you can understand
many things yourself, without having to ask a teacher or look into a book.
1

Gramma is a Greek word itself used for alphabetic characters. It literally means letter.

Except invented languages like Esperanto. And if Esperanto were widely spoken, its rules would
soon be very different.
3

Douglas N. Walton, Informal Logic, Cambridge University Press, 1989, preface

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Thus, think of grammar as something good, something positive, and something that
you can use to find your waylike a signpost or a map. There are eight commonly known
signposts in English grammar that we call Parts of Speech. These Parts of Speech act, in
a sense, as building blocs, or as activators of English syntax. A big much of English
grammar falls inside the jurisdiction of Parts of Speech, whereas only a few things remain
outside its bounds. However, when studying or discussing Parts of Speech, one must not
forget that English morphology has nothing to do with them, and it is only the syntax that
they deal with and are applicable to. Morphology is the study of the formation of words,
and, on the other hand, Syntax is the study of the formation of sentences: that is, the
arrangement of words in a sentence. The root word for morphology is the Greek word
morphe, which means form. The word was used in German language as morphologie
prior to its adoption in English in the same meaning and was later on Anglicized (about
1830). Moreover, syntax is another equally important word in the study of grammar, which
means the act of putting together, that is to say, grammatically, putting words together. In
1605, Francis Bacon used the word syntax in the meaning of orderly arrangement of parts
or elements in his essay Of the Advancement of Learning. The word was originally
borrowed from Greek syntaxis, a putting together, (Latin also syntaxis) through French
syntaxe.
Like any other modern language, there may be more than a dozen kinds of grammar
in English, such as Normative or Perspective Grammar, Descriptive Grammar, Case
Grammar, Phrase-Structure Grammar, Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar, Structural
or Taxonomic Grammar, Stratificational Grammar, Pedagogical Grammar, Systematic
Functional Grammar, Traditional Grammar, Lexical Functional Grammar, Universal
Grammar and the similar. Our present study of grammarthat eventually ends up taking
the form of a concise bookdoes not purely relate to any of the above stated kinds of
grammar. It may be termed, in its scope, as a blend of Normative, Pedagogical and
Descriptive grammars. Since this book is an innovative work in several areas of English
grammar, here the dominant grammatical tendency is, we believe, that of Descriptive
Grammar. Descriptive Grammar is, according to Encyclopedia Britannica, a grammar
that surveys actual practical language usage often on different levels. It is, therefore, safe
to say that, in grammar, the study of the practical usage of language is characterized as
descriptive, while the standard usage of the language is characterized as normative; quite
similarly, a highly idealized system of rules, especially one meant for teaching, is
understood as the pedagogical side of the grammar.
Now let us get into the formal discussion on English grammar. Nevertheless, before
we proceed to the Parts of Speech section, it seems imperative to discuss some preliminary
morphology and syntax of English. The section that will immediately proceed has been
decorated as Definitions and Functions, as to understand what a few basic linguistic
things mean and how they function.
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STAGE 1:

DEFINITIONS AND FUNCTIONS


1. WHAT IS AN ALPHABET?
An alphabet is the basic brick of a language structure. It derives its root from
Greek alphbetos through Latin alphabetum. Alpha and beta are originally the first two
letters of the Greek alphabetical system. An alphabet serves to form words with the help of
other alphabets. The total number of English alphabets is 26. There are two kinds of
alphabets in English, (a) consonants and (b) vowels. The vowel sounds are produced
without lips and tongue movement. The English vowels are (a, e, i, o, u), whereas (h & y)
are considered semi-vowels or semi-consonants.

2. SYLLABLE
A syllable is a single sound contained in a word which includes at least one vowel
and one or more consonants. English borrowed this word from Anglo-French sillable and
Geoffrey Chaucer used it without change in his House of Fame. The word in question crept
into French from Greek syllabe, meaning different letters joined together. Broadly
speaking, syllable means part of a word pronounced as a unit. This is to say that a syllable
is a segment of speech uttered by a single effort of the voice, forming a word or part of a
word; for instance, no, speak, when, enough, vowel, success etc. No has only one
syllable as it contains only one vowel with a single sound: speak does the same job
despite it contains two vowels but a single sounds: vowel and success, however, have a
different case, as both of them have two sounds provided that there are two syllables in each
word; in the word vowel, o and e are broken with the consonant w; similarly, the two
vowels of success are broken with two cs. Thus, the vowels that are broken with a
consonant in a word will produce two or more sounds and every sound will represent a
separate syllable.
Tip. No word in English is formed without a vowel. However, why is such a
word that does not have a direct vowel, although it contains two semi-vowels. Similarly, fly,
sky, shy, ply etc. are also the exceptions in English from the rule of the vowels,
grammatically speaking. Nevertheless, examining it in a phonetic way, the vowel sound
produced here by y cannot be separated from the succeeding consonants like that of a
vowels, and in this way, it is rather safe to conclude that y functions in such cases as a
full-fledged vowel letter.

3. MORPHEME
The smallest meaningful unit in a language is called morpheme. Categorically, morpheme
is the subject of linguistics; however, in a characteristic study of grammar, the grammar
cannot separate itself from linguistics. Therefore, it is always significant that we understand
word-formation before we begin the study of sentence-formation. The root word for the
English morpheme is Greek morphe, form. However, it first appeared in the French
language and was patterned on the French phoneme as morpheme. English adopted the
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word in question without a change of form or meaning in the 20th century. Morphemes are
customarily described as minimal unites of grammatical analysisthe units of lowest rank
out of which words, the units of next highest rank are composed.4 A morpheme is a
recurrent unit of speech and the important thing about morpheme is that it cannot be broken
apart and divided into further smaller levels. It is no doubt that the subject of morpheme is
somewhat complex, but one should simply keep in view that a syllable is the smallest sound
in a word and a morpheme is the smallest unit of meaningful speech: the difference in this
case being semantic rather than phonemic.

4. WORD
Word is the basic unit of linguistic structure in every language. Every language
identifies its basic unit and formulates as well as regulates principles for the formation of
words. The word word has been used in English since the Old Saxon period in the same
form and meaning as today (cf. in Beowulf, about AD 725). It has always been used in the
meaning of utterance or speech. The necessary qualification for a word is to be
meaningful and sensible towards the immediate speakers and listeners. Words are coined by
alphabets and articulated by syllables. Every word has a minimum of two alphabets and one
syllable. For instance, to has two alphabets and one syllable and is meaningful to an
English speaker. Similarly, England is a relatively longer word (proper noun) that
contains seven alphabets but only two syllables.

5. INFLECTION
Grammatically, inflection (also inflexion) means variation in word-ending to express the
relations of case, number, gender, person, and tense. Lexically, it can be defined as a
modulation of the voice. The word entered English in 15th century and its root word was
Latin inflectere (verb), to bend in, change, alter, or modulate. The meaning of the
grammatical variation in the word-form was first recorded in 1668. Technically, we can
divide the variation-phenomenon into two kinds, namely, (i) inflection and (ii) declension.
Any change taking place in a verb form is called inflection, whereas any change taking
place in a noun or adjective is called declension.

6. PHRASE
A phrase is an expression forming a grammatical constituent of a sentence but not
containing a finite verb, thus lacking the fuller meaning conveyed by a sentence. For
instance, an intelligent boy is such a phrase that does tell about a particular characteristic
of a certain boy, but we are not sure of the location and the identity of the boy being
discussed in this phrase. Sometimes a sentence is even smaller than a phrase, but what
makes the difference is the use of a finite verb capable of being changed into past, present
and future.

7. SENTENCE
An orderly group of linguistic units (words) containing a finite verb and having the
essential quality of conveying the intended meaning of the speaker is called sentence. A
4

Mian M. Saif-ul-Haq, An Approach to Study of Linguistics, Lahore: New Kitab Mahal, 1994, p. 116

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sentence is the largest unit of grammatical description. (Bloomfield) A sentence must


comprise of a minimum of two words; this accounts for a single independent clause.
However, an imperative sentence can be limited to a single word (e.g. Stop!). On the other
hand, there is no limit on the length of a sentence. Some 19th century British writers wrote
sentences containing more than a hundred words within a single sentence. For instance, Ali
goes to college is a simple sentence that contains four words. Structurally, it has all three
basic constituents of a sentence namely, doer (subject), action (verb), and the undergoer
(object). Linguistically, this sentence has three parts of speech namely, noun + verb +
preposition+ noun. The first noun in the sentence is a proper noun, while the second is a
common noun.
Sentence can be understood at two broad levels. These two levels are the categories
of Semantics and Function. At semantic level, there can be three divisions of the sentence;
at functional level, it may be divided in four different kinds.
Semantically, we divide sentences in (i) noun sentence (ii) adjectival sentence and
(iii) verbal sentence. The noun and adjectival sentences do not have finite verbs; they only
contain the primary verb to be to express the idea of state or being. To be functions in
both noun and adjectival sentences as linking/stative verb to illustrate the reference it bears
towards the subject.5 For instance, Ahmad is a boy (noun sentence); Salma is beautiful
(adjectival sentence); Ahmad is an intelligent boy and Salma is a beautiful girl (adjectivalnoun sentences). Thus, we understand that noun and adjectival sentences only express state
(being good, bad, something or something-like) and do not include action. However, a
verbal sentence does have a finite verb, and it expresses a complete action rather than
expressing a state. For instance, Muslims celebrate Eid after Ramadan.
According to function, sentences can be of four kinds: (i) declarative (ii) imperative
(iii) interrogative and (iv) exclamatory. Declarative are those sentences that make
statements or assertions in a positive or negative sense; thus, it has two kinds, i.e.
affirmative and negative. Imperative sentences express commands or entreaties;
interrogative sentences ask questions; and exclamatory are those sentences that express
strong feelings.
1. a. Shahid reads a book. (Affirmative-Declarative)
b. Shahid does not read a book. (Negative-Declarative)
2. Be silent students. (Imperative)
3. Where do you live? (Interrogative)
4. O my God, you are still asleep! (Exclamatory)
A sentence primarily has two parts; one is called subject and the other is termed as
predicate. Subject, as already discussed, is the doer of some action, whereas a predicate is
the later part that tells us something about the subject.
1. Imran does not do his schoolwork.
In the above sentence, Imran is the subject and does not do his schoolwork is the
predicate.
5

For linking or stative verbs, see Verbs of State in Stage 2.

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SENTENCE FURTHER ANALYZED


Each kind of sentence is further divided in two or more sub-kinds. For instance:

1. DECLARATIVE
Let us see how the two kinds of declarative namely affirmative and negative work.

a. Affirmative
An Affirmative Sentence can have three major kinds, as below:
a.
Verbal-Declarative Sentence (a sentence that contains a Main Verb)
Ahmad goes to college. Samina is writing a story. We have visited Shalimar
Garden many times. He won the first prize in speech contest.
b.
Noun-Declarative Sentence (a sentence that does not have a main verb, but an
auxiliary and a Noun)
There is a boy in the room. He is Ahmad. Samina is Ahmads sister.
c.
Adjectival-Declarative Sentence (a sentence that does neither have a Main Verb
nor a Noun, but an auxiliary followed by an Adjective)
Ahmad is a good boy. God is great. Samina is very intelligent. This book is
interesting.

b. Negative
All those rules that apply to the construction of an affirmative sentence equally apply to
the negative sentence. Thus, a negative sentence may well have the same three kinds as
above. We simply need to insert the morpheme not or negative no after the auxiliary.
The omission of the morpheme not changes the sentence back into the affirmative.
Present Indefinite and Past Indefinite tenses are, however, exceptions from this rule, for
they also take the auxiliary do/does or did before not when making affirmative into
negative.

Ahmad does not go to college. Samina is not writing a story. We have not visited
Shalimar Garden many times. He did not win the first prize in speech contest.
ii. There is no boy in the room. He is not Ahmad. Samina is not Ahmads sister.
iii. Ahmad is not a good boy. Samina is not very intelligent. This book is not
interesting.

c. Declarative with Wh-Words


In declarative sentences, a Wh-Word is inserted before an affirmative or negative sentence
to point to a certain person, place, time, reason or nature of the activity in a two-clause
sentence or in a subsequent mention. We do not use auxiliary immediately after where,
when, why, which, what, who, and how in this situation. Who has an exceptional case in both
Declarative and Interrogative situations. See below, for instance, for the function of Whwords in declarative situation:
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When I came home, I found in my room a surprise waiting for me. (Or) I found a
surprise waiting for me in my room when I came home.
Where he is not willing to go, I will avoid those places while together. (Or) I will
avoid those places while with him where he is not willing to go.
I know how this machine works.

2. INTERROGATIVE
Interrogative Sentence can have up to two kinds, semantically speaking. The first kind
needs only a Yes or No answer; hence we call it single interrogative. The second kind
demands a somewhat detailed answer with the logic of justification chosen from a wide
range of possibilities. This kind includes the question words we call Wh-Words to
construct a logical question; to this kind we call double interrogative. The words we use to
construct a question of this kind are where, when, why, which, what, who and how.

a.

Single Interrogative

b.

Do you like milk? (Answer Yes or No)


Did Ahmad go to college yesterday? (Yes or No)
Can you drive? (Yes or No)
Is she taking the lectures on English grammar? (Yes or No)

Double Interrogative

Where do you live? (It requires a logical reply: location) When does Samina go to college?
(Time) Why do you not like milk? (Justification for reason) Which one of the cell phones
has a better casing? (Preference/identification among things) What was the paint color you
chose? (Inquiry) Who is that person sitting next to Ahmad? (Inquiry about humans)

3. IMPERATIVE
Imperative Sentences can be indexed in two principal kinds, i.e. (i) those expressing
command, and (ii) those expressing request. Another kind may in some cases be
considered of advicehence (iii) those expressing advice.
Students, be silent. Dont make silly mistakes. Bring me a glass of milk. (Command)
Help me please. Get me some money if your pocket allows. Let me sleep now, please.
(Request)
You should stay at home at night. He should not waste his time in fruitless activities.
(Advice)

4. EXCLAMATORY
Since this kind of sentence expresses strong feeling, there may be a huge variety of the
sentences expressing feelings. Thus, we categorize them under the monolithic heading of
Exclamatory Sentences.
What a hot day this is!
How great a satisfaction is in prayer!
How long the night is!

PARAGRAPH
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The chapter of real importance in English composition after sentence is paragraph. A


paragraph can be defined as a section of a major composition which contains a number of
sentences with a single issue being discussed in it. A famous grammar defines paragraph in
the following words:
A paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together and relating to one topic; or, a
group of related sentences that develop a single point.6
This means that a paragraph necessarily has one uniformed theme, though some
sub-themes may run alongside as well. Words make up a sentence and sentences thereafter
make up a paragraph. A good paragraph requires a cohesive and appropriate arrangement of
sentences quite as much as a sentence requires logical arrangement of words to be rendered
as a good sentence. A paragraph should be well-structured and well-knit, and the additional
qualities of unity of theme, variety of words and expressions, pithiness and order are almost
inevitable for a good paragraph. A topic touched upon in a paragraph should be taken to its
terminus and no dissatisfaction or thirst be left behind.
A good practice to identify a good paragraph and the theme running in it is to read a
chapter of any standard English book, and when the reading of a paragraph is done, the
reader should provide the paragraph with a short title. This practice should be continued
with different paragraphs until the reader develops a good understanding of the variation of
language and theme in different paragraphs. This simple action will express in a word or
phrase the subject of the paragraph under consideration. This practice is especially
recommended for the students of Graduation and those attempting to get through Writing
Comprehension Tests. Students attempting to succeed in Prcis Writing are strongly
advised to follow the above-suggested methodology.
A model-paragraph for the students is being added below from the famous book
What Quran Says: A Modern Reconstruction.
Non-Semitic religions have a completely different concept of time which has
neither a beginning nor an end, hence cyclical. However, in Judaism, Christianity, and
Islam, the universal time begins with an act of creation and moves onwards in a linear
scale, and so will it eventually meet an end. This actually means that the time will
necessarily come to an ending point. In this conception of time, these three Semitic religions
stand in harmony; however, the difference being the mode of creation. Quran provides
every scientific detail won organic and inorganic creation, covering all of the main scientific
stages of the universe. For instance, the main stages of universe as enumerated in Quran
are the gaseous smoke, the singular unit of mass, the great explosion or Big Bang, the
creation of galaxies in its outcome, the expansion of universe, the final disorder in universal
balance, and the reversing of the universe. Of course, science does follow the same order.

(Sayyed Waqas Hayder, What Quran Says)7


Readers can see how nicely the paragraph has been structured and sentences
arranged. Each sentence has been given the due balance. The main theme in this paragraph
is the time conception found in world religions, whereas sub-themes, such as where
6

Wren & Martin, High School English Grammar & Composition, p. 281

Sayyed Waqas Hayder, What Quran Says: A Modern Reconstruction, Lahore: Bab-ul-Ilm Publications,
2009, p. 5
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Islamic conception of time differs from other religions and how Quran constructs the picture
of creation, also run side by side. Further, it has been shown in the last line that there is no
contradiction between Islam and science.
Now let us very quickly have a look through a paragraph taken from the book of a
renowned English political scientist, philosopher, mathematician and writer.
W ar is a conflict between two groups, each of which attempts to kill and main as
many as possible of the other group in order to achieve some object which it desires. The
object is generally either power or wealth. It is a pleasure to exercise authority over other
men, and it is a pleasure to live on the produce of other mens labour. The victor in war can
enjoy more of these delights than the vanquished. But war, like all other natural activities, is
not so much prompted by the end which it has in view as by an impulse to the activity itself.
Very often men desire an end, not on its own account, but because their nature demands
the actions which will lead to the end. And so it is in this case: the ends to be achieved by
war appear in prospect far more important than they will appear when they are realized,
because war itself is a fulfillment of one side of our nature. If mens actions sprang from
desires for what would in fact bring happiness, the purely rational arguments against war
would have long ago put an end to it. W hat makes war difficult to suppress is that it springs
from an impulse, rather than from a calculation of the advantages to be derived from war.

(Bertrand Russell, Principles of Social Reconstruction)8

MOOD IN ENGLISH
Mood stands for a particular tendency of speaking, which helps identify the meaning
assigned by the speaker to a sentence spoken. According to a famous grammarian, Mood is
a set of verb forms or inflection used to indicate the speakers attitude toward the faculty or
likelihood of the action or condition expressed.9 Mood is related to illocutionary force. In
English, mood varies in three ways i.e. there are three moods.
Indicative
Imperative
Subjunctive
INDICATIVE
Indicative mood is used to make factual statements. It is the most commonly used mood
in English. In this mood, we indicate something. All affirmative, negative, and interrogative
sentences and most of the constructions that involve various choices of person, tense,
number, aspect and modality fall into this category. For instance:

Ahmad is my friend.
Ahmad goes to college.
Ahmad is not my friend.
Ahmad does not go to college.

(Affirmative Noun Sentence)


(Affirmative Verbal Sentence)
(Negative Noun Sentence)
(Negative Verbal Sentence)

Bertrand Russell, Principles of Social Reconstruction, London: Unwin Books, 1975, p. 55

Prof. Mukhtar Pervez, Advanced English Grammar, Multan, 2004

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Is Ahmad my friend?
Does Ahmad go to college?

(Interrogative Noun Sentence)


(Interrogative Verbal Sentence)
IMPERATIVE

Imperative mood conveys a command or request. It is a non-factual mood and is exclusively


used for issuing directives. Sentence having imperative mood begins directly with a verb i.e.
with the finite verb (base form). It is, therefore, similar to indicative present tense without
the s/es inflection having been undertaken by the verb. For instance:
Let us stay together tonight.
Dont go today.
Catch me if you can.
SUBJUNCTIVE
Subjunctive being another non-factual mood is a special kind of present tense, which does
not have s in the third person. Similarly, it is normally used in that clauses in a formal
style after such words that express the idea that something is important, desirable or
compulsoryparticularly true to the American English. For instance, words like advice,
ask, demand, recommend, require, suggest, insist, plead, vital, pray, essential, important
and necessary are followed by Subjunctive Mood in that clause.
i. It is necessary that everyone have equal economic opportunities.
ii. We advice that the company invest in a new business.
iii. It seemed it was important that Junaid write back to his father as soon as possible.
iv. The doctor recommended that he remain in the hospital for a few more days.
Another special aspect of Subjunctive Mood is its complete omission of the use of
auxiliary to do (i.e. do not or does not) in negatives. It allows not functioning
independently when preceded by the above-narrated words. For example:
i. We considered it desirable that he not leave hostel before finding an apartment.
Moreover, we normally use were after if instead of was. This situation is again an
example of subjunctive mood, which speaks of unfulfilled wish and condition.
Subjunctive mood (if + were) is more common in formal as well as informal English and
that it is considered the standard style today. American English heavily relies on it and
people in both England and America regard it as correct English to use were instead of was
after ifeven if the subject is I, he, she, it or other that take was as auxiliary. For instance:
If I were famous, I would enjoy my time out in public.

If her nose were a little shorter, she would be very attractive.

If I were the lord of Tartary.

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PARTS OF SPEECH

STAGE 2:

Let us now further explore the valley of English grammar. Whenever we talk about English
grammar, the idea that immediately strikes our mind is the role of Parts of Speech in
English. Before we go further deep, let us first have a look at the general definition of the
Parts of Speech.
English grammar consists of those activators that
About its accurate number, there is difference in the views
popular parts are eight in figure. They are like eight
themselves. It is possible that some aspects of grammar
domain of grammar is constituted by these activators.10

are called Parts of Speech.


of grammarians. But the most
ways having subways within
remain out of them, but the

There is still a ninth activator, i.e. a ninth Part of Speech, according to a few
grammarians. They call it determiner. Dr. Quirk, the author of A University Grammar of
English, adds yet another category in the Parts of Speech, namely, articles, pulling the
number of Parts of Speech to ten.11 He insists that determiners and articles have an
identically important grammatical function as do the other Parts of Speech. This view of one
particular school of thought is so relative that it cannot be altogether rejected, for,
linguistically, it becomes extremely important to assign specific positions to determiners
and articles in the arrangement of the language. However, as this book orients the job of a
traditional grammar, only traditional Parts of Speech will be discussed in the current
section. We have added an additional section to discuss determiners and articles in the end
of the traditional Parts of Speech.
It is suggested on the behalf of the writer that there is no regular or hard & fast order
of the Parts of Speech. Nevertheless, I have arranged the traditional Parts of Speech in a
way that is most easily understandable for the students of any level.
1. Verb (V)
2. Adjective (A)
3. Noun (N)
4. Pronoun (P)
5. Interjection (I)
6. Conjunction (C)
7. Adverb (A)
8. Preposition (P)
10

Hayder, Sayyed Waqas, The Grammar Valley, Bab-ul-Ilm Research Foundation, 2008, p. 3

11

Prof. Mukhtar Pervez, Advanced English Grammar, p.47

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Now let us turn to the formula of memorizing these Parts of Speech. There is an easy
waysuggested by the writer himselfto memorize the names of all Parts of Speech. Let
us for a moment collect the initial letters of all Parts of Speech and abbreviate them in the
above listed order making three categories. V from Verb, A from Adjective, N from Noun,
P from Pronoun, I from Interjection, C from Conjunction, A from Adverb, and P from
Preposition: now let us arrange them into a tri-syllable acronym:
V + A + N + P + I + C + A + P = VANPICAP
(Pronounced: VAN-PI-CAP)
The definition of Parts of Speech varies in traditional grammars. There is a wide range of
definitions, in which the common idea only loosely reflects. We have tried in this grammar
to be as much exact with the definitions and functions of the Parts of Speech as possible.
However, there is an inherent inconsistency in the morphology as well as syntax of English,
and it is why, we are compelled to say, that all definitions are incapable of being applicable
to all instances. The lack of sufficient generality to correspond with all relevant instances is
what makes every definition of the Parts of Speech incomplete.
Now let us have a detailed look into the functions of Parts of Speech.

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1. VERB
A verb tells us about something being done. In English, since the verb is inflected, it
normally agrees with its primary argumentthat we tend to call subject. The English word
verb derives its root from Latin word verbum, which stands for an action or entering
into an activity. The verb is king in English. The shortest sentence in English contains a
verb. You can make a one-word sentence with a single verb; for example: Stop! However,
you cannot make a one-word sentence with any other kind of the Parts of Speech. Some of
the basic verbs are: to read, write, count, sit, run, jump, watch etc.
Distinction between Action and State in Verb
Verbs are sometimes described as action words. This is partly true. Majority of the verbs
convey the idea of actionof doing something. For example, verbs like to run, to fight, to
do and to work all convey action.
i. He runs very fast.
ii. Pakistan Army is fighting terrorism in tribal areas.
However, some verbs do not express the idea of action; instead, they express the idea of
existenceof being. For example, verbs like to be, to exist, to seem, to feel, and to belong
all convey state. These are special verbs, which have been grouped in English under the
title of Copular or Linking Verbs. Let us have a look into the examples before we further
consider the verbs of state.
i.

ii.
iii.
iv.

We all are responsible Pakistanis.


The situation of your study seems on decline.

I belong to the country of brave and hospitable people.


Only one God exists in the universe.

Verbs of State: Copula, Copular or Linking Verbs


English uses a special kind of verb to join an adjective or noun complement to a subject to
express a state. This verb links the subject instead of referring to the object. The verbs
included in this special kind are called Copular or Linking Verbs or Copulas. Some
grammarians simply call them with the monolithic title Stative Verbs to easily group verbs
into action and state groups. The most common copular verbs are: seem, appear, look,
smell, continue, grow, taste, become, sound, feel, get, run, keep, stay, prove, resemble, and
turn. To be that is the most potent verb in English functions in almost all noun and adjective
sentence as a copular verb.12 It is, therefore, sometimes difficult for the new readers to
distinguish between the copular and progressive tense functions of to be. However, it is still
advisable to keep in view that it functions both ways: to be is copular when it speaks of the
subject, whereas it is a progressive tense when to be modifies the main verb that follows it
by becoming present participle.
i. He is a cricket player. (to be as linking verb in noun sentence)
12

For adjective and noun sentences, see Sentence in Stage 1.

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ii. He is going to college. (to be as auxiliary in present progressive tense)


Some further examples of the stative or copular verbs are here below:
i.
He became a lawyer last year.
ii. That guy in the blue shirt looks pretty smart.
iii. The chicken kabob smells good.
iv. I did feel a rich man. (or I felt a rich man.)
v. Ahmad is there.
vi. We were at Bilcans a few minutes ago.
Some linking verbs are also action verbs. For instance, sound, smell, taste, grow, look, feel,
continue, appear, get, turn, keep, stay etc. can also be used as action verbs in addition to
their use as linking verbs. If they are used to describe a physical actionsomething that is
observable in general or something that can happen in realitythey are treated as action
verbs. If these very verbs are used to describe a state or being, the fact that
something/someone has a certain quality, they are then stative, linking or copular verbs.
i.
We grew wheat last year, but now we will grow something else. (action verb)
ii.
Milk grew thinner as soon as the milkman mixed water in it. (stative/linking verb)
iii.
Ahmad feels the water before he takes a bath. (action verb)
iv.
Most of the sculptures in the museum felt rough. (stative/linking verb)

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VERB FURTHER EXPLAINED


There are three broad categories of verb i.e. (i) Primary Verbs, (ii) Main Verbs, and (iii)
Modal Verbs. The first category, Primary Verbs, includes only three verbs that we
generally use in the form of auxiliary/helping verbs. Second category, the category of Main
Verbs, is enormous in number and has subdivisions in itself. The third category, namely,
Modal Verbs is another typical example of auxiliaries. Instead of discussing all these
categories here in precisions, it would be appropriate to talk of them under independent
headings.

PRIMARY VERBSAuxiliaries or Helping Verbs


This category has only three verbs. These verbs perform the function of auxiliary or
helping verbs, and thereby each of them represents one of the three Aspects of English. The
three primary verbs are:
1. To do
[Simple Aspect]
2. To be
[Progressive Aspect]
3. To have
[Perfective Aspect]
Infinitive
T o do
T o be
To have

Base Form

Present Form(s)

Do
Be
Have

Do/Does
Am/Is/Are
Has/Have

Past Form(s)
Did
Was/Were
Had

Past
Participle
Done
B een
Ha d

Present
Participle
Doing
Being
Having

It must be kept in view that only the present and past forms of to do and to have
are used as auxiliaries. However, the case with to be is completely different: all of its
forms are used as auxiliaries in various situationseither for the verbs of state, progressive
tenses, or for the making of passive voice. Another important point to be considered here is
that no form of passive voice can be formed without to be. To do and to have assist to be
in the making of different passive voice tenses. To be is the strongest verb in English and it
has the maximum number of forms. In all passive voice cases, forms of to be are followed
by past participle. Contrarily, in progressive tenses, the forms of to be are followed by
present participle.

MAIN VERBS (also Lexical Verbs)


The second category is that of Main Verb. Main verbs are the essential action words of a
sentence and it is why that the presence of a main verb in a sentence is imperative to express
an action or activity. There is no limit on their number in English as is the case of Primary
Verbs. However, we categorize them under two headingschiefly because of their use by
the English speakers. Each of the two categories witnesses yet another classification worked
out by the English speakers, according to which, both of the categories subdivide in two
further kinds within themselves. These two categories are (i) Regular and Irregular Verbs
category and (ii) Transitive and Intransitive Verbs category. The former category may
well be termed in the language of grammar as structural kinds of Main Verb. The latter
category orients the function of the Main Verb; hence we suffer with no grammatical
problem to render the two kinds of this category as functional kinds of Main Verb. We also
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call them as verbs differing in valence i.e. the number of arguments each main verb
possesses. At this stage, what is important about transitive and intransitive verbs regarding
their past participle function is that the past participle of all transitive verbs can be used as
an adjective (e.g. a broken glass). Intransitive verbs are, however, an exception from this
role, and since they do not take an object, their past participle form is not generally
considered an adjective in English grammar.
Regular & Irregular Verbs
Let us at first consider the difference between Regular and Irregular verbs. A verb
having the past and past participle forms ending on -ed will be called a regular verb. For
instance:
Infinitive

Base Form

Past Form

Past Participle

Present Participle

To work

W o rk

Worked

Worked

Working

T o r each

Reach

Reached

Reached

Reaching

To found

Found

Founded

Founded

Founding

And a verb having no regular ending in its past and past participle forms will be called
an irregular verb. For instance:
Infinitive

Base Form

Past Form

Past Participle

Present Participle

To sing

Sing

Sang

Sung

Singing

To leave

Leave

Left

Left

Leaving

To cut

Cut

Cut

Cut

Cutting

Transitive & Intransitive Verbs


A transitive verb takes an object. It, in fact, directs towards a person or thing; hence we
conclude from the direction that this verb is transitive as it needs an object. For instance:
Samina locks the door. (locks takes door as object)
Ahmad visits the bookshop. (visits takes bookshop as object)
An intransitive verb does not take an object. Speaking in more technical terms, an
intransitive verb owns only one argument i.e. its subject; thus, it has a valence of one.
For instance, main verbs sleep and die are intransitive in English language. For examples,
sentences with intransitive verbs:
Can I sleep? (sleep has no object)
He died today. (die has no object)
However, some verbs function both waysas transitive as well as intransitive. We call
such verbs ambitransitive. For instance, play and smell both are ambitransitive verbs and
they can be used either way, as:
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You smell. (smell takes no object)


I can smell pizza from distance. (smell takes pizza as object)
Ahmads daughter is playing. (playing takes no object)
Ahmad is playing guitar. (playing takes guitar as object)

MODAL VERBS (or Modality)


Modal Verbs fall into the third category of verbs. In function, modal verbs are halfconscious readymade verbs used as auxiliaries to convey possibility, probability,
permission, potential, ethics, obligation and other similar types of situations. Some of the
modal verbs have past forms, while some do not.
Present
Form
Can

Past Form

M ay

Might

Will/Shall

Would

Must

No past
form
No past
form
No past
form

Ought to
Should

Could

Structure: Subject + Modal Verb + Verb in


Base Form + Object
He
can/could
(not)
pl a y
cricket.
(Ability/Potential)
He
may/might
(not)
stay
here.
(Possibility/Permission)
He will/would (not) go to London. (Prediction)
She must (not) work to earn. (Obligation)
We ought to look after elderly people. (Moral
obligation)
You should (not) sleep in the daytime. (Ethical
assertion)

Marginal
Modal
Auxiliaries
No present
form

Used to

No present
form

Had better

No present
form

Would
Rather

I would rather speak Urdu at Bilcans. (Choice)

Need

Needed

You need not attempt any extra questions.

Dare

Dared

How dare you say that?

Waqar Younis used to play for Surrey. (Past


continuity)
You
had
better
(Preference/Caution)

give

up

smoking.

Contraction
The process of restricting or shrinking is called contraction. Contraction occurs with
auxiliaries in English grammar. Auxiliaries either form contraction with the preceding
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pronouns or with succeeding not. Both primary verbs and modal verbs, when used as full
auxiliaries, are subject to contraction.
Pronoun +
Auxiliary
I am
She is
He is
It is
We are
You are
They are
I will
We will
I would
They would
He would
She has
He has
It has
I have
We have
They have
I had
We had
She had
He had
They had

Contraction

Auxiliary + Not

Im
Shes (+ present participle)
Hes (+ present participle)
Its (+ present participle)
Were
Youre
Theyre
Ill
Well
Id (+ base form)
Theyd (+ base form)
Hed (+ base form)
Shes (+ past participle)
Hes (+ past participle)
Its (+ past participle)
Ive
Weve
Theyve
Id (+ past participle)
Wed (+ past participle)
Shed (+ past participle)
Hed (+ past participle)
Theyd (+ past participle)

Am not
Is not
Are not
Will not
Has not
Have not
Had not
Would not
Could not
May not
Must not
Should not
Cannot
Must not
Was not
Were not
Does not
Do not
Did not
Shall not
Ought not to
Need not
Dare not

Contraction
Aint
Isnt
Arent
Wont
Hasnt
Havent
Hadnt
Wouldnt
Couldnt
Maynt
Mustnt
Shouldnt
Cant
Mustnt
Wasnt
Werent
Doesnt
Dont
Didnt
Shant
Oughtnt to
Neednt
Darent

TENSE
Tense represents time. The word tense has been derived from Latin tempus meaning
time. Tense has a direct connection with verb, because it is a verb that gives birth to the
tenses. Different forms of verb explain different stages of time/temporal issues, which we
generally term in our grammatical language as Tense.
By Tense, we understand the correspondence between the form of the verb and our
concept of time namely, past, present, and future.13
Normally, we divide tense phenomenon into three kinds of time-scheme, as stated
above. These are the three stages of our flowing, linear (non-linguistic) time i.e. the passed
time (past), the current time (present), and the coming/predicted time (future). Examples
have been given below in the tense summary.

13

Prof. Mukhtar Parvez, Advanced English Grammar, p. 75

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Tenses (i.e. verbs) are also said to be either active (The executive committee approved
the new policy) or passive (The new policy was approved by the executive committee) in
voice. In the active voice, the subject and verb relationship is straightforward: the subject is
a be-er or a do-er and the verb moves the sentence along. In the passive voice, the subject of
the sentence is neither a do-er nor a be-er, but is acted upon by some other agent or by
something unnamed (The new policy was approved). Computerized grammar checkers can
pick out a passive voice construction from miles away and ask you to revise it to a more
active construction. There is nothing inherently wrong with the passive voice, but if you can
say the same thing in the active mode, do so. Your text will have more pizzazz (activeness)
as a result, since passive verb constructions tend to lie about in their pajamas (looseness)
and avoid actual work.
The passive voice is especially helpful (and even regarded as mandatory) in scientific
or technical writing or laboratory reports, where the actor is not really important but the
process or principle being described is of ultimate importance. Instead of writing I poured
20 cc of acid into the beaker, we would write Twenty cc of acid is/was poured into the
beaker.

TENSE STRUCTURE
A verb changes in different forms to express the time division. This grammatical division of
time minutely corresponds with our everyday, non-linguistic understanding of time. Thus,
this division of time, expressed through different verb-forms, is, in the language of
grammar, called tense. According to linguistics, tense has, in the first place, three kinds of
time division, and, in the second place, three aspects of each division of time.
Time Division
Present Tense
Past Tense
Future Tense

Aspects of Time Division


Simple Aspect
Progressive Aspect
Perfective Aspect

(Indefinite Tenses)
(Continuous Tenses)
(Perfect Tenses)

Now let us work out how we can consider these aspects in normal grammatical
language. In general, we call these aspects the kinds of present, past, or future tense, which
is technically incorrect. However, due to an overuse of such mistaken language, this
misnomer has become widely acceptable; hence also acceptable for a traditional Pakistani
grammarian. We will thus follow the suit to avoid all subsequently arising complexities and
term these aspects of tense as kinds hereinafter.
KINDS IN ACTIVE VOICE
1. Indefinite
2. Progressive/Continuous
3. Perfect

(as opposed to Definite)


(as opposed to Stagnant)
(as opposed to Imperfect or Incomplete)

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4. Perfect Progressive/Continuous

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(Time Tense)

PRIMARY VERBS & TENSES


English has, as stated above, three Primary Verbs as apart from the Main Verbs. They are as
below:
to do
to be
to have

(do-did-done-doing)
(be-is/am/are-was/were-been-being)
(has/have-had-had-having)

Primary Verbs and Tenses are intertwined in English syntax. Primary verbs are, in fact,
the real auxiliary/helping verbs, whereas all of the other auxiliaries, such as can, could,
should, must etc. (i.e. Modals), are, basically, pseudo-auxiliaries. Each primary verb stands
for a mode of time division i.e. an Aspect; the base and past forms of each primary verb
serve as auxiliaries for the description of time-division in Present and Past. Let us examine
this relation in a chart, for instance:
W Kind of

Primary Verb

Time/Tense
h
Indefinite
i Progressive
l Perfect

T o do
T o be
To have

Present Auxiliary
Do/Does
Is/Am/Are
Has/Have

Past Auxiliary
Did
Was/Were
H ad

Future Auxiliary
Not used

Will + be
Will + have

e
discussing the tense structure, we will use subject + to go + to + college as our standard
sentence. The justification for the use of this simplest of sentences with extremely simple
structure is to understand all the potential variations English tenses undergo. It must be
borne in mind that English has no single pattern for the production of tense variations,
plurals, pronouns and corresponding auxiliaries, and questions etc.
1. PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE (ALSO SIMPLE PRESENT)
This tense expresses repeated action, which has neither a definitive start nor ending. The
timeframe of Simple Present stretches over an action that begins sometimes in past,
continues in the present, and is likely to continue even in future. For instance, Ahmad goes
to college includes goes as an activity that indicates Ahmads activity of going to college
in the past, present and the time to come. This is to say that Simple Present expresses a
habitual action. Furthermore, it expresses a general truth, say, the idea of a general activity
occurring in routine with little or no changes whatsoever (e.g. Sun sets in the west). It seems
rather oddbut grammatically correctthat a piece of literature (drama, novel, poem etc.)
is generally explained in Simple Present (e.g. Shakespeare says there are seven major
stages in human life).
Base Structure

Subject + main verb in base form + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + base form of verb + object.
If the subject is 3rd person singular, the base form of verb will undertake an addition of s or
es inflection. Verbs ending on characters like ch, sh, o, s, x normally take the es inflection,

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and the rest are supplied s only.


(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + do/does not + base form + object.
The same rule as above will apply to distinguish between does and do.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Do/Does + subject + base form + object?
Do/Does + subject + not + base form + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + do/does + subject + base form + object?
Wh word/How + do/does + subject + not + base form + object?

SOLVED EXERCISE
1. He/She/Ahsan/Samina goes to college. (3rd person singular simple sentence)
2. I/You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma go to college. (Simple sentence
with 1st person singular & plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
3. He/She/Ahsan/Samina does not go to college. (3rd person singular negative sentence)
4. I/You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma do not go to college. (Negative
sentence with the rest)
5. Does he/she/Ahsan/Samina go to college? (3rd person singular interrogative sentence)
6. Do I/You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma go to college? (Interrogative
sentence with the rest)
7. Does he/she/Ahsan/Samina not go to college? (3rd person singular interrogativenegative sentence)
8. Do I/You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not go to college?
(Interrogative-negative sentence with the rest)
9. When does he/she/Ahsan/Samina go to college? (3rd person singular double
interrogative sentence)
10. When do I/You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma go to college? (Doubleinterrogative sentence with the rest)
11. When does he/she/Ahsan/Samina not go to college? (3rd person singular doubleinterrogative-negative sentence)
12. When do I/You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not go to college?
(Double-interrogative-negative sentence with the rest)
2. PAST INDEFINITE TENSE (ALSO SIMPLE PAST)
Past Indefinite expresses an action already completed in the past at a certain time. The
timescale does not seem to have a recentness or perfection in it; instead it shows a definite
time in past when the activity was carried out. In this particular sense, there is only a slight
difference between Past Indefinite and Present Perfect tenses. However, we need to tell our
brains that Past Indefinite sentences express a situation that has a setting of past and its time
is now overno longer in continuity. However, Present Perfect communicates a recentness
of time, which is somehow linked to the present time despite that the action has come to
completion.
Past Indefinite often uses words or phrases expressing a definite time in past; for
example. yesterday, last week, last June, previous month, this morning, two hours ago etc.
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Base Structure

Subject + main verb in past form + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + past form of verb + object.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + did not + base form + object.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Did + subject + base form + object?
Did + subject + not + base form + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + did + subject + base form + object?
Wh word/How + did + subject + not + base form + object?

SOLVED EXERCISE
1. I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma went to
college. (Simple sentence)
2. I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma did not go
to college. (Negative sentence)
3. Did I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma go to
college? (Interrogative sentence)
4. Did I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not go
to college? (Interrogative-negative sentence)
5. When did I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma
go to college? (Double-interrogative sentence)
6. When did I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma
not go to college? (Double-interrogative-negative sentence)
3. FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE (ALSO SIMPLE FUTURE)

It is stunning but true that English does not have a future tense. English, unlike its mother
languages i.e. Greek and Latin and our national language Urdu, has a very loose idea of
future. English gives only a cursory touch to the future using very many grammatical
constructions, in which the most common is the use of will and shall. Both will and
shall are Modal verbs and they do not qualify to become independent auxiliaries like
those of present and past tenses or to find a place among the Primary Verbs. Similarly,
sometimes present participle going to is used to express ones intent to carry out an
activity in future times (e.g. Im going to write a book). Construction of may be is also
used in some situations to express futurity when indecisiveness is prevalent (e.g. he may be
writing a book). Modal verb may also serves at times in a similar fashion (e.g. Ahmad
may/might write a book).
In our present case, Future Indefinite structure will include only will as auxiliary. In
fact, the use of shall has become extremely rare in modern English, especially American
English.
Base Structure

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Subject + will + main verb in base form + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + will + base form of verb + object.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + will not + base form + object.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Will + subject + base form + object?
Will + subject + not + base form + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + will + subject + base form + object?
Wh word/How + will + subject + not + base form + object?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

SOLVED EXERCISE
I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma will go to
college. (Negative sentence)
I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma will not go
to college. (Simple sentence)
Will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma go to
college? (Interrogative sentence)
Will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not go
to college? (Interrogative-negative sentence)
When will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma
go to college? (Double-interrogative sentence)
When will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma
not go to college? (Double-interrogative-negative sentence)
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS TENSE

Present Progressive Tense exhibits an action that is still in progress or continuity at the time
of speaking (Ahmad is playing cricket). It also expresses a more general present, implying a
continual activity (I am going to gym these days). Further, it may in some respect indicate
future events, thus, functioning as an incomplete future (Salma is returning from Lahore
tomorrow). With now and always, progressive action is always more appropriate (We are
now leaving for Islamabad; Hassan is always wearing shorts).
Base Structure

Subject + present forms of to be + main verb in present participle + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + is/a m/are + present participle + object.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + is/a m/are not + present participle + object.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Is/Am/Are + subject + present participle + object?
Is + subject + not + present participle + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)

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Wh word/How + is/am/are + subject + present participle + object?


Wh word/How + is/am/are + subject + not + present participle + object?

Important Tip:
1 person singular I always takes am as its auxiliary (helping) verb in Present Progressive
Tense.
3rd person singulars he, she, it, (& single nouns) always take is as their auxiliary verb.
All plurals as well as the 2nd person singular you always take are as their auxiliary verb.
st

SOLVED EXERCISE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.

He/She/Ahsan/Samina is going to college. (3rd person singular simple sentence)


I am going to college. (1st person singular simple sentence)
You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma are going to college. (Simple
sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
He/She/Ahsan/Samina is not going to college. (3rd person singular negative sentence)
I am not going to college. (1st person singular negative sentence)
You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma are not going to college. (Negative
sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
Is he/she/Ahsan/Samina going to college? (3rd person singular interrogative sentence)
Am I going to college? (1st person singular interrogative sentence)
Are You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma going to college? (Interrogative
sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
Is he/she/Ahsan/Samina not going to college? (3rd person singular interrogativenegative sentence)
Am I not going to college? (1st person singular interrogative-negative sentence)
Are You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not going to college?
(Interrogative-negative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural,
3rd person plurals)
When is he/she/Ahsan/Samina going to college? (3rd person singular doubleinterrogative sentence)
When am I going to college? (1st person singular double-interrogative sentence)
When are You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma going to college? (Doubleinterrogative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person
plurals)
When is he/she/Ahsan/Samina not going to college? (3rd person singular doubleinterrogative-negative sentence)
When am I not going to college? (1st person singular double-interrogative-negative
sentence)
When are You/We/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not going to college?
(Double-interrogative-negative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular &
plural, 3rd person plurals)
5. PAST PROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS TENSE

Past Progressive Tense is the past form of progressive aspect. It shows a progressive action
that began sometimes earlier than the while of its description and may or may not be in
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continuity at the present (Ahmad was playing cricket this afternoon). In this sentence, we do
not know whether Ahmad is still playing cricket or he stopped playing afterwards. Past
Progressive also combines two actions occurring one after another in past that express a
correlative progression (Ahmad was driving home when it began getting dark). However, it
is preferable to use Past Simple rather than Past Progressive for a definite and complete past
expression; it is, therefore, better to say Ahmad came home early today than Ahmad was
coming home early today. Past Progressive may be used, however, to describe a
supplementary action in a series of past actions (The college bell was ringing and the
students were assembling in classes. It was the first period of day-one and all the teachers
started their lectures with introductory notes. They explained what changes new students
might experience in the coming days of their college career).
Base Structure

Subject + past forms of to be + main verb in present participle + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + was/were + present participle + object.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + was/were not + present participle + object.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Was/Were + subject + present participle + object?
Was/Were + subject + not + present participle + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + was/were + subject + present participle + object?
Wh word/How + was/were + subject + not + present participle + object?

Important Tip:
1st person singular I and 3rd person singulars he, she, it, (& single nouns) always take
was as their auxiliary in Past Progressive Tense.
All plurals as well as 2nd person singular you always take were as their auxiliary.
SOLVED EXERCISE
I/He/She/Ahsan/Samina was going to college. (1st & 3rd persons singular simple sentence)
We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma were going to college. (Simple sentence
with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
I/He/She/Ahsan/Samina was not going to college. (1st & 3rd persons singular negative
sentence)
We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma were not going to college. (Negative
sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
Was I/he/she/Ahsan/Samina going to college? (1st & 3rd persons singular interrogative
sentence)
Were We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma going to college? (Interrogative
sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
Was I/he/she/Ahsan/Samina not going to college? (1st & 3rd persons singular interrogativenegative sentence)
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Were We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not going to college?


(Interrogative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person
plurals)
When was I/he/she/Ahsan/Samina going to college? (1st & 3rd persons singular doubleinterrogative sentence)
When were We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma going to college? (Doubleinterrogative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person
plurals)
When was I/he/she/Ahsan/Samina not going to college? (1st & 3rd persons singular doubleinterrogative-negative sentence)
When were We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not going to college?
(Double-interrogative-negative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular &
plural, 3rd person plurals)
6. FUTURE PROGRESSIVE/CONTINUOUS TENSE
Future Progressive Tense stands for a progressive action that has to take place yet. The use
of Future Progressive arrangement in modern English is rare. Native English speakers prefer
Future Simple to Future Progressive for expressing an action to be taking place on a definite
or indefinite time in future. It exhibits an action that will be in progress after the present (As
you are having a practice session of cricket now, you will definitely be giving tough time to
your rivals tomorrow). Future Progressive is also used sometimes for casual and
uncalculated future statements (I will be staying in my room this weekend).
Base Structure

Subject + will be + main verb in present participle + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + will be + present participle + object.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + will not be + present participle + object.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Will + subject + be + present participle + object?
Will + subject + not + be + present participle + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + will + subject + be + present participle + object?
Wh word/How + will + subject + not + be + present participle + object?

SOLVED EXERCISE
I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma will be going to
college. (Simple sentence)
I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma will not be
going to college. (Negative sentence)
Will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma be going to
college? (Interrogative sentence)
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Will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not be


going to college? (Interrogative-negative sentence)
When will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma be
going to college? (Double-interrogative sentence)
When will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not
be going to college? (Double-interrogative-negative sentence)
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
Present Perfect Tense shows an action that is completed in a recent past. The time is,
however, not fully known. As opposed to the progressive, we are certain in perfect that the
action has come to completionnot in a remote past, but implying a sense of just completed
(I have finished reading Harry Porters new adventure or I have just finished Harry
Porters new adventures). This tense also expresses an action that has completed in an
unknown past time and may possibly occur again with no certainty of timing (Ahmad has
visited England quite a number of times). This sentence means that Ahmad completed all
his tours to England sometimes in past, and he may possibly repeat his action to traveling to
England at some moment in future. Present Perfect also stands for a general present,
especially in inquiries or information referring to a recent or present time (Has he taken
medicine? Or Hassan has invited me on dinner tonight).
Base Structure

Subject + present forms of to have + main verb in past participle + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + has/have+ past participle + object.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + has/have not + past participle + object.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Has/Have + subject + past participle + object?
Has/Have + subject + not + past participle + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + has/have + subject + past participle + object?
Wh word/How + has/have + subject + not + past participle + object?

Important Tip:
1 person singular I, 2nd person singular you and all plurals always take have as their
auxiliary in Present Perfect Tense.
3rd person singulars he, she, it, (& single nouns) always take has as their auxiliary.
st

SOLVED EXERCISE
He/She/Ahsan/Samina has gone to college. (3rd persons singular simple sentence)
I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma have gone to college. (Simple sentence
with 1st person singular & plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
He/She/Ahsan/Samina has not gone to college. (3rd persons singular negative sentence)
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I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma have not gone to college. (Simple
sentence with 1st person singular & plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person
plurals)
Has he/she/Ahsan/Samina gone to college? (3rd persons singular interrogative sentence)
Have I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma gone to college? (Interrogative
sentence with 1st person singular & plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person
plurals)
Has he/she/Ahsan/Samina not gone to college? (3rd persons singular interrogativenegative sentence)
Have I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not gone to college?
(Interrogative-negative sentence with 1st person singular & plural, 2nd person singular
& plural, 3rd person plurals)
When has he/she/Ahsan/Samina gone to college? (3rd persons singular doubleinterrogative sentence)
When have I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma gone to college? (Doubleinterrogative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person
plurals)
When has he/she/Ahsan/Samina not gone to college? (3rd persons singular doubleinterrogative-negative sentence)
When have I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not gone to college?
(Double-interrogative-negative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd person singular &
plural, 3rd person plurals)
PAST PERFECT TENSE
Past Perfect Tense expresses an action that came to completion prior to another action or
activity, especially when the situation shows a distant past (my classmates had already gone
by the time college bell rang). Similarly, it indicates an action, which began in the past
before the time of speaking and stopped exactly at the time of speakers utterance or just
before it (PAF F6 Jets fleet, which had served our air force for more than three decades,
was retired in 1990s). Unsurprisingly, the use of Past Perfect has become a rare case in
modern, especially American English. Past Simple is normally given preference over Past
Perfect in general discussions, for both convey almost an identical idea. Modern English has
eased its speakers as far as the issue of past is concerned; except for a few situations, Past
Simple communicates all idea of past with no ambiguity, linguistically speaking.
Base Structure

Subject + past form of to have + main verb in past participle + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + had + past participle + object.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + had not + past participle + object.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Had + subject + past participle + object?
Had + subject + not + past participle + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)

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Wh word/How + had + subject + past participle + object?


Wh word/How + had + subject + not + past participle + object?

SOLVED EXERCISE
1. I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma had gone to
college. (Simple sentence)
2. I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma had not
gone to college. (Negative sentence)
3. Had I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma gone to
college? (Interrogative sentence)
4. Had I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not
gone to college? (Interrogative-negative sentence)
5. When had I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma
gone to college? (Double-interrogative sentence)
6. When had I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma
not gone to college? (Double-interrogative-negative sentence)
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
Future Perfect Tense expresses probability of something being done in coming time. In
other words, it says that a certain action will be completed in future before another time,
activity or event. This simply means completion in futurea time before remote future
(You will have completed your education before I get back from USA). Assumptions,
suppositions, and possibilities, all, are better expressed in Future Perfect Tense (a. I guess
Pakistan will have won the final cricket match against India, b. you will certainly have seen
Niagara Falls).
Base Structure

Subject + will have + main verb in past participle + object/complement


(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + will have + past participle + object.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + will not have + past participle + object.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Will + subject + have + past participle + object?
Will + subject + not + have + past participle + object?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + will + subject + have + past participle + object?
Wh word/How + will + subject + not + have + past participle + object?

SOLVED EXERCISE
1. I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma will have
gone to college. (Simple sentence)
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2. I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma will not


have gone to college. (Negative sentence)
3. Will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma have
gone to college? (Interrogative sentence)
4. Will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not
have gone to college? (Interrogative-negative sentence)
5. When will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma
have gone to college? (Double-interrogative sentence)
6. When will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma
not have gone to college? (Double-interrogative-negative sentence)
10. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE (ALSO PERFECT PROGRESSIVE)
All Perfect Progressive tenses denote time; hence, they are Time Tenses. The mention of
time is the only condition for a tense to be rendered as Perfect Progressive within the
timeframe of Past, Present and/or Future.
In traditional words, Present Perfect Continuous Tense expresses an action that began at
a certain moment in past, and that it is still in continuity and will probably continue in future
as well (We have been studying together since noon). In some cases, the action it expresses
has already ended, but it shows the constant and continuous nature of the action, which
comes to an end without being interrupted. This situation generally develops when one
expresses an excuse or apology (Ahmad does not like to stay in hostel on weekend as he has
been waiting for the whole week to see his family).
Base Structure

Subject + has/have been + main verb in present participle + object/complement + since/for


+ time/duration
(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + has/have been + present participle + object + since/ for + time/duration.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + has/have not been + present participle + object + since/for +
time/duration.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Has/Have + subject + been + present participle + object + since/for +
time/duration?
Has/Have + subject + not + been + present participle + object + since/for +
time/duration?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + has/have + subject + been + present participle + object +
since/for + time/duration?
Wh word/How + has/have + subject + not + been + present participle + object +
since/for + time/duration?

Important Tip 1 (Since & For):


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Since and for represent two different aspects of time. For is used to describe a period of
time or a time in flux i.e. duration, such as six months, many hours, a few minutes, ten
years and similar: on the other hand, since is used to denote point of/in time or a time
flowing onwards from a fixed time in history, such as 1990, 6 June, Monday, today
morning, yesterday, this afternoon etc.
Important Tip 2:
1st person singular I, 2nd person singular you and all plurals always take have been as
their auxiliary in Present Perfect Continuous Tense.
3rd person singulars he, she, it, (& single nouns) always take has been as their auxiliary.
SOLVED EXERCISE
1. He/She/Ahsan/Samina has been going to college for 2 years/since 2007. (3rd persons
singular simple sentence)
2. I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma have been going to college for 2
years/since 2007. (Simple sentence with 1st person singular & plural, 2nd person
singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
3. He/She/Ahsan/Samina has not been going to college for 2 years/since 2007. (3rd
persons singular negative sentence)
4. I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma have not been going to college for 2
years/since 2007. (Simple sentence with 1st person singular & plural, 2nd person
singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
5. Has he/she/Ahsan/Samina been going to college for two years/since 2007? (3rd persons
singular interrogative sentence)
6. Have I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma been going to college for two
years/since 2007? (Interrogative sentence with 1st person singular & plural, 2nd person
singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
7. Has he/she/Ahsan/Samina not been going to college for two years/since 2007? (3rd
persons singular interrogative-negative sentence)
8. Have I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not been going to college for
two years/since 2007? (Interrogative-negative sentence with 1st person singular &
plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
9. Why has he/she/Ahsan/Samina been going to college for two years/since 2007? (3rd
persons singular double-interrogative sentence)
10. Why have I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma been going to college for
two years/since 2007? (Double-interrogative sentence with 1st person plural, 2nd
person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
11. Why has he/she/Ahsan/Samina not been going to college for two years/since 2007? (3rd
persons singular double-interrogative-negative sentence)
12. Why have I/We/You/They/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not been going to college
for two years/since 2007? (Double-interrogative-negative sentence with 1st person
plural, 2nd person singular & plural, 3rd person plurals)
11. PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

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Past Perfect Continuous Tense expresses an action that began before the time of speaking
and continued up to the moment of speaking. It also describes an action, which, although
began before speaking, is complete before the moment of speaking (Hassan and Ahmad
returned home late, for they had been shopping for many hours in the evening). Again, it is
the mention of time in past that, as a device, directly and immediately changes all past
tenses into Past Perfect Continuous (He had been waiting for me yesterday since yesterday
morning). Moreover, it lays emphasis on the duration of an action or activity, which
happens to be in progress before another action in past (Pakistan cricket team had been
desperately yearning for the World Cup before they won it in 2009).
Base Structure

Subject + had been + main verb in present participle + object/complement + since/for +


time/duration
(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + had been + present participle + object + since/for + time/duration.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + had not been + present participle + object + since/for + time/duration.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Had + subject + been + present participle + object + since/for + time/duration?
Had + subject + not + been + present participle + object + since/for +
time/duration?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + had + subject + been + present participle + object + since/for +
time/duration?
Wh word/How + had + subject + not + been + present participle + object +
since/for + time/duration?

SOLVED EXERCISE
I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma had been going to
college for two years/since 2007. (Simple sentence)
I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma had not been
going to college for two years/since 2007. (Negative sentence)
Had I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma been going
to college for two years/since 2007? (Interrogative sentence)
Had I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not been
going to college for two years/since 2007? (Interrogative-negative sentence)
Why had I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma been
going to college for two years/since 2007? (Double-interrogative sentence)
Why had I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not
been going to college for two years/since 2007? (Double-interrogative-negative
sentence)
12. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
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Future Perfect Continuous Tense expresses an action that begins in present or future and
will be continuing for a certain length of time in future. This becomes a sort of prediction in
which the predictor tries to be as accurate and exact as possible (a. We will have been
working for 5 years before we are promoted, b. he will have been sitting here for 5 hours by
the time the DCO comes).
Base Structure

Subject + will have been + main verb in present participle + object/complement + since/for
+ time/duration
(Structure of Affirmative or Simple Sentence)
Subject + will have been + present participle + object + since/for + time/duration.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Subject + will not have been + present participle + object + since/for +
time/duration.
(Structure of Interrogative Sentence)
Will + subject + have been + present participle + object + since/for +
time/duration?
Will + subject + not + have been + present participle + object + since/for +
time/duration?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + will + subject + have been + present participle + object +
since/for + time/duration?
Wh word/How + will + subject + not + have been + present participle + object +
since/for + time/duration?

SOLVED EXERCISE
I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma will have been
going to college for two years/since 2007. (Simple sentence)
I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma will not have
been going to college for two years/since 2007. (Negative sentence)
Will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma have been
going to college for two years/since 2007? (Interrogative sentence)
Will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not have
been going to college for two years/since 2007? (Interrogative-negative sentence)
Why will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma have
been going to college for two years/since 2007? (Double-interrogative sentence)
Why will I/You/He/She/We/They/Ahsan/Samina/Ahsan & Ahmad/Samina & Salma not
have been going to college for two years/since 2007? (Double-interrogative-negative
sentence)

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TENSE SUMMARY
Chart of tenses in Active Voice:
Present Tenses
Simple present: She wants a drink.
(Subject + verb in 1st/base form+ complement)
Present continuous/progressive: They are walking home.
(Subject + be forms in present/is, am, are + present participle + complement)
Past Tenses
Simple past: Zaheer lived in China in 1965.
(Subject + verb in past form + complement)
Past continuous/progressive: I was reading when she arrived.
(Subject + be forms in past/was, were + present participle + complement)
Perfect Tenses
Present perfect: I have visited Lahore Fort many times.
(Subject + has/have + past participle + complement)
Present perfect continuous/progressive: I have been living here for years.
(Subject + has/have + been + present participle + complement)14
Past perfect: We had seen her several times in her house.
(Subject + had + verb in past participle form + complement)
Past perfect continuous/progressive: He had been watching her for some time when she
turned and smiled.
(Subject + had been + present participle + complement)
Future perfect: We will have arrived in Pakistan by the time you get this letter.
(Subject + will have + verb in past participle form + complement)
Future perfect continuous/progressive: By the end of your course, you will have been
studying for five years.
(Subject + will have + been + present participle + complement)
Future Tenses
Simple future: They will go to Italy next week.
(Subject + will + verb in base form + complement)
Future continuous/progressive: I will be traveling by train.
(Subject + will + be + present participle + complement)

Conditional Tenses
(If + simple/perfect/continuous clause, subject + future/modal verb clause according to ifclause)

14

To add time, we place since and/or for before the time. Since will be used for a definite time,
whereas for will be employed for an indefinite time.

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Conditional sentences speak of a certain condition and a consequence arising out of the
situation developed in response to the condition. These sentences always have two clauses,
namely:
(i )
(ii)

conditional clause or if-clause and


consequential clause.

The conditional clause begins with the condition if, hence called if-clause, whereas
consequential clause expresses the consequence of the condition described in the if-clause,
and thereby it heavily depends on the if-clause. Syntactically, there is no problem to place
the conditional if-clause before the consequential clause or consequential clause before the
if-clause. However, what must be considered a radical rule of Conditional Sentences is the
occurring of future tenses or modal verbs (will, would, should, could etc.) in the
consequential clause. The if-clause cannot contain a modal verb or any future tenses.
Simple Future Conditional: If he goes to Lahore, he will bring a gift for me.
Future Continuous/Progressive Conditional: If we are earning with the same pace, we
will be getting rich quickly.
Future Perfect Conditional: If he has bought the novel, he will have finished it by now.
Future Perfect Continuous Condition: If they have talked to me, I will have been guiding
them properly.
Simple Past Conditional: If she owned some money, she would go to Murree.
Past Continuous/Progressive Conditional: He would be getting up now if he were in
Australia.
Past Perfect Continuous Conditional: I would have been playing tennis now if I hadn't
broken my arm.
Past Perfect Conditional: She would have visited me if she had had time.
Probability: If it stops raining, they can/may come to see us tonight.
Possibility/Intention: If he were to move abroad, he should have informed me in advance.

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A CURSORY LOOK INTO PASSIVE VOICE STRUCTURE


Like the Active Voice, the Passive Voice is also divisible in three situations of time, Past,
Present, and Future. However, Passive Voice consists of only the original kinds i.e. the
original states of English tense, Indefinite, Progressive, and Perfect. The improvised 4th
kind, Perfect Progressive (Perfect Continuous), is suspended in Passive Voice due to its
incompatible structure.
We must not forget when dealing with passive voice that the most potent verb of
English to be plays a key-role in the passive voice structure.
There are certain rules for the making of passive voice. At first, it is quite
necessary to understand that there are two types of passive voice. We describe them, say, to
easily understand their nature and function as:
i.
ii.

Ready-Made (Already-Made)
Self-Made or Transformed (from Active)

Secondly, it is almost as important in English as passive voice itself not to forget


that all passive voice tenses have a monolithic use of Main Verb. The use of past participle
form of the Main Verb after an auxiliary is the most central rule in passive voice structure.
Similarly, the presence of auxiliary is also inevitable in the passive voice, for without an
auxiliary never can a past participle find a place. This situation implies, in other words, that
auxiliary and past participle form of the Main Verb are the most fundamental constituents
in the making of passive voice. If either of these two is lacking, the situation cannot be
rendered as passive voice. Thus, the structure of passive voice goes as: passive subject +
auxiliary + past participle + by + agent/complement. Complement means something that
completes and it stands, in the present situation, for the portion of the sentence that appears
after the main verb. Complement has a broad variety of uses in different situationslike
those with verb, noun and adjective. However, here the role of the complement is strictly
confined to complete the sentence after past participle, having included the agent if it
appears in the sentence.
Now let us talk about the agent. There is an important role of the agent in passive
sentences. According to a modern grammarian, the agent is the person or thing that does
the action, or that causes what happens.15 Agent is, however, mentioned in about 25% of
passive voice clauses, which generally consist of academic and scientific writings.
Let us at next consider the two kinds of the passive voice.
Ready-Made
This is a situation in which we face the problem of the absence of subject or a
passive subject. The actor is not present in the sentence, but only that we call passive
undergoer. The actor that we now call agent is, in most cases, demoted or even
suspended in the passive voice. In this situation of ready-made passives, in fact, we do not
transform active voice sentences into passive voice; rather, we already have a situation that
is passive with or without a complement. For instance, to bear is a Main Verb that
communicates an active situation, wherein the subject is present and we know that bearing
is the immediate activity of the subject; however, being born is the opposite, the passive,
15

Michael Swan, Practical English Usage, Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 408

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situation wherein we do not directly or indirectly know who the actor is. These sentences
very often end on the Main Verb and we do not require adducing an agent or a complement
(e.g. Tea is being made).
Self-Made or Transformed (from Active)
These sentences are generally used in academics. The formal use of this kind is rare.
However, Pakistani students in 90% cases learn only this type of passive voice owing to
their academic needs. It is interesting that they are generally good at doing this type, for it
becomes far easier for them to reverse the order of an active voice sentence with the use of
past participle rather than writing a sentence already passive.
ii.
She was amazed by my quick responses.
iii.
The house was designed by a famous architect.
It is possible for a verb when occurring in the passive voice to take an infinitive
complement that is also in the passive voice. Such a verb is usually an object-raising verb.
For instance:
i. The construction project is expected to be completed in the next month.
It is advised that one should always avoid passive voice constructions when something
can be said in active voice. However, if the use of passive voice seems inevitable, one must
follow the structure of passive voice, especially that of self-made, in a proper way.
A chart of active voice and passive voice is given below with the main verb to call. The
first chart shows tenses and tells how the verb changes from active to passive. The second
chart includes modal verb showing their use in active voice and passive voice.
Tense
Present Indefinite
Present Progressive

Present Perfect
Past Indefinite
Past Progressive
Past Perfect
Future Indefinite
Future Progressive
Future Perfect

Active Voice
Call
Calls
Am calling
Is calling
Are calling
Has called
Have called
Called
Was calling
Were calling
Had called
Will call
Will be calling
Will have called

Passive Voice
Am called/Are called
Is called
Am being called
Is being called
Are being called
Has been called
Have been called
Was/Were called
Was being called
Were being called
Had been called
Will be called
Will be being called
Will have been called

Passive Voice with modal verbs:


Modal Verb
Can
Could
Ma y
Might
Must

Active Voice
Can call
Could call
May call
Might call
Must call

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Could be called
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Will
Would
Should
Modal + have

Will call
Would call
Should call
Modal + have + called

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Will be called
Would be called
Should be called
Modal + have + been + called

Present Indefinite Tense (Passive)


Base Structure

Passive subject + present forms of to be + past participle + complement


(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)
Passive subject + is/are/am + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + is/are/am + not + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + is/are/am (not) + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)
Is/Are/Am + passive subject + past participle + complement?
Is/Are/Am + passive subject + not + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + is/are/am + passive subject + past participle + complement?
Wh word/How + is/are/am + passive subject + not + past participle +
complement?

Past Indefinite Tense (Passive)


Base Structure

Passive subject + past forms of to be + past participle + complement


(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)
Passive subject + was/were + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + was/were + not + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + was/were (not) + past participle
complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)
Was/Were + passive subject + past participle + complement?
Was/Were + passive subject + not + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + was/were + passive subject + past participle
complement?
Wh word/How + was/were + passive subject + not + past participle
complement?

+
+

Future Indefinite Tense (Passive)


Base Structure

Passive subject + will be + past participle + complement


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(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)


Passive subject + will be + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + will + not + be + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + will (not) be + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)
Will + passive subject + be + past participle + complement?
Will + passive subject + not + be + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + will + passive subject + be + past participle +
complement?
Wh word/How + will + passive subject + not + be + past participle +
complement?

Present Progressive/Continuous Tense (Passive)


Base Structure

Passive subject + present forms of to be + being + past participle + complement


(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)
Passive subject + is/are/am + being + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + is/are/am + not + being + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + is/are/am (not) + being + past participle +
complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)
Is/Are/Am + passive subject + being + past participle + complement?
Is/Are/Am + passive subject + not + being + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + is/are/am + passive subject + being + past participle +
complement?
Wh word/How + is/are/am + passive subject + not + being + past participle +
complement?

Past Progressive/Continuous Tense (Passive)


Base Structure

Passive subject + past forms of to be + being + past participle + complement


(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)
Passive subject + was/were + being + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + was/were + not + being + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + was/were (not) + being + past participle +
complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)

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Was/Were + passive subject + being + past participle + complement?


Was/Were + passive subject + not + being + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + was/were + passive subject + being + past participle +
complement?
Wh word/How + was/were + passive subject + not + being + past participle +
complement?

Future Progressive/Continuous Tense (Passive)


Base Structure

Passive subject + will be + being + past participle + complement


(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)
Passive subject + will be + being + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + will + not + be + being + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + will (not) be + being + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)
Will + passive subject + be + being + past participle + complement?
Will + passive subject + not + be + being + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + will + passive subject + be + being + past participle +
complement?
Wh word/How + will + passive subject + not + be + being + past participle +
complement?

Present Perfect Tense (Passive)


Base Structure

Passive subject + present forms of to have + been + past participle + complement


(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)
Passive subject + has/have + been + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + has/have + not + been + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + has/have (not) + been + past participle +
complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)
Has/Have + passive subject + been + past participle + complement?
Has/Have + passive subject + not + been + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + has/have + passive subject + been + past participle +
complement?
Wh word/How + has/have + passive subject + not + been + past participle +
complement?

Past Perfect Tense (Passive)


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Base Structure

Passive subject + past forms of to have + been + past participle + complement


(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)
Passive subject + had + been + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + had + not + been + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + had (not) + been + past participle +
complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)
Had + passive subject + been + past participle + complement?
Had + passive subject + not + been + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + had + passive subject + been + past participle +
complement?
Wh word/How + had + passive subject + not + been + past participle +
complement?

Future Perfect Tense (Passive)


Base Structure

Passive subject + will have been + past participle + complement


(Structure of Affirmative Sentence)
Passive subject + will have been + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Negative Sentence)
Passive subject + will + not + have been + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Affirmative/Negative Sentence with Wh-Word)
Wh word + passive subject + will (not) have been + past participle + complement.
(Structure of Single Interrogative Sentence)
Will + passive subject + have been + past participle + complement?
Will + passive subject + not + have been + past participle + complement?
(Structure of Double Interrogative Sentence)
Wh word/How + will + passive subject + have been + past participle +
complement?
Wh word/How + will + passive subject + not + have been + past participle +
complement?

Important Tips
Tip 1: Never use an auxiliary construction as will has been, would has been or will had
been; simply, they do not exist in English. Similarly, when the sentence is negative, split
apart will and have using not between them, thus, rendering it as will not have been. Any
negative construction like will have not been will be incorrect.

Exercise
Fill correct auxiliaries in the blanks below:
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1.
2.

_____ her grandmother not being cared by her parents?


Why _____ we not be given proper direction on how to prepare our final
presentation?
3.
Ahmad _____ formally been invited in the ceremony.
4.
Two groups of B.A. _____ taught English at our college.
5.
Indian bowlers were _____ washed by our batsmen when I last saw the match.
Make Passive Voice using the following verbs according to Tenses mentioned next to
them:
to declare
(Past Perfect Tense)
to take
(Present Indefinite Tense)
to revise (Present Progressive Tense)
to bear
(Past Indefinite Tense)
to build
(Future Indefinite Tense)
Correct the following sentences to make them Passive Voice:
Bilcans Institute has now being presided by a reputed scholar.
All mangoes were eating by my friends.
He has never being waited here ever since he left us.
She will has been included in the college list by now.
All great people born children, and they earn name through great deeds afterwards.
Water will have not been drunk by my friend.
How can tea be making in steal kettle?
Pakistan Army could not being defeated by the Indian Army.
This target must achieved before dark.
When is this letter been written?
Make Active into Passive and Passive into Active Narrations:
When was tea made by Samina?
Students buy countless books every year but not all of them read them.
The famous scholar has not written any books this year.
Pakistan Army will knock out Indian Army on the battleground in future wars.
The letter has been posted by Ahmad, and it has been received by Ahsan.
I did not write a letter to him.
Aslam will not drive my car tonight.
Where had you thrown the ball in the ground?
Ahmad had been taken into custody by the police.
Why will we not be examined by the doctor in the hospital?
Change the following according to indications:
Pakistan is deeply loved by all Pakistanis (into Future Indefinite Tense)
When were you taken into custody by the police? (into Past Perfect Tense)
Holy month of Ramadan will be celebrated with religious fervor. (into Past Indefinite
Tense)
Ahmad had been awarded first position in the class tests. (into Future Progressive Tense)
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Pakistani culture was not being modernized in realistic lines by our rulers. (into Present
Perfect Tense)
Describe the Passive Voice auxiliaries and structures:
1. Future Progressive Tense
_____________________________________________________
2. Future Perfect Tense (Negative)
_____________________________________________________
3. Past Progressive Tense
_____________________________________________________
4. Past Perfect Tense (Interrogative)
_____________________________________________________
5. Present Indefinite Tense (Negative)
_____________________________________________________

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Intention and Compulsion


(to be + infinitive & to have + infinitive)

Intention
(subject + to be + infinitive + complement)

Intention, i.e. a future plan of doing something, is generally expressed in English using
infinitive after the present forms of primary verb to be (i.e. is, am, are: subject +
is/am/are + infinitive + complement). For instance, I am to go to college; Ahmad is to write
a letter; we are to visit him today. When intention is expressed in the past tense, we use past
forms of to be before the infinitive (i.e. was, were: subject + was/were + infinitive +
complement) to express a future plan expressed in past. For instance, I was to go to college;
we were to visit him last night; they were to play cricket.
For negative intention sentences, we place not after the auxiliary and before the
infinitive.

We are not to play hockey today afternoon.


They were not to buy books from citys famous bookshop.

Moreover, interrogative intention sentences take auxiliary in the beginning and


nothing else changes except for placing a question mark (?) instead of the full stop at the
end.

Are we (not) to play hockey today afternoon?


Were you (not) to meet me at Bilcans last Sunday?

Using Wh-questions in these situations requires the general interrogative formula to


be followed. Wh-words are placed at the start of an interrogative structure, as sentences
above.

Why are you (not) to play hockey today afternoon?


Where were you to meet me last Sunday?

Note: Intention in itself is a future action; therefore, there is no futurity that uses will/shall
in intention structure.

Compulsion
(subject + to have + infinitive + complement)

Compulsion, i.e. a situation laying condition or obligation, is expressed using infinitive after
the present forms of primary verb to have (i.e. has, have: subject + has/have + infinitive
+ complement). Have to construction equates modal verb must in semantic terms;
therefore, the same situation as above can be expressed using must + base form (i.e. I
must go to college). However, it is preferable to use have to construction for expressing
compulsion and modal verb must for obligation. For instance, I have to go to college;
Ahmad has to work hard; we have to get up early to go to college. In case a compulsion is
being laid in the past, the past form of to have (i.e. had) and infinitive will be placed in
succession to express compulsion (subject + had + infinitive + complement). For instance, I
Bilcans Grammar Word
(Syed Muhammad Waqas)
52

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had to go to college; Students had to listen; we had to give up the plan. For future
compulsion, modal verb will and primary verb to have are put together and this
construction, namely, will have is followed by infinitive (i.e. subject + will have +
infinitive + complement). For instance, I will have to go to college; Ahmad will have to buy
new books; we will have to consult him at length; they will have to come early.
Negative action in compulsion takes place by using not after the auxiliary and
before the infinitive. This situation is applicable to both present and past tenses. However,
future undertakes a little change and not occurs between will and have. For instance:
i. I have not to go there tonight. (or I havent to go there tonight.)
ii. He had not to take a severe action against his enemy. (He hadnt to take a severe
action against his enemy.)
iii. We will not have to think about examination when they are still away.
(or We wont have to think about examination when they are still away.)
It may seem strange to some readers that English introduces another function, that
is, a different expression, at this stage of negative compulsion. This different expression
is more widely practiced in modern Englishboth in England and North America.
Functional English combines primary verb to do with to have to create a different
situation, and then place not between the two to equate this construction with negative
compulsion (i.e. to do + not + to have). Thus, not appears before have now. The
expression that afterwards emerges is do not have or dont have, which is followed by
an infinitive (i.e. subject + do not have + infinitive); for the past tense, we use did
not/didnt have. This expression is applicable only to the present and past tenses of
compulsion. For instance:
i. I do not have to go there tonight. (or I dont have to go there tonight.)
ii. He did not have to take a severe action against his enemy. (or He didnt have to take a
severe action against his enemy.)

Bilcans Grammar Word

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

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A List of Important Main Verbs with Corresponding Nouns and Adjectives


Infinitive

Base Form

Past Form

Past Participle

To abide
To abuse
To accept

Abide
Abuse
Accept

Abode
Abused
Accepted

Abode
Abused
Accepted

Present
Participle
Abiding
Abusing
Accepting

To ache

Ache

Ached

Ached

Aching

To act

Act

Acted

Acted

Acting

To add
To admire
To admit

Add
Admire
Admit

Added
Admired
Admitted

Added
Admired
Admitted

Adding
Admiring
Admitting

To advertise

Advertise

Advertised

Advertised

Advertising

To advance

Advance

Advanced

Advanced

Advancing

To advise
To affect

Advise
Affect

Advised
Affected

Advised
Affected

Advising
Affecting

To afford
To agree

Afford
Agree

Afforded
Agreed

Afforded
Agreed

Affording
Agreeing

Affordability
Agreement

To ail
To aim
To alert

Ail
Aim
Alert

Ailed
Aimed
Alerted

Ailed
Aimed
Alerted

Ailing
Aiming
Alerting

To alienate

Alienate

Alienated

Alienated

Alienating

To allow

Allow

Allowed

Allowed

Allowing

Ailment
Aim
Alert
Alerter
Alienation
Aliens
Allowance

To amuse

Amuse

Amused

Amused

Amusing

Amusement

To analyze

Analyze

Analyzed

Analyzed

Analyzing

To announce

Announce

Announced

Announced

Announcing

To annoy

Annoy

Annoyed

Annoyed

Annoying

Analysis
Analyst
Announcement
Announcer
Annoyance

To answer
To apologize

Answer
Apologize

Answered
Apologized

Answered
Apologized

Answering
Apologizing

To approve

Approve

Approved

Approved

Approving

Answer
Apology
Apologizing
Approval

To appear
To appreciate

Appear
Appreciate

Appeared
Appreciated

Appeared
Appreciated

Appearing
Appreciating

Appearance
Appreciation

To arise
To argue

Arise
Argue

Arose
Argued

Arisen
Argued

Arising
Arguing

To arrange

Arrange

Arranged

Arranged

Arranging

Arising
Argument
Argumentation
Arrangement

Bilcans Grammar Word

Noun(s)
Abode
Abuse
Acceptance
Acceptation
Acceptability
Ache
Aching
Act
Action
Actor
Activity
Acting
Addition
Admiration
Admission
Admittance
Admitter
Advertisement
Advertiser
Advance
Advancement
Advice
Effect
Affect

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Adjective(s)
Abiding
Abusive
Accepted
Acceptable
Aching
Active
Acting

Additional
Admirable
Admissible

Advertising
Advance
Advanced
Advisable
Affective
Effective
Affecting
Affordable
Agreed
Agreeable
Ailing
Aimless
Alert
Alerting
Alien
Alienable
Allowable
Allowed
Amusing
Amusable
Analyzable
Announcing
Announced
Annoying
Annoyed
Answerable
Apologetic
Approved
Approvable
Apparent
Appreciable
Appreciative
Arisen
Arguable
Argued
Arranger

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To arrest

Arrest

Arrested

Arrested

Arresting

Arrest

To arrive
To ascend
To astonish

Arrive
Ascend
Astonish

Arrived
Ascended
Astonished

Arrived
Ascended
Astonished

Arriving
Ascending
Astonishing

Arrival
Ascent
Astonishment

To attract

Attract

Attracted

Attracted

Attracting

Attraction

To attack

Attack

Attacked

Attacked

Attacking

To attempt
To attend

Attempt
Attend

Attempted
Attended

Attempted
Attended

Attempting
Attending

To auction

Auction

Auctioned

Auctioned

Auctioning

To augment

Augment

Augmented

Augmented

Augmenting

To awake
To back

Awake
Back

Awoke
Backed

Awoken
Backed

Awaking
Backing

To balance

Balance

Balanced

Balanced

Balancing

Attack
Attacker
Attempt
Attention
Attendance
Attendant
Auction
Auctioneer
Augmentation
Augmenter
Awakening
Back
Backer
Backing
Backwardness
Balance

To ban
To bang

Ban
Bang

Banned
Banged

Banned
Banged

Banning
Banging

To bark

Bark

Barked

Barked

Barking

To bathe

Bathe

Bathed

Bathed

Bathing

To bat

Bat

Batted

Batted

Batting

To battle

Battle

Battled

Battled

Battling

To bear
To bear
To beat

Bear
Bear
Beat

Bore
Bore
Beat

Born
Borne
Beaten

Bearing
Bearing
Beating

To beg

Beg

Begged

Begged

Begging

To begin

Begin

Began

Begun

Beginning

To behave

Behave

Behaved

Behaved

Behaving

To behold
To belong

Behold
Belong

Beheld
Belonged

Beholden
Belonged

Beholding
Belonging

To bend
To bereave
To beseech

Bend
Bereave
Beseech
Better
Bid

To bind

Bind

Bent
Bereaved
Beseeched
Besought
Bettered
Bid
Bidden
Bound

Bending
Bereaving
Beseeching

To better
To bid

Bent
Bereaved
Beseeched
Besought
Bettered
Bid
Bade
Bound

Bilcans Grammar Word

Bettering
Biding
Binding

Ban
Bang
Banging
Bark
Barking
Bath
Bathroom
Bat
Batsman
Batting
Battle
Battler
Birth
Bearing
Beat
Begging
Beggar
Beggary
Beginner
Beginning
Behavior

Beholder
Belongings
Belonging
Bend
Bereavement
Beseech
Betterment
Bid
Bidder
Binding
Binder

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Arrestable
Arresting
Arriving
Ascending
Astonished
Astonishing
Attractive
Attractable
Attacking
Attackable
Attemptable
Attentive

Auctioned
Augmentable
Augmented
Awoken
Back
Backward

Balanced
Balanceable
Banned
Banged
Barking
Bathed
Batted
Batting
Battling
Born
Bearable
Beaten
Beatable
Begging

Beginning
Behaved
Behaving
Well-behaved
Beholden
-Bent
Bereaved
Beseeching
Better
Biddable
Bidden
Binding

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To bite

Bite

Bit

Bitten

Biting

To blame

Blame

Blamed

Blamed

Blaming

To bleach

Bleach

Bleached

Bleached

Bleaching

To bleed

Bleed

Bled

Bled

Bleeding

To bless

Bless

Blessed

Blessed

Blessing

To blind
To blink

Blind
Blink

Blinded
Blinked

Blinded
Blinked

Blinding
Blinking

To blot

Blot

Blotted

Blotted

Blotting

To blow

Blow

Blew

Blown

Blowing

To blush

Blush

Blushed

Blushed

Blushing

To boil

Boil

Boiled

Boiled

Boiling

To bolt

Bolt

Bolted

Bolted

Bolting

To bomb

Bomb

Bombed

Bombed

Bombing

To book

Book

Booked

Booked

Booking

To boost

Boost

Boosted

Boosted

Boosting

To bore

Bore

Bored

Bored

Boring

To borrow

Borrow

Borrowed

Borrowed

Borrowing

To bounce

Bounce

Bounced

Bounced

Bouncing

To bound

Bound

Bounded

Bounded

Bounding

To bow

Bow

Bowed

Bowed

Bowing

To box

Box

Boxed

Boxed

Boxing

To brake

Brake

Braked

Braked

Braking

To branch

Branch

Branched

Branched

Branching

Boil
Boiler
Bolt
Bolter
Bomb
Bombardment
Bombing
Bomber
Book
Booking
Booker
Boost
Booster
Bore
Boredom
Borer
Borrow
Borrower
Bounce
Bouncer
Bound
Boundary
Bow
Bower
Box
Boxing
Boxer
Brake
Brakes
Branch

To break

Break

Broke

Broken

Breaking

Breakage

To breathe

Breathe

Breathed

Breathed

Breathing

To bruise

Bruise

Bruised

Bruised

Bruising

Breath
Breather
Bruise

To brush

Brush

Brushed

Brushed

Brushing

Brush

To bubble

Bubble

Bubbled

Bubbled

Bubbling

Bubble

Bilcans Grammar Word

Biting
Biter
Blame
Bleach
Bleacher
Blood
Bleeder
Blessing
Blessings
Bliss
Blindness
Blink
Blinking
Blot
Blotter
Blow
Blower
Blush
Blusher

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Biting
Blamable
Blameless
Bleachable
Bleached
Bloodless
Bloody
Blessed
Blissful
Blind
Blinking
Blotless
Blotted
Blown
Blushful
Blushing
Blushless
Boiling
Boltless
Bolted
Bombed
Bomber

Booked
Bookless
Boosting
Boosted
Boring

Borrowed
Bouncing
Bouncy
Boundless
Bowing
Boxy
Boxed
Brakeless
Branching
Branchless
Breakable
Broken
Breathless
Breathable
Bruising
Bruised
Brushy
Brushed
Bubbling

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Bubbler
Build
Building
Builder
Bulldozer
Noun(s)

Bubbly
Buildable
Built-in
Built-up
Bulldozed
Adjective(s)

Bump
Bumper

Bumpy
Bumping
Bumped
Burnt

To build

Build

Built

Built

Building

To bulldoze
Infinitive

Bulldoze
Base Form

Bulldozed
Past Form

Bulldozed
Past Participle

To bump

Bump

Bumped

Bumped

Bulldozing
Present
Participle
Bumping

To burn

Burn
Bury
Bu y
Buzz

Burned
Burnt
Buried
Bought
Buzzed

Burning

To bury
To buy
To buzz

Burned
Burnt
Buried
Bought
Buzzed

To calculate

Calculate

Calculated

Calculated

Calculating

To call

Call

Called

Called

Calling

To camp

Camp

Camped

Camped

Camping

To cancel
To care
To carry

Cancel
Care
Carry

Cancelled
Cared
Carried

Cancelled
Cared
Carried

Canceling
Caring
Carrying

To carve

Carve

Carved

Carved

Carving

To cast

Cast

Cast

Cast

Casting

Call
Caller
Calling
Camp
Camping
Camper
Cancellation
Care
Carry
Carrier
Carver
Carving
Cast

To catch

Catch

Caught

Caught

Catching

Catch

To cause

Cause

Caused

Caused

Causing

Cause

To chain

Chain

Chained

Chained

Chaining

Chain

To challenge

Challenge

Challenged

Challenged

Challenging

To change

Change

Changed

Changed

Changing

Challenge
Challenger
Change

To charge

Charge

Charged

Charged

Charging

To chase

Chase

Chased

Chased

Chasing

To cheat

Cheat

Cheated

Cheated

Cheating

To check

Check

Checked

Checked

Checking

To cheer

Cheer

Cheered

Cheered

Cheering

To chew

Chew

Chewed

Chewed

Chewing

To choke

Choke

Choked

Choked

Choking

Bilcans Grammar Word

Burying
Buying
Buzzing

Burn
Burner
Burial
Buyer
Buzz
Buzzer
Calculation
Calculator

Charge
Charger
Charging
Chase
Chaser
Cheat
Cheating
Cheater
Check
Checker
Cheer

Chew
Chewer
Chewing-gum
Choke

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Buried
Buyable
Buzzy
Buzzing
Calculable
Calculative
Calculated
Called
Calling
Campy
Camped
Canceled
Caring
Carriable
Carved
Casting
Cast
Catching
Catchable
Causative
Causable
Causeless
Chainless
Chained
Challenging
Challengeable
Changer
Changeable
Charged
Chargeable
Chased
Cheating

Checked
Cheerful
Cheerless
Cheery
Chewy

Choky

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Choker
Choice
Chooser

To choose

Choose

Chose

Chosen

Choosing

To chop

Chop

Chopped

Chopped

Chopping

To circle

Circle

Circled

Circled

Circling

To civilize

Civilize

Civilized

Civilized

Civilizing

To claim

Claim

Claimed

Claimed

Claiming

To clap

Clap

Clapped

Clapped

Clapping

To class
To classify

Class
Classify

Classed
Classified

Classed
Classified

Classing
Classifying

To clean

Clean

Cleaned

Cleaned

Cleaning

To clear

Clear

Cleared

Cleared

Clearing

To clip

Clip

Clipped

Clipped

Clipping

To close

Close

Closed

Closed

Closing

To coach

Coach

Coached

Coached

Coaching

To coin

Coin

Coined

Coined

Coining

To collect

Collect

Collected

Collected

Collecting

To color

Color

Colored

Colored

Coloring

Color
Coloration
Colorant
Colorist

To comb

Comb

Combed

Combed

Combing

To command

Command

Commanded

Commanded

Commanding

To
communicate
To compare

Communicate

Communicated

Communicated

Communicating

Compare

Compared

Compared

Comparing

To compete

Compete

Competed

Competed

Comb
Comber
Command
Commander
Commandant
Commandment
Commando
Communication
Communicator
Compare
Comparison
Comparative
Competition

Bilcans Grammar Word

Competing

Chop
Chopping
Chopper
Circle
Circular
Civilization
Civility
Civics
Civilian
Claim
Claimant
Clap
Clapping
Clapper
Clapboard
Class
Classification
Cleanliness
Cleaner
Clearance
Clearing
Clearness
Clip
Clipper
Clipping
Closeness
Closet
Closure
Coach
Coaching
Coachman
Coin
Coinage
Coin-box
Collection
Collector

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Choked
Chosen
Choicest
Choosy
Chopped

Circular
Civil
Civic
Civilized
Claimed
Claimable
Claimless
Clapped
Clapped out

Classable
Classified
Classifiable
Clean
Cleanable
Clear
Clearing
Clipped

Close
Closer
Coachless
Coached
Coined
Coinable
Collect
Collective
Collectible
Collected
Colored
Colorblind
Colorful
Colorless
Coloristic
Combed
Commanding

Communicable
Communicative
Comparative
Comparable
Competitive

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To complain

Complain

Complained

Complained

Complaining

To complete
To concentrate

Complete
Concentrate

Completed
Concentrated

Completed
Concentrated

Completing
Concentrating

To concern
To confess

Concern
Confess

Concerned
Confessed

Concerned
Confessed

Concerning
Confessing

To confuse

Confuse

Confused

Confused

Confusing

To connect

Connect

Connected

Connected

Connecting

To consider

Consider

Considered

Considered

Considering

To consist

Consist

Consisted

Consisted

Consisting

To contain

Contain

Contained

Contained

Containing

To continue

Continue

Continued

Continued

Continuing

To cooperate
To cover

Cooperate
Cover

Cooperated
Covered

Cooperated
Covered

Cooperating
Covering

To cross

Cross

Crossed

Crossed

Crossing

To curse

Curse

Cursed

Cursed

Cursing

To cut

Cut

Cut

Cut

Cutting

To dare
To deal

Dare
Deal

Dared
Dealt

Dared
Dealt

Daring
Dealing

To deceive

Deceive

Deceived

Deceived

Deceiving

To decide
To declare

Decide
Declare

Decided
Declared

Decided
Declared

Deciding
Declaring

To defend
To defy
To deject
To deliberate

Defend
Defy
Deject
Deliberate

Defended
Defied
Dejected
Deliberated

Defended
Defied
Dejected
Deliberated

Defending
Defying
Dejecting
Deliberating

To delight

Delight

Delighted

Delighted

Delighting

To deliver

Deliver

Delivered

Delivered

Delivering

To delude
To demand

Delude
Demand

Deluded
Demanded

Deluded
Demanded

Deluding
Demanding

Bilcans Grammar Word

Competitor
Competence
Competency
Complaint
Complainant
Completion
Concentration
Concern
Confession
Confessor
Confessional
Confusion

Connection
Connectivity
Connector
Consideration
Consistence
Consistency
Containment
Container
Containerization
Continuation
Continuity
Continuance
Continuant
Cooperation
Cover
Covering
Coverage
Cross
Crossing
Curse

Cut
Cutter
Daring
Deal
Dealings
Dealer
Deceit
Deceiver
Decision
Declaration
Declarant
Defense
Defiance
Dejection
Deliberation
Deliberator
Delighter
Delivery
Deliverance
Delusion
Demand
Demandant

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Competent

Complained
Complete
Concentrated
Concentrating
Concerned
Confessable
Confessed
Confused
Confusable
Confusing
Connected
Connective
Considerate
Considerable
Consistent
Contained
Containerized
Continuous
Continual
Continued
Continuing
Cooperative
Coverable
Covered
Cross
Cursed
Accursed
Accurst
Cutting
Daring
Dealing

Deceitful
Decisive
Declared
Defensive
Defiant
Dejected
Deliberate
Delighted
Delightless
Deliverer
Delusive
Demandable

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To deny

Deny

Denied

Denied

Denying

To depart
To depend

Depart
Depend

Departed
Depended

Departed
Depended

Departing
Depending

To deposit

Deposit

Deposited

Deposited

Depositing

To depress

Depress

Depressed

Depressed

Depressing

To deprive

Deprive

Deprived

Deprived

Depriving

To depute

Depute

Deputed

Deputed

Deputing

To derail
To deride
To derive

Derail
Deride
Derive

Derailed
Derided
Derived

Derailed
Derided
Derived

Derailing
Deriding
Deriving

To descend

Descend

Descended

Descended

Descending

To describe

Describe

Described

Described

Describing

To desert

Desert

Deserted

Deserted

Deserting

To desire

Desire

Desired

Desired

Desiring

To destroy

Destroy

Destroyed

Destroyed

Destroying

Destruction

To determine

Determine

Determined

Determined

Determining

Determination

To devote

Devote

Devoted

Devoted

Devoted

To die

Die

Died

Died

Dying

Devotion
Devotee
Death

To dig

Dig

Dug

Dug

Digging

To dismiss

Dismiss

Dismissed

Dismissed

Dismissing

Dig
Digging
Digger
Dismissal

To dissuade
To distinguish

Dissuade
Distinguish

Dissuaded
Distinguished

Dissuaded
Distinguished

Dissuading
Distinguishing

Dissuasion
Distinction

To distribute

Distribute

Distributed

Distributed

Distributing

To disturb
To divorce

Disturb
Divorce

Disturbed
Divorced

Disturbed
Divorced

Disturbing
Divorcing

To do

Do

Did

Done

Doing

To doubt

Doubt

Doubted

Doubted

Doubting

Distribution
Distributor
Disturbance
Divorce
Divorcee
Divorcer
Deed
Doer
Doings
Doubt

To dower

Dower

Dowered

Dowered

Dowering

To down

Down

Downed

Downed

Downing

To draft

Draft

Drafted

Drafted

Drafting

Bilcans Grammar Word

Denial
Denier
Departure
Dependence
Dependant
Deposit
Depository
Depositor
Depression
Deprival
Deprivation
Deputation
Deputy
Derailment
Derision
Derivation
Derivative
Descent
Descendant
Description
Desertion
Deserter
Desire
Desirability

Dowry
Dower
Down
Draft
Drafter
Draftsman

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Denied
Deniable
Departed
Dependent
Dependable
Deposited

Depressible
Depressant
Deprivable
Deputed
Derailed
Derisive
Derived
Derivable
Descending
Describable
Descriptive
Deserted
Desirable
Desirous
Desired
Destructive
Destroyable
Determined
Determinable
Devoted
Devotional
Dead
Deadly
Digging
Dug
Dismissed
Dismissible
Dissuasive
Distinct
Distinguished
Distributable
Distributive
Disturbed
Divorced

Done

Doubtful
Doubtless
Dowered
Dowerless
Downed
Downy
Drafted

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To drain

Drain

Drained

Drained

Draining

To dramatize

Dramatize

Dramatized

Dramatized

Dramatizing

To draw

Draw

Drew

Drown

Drawing

To dream

Dream

Dreamt
Dreamed

Dreamt
Dreamed

Dreaming

To dress

Dress

Dressed

Dressed

Dressing

To drink

Drink

Drank

Drunk

Drinking

To drive

Drive

Drove

Driven

Driving

To drown
To dwell

Drown
Dwell

Drowned
Dwelt

Drowned
Dwelt

Drowning
Dwelling

To dye

Dye

Dyed

Dyed

Dying

To earn
To earth

Earn
Earth

Earned
Earthed

Earned
Earthed

Earning
Earthing

To ease

Ease

Eased

Eased

Easing

To eat

Ea t

Ate

Eaten

Eating

To eclipse
To economize

Eclipse
Economize

Eclipsed
Economized

Eclipsed
Economized

Eclipsing
Economizing

To emigrate

Emigrate

Emigrated

Emigrated

Emigrating

To employ

Employ

Employed

Employed

Employing

To end

End

Ended

Ended

Ending

To endure
To enliven

Endure
Enliven

Endured
Enlivened

Endured
Enlivened

Enduring
Enlivening

To enter

Enter

Entered

Entered

Entering

To entertain

Entertain

Entertained

Entertained

Entertaining

To entrust
To enumerate

Entrust
Enumerate

Entrusted
Enumerated

Entrusted
Enumerated

Entrusting
Enumerating

Ease
Easiness
Eating
Eatable(s)
Eclipse
Economics
Economy
Economist
Emigration
Emigrant
Employment
Employer
Employee
End
Ending
Endurance
Enlivenment
Enlivener
Entrance
Entry
Entrant
Entertainment
Entertainer
Entrust
Enumeration

To exact

Exact

Exacted

Exacted

Exacting

Exaction

To examine

Examine

Examined

Examined

Examining

To exceed

Exceed

Exceeded

Exceeded

Exceeding

Examination
Examiner
Examinee
Excess

Bilcans Grammar Word

Drain
Drainage
Drainer
Drama
Dramatization
Dramatist
Draw
Drawing
Dream
Dreamer
Dreamland
Dreaming
Dress
Dresser
Drink
Drunkard
Drinking
Drive
Driver
Driving
Drowning
Dwelling
Dweller
Dye
Dyer
Earning
Earth

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Drainable
Drained
Dramatic

Drawn
Dreamy
Dreaming

Dressy
Drunk
Drunken
Driving
Driverless
Drown
Dwelling
Dyed
Earning
Earthen
Earthly
Easy
Edible
Eatable
Eclipsing
Economic
Economical
Emigrating
Unemployed
Employed
Endless
Ending
Endurable
Enlivening
Enlivened
Enterable

Entertaining
Entrustable
Enumerating
Enumerative
Enumerable
Exact
Exacting
Examining

Excessive

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To excel
To exhilarate

Excel
Exhilarate

Excelled
Exhilarated

Excelled
Exhilarated

Excelling
Exhilarating

To expect

Expect

Expected

Expected

Expecting

To expel
To face
To fall
To feed
To feel
To fell

Expel
Face
Fall
Feed
Feel
Fell

Expelled
Faced
Fell
Fed
Felt
Felled

Expelled
Faced
Fallen
Fed
Felt
Felled

Expelling
Facing
Falling
Feeding
Feeling
Felling

To fight

Fight

Fought

Fought

Fighting

To find
To fire

Find
Fire

Found
Fired

Found
Fired

Finding
Firing

To fish

Fish

Fished

Fished

Fishing

To fit

Fit

Fitted/fit

Fitted/fit

Fitting

To fix

Fix

Fixed

Fixed

Fixing

To flag
To flame

Flag
Flame

Flagged
Flamed

Flagged
Flamed

Flagging
Flaming

To flash
To flatten
To flatter

Flash
Flatten
Flatter

Flashed
Flattened
Flattered

Flashed
Flattened
Flattered

Flashing
Flattening
Flattering

To fly

Fly

Flew

Flown

Flying

To fold
T follow

Fold
Follow

Folded
Followed

Folded
Followed

Folding
Following

To fool

Fool

Fooled

Fooled

Fooling

To forbear
To forbid

Forbear
Forbid

Forbore
Forbade

Forborne
Forbidden

Forbearing
Forbidding

Flash
Flat
Flattery
Flatterer
Flight
Flier
Fold
Follower
Following
Foolishness
Foolery
Fool
Forbearance
Forbidding

To force

Force

Forced

Forced

Forcing

Force

To forget
To forgive
To form

Forget
Forgive
Form

Forgot
Forgave
Formed

Forgotten
Forgiven
Formed

Forgetting
Forgiving
Forming

To fortify

Fortify

Fortified

Fortified

Fortifying

Forgetfulness
Forgiveness
Formation
Formality
Formalism
Fortification

To found

Found

Founded

Founded

Founding

Bilcans Grammar Word

Excellence
Exhilaration
Exhilarator
Expectation
Expectance
Expectancy
Expulsion
Face
Fall
Food
Feeling
Fell
Fight
Fighting
Fighter
Finding(s)
Fire
Firry
Fish
Fishing
Fishery
Fisher
Fisherman
Fitness
Fix
Fixity
Fixer
Flag
Flame

Foundation
Founder
Foundry

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Exceeding
Excellent
Exhilarative
Exhilaratory
Expected
Expectant
Expulsive
Facial
Fallen
Feeding
Feeling
Felling
Felled
Fighting

Finding
Fiery
Fishable
Fishy

Fit
Fitful
Fixed

Flaggy
Flaming
Flammable
Flameless
Flashy
Flat
Flattering
Flying
Folding
Following
Foolish

Forbearing
Forbidden
Forbidding
Forceful
Forcible
Forgetful
Forgivable
Formal
Informal
Fortified
Fortifiable
Founding

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To frame

Frame

Framed

Framed

Framing

Frame

To free

Free

Freed

Freed

Freeing

Freedom

To freshen
To frequent
To fulfill
To gain

Freshen
Frequent
Fulfill
Gain

Freshened
Frequented
Fulfilled
Gained

Freshened
Frequented
Fulfilled
Gained

Freshening
Frequenting
Fulfilling
Gaining

To galvanize

Galvanize

Galvanized

Galvanized

Galvanizing

To gather

Gather

Gathered

Gathered

Gathering

To germinate

Germinate

Germinated

Germinated

Germinating

To gift
To gild
To give

Gift
Gild
Give

Gifted
Gilded
Gave

Gifted
Gilded
Given

Gifting
Gilding
Giving

To gladden
To glass

Gladden
Glass

Gladdened
Glassed

Gladdened
Glassed

Gladdening
Glassing

Freshness
Frequency
Fulfillment
Gain
Gaining
Gainer
Galvanization
Galvanizer
Gathering
Gatherer
Germination
Germ
Germicide
Gift
Gold
Gift
Giver
Gladness
Glass

To glitter
To glorify

Glitter
Glorify

Glittered
Glorified

Glittered
Glorified

Glittering
Glorifying

To gloss

Gloss

Glossed

Glossed

Glossing

To go

Go

Went

Gone

Going

To govern

Govern

Governed

Governed

Governing

To grade
To grant
To gratify

Grade
Grant
Gratify

Graded
Granted
Gratified

Graded
Granted
Gratified

Grading
Granting
Gratifying

To gripe

Gripe

Griped

Griped

Griping

To grow

Grow

Grew

Grown

Growing

To guard
To guess

Guard
Guess

Guarded
Guessed

Guarded
Guessed

Guarding
Guessing

To guide

Guide

Guided

Guided

Guiding

To gum

Gum

Gummed

Gummed

Gumming

Gum

To gun

Gun

Gunned

Gunned

Gunning

To habit

Habit

Habited

Habited

Habiting

To habituate

Habituate

Habituated

Habituated

Habituating

Gun
Gunner
Gunning
Habitation
Habitat
Habit

To halt

Halt

Halted

Halted

Halting

To hand

Hand

Handed

Handed

Handing

Bilcans Grammar Word

Glitter
Glorification
Glory
Glorifier
Glossiness
Glossary
Go
Going
Government
Governess
Governor
Grade
Grant
Gratification
Gratifier
Gripe
Griper
Growth
Grower
Guard
Guess
Guessing
Guidance
Guide

Halt
Halter
Hand

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Farmable
Frameless
Free
Freed
Fresh
Frequent
Fulfilled
Gainful

Galvanized
Galvanizing
Gathered
Germicidal
Germless
Gifted
Golden
Given
Glad
Glassful
Glassy
Glittering
Glorious

Glossy
Gone
Going
Governing
Governmental
Gradual
Grantable
Gratifying
Gripeful
Growing
Guarded
Guessable
Guidable
Guideless
Guiding
Gummy
Gumming
Gunning

Habitable
Habitual
Habituated
Halting
Handy

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Handful

To handle

Handle

Handled

Handled

Handling

To harden

Harden

Hardened

Hardened

Hardening

To hate

Hate

Hated

Hated

Hating

To head

Head

Headed

Headed

Heading

To heal

Heal

Healed

Healed

Healing

To hear

Hear

Heard

Heard

Hearing

To help

Help

Helped

Helped

Helping

To hide
To hire

Hide
Hire

Hid
Hired

Hidden
Hired

Hiding
Hiring

To hold

Hold

Held

Held

Holding

To hoard
To
honor/honour
To hope

Hoard
Honor

Hoarded
Honored

Hoarded
Honored

Hoarding
Honoring

Hope

Hoped

Hoped

Hoping

Head
Heading
Header
Health
Healer
Healthiness
Hearing
Hearer
Help
Helper
Helping
Hiding
Hire
Hireling
Hold
Holding
Holder
Hoarding
Honor/Honour
Honorarium
Hope

To horn

Horn

Horned

Horned

Horning

Horn

To horrify

Horrify

Horrified

Horrified

Horrifying

Horrification
Horror

To house

House

Housed

Housed

Housing

To humble

Humble

Humbled

Humbled

Humbling

To hunger
To hunt

Hunger
Hunt

Hungered
Hunted

Hungered
Hunted

Hungering
Hunting

To hurry
To ice

Hurry
Ice

Hurried
Iced

Hurried
Iced

Hurrying
Icing

House
Household
Householder
Housewife
Humility
Humbleness
Hunger
Hunt
Hunting
Hunter
Hurry
Ice

To ignore
To imagine

Ignore
Imagine

Ignored
Imagined

Ignored
Imagined

Ignoring
Imagining

Ignorance
Imagination

To immigrate

Immigrate

Immigrated

Immigrated

Immigrating

To imitate
To impeach
To implant
To import

Imitate
Impeach
Implant
Import

Imitated
Impeached
Implanted
Imported

Imitated
Impeached
Implanted
Imported

Imitating
Impeaching
Implanting
Importing

Immigration
Immigrant
Imitation
Impeachment
Implantation
Import
Importer

Bilcans Grammar Word

Handle
Handler
Handling
Hardness
Hardship
Hatred

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Handed
Handless
Handled

Hard
Hateable
Hateful
Headlong
Headless
Heading
Healthful
Healthy
Hearable
Helpful
Helpless
Hidden
Hirable
Held

Hoarded
Honorary
Honorable
Hopeful
Hopeless
Horned
Hornless
Horny
Horrifying
Horrific
Horrible
Houseless
Housing

Humble
Hungry
Hunted

Hurried
Iced
Icy
Ignorant
Imaginable
Imaginary
Imaginative
Immigrating
Imitative
Impeachable
Implanted
Importable

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To impress
To increase

Impress
Increase

Impressed
Increased

Impressed
Increased

Impressing
Increasing

To infect

Infect

Infected

Infected

Infecting

To influence
To inform

Influence
Inform

Influenced
Informed

Influenced
Informed

Influencing
Informing

To inquire

Inquire

Inquired

Inquired

Inquiring

To inspect

Inspect

Inspected

Inspected

Inspecting

To instigate

Instigate

Instigated

Instigated

Instigating

To instruct

Instruct

Instructed

Instructed

Instructing

To insert

Insert

Inserted

Inserted

Inserting

To insult
To insure
To invade

Insult
Insure
Invade

Insulted
Insured
Invaded

Insulted
Insured
Invaded

Insulting
Insuring
Invading

To invent

Invent

Invented

Invented

Inventing

To invest

Invest

Invested

Invested

Investing

To investigate

Investigate

Investigated

Investigated

Investigating

To invite

Invite

Invited

Invited

Inviting

To iron
To irrigate
To irritate

Iron
Irrigate
Irritate

Ironed
Irrigated
Irritated

Ironed
Irrigated
Irritated

Ironing
Irrigating
Irritating

Insult
Insurance
Invasion
Invader
Invention
Inventor
Investment
Investor
Investigation
Investigator
Invitation
Inviting
Inviter
Iron
Irrigation
Irritation

To isolate

Isolate

Isolated

Isolated

Isolating

Isolation

To issue

Issue

Issued

Issued

Issuing

To jest

Jest

Jested

Jested

Jesting

To joint
To join

Joint
Join

Jointed
Joined

Jointed
Joined

Jointing
Joining

To joke

Joke

Joked

Joked

Joking

To judge

Judge

Judged

Judged

Judging

To juggle

Juggle

Juggled

Juggled

Juggling

To justify

Justify

Justified

Justified

Justifying

To keep

Keep

Kept

Kept

Keeping

To kick

Kick

Kicked

Kicked

Kicking

To kid

Kid

Kidded

Kidded

Kidding

Issuance
Issue
Jest
Jester
Joint
Junction
Joining
Joke
Joker
Joking
Judge
Judgment
Justice
Judiciary
Jugglery
Juggler
Justification
Justice
Keeping
Keeper
Kick
Kicker
Kicking
Kid

Bilcans Grammar Word

Impression
Increase
Increment
Infection
Influence
Information
Informer
Inquiry
Inquirer
Inspection
Inspector
Instigation
Instigator
Instruction
Instructor
Insertion

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Impressive
Increasing
Infectious
Infective
Influential
Informatory
Informative
Inquiring
Inspectoral
Instigative
Instructive
Inserting
Inserted
Insulting
Insurable
Invasive
Inventive
Inventory
Invested
Investigative
Investigatory
Inviting
Invitee
Iron
Irrigable
Irritant
Irritable
Isolationistic
Isolationist
Issuable
Issueless
Jesting
Jestful
Joint
Jointless
Jointing
Jocular

Judicial
Just
Judgeable
Juggling
Justifiable
Just
Kept
Kicking
Kickable
Kidding

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To kidnap

Kidnap

Kidnapped

Kidnapped

Kidnapping

To kill

Kill

Killed

Killed

Killing

To kindle

Kindle

Kindled

Kindled

Kindling

To knead

Knead

Kneaded

Kneaded

Kneading

To kneel

Kneel

Knelt

Knelt

Kneeling

To knife

Knife

Knifed

Knifed

Knifing

To knit

Knit

Knitted

Knitted

Knitting

To know

Know

Knew

Known

Knowing

To
labor/labour
To land

Labor

Labored

Labored

Laboring

Land

Landed

Landed

Landing

To lead

Lead

Led

Led

Leading

To laugh

Laugh

Laughed

Laughed

Laughing

To leak

Leak

Leaked

Leaked

Leaking

To learn

Learn
Leave

Leaned
Learnt
Left

Learning

To leave

Learned
Learnt
Left

To legalize

Legalize

Legalized

Legalized

Legalizing

To lend
To lengthen

Lend
Lengthen

Lent
Lengthened

Lent
Lengthened

Lending
Lengthening

To liberate

Liberate

Liberated

Liberated

Liberating

To liberalize

Liberalize

Liberalized

Liberalized

Liberalizing

To lie

Lie

Lied

Lied

Lying

To lie
To light

Lie
Light
Lighten

Lain
Lit
Lighted
Lightened

Lying
Lighting

To lighten

Lay
Lit
Lighted
Lightened

To like

Like

Liked

Liked

Liking

To live

Live

Lived

Lived

Living

To loaf

Loaf

Loafed

Loafed

Loafing

Bilcans Grammar Word

Leaving

Lightening

Kidding
Kidder
Kidnapper
Kidnapping
Kill
Killing
Killer
Kindling
Kindler
Knead
Kneading
Kneader
Knee
Kneeling
Kneeler
Knife
Knitting
Knitter
Knowledge
Knower
Labor
Laborer
Land
Landing
Leader
Leadership
Laughter
Laughing
Leak
Leakage
Leaking
Learner
Learning
Leave
Leaving
Legalization
Legality
Loan
Length
Longitude
Liberation
Liberator
Liberty
Liberalization
Liberalism
Lie
Liar
Lain
Lighter
Light
Lightening
Liking
Likeness
Life
Livelihood
Living
Loafer
Loaf

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Kidnapped
Killed

Kindled
Kneaded

Knelt
Keeling
Knifed
Knifing
Knit
Knitting
Knowing
Laborious
Landed
Landless
Leading
Laughable
Leaking
Leaky
Learned
Learnable
Left
Legal
Lendable
Lengthy
Long
Longitudinal
Liberal

Liberalizing
Liberal
Lying
Lain
Light
Lit
Lightened
Light
Likeable
Live
Living
Livable
Loafing

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To lock

Lock

Locked

Locked

Locking

Lock
Locker

To loll
To look

Loll
Look

Lolled
Looked

Lolled
Looked

Lolling
Looking

To loosen
To loose

Loosen
Loose

Loosened
Loosed

Loosened
Loosed

Loosening
Loosing

To lose

Lose

Lost

Lost

Losing

To love

Love

Loved

Loved

Loving

Lolling
Look
Looks
Looker
Onlooker
Loose
Looseness
Looser
Loss
Loser
Love
Lover
Beloved

To lull

Lull

Lulled

Lulled

Lulling

To magnify

Magnify

Magnified

Magnified

Magnifying

To make

Make

Made

Made

Making

To manage

Manage

Managed

Managed

Managing

To mark

Mark

Marked

Marked

Marking

To marry

Marry

Married

Married

Marrying

Lulling
Lull
Lullaby
Magnification
Magnificence
Magnifier
Making
Maker
Management
Manager
Mark
Marking
Marriage

To mass

Mass

Massed

Massed

Massing

Mass

To master

Master

Mastered

Mastered

Mastering

To match

Match

Matched

Matched

Matching

To maturate
To mature

Maturate
Mature

Maturated
Matured

Maturated
Matured

Maturating
Maturing

Mastery
Master
Match
Matchless
Maturation
Maturity

To mean

Mean

Meant

Meant

Meaning

Meaning

To measure

Measure

Measured

Measured

Measuring

Measurement

To meddle

Meddle

Meddled

Meddled

Meddling

To mediate

Mediate

Mediated

Mediated

Mediating

To medicate

Medicate

Medicated

Medicated

Medicating

Meddler
Meddling
Mediation
Mediator
Medication
Medicine

To meditate
To meet
To melt

Meditate
Meet
Melt

Meditated
Met
Melted

Meditating
Meeting
Melting

Meditation
Meeting
Melting

To memorize

Memorize

Memorized

Meditated
Met
Melted
Molten
Memorized

Memorizing

To mess

Mess

Messed

Messed

Messing

Memory
Memorization
Memorial
Memorandum
Mess
Messing

Bilcans Grammar Word

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Locking
Lockable
Lockless
Lolling
Lookable
Looking

Loose

Losable
Losing
Lovable
Beloved
Lovely
Loving
Lulled
Lulling
Magnificent
Magnified
Magnifying
Made
Managing
Manageable
Marked
Marriageable
Married
Massive
Massy
Masterful
Masterly
Matching
Mature
Mature
Maturable
Meaningful
Meaningless
Measured
Measuring
Meddlesome
Mediating
Medicated
Medical
Medicinal
Meditative
Meet
Molten
Melting
Memorable
Memorial

Messy

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To migrate

Migrate

Migrated

Migrated

Migrating

To milk

Milk

Milked

Milked

Milking

To mind

Mind

Minded

Minded

Minding

To mix
To mobilize

Mix
Mobilize

Mixed
Mobilized

Mixed
Mobilized

Mixing
Mobilizing

To motion

Motion

Motioned

Motioned

Motioning

To motivate

Motivate

Motivated

Motivated

Motivating

To mourn

Mourn

Mourned

Mourned

Mourning

To move

Move

Moved

Moved

Moving

To multiply

Multiply

Multiplied

Multiplied

Multiplying

To mummify

Mummify

Mummified

Mummified

Mummifying

To mutiny

Mutiny

Mutinied

Mutinied

Mutinying

To name

Name

Named

Named

Naming

To narrate

Narrate

Narrated

Narrated

Narrating

To narrow

Narrow

Narrowed

Narrowed

Narrowing

Motivation
Motive
Motivity
Mourning
Mourner
Movement
Move
Movie
Multiplication
Multiplier
Multiplicand
Mummification
Mummy
Mutiny
Mutineer
Name
Naming
Narration
Narrative
Narrowness

To nationalize

Nationalize

Nationalized

Nationalized

Nationalizing

Nationalization

To naturalize

Naturalize

Naturalized

Naturalized

Naturalizing

Naturalization

To necessitate

Necessitate

Necessitated

Necessitated

Necessitating

To need

Need

Needed

Needed

Needing

To negate
To neglect
To negotiate
To neighbor

Negate
Neglect
Negotiate
Neighbor

Negated
Neglected
Negotiated
Neighbored

Negated
Neglect
Negotiated
Neighbored

Negating
Neglecting
Negotiating
Neighboring

To nest

Nest

Nested

Nested

Nesting

Necessitation
Necessity
Need
Needy
Negation
Negligence
Negotiation
Neighborhood
Neighbor
Nest

To navigate

Navigate

Navigated

Navigated

Navigating

To nibble

Nibble

Nibbled

Nibbled

Nibbling

To nominate

Nominate

Nominated

Nominated

Nominating

Navigation
Navigator
Nibbling
Nibbler
Nomination

To nose

Nose

Nosed

Nosed

Nosing

Nose

To noise

Noise

Noised

Noised

Noising

Noise

To note

Note

Noted

Noted

Noting

Note
Notion

Bilcans Grammar Word

Migration
Migrant
Milk
Milkman
Mind
Mixture
Mobilization
Mobility
Motion

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Migratory
Migrating
Milky
Mindful
Mindless
Mixed
Mobile
Motionless
Motional
Motivating
Motivational
Mournful
Mourning
Moving

Multiple
Multipliable
Mummified
Mutinous
Mutinying
Nameless
Nameable
Narrative
Narratable
Narrow
Narrowing
National
Nationalized
Natural
Naturalized
Necessary
Necessitating
Needed
Needy
Negative
Negligible
Negotiable
Neighboring
Nest
Nesting
Navigational
Navigable
Nibbling
Nominal
Nominating
Nominative
Nosing
Nasal
Nosy
Noisy
Noiseless
Notable

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To notice
To notify
To number

Notice
Notify
Number

Noticed
Notified
Numbered

Noticed
Notified
Numbered

Noticing
Notifying
Numbering

Notice
Notification
Number
Numbering
Numerals

To nurse

Nurse

Nursed

Nursed

Nursing

To obey
To object

Obey
Object

Obeyed
Objected

Obeyed
Objected

Obeying
Objecting

To observe

Observe

Observed

Observed

Observing

To obtain
To oblige
To occupy

Obtain
Oblige
Occupy

Obtained
Obliged
Occupied

Obtained
Obliged
Occupied

Obtaining
Obliging
Occupying

To offer

Offer

Offered

Offered

Offering

To open

Open

Opened

Opened

Opening

To operate
To oppose

Operate
Oppose

Operated
Opposed

Operated
Opposed

Operating
Opposing

To oppress
To optimize

Oppress
Optimize

Oppressed
Optimized

Oppressed
Optimized

Oppressing
Optimizing

To order

Order

Ordered

Ordered

Ordering

Nurse
Nursing
Nursery
Nursling
Obedience
Objection
Objector
Observation
Observance
Observer
Obtainment
Obligation
Occupation
Occupier
Offer
Offering
Open
Opens
Opening
Operation
Opposition
Opponent
Oppression
Optimization
Optimism
Optimum
Order

To organize

Organize

Organized

Organized

Organizing

To ornament

Ornament

Ornamented

Ornamented

Ornamenting

To originate

Originate

Originated

Originated

Originating

To overlook
To own

Overlook
Own

Overlooked
Owned

Overlooked
Owned

Overlooking
Owning

To pack

Pa c k

Packed

Packed

Packing

To pain

Pa i n

Pained

Pained

Paining

To paint

Paint

Painted

Painted

Painting

To pardon
To pass

Pardon
Pass

Pardoned
Passed

Pardoned
Passed

Pardoning
Passing

To patronize

Patronize

Patronized

Patronized

Patronizing

To pat

Pa t

Patted

Patted

Patting

Bilcans Grammar Word

Organization
Organizer
Ornament
Ornamentation
Origination
Origin
Overlooking
Ownership
Owner
Owning
Pa c k
Package
Packet
Pa i n
Painting
Painter
Pardon
Pass
Passage
Patron
Patronization
Patronage
Pa t
Patter
Patting

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Noticeable
Notifying
Numbering
Numeral
Numerical
Numerous
Nursing
Nurseless

Obedient
Objectionable
Observant
Observing
Observable
Obtainable
Obligatory
Occupied
Offerable
Open
Opened
Operative
Opposite
Oppressive
Optimum
Optimistic
Optimal
Ordered
Orderly
Orderable
Organized
Ornamental
Ornate
Original
Overlookable
Ownerless

Packed
Packing
Painful
Painless
Painted
Pardonable
Passable
Patronizing

Patting
Patted

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To pay

Pay

Pa i d

Pa i d

Paying

To pen

Pe n

Penned

Penned

Penning

To perfect
To perish

Perfect
Perish

Perfected
Perished

Perfected
Perished

Perfecting
Perishing

To perpetuate
To persuade
To photograph

Perpetuate
Persuade
Photograph

Perpetuated
Persuaded
Photographed

Perpetuated
Persuaded
Photographed

Perpetuating
Persuading
Photographing

To pinpoint

Pinpoint

Pinpointed

Pinpointed

Pinpointing

To plant

Plant

Planted

Planted

Planting

To play

Play

Played

Played

Playing

To plead

Plead

Pleaded

Pleaded

Pleading

To please

Please

Pleased

Pleased

Pleasing

To plunder

Plunder

Plundered

Plundered

Plundering

To pocket

Pocket

Pocketed

Pocketed

Pocketing

To point

Point

Pointed

Pointed

Pointing

To poison

Poison

Poisoned

Poisoned

Poisoning

To polish

Polish

Polished

Polished

Polishing

To popularize

Popularize

Popularized

Popularized

Popularizing

To populate
To polarize

Populate
Polarize

Populated
Polarized

Populated
Polarized

Populating
Polarizing

To post

Post

Posted

Posted

Posting

To possess

Possess

Possessed

Possessed

Possessing

To postpone
To practice

Postpone
Practice

Postponed
Practiced

Postponed
Practiced

Postponing
Practicing

To praise
To pray

Praise
Pray

Praised
Prayed

Praised
Prayed

Praising
Praying

To preach

Preach

Preached

Preached

Preaching

To precede

Precede

Preceded

Preceded

Preceding

To predict

Predict

Predicted

Predicted

Predicting

To prefer

Prefer

Preferred

Preferred

Preferring

Bilcans Grammar Word

Pay
Payment
Payer
Payee
Pe n
Penman
Penmanship
Perfection
Perishableness
Perishing
Perpetuation
Persuasion
Photography
Photographer
Photograph
Pinpoint
Pinpointing
Plant
Plantation
Play
Player
Plead
Pleader
Pleasure

Plunder
Plundering
Plunderage
Pocket
Point
Pointer
Poison
Poisoner
Polish
Polisher
Popularization
Popularity
Population
Polarization
Polarity
Post
Postage
Possession
Possessor
Postponement
Practice
Praise
Prayer
Praying
Preaching
Preacher
Precedence
Precedent
Prediction
Predictor
Preference

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Payable

Penless

Perfect
Perishable
Perishing
Perpetual
Persuasive
Photographic

Pinpointed
Plantlike
Playable
Playful
Pleadable
Pleasing
Pleasurable
Pleasant
Plundering

Pocketable
Pocketless
Pointed
Poisonous
Polished
Popular
Populous
Polarizing
Polarized
Postal
Possessive
Postponed
Practical
Practicable
Praiseworthy
Prayerless
Preachable
Precedent
Precedented
Preceding
Predictable
Predictive
Preferable
Preferential

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To prepare

Prepare

Prepared

Prepared

Preparing

Preparation

To prescribe

Prescribe

Prescribed

Prescribed

Prescribing

To present

Present

Presented

Presented

Presenting

To preserve

Preserve

Preserved

Preserved

Preserving

To preside

Preside

Presided

Presided

Presiding

To press

Press

Pressed

Pressed

Pressing

To pretend

Pretend

Pretended

Pretended

Pretending

To prevent

Prevent

Prevented

Prevented

Preventing

To price

Price

Priced

Priced

Pricing

Prescription
Prescript
Presence
Present
Presenter
Preservation
Preserver
President
Presidency
Press
Pressure
Pretension
Pretence
Prevention
Preventer
Price

To pride
To print

Pride
Print

Prided
Printed

Prided
Printed

Priding
Printing

To prize

Prize

Prized

Prized

Prizing

To produce

Produce

Produced

Produced

Producing

To profess

Profess

Professed

Professed

Pressing

To proclaim

Proclaim

Proclaimed

Proclaimed

Proclaiming

To profit

Profit

Profited

Profited

Profiting

To progress

Progress

Progressed

Progressed

Progressing

To prohibit

Prohibit

Prohibited

Prohibited

Prohibiting

To promise

Promise

Promised

Promised

Promising

To promote

Promote

Promoted

Promoted

Promoting

To pronounce

Pronounce

Pronounced

Pronounced

Pronouncing

To propagate

Propagate

Propagated

Propagated

Propagating

To prophesy

Prophesy

Prophesied

Prophesied

Prophesying

To propose

Propose

Proposed

Proposed

Proposing

To proscribe
To prosper
To protect

Proscribe
Prosper
Protect

Proscribed
Prospered
Protected

Proscribed
Prospered
Protected

Proscribing
Prospering
Protecting

Bilcans Grammar Word

Pride
Print
Printing
Printer
Prize
Produce
Production
Product
Producer
Profession
Professor
Proclamation
Profit
Profiteer
Progress
Progression
Prohibition
Prohibitiveness
Prohibitionist
Promise
Promisor
Promisee
Promotion
Promoter
Pronunciation
Pronouncemen
t
Propaganda
Propagation
Propagandist
Prophesy
Prophet
Prophesier
Proposal
Proposer
Proscription
Prosperity
Protection
Protector

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Preparatory
Preparative
Prescriptive
Presentable

Preservable
Presidential
Pressing
Pretentious
Preventive
Preventable
Priceless
Priced
Proud
Printed
Printable
Prizeless
Prized
Producible
Productive

Professed
Professional
Proclaimable
Proclaimed
Profitable
Profitless
Progressive
Prohibited
Prohibitive
Prohibitory
Promising
Promisory
Promotive
Pronounceable

Propagationab
le
Propagating
Prophetic
Prophetical
Prophesying
Proposed
Proscriptive
Prosperous
Protective

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To protest

Protest

Protested

Protested

Protesting

To prove

Prove

Proved

Proved

Proving

Protest
Protestation
Proof

To provide
To provoke

Provide
Provoke

Provided
Provoked

Provided
Provoked

Providing
Provoking

Providence
Provocation

To publish

Publish

Published

Published

Publishing

To punish

Punish

Punished

Punished

Punishing

To purify

Purify

Purified

Purified

Purifying

To purpose

Purpose

Purposed

Purposed

Purposing

Publication
Publisher
Publishing
Punishment
Punisher
Purification
Purity
Purpose

To pursue

Pursue

Pursued

Pursued

Pursuing

To push

Push

Pushed

Pushed

Pushing

To qualify

Qualify

Qualified

Qualified

Qualifying

To quarrel

Quarrel

Quarreled

Quarreled

Quarreling

To quarter
To question

Quarter
Question

Quartered
Questioned

Quartered
Questioned

Quartering
Questioning

To quench

Quench

Quenched

Quenched

Quenching

To quicken

Quicken

Quickened

Quickened

Quickening

To quote
To rain

Quote
Rain

Quoted
Rained

Quoted
Rained

Quoting
Raining

To read

Read

Read

Read

Reading

To reason

Reason

Reasoned

Reasoned

Reasoning

To rebel

Rebel

Rebelled

Rebelled

Rebelling

To receive

Receive

Received

Received

Receiving

To recognize

Recognize

Recognized

Recognized

Recognizing

To
recommend
To recover
To recruit
To reduce
To refer
To refine

Recommend

Recommended

Recommended

Recover
Recruit
Reduce
Refer
Refine

Recovered
Recruited
Reduced
Referred
Refined

Recovered
Recruited
Reduced
Referred
Refined

Recommendin
g
Recovering
Recruiting
Reducing
Referring
Refining

To refuse
To refuge

Refuse
Refuge

Refused
Refuged

Refused
Refuged

Refusing
Refuging

To refute
To regard

Refute
Regard

Refuted
Regarded

Refuted
Regarded

Refuting
Regarding

Bilcans Grammar Word

Pursuit
Pursuance
Push
Pusher
Qualification
Qualifier
Quarrel
Quarreler
Quarter
Question
Questioner
Questionnaire
Quenchablenes
s
Quencher
Quenching
Quickness
Quickening
Quickener
Quotation
Rain
Reading
Reader
Reason
Reasoning
Rebellion
Rebel
Reception
Receipt
Recognition
Recommendati
on
Recovery
Recruitment
Reduction
Referee
Refinery
Refinement
Refusal
Refuge
Refugee
Refutation
Regard

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Protestant
Provable
Proofless
Provident
Provocative
Provoking
Publishable
Publishing
Published
Punishable
Punitive
Pure
Purified
Purposeful
Purposeless
Pursuable
Pursuant
Pushing
Pushy
Qualified
Quarrelsome
Querulous
Quarter
Questionable

Quenched
Quenchable

Quick
Quickened
Quotable
Rainy
Rainless
Readable
Reasonable
Reasonless
Rebellious
Receivable
Recognizable
Recognized
Recommendab
le
Recoverable
Recruiting
Reducible
Referable
Refined
Refused
Refugee
Refutable
Regardful

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To register

Register

Registered

Registered

Registering

To regret

Regret

Regretted

Regretted

Regretting

To regulate

Regulate

Regulated

Regulated

Regulating

To relate

Relate

Related

Related

Relating

To recite

Recite

Recited

Recited

Reciting

To relieve
To rely

Relieve
Rely

Relived
Relied

Relieved
Relied

Relieving
Relying

To remain

Remain

Remained

Remained

Remaining

To remark
To remind

Remark
Remind

Remarked
Reminded

Remarked
Reminded

Remarking
Reminding

To remit

Remit

Remitted

Remitted

Remitting

To rent

Rent

Rented

Rented

Renting

To repair

Repair

Repaired

Repaired

Repairing

To repeat
To repent
To report

Repeat
Repent
Report

Repeated
Repented
Reported

Repeated
Repented
Reported

Repeating
Repenting
Reporting

To represent

Represent

Represented

Represented

Representing

To reproach

Reproach

Reproached

Reproached

Reproaching

To repulse

Repulse

Repulsed

Repulsed

Repulsing

To repute

Repute

Reputed

Reputed

Reputing

Repulse
Repulsion
Reputation

To resemble

Resemble

Resembled

Resembled

Resembling

Resemblance

To reserve

Reserve

Reserved

Reserved

Reserving

To reside
To resign

Reside
Resign

Resided
Resigned

Resided
Resigned

Residing
Resigning

Reservation
Reserve
Reservoir
Residence
Resignation

To respect

Respect

Respected

Respected

Respecting

Respect

To rest

Rest

Rested

Rested

Resting

Rest

To retire
To return
To retrieve

Retire
Return
Retrieve

Retired
Returned
Retrieved

Retired
Returned
Retrieved

Retiring
Returning
Retrieving

To right

Right

Righted

Righted

Righting

Retirement
Return
Retrieval
Retrieving
Right

Bilcans Grammar Word

Register
Registering
Registry
Regret
Regulation
Regulator
Relation
Relative
Recitation
Recital
Reciter
Relief
Reliance
Remainder
Remains
Remark
Reminiscence
Reminder
Remittance
Remission
Remitter
Rent
Renter
Repair
Repairing
Repetition
Repentance
Report
Reporter
Representation
Representative
Reproach

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Regardless
Registerable

Regrettable
Regretful
Regulated
Regular
Related
Relative
Reciting

Relievable
Reliable
Reliant
Remnant
Remarkable
Reminiscent
Reminding
Remittable

Rented
Reparable
Repeatable
Repentant
Reportable
Representative
Reproachable
Reproachful
Repulsive
Reputed
Reputable
Resembled
Resembling
Reserved

Resident
Resigned
Resigning
Respectable
Respectful
Restful
Restive
Restless
Retiring
Returnable
Retrievable
Rightable
Right
Rightful
Righteous

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To risk

Risk

Risked

Risked

Risking

Risk

To rob

Rob

Robbed

Robbed

Robbing

To ruin

Ruin

Ruined

Ruined

Ruining

Robbery
Robber
Ruin

To rule

Rule

Ruled

Ruled

Ruling

To sadden
To sail

Sadden
Sail

Saddened
Sailed

Saddened
Sailed

Saddening
Sailing

To satisfy

Satisfy

Satisfied

Satisfied

Satisfying

To save

Save

Saved

Saved

Saving

To saw

Saw

Sawed

Sawed

Sawing

To say

Say

Said

Said

Saying

To school

School

Schooled

Schooled

Schooling

To search

Search

Searched

Searched

Searching

Safe
Saving
Safety
Saw
Sawing
Say
Saying
Sayer
School
Schooling
Scholar
Search

To season

Season

Seasoned

Seasoned

Seasoning

Season

To second

Second

Seconded

Seconded

Seconding

To seclude
To secure
To select

Seclude
Secure
Select

Secluded
Secured
Selected

Secluded
Secured
Selected

Secluding
Securing
Selecting

To sell

Sell

Sold

Sold

Selling

To sense

Sense

Sensed

Sensed

Sensing

Second
Seconder
Seclusion
Security
Selection
Selector
Sale
Selling
Salesman
Seller
Sense

To serve

Serve

Served

Served

Serving

To sew

Sew

Sewed

Sewn

Sewing

To settle

Settle

Settled

Settled

Settling

To shade

Shade

Shaded

Shaded

Shading

To shake

Shake

Shook

Shaken

Shaking

To shame

Shame

Shamed

Shamed

Shaming

Service
Servant
Server
Sewage
Sewer
Settlement
Settler
Shade
Shadow
Shake
Shaking
Shame

To shape

Shape

Shaped

Shaped

Shaping

Shape

To sharpen

Sharpen

Sharpened

Sharpened

Sharpening

To shift

Shift

Shifted

Shifted

Shifting

Sharpness
Sharpener
Shift

Bilcans Grammar Word

Rule
Ruler
Sadness
Sail
Sailor
Satisfaction

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Risky
Riskful
Robbing
Ruinous
Ruined
Ruling
Sad
Sailorless
Sailing
Satisfactory
Satisfying
Safe

Sawed
Said
Saying
Schoolable
Scholarly
Searching
Searchable
Seasonable
Seasonal
Seasoned
Secondary
Second
Secluded
Securable
Selected
Selective
Sellable
Sold

Senseless
Sensitive
Sensible
Sensuous
Serviceable

Sewing
Sewn
Settled
Settling
Shady
Shadowy
Shaky
Shameful
Shameless
Shapeless
Shapely
Sharply
Shiftless

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Shifter
Shine
Ship
Shipping
Shipment
Shipper
Shock
Shoot
Shooting
Shooter
Shortage
Shorts
Show
Showpiece
Sickness

To shine
To ship

Shine
Ship

Shone
Shipped

Shone
Shipped

Shining
Shipping

To shock
To shoot

Shock
Shoot

Shocked
Shot

Shocked
Shot

Shocking
Shooting

To shorten

Shorten

Shortened

Shortened

Shortening

To show

Show

Showed

Shown

Showing

To sicken

Sicken

Sickened

Sickened

Sickening

To sight
To sign

Sight
Sign

Sighted
Signed

Sighted
Signed

Sighting
Signing

To silence

Silence

Silenced

Silenced

Silencing

To sin

Sin

Sinned

Sinned

Sinning

To sing

Sing

Sang

Sung

Singing

To sink

Sink

Sank

Sunk

Sinking

To sit

Sit

Sat

Sat

Sitting

To skin

Skin

Skinned

Skinned

Skinning

To sleep

Sleep

Slept

Slept

Sleeping

To slight
To slip

Slight
Slip

Slighted
Slipped

Slighted
Slipped

Slighting
Slipping

To slow

Slow

Slowed

Slowed

Slowing

Slowness

To smile
To smoke

Smile
Smoke

Smiled
Smoked

Smiled
Smoked

Smiling
Smoking

To soften
To solve

Soften
Solve

Softened
Solved

Softened
Solved

Softening
Solving

Smile
Smoke
Smoker
Smoking
Softness
Solution

To sorrow
To sow

Sorrow
Sow

Sorrowed
Sowed

Sorrowed
Sown

Sorrowing
Sowing

To speak

Speak

Spoke

Spoken

Speaking

To speed
To spell

Speed
Spell

Sped
Spelt
Spelled

Sped
Spelt
Spelled

Speeding
Spelling

To spend

Spend

Spent

Spent

Spending

Bilcans Grammar Word

Sight
Sign
Signatory
Silence
Silencer
Sin
Sinner
Song
Singer
Singing
Sink
Sunk
Seat
Sitting
Sitter
Skin
Skinful
Skinflint
Sleep
Sleeper
Slightness
Slip
Slipper

Sorrow
Sow
Sower
Sowing
Speaking
Speech
Speaker
Speed
Spelling
Spell
Speller
Spender

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Shifty
Shining
Shipless
Shippable

Shocking
Shootable
Shooting
Short
Showy
Sick
Sickly
Sightly
Signable
Silent
Sinful
Sinless
Singing

Sunken
Sinking
Sitting
Seated
Skinny

Sleepy
Slight
Slipping
Slippery
Slippered
Slow
Slowing
Smiling
Smoky
Smokeless
Soft
Solvable
Soluble
Sorry
Sowing

Speechless

Speedy
Spellable
Spelling
Spellbound
Spendable

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To spin

Spin

Span

Spun

Spinning

To spoil

Spoil
Sponge

Spoilt
Spoiled
Sponged

Spoiling

To sponge

Spoilt
Spoiled
Sponged

To sport

Sport

Sported

Sported

Sporting

To spot

Spot

Spotted

Spotted

Spotting

To spring

Spring

Sprang

Sprung

Springing

To square
To stabilize

Square
Stabilize

Squared
Stabilized

Squared
Stabilized

Squaring
Stabilizing

To star
To start

Star
Start

Starred
Started

Starred
Started

Staring
Starting

To starve

Starve

Starved

Starved

Starving

To state

State

Stated

Stated

Stating

To station

Station

Stationed

Stationed

Stationing

To steal
To stiffen

Steal
Stiffen

Stole
Stiffened

Stolen
Stiffened

Stealing
Stiffening

To stone

Stone

Stoned

Stoned

Stoning

T stop

Stop

Stopped

Stopped

Stopping

To store

Store

Stored

Stored

Storing

To storm
To strike

Storm
Strike

Stormed
Struck

Stormed
Struck

Storming
Striking

To study

Study

Studied

Studied

Studying

To stupefy
To submit
To succeed

Stupefy
Submit
Succeed

Stupefied
Submitted
Succeeded

Stupefied
Submitted
Succeeded

Stupefying
Submitting
Succeeding

To suffer

Suffer

Suffered

Suffered

Suffering

To suffice
To suffocate

Suffice
Suffocate

Sufficed
Suffocated

Sufficed
Suffocated

Sufficing
Suffocating

To suggest
To suit

Suggest
Suit

Suggested
Suited

Suggested
Suited

Suggesting
Suiting

To supervise

Supervise

Supervised

Supervised

Supervising

To supplicate
To support

Supplicate
Support

Supplicated
Supported

Supplicated
Supported

Supplicating
Supporting

Bilcans Grammar Word

Sponging

Spendthrift
Spin
Spinner
Spoil
Spoiler
Sponge
Sponger
Sport
Sportsman
Sportsmanship
Spot

Spring
Springer
Square
Stabilization
Stability
Stabilizer
Star
Start
Starter
Starvation
Starveling
State
Statement
Station
Stationery
Stealth
Stiffness
Stone
Stoning
Stoppage
Stop
Stopper
Storage
Store
Storm
Strike
Striker
Stroke
Study
Student
Stupidity
Submission
Success
Succession
Suffering
Suffer
Sufficiency
Suffocation
Suggestion
Suit
Suitability
Supervision
Supervisor
Supplication
Support
Supporter

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Spent
Spinning
Spoilt
Spongy
Sportive
Sportsmanlike
Spotless
Spotted
Spotty
Springless
Springing
Square
Stable

Starry
Starting
Started
Starving
Stated
Stately
Stationary
Stealthy
Stiff
Stiff-necked
Stony
Stoppable
Unstoppable
Storable
Stormy
Striking

Studious
Stupid
Submissive
Successful
Sufferable
Sufficient
Suffocating
Suffocative
Suggestible
Suitable
Supervisory
Supplicant
Supportless
Supportable

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To surprise
To suspect

Surprise
Suspect

Surprised
Suspected

Surprised
Suspected

Surprising
Suspecting

To swear

Swear

Swore

Sworn

Swearing

To sweat

Sweat

Sweated

Sweated

Sweating

To sweep

Sweep

Swept

Swept

Sweeping

To sweeten
To swell
To swoon

Sweeten
Swell
Swoon

Sweetened
Swelled
Swooned

Sweetened
Swollen
Swooned

Sweetening
Swelling
Swooning

To sympathize

Sympathize

Sympathized

Sympathized

Sympathizing

To table
To tailor

Table
Tailor

Tabled
Tailored

Tabled
Tailored

Tabling
Tailoring

To take

Take

Took

Taken

Taking

To talk

Talk

Talked

Talked

Talking

To tan

Ta n

Tanned

Tanned

Tanning

To taste

Taste

Tasted

Tasted

Tasting

To tax

Ta x

Taxed

Taxed

Taxing

To teach

Teach

Taught

Taught

Teaching

To tear

Tear

Tore

Torn

Tearing

To tell

Tell

Told

Told

Telling

To terrify

Terrify

Terrified

Terrified

Terrifying

To thank

Thank

Thanked

Thanked

Thanking

To thicken

Thicken

Thickened

Thickened

Thickening

To think

Think

Thought

Thought

Thinking

To thirst
To threaten
To time

Thirst
Threaten
Time

Thirsted
Threatened
Timed

Thirsted
Threatened
Timed

Thirsting
Threatening
Timing

To tolerate

Tolerate

Tolerated

Tolerated

Tolerating

To touch

Touch

Touched

Touched

Touching

To train

Train

Trained

Trained

Training

T transfer

Transfer

Transferred

Transferred

Transferring

Bilcans Grammar Word

Surprise
Suspect
Suspicion
Swearing
Swearer
Sweat
Sweating
Sweeping
Sweeper
Sweets
Swelling
Swoon
Swooning
Sympathy
Sympathizer
Table
Tailor
Tailoring
Taker
Taking
Talk
Talker
Tanner
Tanning
Tannery
Taste
Taster
Ta x
Taxation
Teaching
Teacher
Tear
Tearing
Teller
Tale
Telltale
Terror
Terrorist
Thank
Thankfulness
Thanklessness
Thickness
Thinking
Thinker
Thought
Thirst
Threat
Time
Timer
Timing
Toleration
Tolerance
Touch

Training
Train
Trainer
Transfer

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Surprising
Suspicious
Sworn
Sweating
Sweeps
Sweet
Swollen
Swoonable
Swooned
Sympathetic
Tabular
Tailored
Taken
Talkative
Tannable
Tanning
Tasteless
Tasty
Tasteful
Taxable
Teachable
Tearful
Tearless
Telling
Tellable
Terrible
Terrific
Thankless
Thankful
Thick
Thicker
Thoughtful
Thoughtless
Thinkable
Thirsty
Threatening
Timely
Timeless
Tolerable
Tolerant
Touchable
Touchy
Touching
Trainable
Trained
Transferable

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Transference
Translation
Translator
Transpiration
Transparence
Transportation
Transport
Transporter
Trouble
Trust

To translate

Translate

Translated

Translated

Translating

To transpire

Transpire

Transpired

Transpired

Transpiring

To transport

Transport

Transported

Transported

Transporting

To trouble
To trust

Trouble
Trust

Troubled
Trusted

Troubled
Trusted

Troubling
Trusting

To turn

Turn

Turned

Turned

Turning

To use

Use

Used

Used

Using

To utter

Utter

Uttered

Uttered

Uttering

To vacate

Vacate

Vacated

Vacated

Vacating

To value

Value

Valued

Valued

Valuing

To vary

Vary

Varied

Varied

Varying

Variation
Variables

To verify

Verify

Verified

Verified

Verifying

To vex

Vex

Vexed

Vexed

Vexing

Verification
Verifier
Vexation

To voice

Voice

Voiced

Voiced

Voicing

Voice

To volunteer
To vote

Volunteer
Vote

Volunteered
Voted

Volunteered
Voted

Volunteering
Voting

To wait

Wait

Waited

Waited

Waiting

To wake
To wander

Wake
Wander

Woke
Wandered

Woken
Wandered

Waking
Wandering

To wash

Wash

Washed

Washed

Washing

Volunteer
Vote
Voter
Voting
Wait
Waiter
Wake
Wanderer
Wanderings
Wash

To waste

Waste

Wasted

Wasted

Wasting

To watch

Watch

Watched

Watched

Watching

To water

Water

Watered

Watered

Watering

To weaken

Weaken

Weakened

Weakened

Weakening

To weary

Weary

Wearied

Wearied

Wearying

To weight
To weigh
To well
To whiten
To Widen
To will

Weight
Weigh
Well
Whiten
Widen
Will

Weighted
Weighed
Welled
Whitened
Widened
Willed

Weighted
Weighed
Welled
Whitened
Widened
Willed

Weighting
Weighing
Welling
Whitening
Widening
Willing

Bilcans Grammar Word

Turn
Turner
Turning
Turnery
Turncoat
Use
Usage
Utterance
Vacancy
Vacation
Value

Waste
Wastage
Wastefulness
Watch
Watchfulness
Water
Weakness
Weakening
Weariness
Weight
Well
Whiteness
Width
Will

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

Translatable
Untranslatable
Transparent
Transportable

Troublesome
Trustful
Trustworthy
Turning

Useful
Useless
Utterable
Utter
Vacant
Valuable
Valueless
Variable
Varied
Various
Verifiable
Vexing
Vexed
Voiceless
Vocal
Voluntary
Voteless

Awaited
Wakeful
Wandering
Washable
Washy
Wasteful

Watchful
Waterless
Watery
Weak
Weakfish
Weary
Wearisome
Weighty
Weightless
Well
White
Wide
Willful

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To win

Win

Won

Won

Winning

To wish
To wonder

Wish
Wonder

Wished
Wondered

Wished
Wondered

Wishing
Wondering

To work

Work

Worked

Worked

Working

To write

Write

Wrote

Written

Writing

To wrong
To x-ray
To yawn

Wrong
X-ray
Yawn

Wronged
X-rayed
Yawned

Wronged
X-rayed
Yawned

Wronging
X-raying
Yawning

To yearn
To yield

Yearn
Yield

Yearned
Yielded

Yearned
Yielded

Yearning
Yielding

To yell

Yell

Yelled

Yelled

Yelling

To yellow

Yellow

Yellowed

Yellowed

Yellowing

To yelp

Yelp

Yelped

Yelped

Yelping

To yoke
T o zi p

Yoke
Zip

Yoked
Zipped

Yoked
Zipped

Yoking
Zipping

To zoom

Zoom

Zoomed

Zoomed

Zooming

Winner
Winning
Victory
Wish
Wonder
Work
Worker
Writing
Writer
Wrong
X-ray
Yawn
Yawner
Yearning
Yield
Yielder
Yelling
Yell
Yeller
Yellow
Yelp
Yelper
Yoke
Zip
Zipper
Zooming

Willing
Winning

Wishful
Wonderful
Wondering
Working
Workable
Written
Wrongful
X-ray
Yawning
Yearning
Yielding
Yelling
Yelled
Yellowy
Yellowish
Yelping
Yokeless
Zipped
Zippy
Zoomable
Zoomed

2. ADJECTIVE
Adjectives are words that describe or modify another person or thing i.e. a noun in the
sentence.16 For example, a tall guy, a bright girl, the rich man, a nice book etc. Adjective
also tells us number and quantity, such as four boys, five kilos of rice, some wheat etc. If a
group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adjective, it is called an Adjective
Clause. My sister, who is much older than I am, is an engineer.
Grammatically, adjectives can have up to two chief functions, given their location.
Thus we say about adjectives, referring to a particular location-oriented situation, that they
are either attributive or predicative.
When an adjective occurs before a noun, this type of situation is termed as attributive
function. For instance, an intelligent boy, a poor man, a nice car, a small room, two big
buildings etc.
On the other hand, when an adjective occurs after a verbgenerally the forms of the
primary verb to bethis situation is called the predicative function of adjective. For
instance, the man was poor, his car is nice, the two buildings on mall are incredibly high,
the hill seems big, this story sounds interesting etc.

16

Hayder, Sayyed Waqas, The Grammar Valley, Bab-ul-Ilm Research Foundation, 2007, p. 54

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Major kinds of adjective are: (i) Adjectives of Quality or Descriptive Adjectives, (ii)
Adjectives of Quantity, (iii) Adjectives of Number, (iv) Distributive Adjectives, and (v)
Indefinite Adjectives. There are some other obscure kinds and sub-kinds as well, but we
will not discuss them here to avoid speciousness.
1. Descriptive Adjectives
Descriptive adjectives describe the quality, kind or nature of a nouna person, thing,
place, or abstract idea. For instance: Ali is an industrious student; Mandi Bahauddin is a
small city etc.

2. Adjectives of Quantity
Adjectives of Quantity talk about the amount of something to show how much a thing is
desired or described. For instance: There is still some milk in the glass; He is left with little
money etc.

3. Adjectives of Number
Adjectives of Number are also called Numeral Adjectives. They describe the number of
something showing how many objects are being discussed. For instance: Asim has five
brothers; I have three books on grammar etc.
Adjectives of number subdivide in two further kinds, namely:
(i) Definite Numerals
(ii) Indefinite Numerals
Definite numerals, as exhibits the title, express an exact number. However, the method of
describing exact numbers varies in two ways in English, and to these two ways of
speaking of definite numerals we call (i) Cardinals, and (ii) Ordinals. For instance, we
count things in our everyday life as one, two, three, four, five, so on and so forth; these are
the cardinals. On the other hand, when we count things or persons positioning them one
after another in a consecutive order, as first, second, third, fourth, fifth etc, they are called
ordinals.
Indefinite numerals also speak of numbers, but these are not exact numbers. For instance,
many, few, all, some, any, certain, several, no etc. are the recurrent indefinite numerals in
English grammar. It is interesting that we can also list these indefinite numerals under
Quantifier, for the function in both cases is of quantifying nouns.

There are some boys in the ground.


Your passage contains many mistakes.
He has ignored me on several occasions.

4. Distributive Adjectives
Distributive Adjectives point out numbers to refer them individually; this is to say that
distributive adjectives function as specifying words in the sentence. For instance: Every
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car in the line is Toyota; Each girl must take her turn; Neither of the brothers was absent;
On either side of the picture is a blob etc.

5. Indefinite Adjectives
Indefinite Adjectives are also Indefinite Pronouns establishing the fact that we use them both
ways. They refer to a person or thing without ascertaining him/it. For instance: Someone
in the village is the thief; Something will eventually disturb our plan; Everyone of the
students should be called for the test; Everything in this season looks good etc.
DEGREES OF ADJECTIVE (ALSO COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES)
Adjectives also express the degrees of modification. For example, Asma is a rich woman,
but Naila is richer than Asma, and Sadia is the richest woman in the town. The degrees of
comparison are known as positive, comparative and superlative, although only comparative
and superlative are the degrees. We use comparative degree to compare only two things,
individuals or groups, while the superlative degree is used to compare three or more things,
individuals, groups or places. Normally, we place suffixes er and est in the end of an
adjective to form comparative and superlative degrees.17 However, when the positive degree
of an adjective ends in e, we place only r in the end for the making of comparative case
and only st for the making of superlative case (e.g. wise-wiser-wisest). Another change in
the formation of comparative adjectives takes place when we have a y ending. When the
positive degree ends in y, and is preceded by a consonant, we remove y to insert ier for
the comparative case and iest for the superlative case (e.g. easy-easier-easiest). Similarly,
another variation in the rule occurs with one-syllable adjectives. If the positive degree is
one-syllable and a very short vowel-sound precedes the last consonant, this last consonant is
doubled before the addition of comparative er and superlative est (e.g. hot-hotter-hottest).
The use of more and most is yet another way of forming adjectives of comparison. When an
adjective has two syllables and we want to form its comparative and superlative cases, more
will be used before the adjective for the comparative case and most for the superlative case.
Positive
Able
Big
Bold
Brave
Clever
Close
Cold
Common
Cruel
Cute

Regular Degrees of Comparison


Comparative
Superlative
Abler
Ablest
Bigger
Biggest
Bolder
Boldest
Braver
Bravest
Cleverer
Cleverest
Closer
Closest
Colder
Coldest
Commoner
Commonest
Crueler
Cruelest
Cuter
Cutest

17

Great, Greater, Greatest; Hard, Harder, Hardest, Fast, Faster, Fastest etc. However, sometimes we
have to add suffixes ier and iest to form these degrees; for example, Happy, Happier, Happiest.

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Dear
Deep
Easy
Far
Fast
Fat
Finer
Free
Great
Happy
Hard
Heavy
High
Hot
Humble
Kind
Large
Light
Long
Low
Merry
Narrow
Near
Nice
Noble
Odd
Old
Petty
Poor
Pretty
Quick
Red
Rich
Sad
Sane
Short
Simple
Slight
Slow
Small
Smart
Soft
Strong
Sweet

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Dearer
Deeper
Easier
Farther
Faster
Fatter
Finer
Freer
Greater
Happier
Harder
Heavier
Higher
Hotter
Humbler
Kinder
Larger
Lighter
Longer
Lower
Merrier
Narrower
Nearer
Nicer
Nobler
Odder
Older
Pettier
Poorer
Prettier
Quicker
Redder
Ricer
Sadder
Saner
Shorter
Simpler
Slighter
Slower
Smaller
Smarter
Softer
Stronger
Sweeter

Bilcans Grammar Word

Dearest
Deepest
Easiest
Farthest
Fastest
Fattest
Finest
Freest
Greatest
Happiest
Hardest
Heaviest
Highest
Hottest
Humblest
Kindest
Largest
Lightest
Longest
Lowest
Merriest
Narrowest
Nearest
Nicest
Noblest
Oddest
Oldest
Pettiest
Poorest
Prettiest
Quickest
Reddest
Richest
Saddest
Sanest
Shortest
Simplest
Slightest
Slowest
Smallest
Smartest
Softest
Strongest
Sweetest
(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

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Tall
Thick
Thin
Tough
True
Ugly
Wealthy
Weary
Weak
White
Wise
Young

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Taller
Thicker
Thinner
Tougher
Truer
Uglier
Wealthier
Wearier
Weaker
Whiter
Wiser
Younger

Tallest
Thickest
Thinnest
Toughest
Truest
Ugliest
Wealthiest
Weariest
Weakest
Whitest
Wisest
Youngest

Irregular Degrees of Comparison


Positive
Good
Well
Bad
Ill
Evil
Much
M a ny
Late
Old
Far
Fore
Out

Comparative
Better
Better
Worse
Worse
Worse
More
More
Later
Latter
Older
Elder
Farther
Further
Outer
Utter

In

Inner

Up

Upper

Little

Less
Lesser
Nigher

Nigh

Bilcans Grammar Word

Superlative
Best
Best
Worst
Worst
Worst
Most (Quantity)
Most (Number)
Latest
Last
Oldest
Eldest
Farthest
Furthest
Outermost
Uttermost
Utmost
Innermost
Inmost
Uppermost
Upmost
Least
Next

(Syed Muhammad Waqas)

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A-ADJECTIVES
There are certain adjectives that start with a and are thus so called a-adjectives. The
most commonly used of these a-adjectives are: ablaze, afraid, afloat, afresh, aghast, alert,
alive, alike, alone, aloof, anew, ashamed, asleep, averse, awake, and aware.
A-adjectives usually come after a linking verb i.e. to be, seem, become, feel, appear,
grow, remain etc. For instance:
i. The baby was asleep.
ii. The student remained aloof.
iii. Pakistani people are awake and aware of their rights.
The a-adjectives are sometimes modified by very much, as, very much afraid, very much
ashamed, very much aware etc. Sometimes a-adjectives occur before a noun and modify it,
as, the alert watchman, the aloof student etc. However, most of them are themselves
modified when they occur the word they modify: the nearly awake public, the surprisingly
aware person etc.
POSITION OF ADJECTIVES
Unlike Adverbs, which often seem capable of popping up almost anywhere in a sentence,
adjectives nearly always appear immediately before the noun or noun phrase that they
modify. When indefinite pronounssuch as something, someone, anybodyare modified
by an adjective, the adjective comes after the pronoun: Anyone capable of doing something
horrible to someone nice should be punished.
ORDER OF ADJECTIVES
Where a number of adjectives are used together, the order depends on the function of the
adjective. The usual order is:
a. Value/opinion

delicious, lovely, charming

b. Size

small, huge, tiny

c. Age/Temperature

old, hot, young

d. Shape

round, square, rectangular

e. Color

Red, blonde, black

f. Origin

Swedish, Victorian, Chinese

g. Material

plastic, wooden, silver

Linear Description: Value/opinion, Size, Age/Temperature, Shape, Color, Origin, Material


Examples:
A. An ugly big old red post-box
B. Some small round plastic tables
C. Some charming small silver ornaments
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Sub-classification of adjectives can be done at two levels, (a) Syntactic Subclassification and (b) Semantic Sub-classification. However, as the current book is a
traditional academic grammar, the subject of sub-classifications is out of its scope.

3. NOUN
A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, or idea. Whatever exists, we assume, can be
named, and that very name is a noun.18 It is not easy to describe a noun from a linguistic
perspective. In simple terms, nouns are names and verbs are actions. For instance,
mango (noun) is something that you eat (action).
KINDS OF NOUN
Like all other languages, English grammar has, at the very basic level, two kinds of noun.
These kinds are:
1. Proper Noun
2. Common Noun
A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing (Qamar, Queen Elizabeth, Middle
East, Madinah, Malaysia, Christianity, God, Pakistani, Muslim, Pakistan Peoples Party
etc.). It is, therefore, always capitalized. A proper noun used as an addressed persons name
is called a noun of address. Proper nouns do not form plurals, as does the common nouns.
For instance, it would be incorrect to say Pakistans, Qamars, Islams etc. However, some
proper nouns, such as Muslims (religious communities), Pakistanis (nations), Himalayas
(mountain ranges), Syeds (clans or families), do occur in plural forms. Definite article the
almost always precedes such plural proper nouns (e.g. the Muslims, the Pakistanis, the
Himalayas, the Syeds). Proper nouns, with the exception of the above kind of plural proper
nouns, do not use articles before them (e.g. the Qamar, a Pakistan, the Lahore). Quantifiers
(some, any, few, a few, little, a little, much, several etc.) are also not used before proper
nouns. For example, it is incorrect to say some Pakistan, any Punjab, few or a few/little or
a little Qamar, much Islam.
Common nouns, on the other hand, name everything else, and they are not usually
capitalized. Thus, we have ascertained nouns in two kinds, namely, (a) Proper Noun, and
(b) Common Noun. For instance; Aslam (proper noun) works at a shop (common noun).
Distribution of Noun
Nouns can be distributed in two categories i.e. (a) Countable (or Count) Nouns, and (b)
Uncountable (or Non-Count) Nouns. Countable Nouns have plurals, and can be used with
a/an.19 For example: a table, a car, an idea, an individual etc. Uncountable Nouns do not
have plural forms, and they cannot be used with a/an. For example: air, milk, intelligence,
sand, weather, leather, glass, luggage, cloth, concrete, detergent, electricity, water, milk,
oil, sugar, salt, money, knowledge, butter, gas, rice, wheat, mustard, spaghetti, coal, advice,

18

Hayder, Sayyed Waqas, The Grammar Valley, Bab-ul-Ilm Research Foundation, 2007, p.71

19

Swan, Michael, How English Works, Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 56

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wood, information, fuel, energy, flour, work, laundry, silk, soap, food, grain, paper,
progress, plastic, research, toothpaste, wool etc.
Some grammarians annex a third category of nouns, which is generally termed as Collective
Nouns. This category includes those nouns that can be either plural or singular. However,
the use of such nouns normally depends on the situation as well as the speaker. A list of
such nouns is, for example, given below:
Class, army, police, team, herd, jury, committee, guild, school, college, bunch, clump, stack,
family, procession, gang, team, crowd, group, pile, staff, set, company, people, gathering,
factory, fleet, flock, caste, public, constellation, crew etc.
NATURE OF NOUN
Nouns, according to their nature, can be divided in two types namely, (a) Concrete Nouns,
and (b) Abstract Nouns. We talk about concrete nouns when we refer to objects and we
talk about abstract nouns when we refer to concepts, which are mental rather than physical.
We can see, hear, smell, taste and/or touch the physical objects (concrete nouns) but we
cannot see, hear, smell, taste or touch mental concepts or states (abstract nouns). For
instance; chair, football, ground, earth, book, and man are Concrete Nouns, whereas match,
happiness, kindness, mankind, honesty etc. are Abstract Nouns.
The authors of High School English Grammar, Wren and Martin, define an Abstract Noun
as below:
Abstract Noun is usually the name of a quality, action or state considered apart from the
object to which it belongs.20
GENDER IN NOUN
The classification of nouns (also of pronouns) according to the gender of each noun as
masculine, feminine or neuter is called gender in the study of noun. Nouns may be:
i.
ii.
iii.

Masculine: boys, king, lion etc.


Feminine: girl, women, lioness etc.
Neuter Gender: All that is neither male nor female, especially inanimate objects.

4. PRONOUN
A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. Generally (but not always) pronouns stand
for (pro + noun) or refer to a noun21an individual or individuals or thing or things (the
pronouns antecedent)whose identity has been made clear earlier in the text. For instance,
Ali goes to school can be referred as He goes to school when the identity of Ali has already
been established. Thus, he, she, it, I, we, they, you etc. are all pronouns (personal pronouns)
i.e. those words used in the place of a noun.
Wren & Martin, High School English Grammar and Composition, New Delhi: S. Chand & Company
Ltd., 2007, p. 5
20

21

Pro is a Latin word and it means for; hence, pronoun implies for noun.

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Grammarians differ on the exact number of the forms of pronoun. However, we will include
in this book only those forms that are universally agreed. Six forms of pronoun are,
generally, accepted by almost all grammarians. These six forms are: (i) Personal Pronouns,
(ii) Reflexive Pronouns, (iii) Demonstrative Pronouns, (iv) Indefinite Pronouns, (v)
Distributive Pronouns, and (vi) Relative Pronouns.

Personal Pronouns
A Personal Pronoun stands for a person or thing, i.e. a noun. Unlike nouns,
which usually do not undertake any changes of formexcept in cases like forming
pluralspersonal pronouns always change form according to their various ways of use
within a sentence. A personal pronoun is divisible in three categories of persons as well as
in three different cases. These three categories or positions of personal pronoun are
usually called First Person, Second Person, and Third Person. This categorization of
personal pronoun is based on the general understanding of linguistic communication in
which two persons (the 1st person and 2nd person) are always present, whereas one person
(the 3rd person) is always absent (Details below in the chart). These categories have further
subdivisions within themselves and are thus primarily divided in singular and plural types.
The 3rd person is yet another distinction that distributes its singular in three sub-positions,
namely, male (he), female (she), and neuter gender (it).
Personal pronouns have three cases of form-change. These are the cases that we
know as subjective case, possessive case, and objective case. Moreover, when a personal
pronoun is the subject of a sentence, this situation is called Nominative Case.
The chart of personal pronoun categorization and its three cases is being adduced
below. An additional box of reflexive situation has also be added in the end to let our
readers have a quick glance at a subsequently discussed corresponding situation.
Order of Pronoun Cases (Personal Pronoun)
Position of Person
1st Person Singular
1st Person Plural
2nd Person Singular

Subjective Case
I
We
You

Possessive Case
my/mine
our/ours
your/yours

Objective Case
me
us
you

Reflexive Situation
myself
ourselves
yourself

2nd Person Plural


3rd Person Singular
(Male)
3rd Person Singular
(Female)
3rd Person Singular
(Neuter Gender)
Noun as 3rd Person
(Singular)
3rd Person Plurals

You
He

your/yours
h is

you
h im

yourselves
himself

Sh e

her/hers

her

herself

It

its

it

itself

Ahmad/Samina
/Chair
They

his/her/its

him/her/it

himself/herself/itself

their/theirs

them

themselves

(Two Nouns)

Reflexive Pronouns
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When -self is added to my, your, him, her, it, and selves to our, your, them, we get
what are called Reflexive Pronouns. It means when the action done by the subject turns
back to the subject, the situation will immediately place a reflexive pronoun. For instance;
You will disturb yourself.
We will hurt ourselves.

Demonstrative Pronouns
These pronouns are used to point out the objects to which they refer, and are,
hence, called Demonstrative Pronouns. For example; this, that, these, those etc. are
demonstrative pronouns.

That is amazing. (referring to a surprising situation)


Such is my faith in you. (referring to the level of trust you have in someone)

This family of the Demonstrative Pronouns can behave in two ways, namely,
either as pronouns or as determiners.22

Indefinite Pronouns
Those pronouns that do not refer to any particular person or thing are termed as
Indefinite Pronouns. For example; I will take you there one/some day. He is a man of few
words. Some milk was spilt. Any fool can do this. Furthermore, someone, somebody,
anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, each etc. are also Indefinite Pronouns.

Distributive Pronouns
These pronouns obscurely refer to only one from among many persons or things at
a time. For instance; each, either and neither are such distributive pronouns that are used
when referring to two persons or things, whereas every, any, no one, one another and none
are used when referring to more than two persons or things: Each of the (two) men
received award. They cheated one another.

Relative Pronouns
Relative Pronouns relate to some noun that goes before in the sentence, which in
grammatical language is called antecedent. We have only two main relative pronouns
namely, which and that. Sometimes, what replaces which and that in sentences, but the
students with only basic knowledge of English should avoid such a use of what. For
instance, see below:

This is the car, which I used to drive.


That is the book that Ali bought last year.

It should be noted that which always takes a comma (,) before it, while that does not
take any commas before or after it.
English grammar still retains two second-class kinds of pronoun. Interrogative
Pronouns and Reciprocal Pronouns are not generally discussed in the list of six above listed
22

For details on determiners, see the stage named as Determiners, Quantifiers & Articles.

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kinds. However, some grammarians do add these two in the list of the kinds of pronoun, and
they have their own logic for doing that. But it is wise, as per our stance, to discuss them as
separate.
Interrogative Pronouns ask questions. They are used to build such questions that
demand a logically justified replyhence the double interrogatives. This kind of
interrogative pronouns may be subdivided in two classes, namely, (a) that belong personal
nouns, such as who, whose, whom, and (b) that belong non-personal nouns, such as which,
what, where, when, why, and how.
Reciprocal Pronouns express a two-way (actually both way) relationship. These
pronouns are convenient forms for combining ideas. For instance, each other and one
another are the reciprocal pronouns. If only two people are involved in a discussion, we use
each other.

Samina and Salma gave each other gifts on Eid. (Or)


Samina and Salma gave gifts to each other on Eid.

If the participants are more than two and that we have to refer to them as a
wholeall of them taking an active part in the activitywe use one another.
Nevertheless, it is not considered incorrect in modern English to use each other instead of
one another for more than two participants.

All of the teachers at Bilcans gave gifts to one another on Eid.


They (i.e. all of them) borrowed each others ideas.

5. INTERJECTION
Hi there! That's an interjection.
Interjections are words or phrases used to exclaim or protest or command.23 Interjection is
a big name for a little word. Interjections are short exclamations like Oh!, Um!, or Ah! They
have no real grammatical value but we still use them quite oftenusually more in speaking
than in writing. When interjections are inserted into a sentence, they have no grammatical
connection to the sentence. An interjection is generally followed by an exclamation mark (!)
when written. See below for examples:

Oh! You dont know about that?


I dont know what the heck youre talking about.
No! You shouldnt have done that.

There are some interjection-symbols used to describe different types of situations.


Symbols, such as uh-huh and mhm, are used by the speakers to indicate agreement. Further,
mm and uh-uh express negation or disagreement. Nevertheless, it is advised by the author
that such symbols should not be used in writing or even when speaking without necessary
understanding of their pronunciation.
23

Hayder, Sayyed Waqas, The Grammar Valley, Bab-ul-Ilm Research Foundation, 2007, p. 159

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Some Main Interjections with Examples


Ah expressing pleasure "Ah! that feels good."
Ah expressing realization "Ah, now I understand."
Ah expressing resignation "Ah well, it can't be hoped."
Ah expressing surprise "Ah! I've won!"
Alas expressing grief or pity "Alas, she's dead now."
Dear expressing pity "Oh dear! Does it hurt?"
Dear expressing surprise "Dear me! That's a surprise!"
Eh asking for repetition "It's hot today." "Eh?" "I said it's hot today."
Eh expressing enquiry "What do you think of that, eh?"
Eh expressing surprise "Eh! Really?"
Eh inviting agreement "Let's go, eh?"
Er expressing hesitation "Berlin is the capital of...er...Germany."
Hello/hullo expressing greeting "Hello Junaid. How are you today?"
Hello expressing surprise "Hello! My car's gone!"
Hey calling attention "Hey! Look at that!"
Hey expressing surprise, joy etc "Hey! What a good idea!"
Hi expressing greeting "Hi! What's new?"
Hmm expressing hesitation, doubt or disagreement "Hmm. I'm not so sure."
Oh/o expressing surprise "Oh! You're here!"
Oh expressing pain "Oh! I've got a toothache."
Oh expressing pleading "Oh, please say 'yes'!"
Ouch expressing pain "Ouch! That hurts!"
Uh expressing hesitation "Uh...I don't know the answer to that."
Uh-huh expressing agreement "Shall we go?" "Uh-huh."
Um/umm expressing hesitation "85 divided by 5 is...um...17."
Well expressing surprise "Well I never!"

6. CONJUNCTION
Conjunction is a word that joins two words or two parts of a sentence. For instance;
Zaheer and Aslam are good friends; I like this book, but Im unable to buy it.
Conjunctions are divided in two basic types, i.e. (a) Coordinating Conjunctions,
and (b) Subordinating Conjunctions. Coordinating Conjunctions are used to join two parts
of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses,
for example: Javed and Asif went up the hill. Subordinating Conjunctions are used to join
a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example: I went playing, although it
was cold.

POSITIONS OF CONJUNCTIONS
Coordinating conjunctions always come between the words or clauses that they join.
Subordinating conjunctions, however, usually come at the beginning of the subordinate
clause. (Examples above)
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FORMS
Conjunctions have three main forms, i.e. (i) single-word conjunctions, (ii) compound
conjunctions, and (iii) correlative conjunctions. For instance, single-word conjunctions
are and, although, because, but etc.24 Compound conjunctions are as long as, provided that,
in order that etc. And correlative conjunctions are those that surround an adverb or
adjective like sothat, not onlybut also, eitheror etc.
Zaheer has spent his summer studying math, but he is still facing problems with it.
(Single-word)
It is an interesting as well as informative book. (Compound Conjunction)
Asif is not only an intelligent student but also a good player of football.
Main compound conjunctions are given below herein.
Compound Conjunction

Sentence

Even if

Even if you talk to him, he will not agree.

Even though

I like his company, even though he can be annoying at


times.

In order to

The committee met in order to decide about the future


of college.
Provided that, the problem does not seem soluble.

Provided that
So thatmay

She studies late at night so that she may succeed in


examination.
She studied late at night so that she might succeed in
examination.

Inasmuch as

Inasmuch as I relied on that book, it proved beneficial.

Insomuch as

Insomuch as I relied on that book, it proved beneficial.

As if

He showed indifference to me as if we did not know


each other.

As soon as

Write me back as soon as you receive my letter.

As well as

We need building as well as furniture to start a school.

Main correlative conjunctions are below here:


Correlative Conjunction
Eitheror

Sentences
Either he is a thief or a robber.
Either pen or marker will be available at this shop.

24

It may help you remember these conjunctions by recalling that they all have fewer than four
letters. Also, remember the acronym FANBOYS: For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So.

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Neithernor
Thoughyet
Bothand
Whetheror
Not onlybut also

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We can neither sell this car nor can we get it repaired.
He neither rested nor completed the assignment.
He is neither teacher nor student.
Though/Although he is my friend, yet I do not trust him.
Both Ahmad and Hassan came to see me.
I dont know whether he came over or not.
Ahmad is not only an intelligent boy, but also a brilliant
sportsman.

ADVERBIAL CONJUNCTIONS OR CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS


The conjunctive adverbs such as however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, are used
to create complex relationships between ideas. They show the linkage of a situation
appearing as a result of some situation gone before. These conjunctive adverbs generally
take comma (,) after them, and in case of appearing in the middle of a sentence, the comma
appears before them as well. In a general rule, we use them in the start of a sentence.
Examples:
It was a good piece of advice for him, however, he did not like it. Moreover, his
own lack of experience destroyed his whole business.

7. ADVERB
Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. For instance, he
drove slowly (modifies a verb); he drove a very fast car (modifies an adjective); and she
moved quite slowly down the street (modifies another adverb).
Adverbs often tell when, where, why, and/or under what conditions something happens
or happened. Adverbs frequently end in ly; however, many words and phrases not ending
in ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an
adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives.
Adverb has a number of kinds, whereof we will discuss only the relevant as well as
most famous ones. Five kinds of adverbs are being discussed here, and students are advised
to get a good mastery over their function and use. The other kinds may be a little confusing
to be studied at this level. Hence, the kinds of our relevance are: (i) Adverbs of Manner,
(ii) Adverbs of Place, (iii) Adverbs of Frequency, (iv) Adverbs of Time, and (v) Adverbs
of Degree.

Adverbs of Manner
Adverbs that tell us how an action has taken place are called Adverbs of Manner. Adverbs of
manner normally end in ly, although it is not always true. For instance, Salma wept
bitterly; Ahmad hastily managed the party; Asif came late etc.

Adverbs of Place

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Adverbs that inform us about the place of a described action are known as Adverbs of Place.
For example, Ali is standing outside of the class; Asif will arrive here soon; when you get to
hotel, you will see him there etc.

Adverbs of Frequency
Adverbs that describe how often something or some action has occurred are called Adverbs
of Frequency. There is always a sense of continuity in these adverbs. For instance; Do you
see him everyday/daily? I often meet him near the bus stop etc.

Adverbs of Time
Adverbs that indicate when an action has taken place are termed as Adverbs of Time. For
example, Ali finished his tea first; He has already arrived here; She tries to get back before
dark etc.

Adverbs of Degree or Quantity


Adverbs that talk of degree or extent of something or some action are called Adverbs of
Degree. These adverbs answer to the question how much. For instance, Ali is quite happy;
I nearly hit the car; It will take almost one hour etc.

Adverbs of Reason
Adverbs of Reason convey the idea of reason or rationality. Adverbs of Reason create a
situation of Logic, and grammar is only a means to portray that situation. Thus, any adverbs
showing reason, equation between two situations, and logical negation or outcome occur
before some logical conclusion or after a clause bearing argument and/or proposition.
Hence, therefore, thus, before, since, however, and nevertheless are mainly used adverbs of
reason. For example, since he did not appear in examination, he was declared absent; It is a
befitting situation, hence we should not waste time in waiting for a better period.

Position of Adverbs
One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of
manner are particularly flexible in this regard. See below for example:
i.
Solemnly the Prime minister addressed the parliament. (or)
ii.
The Prime Minister solemnly addressed the parliament. (or)
iii.
The Prime Minister addressed the parliament solemnly.
Thus, it is almost beyond question that the use of adverb anywhere in the sentence is
but correct. Students will have a wide choice to place an adverb before a main verb, or
between the auxiliary and main verb, or even in the end of the sentence.

Order of Adverbs
There is a basic order in which adverbs will appear when there is more than one in a
sentence. It is similar to The Royal Order of Adjectives, but it is even more flexible.
THE ROYAL ORDER OF ADVERBS
Ve r b
Manner
Place

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Frequency

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Dad walks

Impatiently

Asif swims

Enthusiastically In the pool

Rubab naps

Into town

Every
afternoon
Every morning

Before
supper
Before dawn

Every noon

Before
lunch.

In her room

To get a
newspaper.
To keep in
shape.

In actual practice, of course, it would be highly unusual to have a string of adverbial modifiers
beyond two or three (at the most). Because the placement of adverbs is so flexible, one or two
of the modifiers would probably move to the beginning of the sentence: "Every afternoon
before supper, Dad impatiently walks into town to get a newspaper." When that happens, the
introductory adverbial modifiers are usually set off with a comma.

Relative Adverbs
Relative adverbs, why, where and when, sometimes introduce adjectival clauses.
Although the entire clause is adjectival and modifies a noun, the relative word employed
itself carries out an adverbial function, i.e. it modifies a verb within its own clause.

8. PREPOSITION
A preposition is a word governingand usually coming in front ofa noun or pronoun and
expressing a relation to another word or element, as in: She left before breakfast. What did
you come for?
English Preposition Rule
There is one very simple rule about prepositions. And, unlike most rules, this rule has no
exceptions. The rule is: A preposition is followed by a noun. It is never followed by a
verb. By noun we include:
i. noun (horse, money, love)
ii. proper noun (name) (Lahore, Marium)
iii. pronoun (you, him, us)
iv. noun group (my first letter)
v. gerund (swimming)
Let me assert again that a preposition cannot be followed by a verb. If we want to follow a
preposition by a verb, we must use the -ing form, which is really a gerund or verb in
noun form. Here below are some examples:
Subject + verb
The food is
She lives
Tara is looking
The letter is
Waris Shah is used
She is not used
I ate

Preposition
on
in
for
under
to
to
before

Bilcans Grammar Word

Noun
the table.
Pakistan.
you.
your blue book.
Punjabi people.
working. (gerund or verbal noun)
coming. (gerund of verbal noun)

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Here comes a question that, in the following sentences, why is to followed by a verb?
That should be impossible, according to the rule:
(a) I would like to go now. (b) She used to smoke.
In these sentences, to is not a preposition. It is part of the infinitive (to go, to smoke).

Kinds of Prepositions
Despite having a number of kinds, prepositions are generally used in three kinds, i.e. (i)
Prepositions of Time, (ii) Prepositions of Place, and (iii) Prepositions of Direction.

i.

Prepositions of Time

Prepositions that introduce or indicate time are called Prepositions of Time. For
instance, on, at, in, before etc. On is used with days; at is used with noon, night,
midnight, and the time of the day; in is used with other parts of the day, with months, with
years, and with seasons.
It is interesting that some prepositions of time also function as prepositions of place. For
instance, at, in and on can be used both ways. Moreover, to express an extended time in
English, we use the prepositions, such as since, for, during, within, by, from-to, from-until
et c.

ii.

Prepositions of Place

Prepositions that express the idea of place are known as the Prepositions of Place.
For instance, in and on are two such prepositions that serve as the basis for the sense of
place and space. This kind includes prepositions, such as in, inside, at, on, near, over etc.
In (to talk about a certain point itself) There is a mosquito in the room.
Inside (to express something contained) Put the present inside the box.
On (to talk about the surface) I left your keys on the table.
At (to talk about a general vicinity) She was waiting at the corner.
Over (to talk about something being at or above a certain place) a. F-16 Jet is flying over
the city. b. Ahmad is over there in the garden.

iii.

Prepositions of Direction

Prepositions that point out a certain direction are termed as the Prepositions of
Direction. For instance, to and towards are the most potent and oft repeated prepositions of
direction. However, the addition of the suffix wardsor wardwith any of the word
describing a direction will immediately make it into a preposition of direction. Eastward,
westward, northward, southward, downward, upward etc, are, for instance, such
compounded prepositions.
o He had his back towards me.
o We will travel westward coming summer.

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Prepositions with Interrogative Pronouns


Preposition is generally placed in the end of the sentence if its object is an interrogative
pronoun (i.e. when, where, why, which, who, what or how). Let us see below how
prepositions are used with interrogative pronouns as their object, for example:
What are you looking at?
Who is he looking for?
Which class do you read in?
Prepositions with That and Which
When the object of a preposition is the relative pronoun that, the preposition is
always placed in the end of the sentence (e.g. Is this the book that you were searching for?
It was my knife that she cut mangoes with.). However, relative pronoun which has an
exceptional rule in this situation. It can be used in both wayseither putting the preposition
before relative pronoun (i.e. which) or at the end. For instance, it is correct to say both
ways, as:
a) Is this the pen which you were looking for?
b) Is this the pen for which you were looking?
What also functions in some cases as relative pronounin the same way as which.
Therefore, the very rule of the use of which is applicable in the case of what as well.
a. Books and pens are students weapons what they fight against ignorance with.
b. Books and pens are students weapons with what they fight against ignorance.
Estimated Prepositions in English
There are more than 100 prepositions in English. Prepositions are indeed important
words for syntactical constructions of English. We use individual prepositions more
frequently than other individual words. In fact, the prepositions of, to, on and in are
among the ten most frequent words in English. Below is a short list of some 70 of the
more common one-word prepositions. Many of these prepositions have more than one
meaning.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

A
aboard
about
above
across
after
against
along
amid
among
anti
around
as
at

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

B
before
behind
below
beneath
beside
besides
between
beyond
but
by

C
1. concerning
2. considering

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D
1. despite
2. down
3. during

E
1. except
2. excepting
3. excluding

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F
1. following
2. for
3. from
O
1. of
2. off
3. on
4. onto
5. opposite
6. outside
7. over
U
under
underneath
unlike
until
up
upon

I
1. in
2. inside
3. into
P
past
per
plus

V
versus
via

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L
1. like

M
1. minus

R
regarding
round

S
save
since

N
near

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

T
than
through
to
toward
towards

W
with
within
without

THE USE OF PREPOSITIONS


Prepositions with Nouns (Noun + Preposition)
Noun
Preposition
Sentence
In
Ahmad has developed a great ability in writing essays.
1. Ability
To
The alternative to Murree is Swat for our next trip.
2. Alternative
On
Boss made a verbal attack on the subordinate.
3. Attack
To
Muslims attitude to modern development should be
4. Attitude
positive and welcoming.
In
We have no belief in Presidents promises.
5. Belief
Of
The cause of epidemic outbreak is normally unhygienic
6. Cause
atmosphere.
Of
The total cost of this project is about two million Pak
7. Cost
Rupees.
Of
I have little knowledge of mathematics.
8. Knowledge
With
The matter with him sounds pretty serious.
9. Matter
For
Aslams application for the clerical post was rejected.
10. Application
Of
Ahmad is the student of Punjab University.
11. Student
To
Substitute to the Great Quaids services is nothing.
12. Substitute
For
Muslims have a great respect for the Prophets family.
13. Respect
With
Terrorism in Pakistan has a connection with Indian
14. Connection
intelligence agency RAW.
With
In contrast with your opinion, I like to go on trip.
15. Contrast
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16. Reduction

For

17. Appetite
18. Desire

For
For

19. Preference

For

20. Taste
21. Damage

For
To

22. Difficulty
23. Clash

Over
With

24. Example

Of

25. Experience

Of

26. Expert
27. Hope

On
For

28. Invitation

To

29. Lack

Of

30. Method
31. Reason

Of
For

32. Success

At

33. Tax
34. Trouble
35. Relation
Relationship
36. Increase

On
With
With

37. Need
38. Application

For
For

39. Order
40. Request

For
For

41. Wish
42. Love
43. Control
44. Dearth
45. Apology

For
For
Over
Of
For

In

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There are reductions for children sharing a room with two
adults.
Our appetite for money generally never ends.
Human desire for conquering stars is witnessing
fulfillment in 21st century.
Chinese people do not have a preference for foreign made
things.
Wonderful! You have a great taste for hockey.
1971 tragedy was a great damage to the honor of the
nation.
He feels a great difficulty over philosophical descriptions.
Pakistans clash with India over Kashmir issue is
dangerous for the region.
The best example of valor was seen in the case of Aziz
Bhati in 1965 War.
My experience of staying in Egypt does not constitute a
pleasant part of my memory.
Asim is expert on computer designing.
She has a great hope for getting promotion for her
services.
The lawyers extensively sent invitations to civil society
activists to join long march.
Lack of facilities in this country has compelled many to
migrate.
Sir Qamars method of teaching is very appealing.
His reason for not joining the company was his doubt in
our abilities.
Pak Armys success at curbing militancy is inevitable for
the stability of Pakistan.
Government is levying tax on almost every commodity.
What is the trouble with you?
The relation of Muslims with Arabia is unbreakable.
Rapid increase in world population is likely to cause
famine by the end of 21st century.
There is a great need for social reforms in our culture.
College office has received hundreds of applications for
the post of junior clerk.
Army discipline reserves clear orders for all subordinates.
The police did not turn a deaf ear to our request for a
timely help.
Everyone has a wish for becoming rich overnights.
Our love for Islam will help us become better Muslims.
The manager seems to have lost control over the staff.
Extreme dearth of sugar is a national crisis.
An Apology for Poetry is a nice small book about poetry.

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Prepositions with Adjectives (Adjective + Preposition)


Adjective
Afraid
Ashamed
Accustomed
Addicted
Aware

Preposition
Of (something)
Of (some action)
To (something)
To (something)
Of
(something/someone)
With/At
Angry
(someone/something)
With (something)
Bored
Disappointed With
(something/someone)
For (something)
Eager
About (something)
Excited
Fed up
Fond
Happy
Keen
Proud
Shocked
Tired
Pleased
Capable
Nervous

Satisfied
Surprised
Worried
Annoyed

Anxious

With (something)
Of (something)
With
(something/someone)
On (something)
Of
(someone/something)
At (something)
Of (Something)

Adjective + Preposition Sentence


Im afraid of going out in dark.
Noreen is ashamed of her past mistakes.
He is accustomed to taking tea before breakfast.
She is addicted to Indian movies.
We should be aware of our national duties as
responsible citizens.
I dont know why Ahmad is angry with Amir.
My father is angry at my bad performance.
Children soon got bored with staying indoors.
Im not disappointed with the performance of the
class.
She is eager for her fathers approval.
Salma is excited about participating in camping
campaign.
I am fed up with his boring stories.
Hassan is fond of watching Hollywood movies.
Are you happy with this arrangement?

He is not keen on being instructed for what to do.


We should be proud of our great Quaid whose
restless struggle won us freedom.
Asma was shocked at Ahmads sudden proposal.
Hassan was tired of hearing about Ahmads new
adventures.
With
The captain is pleased with teams good
(something/someone) performance.
Of (something)
Pak Army with its latest weaponry is capable of
destroying the enemy completely.
Of/About
a. My horse may be nervous of cars.
(something/someone) b. The poor of Pakistan are very nervous about the
future.
With
I am satisfied with my achievements in life.
(someone/something)
At (something)
You should not be surprised at his changed routine.
About
Is anyone of the politicians worried about the plight
(someone/something) of the country?
With (someone)
Western world is annoyed with China for her rapid
development and challenging standing in the world
politics.
For
Mothers are naturally anxious for their children.
(someone/something)

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Responsible

For
(someone/something)
Of
(something/humans)
From
(something/someone)
For (something)

Married

To (someone)

Americans think Al-Qaeda is responsible for 9/11


attacks.
Saima is married to my brother.

Good

At (something)

Grandpa is good at chess.

Bad

At (something)

Believe me I am bad at doing tense exercises.

Fit
Full
Different

It is a meal fit for a king.


The academy is full of brilliant, well-educated
tutors.
Is Indian culture different from that of Pakistan?

Latin Adjectives and Preposition to


Adjective
Preposition
Sentence
to
To
When I talked to the BMW sports car owner, I felt myself
Inferior
inferior to him.
To
She always pretends to be superior to others, which she is
Superior
not.
To
Ahmad is junior to Hassan by rank.
Junior
To
Lieutenant General is a military rank senior to all other
Senior
ranks.
T
o
The walls interior to the house were painted.
Interior
To
We filled everything exterior to the museum building.
Exterior
To
Anterior
To
Posterior
Prepositions with Verbs (Verb + Preposition)
Verb
Preposition
Sentence
At (some place/somewhere)
I arrived at the station at six.
Arrive
Into (something)
The bus crashed into a tree.
Crash
On (some
It all depends on weather.
Depend
situation/condition/someone)
Into (some
I divided the cake into three parts.
Divide
parts/sections/categories)
In (some color/type of dress)
Why is she dressed in black?
Dress
After (someone)
He has to look after his mother.
Look
For (something)
Have you paid for the drinks?
Pay
O
f
(
s
o
m
e
t
h
i
n
g
/
s
o
m
e
o
n
e
)
Do remind me of your brothers assignment
Remind
later today.
In (some activity)
I didnt take part in the meeting.
Take part
Into (a language)
Could you translate this into Urdu?
Translate
In (in some condition/manner)
I like walking in the rain.
Walk
In (some manner)
Dont talk in that silly noise.
Talk
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Take
Laugh
Meet
Get
Shout
Smile

To (somewhere)
At (someone)
At/In (somewhere)
To (somewhere)
At (someone)
At (someone)

Write
Go
Go

To (someone)
To (somewhere)
On (some activity/event)

Believe
Consist

In (something/someone)
Of/In (something/someone)

Accede

To (something)

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Why dont you take Ahmad to Academy?
It isnt civility to laugh at senior citizens.
We usually meet at/in the library.
What is the easiest way to get to Lahore?
Stop shouting at me!
When you smile at me like this, I can do
anything for you.
Promise you will write to me at Eid.
I went to Islamabad to see my brother.
Why dont you like to go on picnic with us
today?
We believe in the truth of our ideology.
My personal library consists of a thousand
books.
a. He acceded to demands for his
resignation.
b. King Akbar acceded to throne in 1558.

Verbs that do not take a preposition after them:


Verb
No
Sentence
preposition
X
Dont approach the dog.
Approach
X
If youve a problem, ask your teacher.
Ask
X
America attacked Afghanistan in 2001.
Attack
X
Let us discuss your problems.
Discuss
X
Youre not supposed to enter the room.
Enter
X
The soup lacks salt.
Lack
X
Ahmad married Salma last June.
Marry
X
Mahmud of Ghazna invaded India 17 times.
Invade
X
Ive told him what to do next.
Tell
X
Ahmad trains the college cricket team.
Train
X
She phoned her father this evening.
Phone
X
Let us meet this weekend.
Meet
X
All mothers love their children.
Love
X
Ahmad resembles his elder brother.
Resemble
X
I reached Pakistan just yesterday.
Reach
X
The colonel ordered his subordinate ranks to stop
Order
retaliation and fall back?
X
Government is unable to control major economic
Control
problems.
X
He informed me that he was going to Lahore.
Inform
X
No one should hate his countrymen.
Hate
X
How dare you say this disgusting thing?
Dare
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Important Note: Some of the verbs are also used as nouns with no change of spelling. In
that case, it is impossible to escape the use of a preposition with them. Nouns such as attack,
love, order, control, and lack etc. are necessarily followed by appropriate prepositions. For
corresponding prepositions to these nouns, see the list on prepositions with noun (Noun +
Preposition).
Prepositions used before specific events, issues, devices, and activities:
Preposition
NOUN
Sentence
Holiday/Days of
1. Can I come to see you on next
On
Week/14August/Eid/Christmas/
weekend?
Weekend
2. Ahmad will return from Germany on
this Eid.
Business
Let us talk now on business.
On
Television/Radio/FM/Phone/
Can we talk on phone/internet tonight?
On
Internet
(the) way/purpose/foot
Hassan addressed me angrily on purpose.
On
She doesnt like to go anywhere on foot.
Cash/Credit
I urgently need a big amount of money in
In
cash.
Writing
Before you copy, you need to ask for the
In
permission of author in writing.
Morning/Afternoon/Evening/
Why dont you go for a walk in morning?
In
Daytime/rain
General/Advance/June
Ahmad informed us of his retirement in
In
(Month)/1983(Year)
advance.
the way/the end (also at the end) I would like to quote Quaid-e-Azam in/at
In
the end.
Noon/Night/Breakfast/Lunch/
He cannot come at night to join us.
At
Dinner
Bus/cycle/motorbike/car/coach/
He will return from Saudi Arabia by ship.
By
ferry/lorry/helicopter/plane/rail/
I will have first experience of traveling by
train/sea/ship/taxi/road
air this time.
Did you ever travel to Karachi by road?
Mistake/chance
Alexander Fleming by chance discovered
By
penicillin.
Cheque
I dont prefer payments made by cheque.
By
to-date
Pak Army is equipped with up to-date
Up
weaponry.
of-date
The theory you are explaining seems out
Out
of date.
Some commonly used Preposition with Verbs:
Verb
Preposition
Sentence
With
Current results closely accord with our predictions.
Accord
To
It is difficult to adhere to old norms these days.
Adhere
With
I agree with Ahmad in the issue of studies.
Agree
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Allude

To

Apply/Applied
Believe
Belong
Apologize
Ask/Asked
Care

For
In
To
For
For
For

Approve
Concentrate
Deal
Consist
Decide
Depend
Laugh

Of
On
With
Of
On/Upon
On
At

Listen
Rely

To
On

Suffer
Aim

From
At

Confer

On/upon

Prefer
Comply
Complain

To
With
To/About

Contribute
Conform
Correspond

To
To
To/With

Succeed

In

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Holy Prophet did never allude to anyones mistakes in
public.
Salma has applied for a teaching job at several schools.
Christians believe in the Bible as Gods book.
She belongs to a noble family of the city.
You need not apologize for your misconceptions about me.
I feel hesitant to ask Ahmad for financial assistance.
Nobody cares for traffic laws in Pakistan unless a sergeant
is in the sight.
She approved of my plan to go out for a walk.
We all should concentrate on English to get through B.A.
Police dealt with the robbers with iron hands.
Our college library consists of ten thousand books.
He eventually decided on starting a business.
You should not depend on anyone in the period of crisis.
They laughed at Zaheer when he showed up in shorts at the
college.
Stop noising; let me listen to the teacher.
Relying on ones own shoulders is the best thing to do for
success.
He suffers from asthma.
Salma should aim at scoring at least 60% of the total marks
in graduation.
God Almighty has conferred on/upon the Muslim world all
kinds of blessings.
I prefer mangoes to apples.
Saddam Hussein refused to comply with UN resolutions.
Please dont complain to the manager.
She complained about the low quality of food to the hotel
manager.
Media has contributed to the formation of a global culture.
I cannot conform to the local customs.
The subject matter of the book does not correspond to its
title.
I would like to correspond with you through email.
He succeeded in his final cricket trials.

RULES FOR CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS IN CERTAIN SITUATIONS


at + clock time (I returned home at 5:15 pm.)
in + part of a day (Let us meet again in the afternoon today. Exception: at noon, at night)
on + a particular day (Pakistan came into being on 14 August/August 14, 1947.)
at + public place (Ahmad will wait for us at Quaid-e-Azam Library.)
in + longer period (Two World Wars were fought in 20th century. Didnt we meet in June?)

Exercise
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1. Congratulations ________ your success.


2. The bus crashed ________ a tree.
3. This all depended ________ the weather.
4. Can we discuss ________ your study issues?
5. She divided the cake _________ four parts.
6. Ill see you ________ next Friday.
7. Im not free ________ 1st of January.
8. Tell me ________ what time it starts.
9. Lets meet _______ this weekend.
10. He phoned me _______ the evening.
11. I like walking _______ the rain.
12. The answer is _______ page 102.
13. Can I have details _______ your courses?
14. Who is the man ________ the picture?
15. Why is she dressed _______ red?
16. _______ my opinion, your position is weak.
17. She is looking _______ a rented house.
18. She aims ________ delivering successive lectures this week.
19. There is no recent increase _______ prices.
20. She was not looking ________ him when he addressed her.
21. Have you paid ________ the drink?
22. Have we met ________ last December?
23. He is interested _______ sports and movies.
24. Who will be responsible ________ the security lapse?
25. Please remind me ________ the class time.
26. You should not laugh ________ the beggars.
27. May God confer ________ Muslims all blessings of life.
28. He is good ________ photography.
29. Do you have any alternative ________ these plans?
30. Pakistanis are in no way inferior ________ the Americans.

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STAGE 3

DETERMINERS, QUANTIFIERS AND ARTICLES


Determiners, quantifiers and articles are those little words that precede and modify nouns.
For instance:
the teacher, a college, a bit of honey, that person, those people, whatever purpose, either
way, your choice
Sometimes these words will tell the reader or listener whether we are referring to a
specific or general thing (the main restaurant of city; a horse; my kingdom for a horse, etc.);
sometimes they tell how much or how many (lots of trees, several books, a great deal of
confusion). Let us now have look into their respective functions.

Determiners
Determiners are a limited class of noun modifiers that determine the referents of noun
phrases. Determiners are thus said to mark nouns. That is to say, you know a determiner
will be followed by a noun. Some categories of determiners are limited (there are only three
articles i.e. a, an, & the, a handful of possessive pronouns, etc.), but the possessive nouns
are as limitless as nouns themselves. This limited nature of most determiner categories,
however, explains why determiners are grouped apart from adjectives even though both
serve the function of modifying noun. We can imagine that the language will never tire of
inventing new adjectives. However, the determiners (except for the possessive nouns), on
the other hand, are well established, and this class of words is not going to grow in number.
The categories of determiners are as follows: (i) the articles (an, a, & the);25 (ii) the
possessive nouns/apostrophes (Asims, the priests, my mothers, etc.);26 (iii) the possessive
pronouns (his, your, their, whose, etc.); (iv) the numbers (one, two, three, etc.); (v) the
indefinite pronouns (few, more, each, every, either, all, both, some, any, etc.); and (vi) the
demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, those, such). It is interesting that a number of
these determiners have already been discussed under different headings of Parts of Speech.
However, we regard them determiners as collectively to avoid confusion in their extremely
mixed-up use.

Quantifiers
Like articles, quantifiers are words that precede and modify nouns. They answer the
question regarding how many or how much. Selecting the correct quantifier depends on
ones understanding of the distinction between Countable and Uncountable Nouns. For our
purpose of understanding quantifiers function with count and non-count nouns in the
current instance, we will choose the count noun trees and the non-count noun dancing:
25

However, due to their higher grammatical significance, articles will be discussed as a separate
subject in the following pages.
26

The structure and function of the apostrophe will be elaborated under Punctuation.

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The following quantifiers will work with countable nouns:


many trees
(a great number of trees)
a few trees
(a small number of trees)
few trees
(less than the required number of trees)
several trees
(more than three mutually distinct trees)
a couple of trees (two of many trees)
none of the trees (not any tree from at least three trees)
The following quantifiers will work with uncountable nouns:
not much dancing
a little dancing
little dancing
a bit of dancing
a good deal of dancing
a great deal of dancing
no dancing
The following quantifiers work with both countable and uncountable nouns:
Quantifier
all of the
some
most of the
enough
a lot of
lots of
plenty of
a lack of

Countable Noun
trees
trees
trees
trees
trees
trees
trees
trees

Uncountable Noun
dancing
dancing
dancing
dancing
dancing
dancing
dancing
dancing

In formal academic writings, it is usually preferable to use many and much rather
than phrases such as a lot of, lots of and plenty of.
Quantifiers Little versus A Little and Few versus A Few
There is an important difference between a little and little (used with uncountable
words) and between a few and few (used with countable words). If I say that Salma
has a little experience in management that means that although Salma is no great expert,
she does have some experience and that experience might well be enough for our purposes.
If I say that Salma has little experience in management that means that she does not have
enough experience. If I say that Zaheer owns a few books on Punjabi literature that means
that he has some booksnot a lot of books, but probably enough for our purposes. If I say
that Zaheer owns few books on Punjabi literature, that means he does not have enough
number of books for our purposes and we would better go to a library.

Articles
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The word article has been derived from Latin word articulus meaning a joint. Thus, an
article is a joint in a sentence that not only balances the sentence structure but also forms
connection on several instances like a conjunction. Interestingly, we do not have articles in
Urdu and Punjabi. Therefore, our students have hard time understanding the very presence
as well as the function of the articles. On the contrary, almost all European languages, with
a few exceptions, have articles, and this makes easier for European students to understand
English articles. English has three articles, i.e. a, an, & the. These articles may be
considered a kind of adjectives in their characteristic function. The is called the definite
article, for it usually precedes a specific or previously mentioned noun; a and an are
called indefinite articles, for they are used to refer to something in a less specific manner
(an unspecified countable noun). This is to suggest that the indefinite articles leave the
person, thing or place spoken of indefinite. They are, grammatically, the forms of the same
word, which implies one. These words are also listed among the noun markers or
determiners because they are almost invariably followed by a noun or something else acting
as a noun.
Here is a caution for those teaching and learning English. Even after you learn all
the principles behind the use of English articles, you will find an abundance of situations
where choosing the correct article or choosing whether to use one article or not will prove
chancy. For instance; Icy highways are dangerous and The icy highways are
dangerous are such sentences that are correct both ways i.e. with and without article the.
Moreover, the does not mean all, but something particular. We generally say, for
example; cars are fast. It is a generalization and we mean by dropping definite article
before the subject that all cars are fast. However, when we say; the cars are fast, we want to
say by adding the definite article that some particular cars are fast.
The Use of Definite Article
Definite article the will always precede the names of natural objects, heavenly bodies,
rivers, newspapers, historical places, famous wars, TV channels, titles etc. See below, for
instance, for the correct use of the
1. We normally use the for State, Kingdom, Republic etc.
i. States: the United States of America/the USA
ii. Kingdom: the United Kingdom/the UK
iii. Republic: the French Republic
2. We normally use the for the names of canals, rivers, seas and oceans.
the Suez Canal (Canal)
the River Nile or the Nile (River), the Indus River or the Indus
the Mediterranean Sea or the Mediterranean (Sea)
the Pacific Ocean or the Pacific
3. We normally use the for plural names of people and places.
the Clintons, the Gondals, the Maliks (families)
the Philippines (country)
the Virgins Islands, the British Isles (island groups)
the Himalayas, the Alps (mountain ranges)
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For examples, look at the examples below:


I saw the Gondals today, because it was Mohsins birthday today.
Trinidad is the largest island in the West Indies.
Mount Everest is in the Himalayas.
4. And we also use the with the following sorts of names:
i. Hotels, Restaurants: the Seven Ways Hotel, the Husaniyyah Restaurant
ii. Banks: the National Bank of Pakistan, the State Bank, the Habib Bank, the Bank
Alfalah
iii. Theaters, Cinemas: the Rose Cinema, the Lahore Theater
iv. Museums: the Lahore Museum, the National Museum of Pakistan, the British
Museum
v. Buildings: the Haadi Building, the White House, the Presidency
vi. Newspapers: the Dawn, the Express, the Khabrain, the New York Times, the
Pakistan Times
vii. TV Channels: the Geo, the CNN, the Express News, the HBO
viii. Organizations: the ATI, the United Nations, the BBC, the European Union, the OIC,
the Quran Society
ix. Historical Places: the Lahore Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Big Ben, the Dome of
the Rock, the Taj Palace, the Pyramids
x. Historical Events: the Crusades, the Independence War, the World War I, the French
Revolution
xi. Heavenly Bodies: the Jupiter, the Sun, the Moon, the Alpha Centauri, the Milky Way
xii. Titles: the King of the Kings, the Viceroy, the Lion-heart, the Templer, the Secretary
of State
5. We normally use the for the compound names made with of:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

the Tower of London


the Tower of Pakistan
the Gulf of Bengal
the London School of Economics
the Bank of France
the Voice of America
the State Bank of Pakistan
the Statue of Liberty
the Tomb of Quaid-e-Azam

Moreover, the case of the definite article can be understood from the following:
Definite article is used with superlative degrees of adjectives;
Definite article is used as an adverb with comparative degrees of adjectives;
Definite article is employed to express the force of a superlative;
Definite article is used before an adjective when the noun is a case already understood;
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Definite article is used before a common noun to assign it the meaning of an abstract noun;
The mother (feeling of maternal love) in her woke up when she watched a movie about
a mother and her lost child.
The scholar (the spirit of being scholarly) in him was discovered only a few days ago.
Definite article is used when a singular noun stands for a whole class;
Zero Articles
There is a situation in English that we call zero articles. This situation implies that some
different kinds of noun never use articles. This is to say that we do not use articles with the
names of languages (He was learning Chinese.); but English does use definite article
the when the proper noun Chinese takes the suffix languagethus as the Chinese
language. Similarly, when the word Chinese refers to the people of China, the definite
article might come into practice (The Chinese are hoping to get the next Olympics.); the
names of sports (She plays badminton. He is good at basketball.), and academic subjects
(She is taking economics and math. Her major is Religious Studies.) are also zero
article words.
The Use of Indefinite Articles
Before we get into the function of indefinite article (a/an), it is important to understand the
position of the two forms we have in this category. It must be kept in view that a and an two
choices to the same end, and, therefore, their use only varies phonetically, and not
grammatically. When a word begins with a vowel sound, it is preceded by an; and when a
word begins with a consonant sound, a precedes it.
The words that indefinite article precedes can be of two types viz. (a) nouns, and
(b) adjectives. Here below is a list of a and an with nouns.
Indefinite Article a

Indefinite Article an

a man

an array

a girl

an inkpot

a cup

an elephant

a university

an individual

a book

an engineer

a company of soldiers

an orange

The indefinite article precedes adjectives following the same rule as it does with noun.
However, there is a simple difference that we need to keep in view all the time: that is, a
noun always independently occurs after indefinite article; however, an adjective does not
independently occur after indefinite article. This is to say that an adjective is always, like all
other cases, dependent on a noun when it succeeds indefinite article and precedes a noun in
its attributive function.27 For instance, we can say an innocent girl, because in this phrase
27

For attributive function, see Adjective in Parts of Speech section.

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innocent (adjective) is dependent on girl (noun) and modifies it to convey the sense of that
girls particular attribute; however, we cannot say an innocent, because while omitting girl
(noun), innocent (adjective) although succeeds indefinite article, it does not modify a noun
as is required according to the rule.
Here below is a list of a and an preceding adjectives.
Indefinite Article a

Indefinite Article an

a great man

an honest man

a beautiful girl

an innocent little girl

a small cup

an interesting plan

a famous university

an imaginary animal

a nice book

an animated film

a brave soldier

an old building

Indefinite article can be used to speak of any one member of a group or class. For instance:
A cow has two horns. (i.e. all cows or any one of the cows)
An MNA should serve the people.
Indefinite article generally occurs after a linking verb when the succeeding noun is a
singular case. In this structure, indefinite article classifies things or people into different
types or categories to tell their being coming of a certain type, class or category. For
instance:
My car is a 2004-Model Mercedes.
Ahmad is an engineer.
Would that I were a doctor.
He is not ashamed to be a criminal for the whole of his life.
Indefinite article succeeds primary verb to have when it is used to express possession.
For instance:
My family has a large house near the river Jehlum.
Do you have a laptop?
Ahmad has an interesting storybook.
However, we cannot use indefinite article with possessive determiners, which are
generally accepted as (so-called) possessive adjectivesalso called associate adjectives. For
instance, we cannot say; Ahmad is a my friend or that is a her book; instead, the correct way
to express possession with the use of indefinite article is; Ahmad is a friend of mine and that
is a book of hers. It must be noted that here we have employed possessive pronouns (mine,
yours, hers, theirs) instead of possessive determiners (my, your, her, their).
Unlike definite article the, we cannot use indefinite article with the superlative degree of
adjective. It is, for instance, incorrect to say; he is a best student in the class; instead, we
will say; he is the best student in the class.
Ahmad is an ablest person of my company. (Incorrect)
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Ahmad is the ablest person of my company. (Correct)


A most informative book I have ever read is What Quran Says. (Incorrect)
The most informative book I have ever read is What Quran Says. (Correct)

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PUNCTUATION

STAGE 4:

To punctuate means to interrupt something at intervals or to divide writing into


sentences and phrases by using special marks. Punctuation is, in fact, the process of doing
all that. The word punctuation is from Latin punctuare, to mark with points, which
further goes back to derive its root from Old Latin pnctus, a prick or point. Phonetically,
the variation in intonation and pauses of different lengths are transcribed using various types
of symbols. To these symbols we call punctuation marks in the language of grammar. The
primary function of these marks is to make sense in written language and record the
intonation according to its rise and fall and pauses of short and long lengths.
Punctuation is, like in any other modern language, an important chapter in English
grammar. Different languages have different tendencies as far as punctuation is concerned,
and the significance of punctuation also varies due to a languages being morphological or
syntactical. English is one of those languages that can in no way avoid the use of
punctuation marks. The two most recurrent punctuation marks are period/full stop (.) and
comma (,). In case we only stop using these two, let alone others, English language would
be no more meaningful in its script.
Before we get into the definitions and functions of various punctuation marks, let us have a
glance at the chart of the symbols.
Period/Full Stop
Comma
Exclamation Mark
Question Mark
Colon
Semicolon
Hyphen

(.)
(,)
(!)
( ?)
(:)
(;)
(-)

Dash/Long Hyphen
Parentheses
Brackets
Ellipsis
Quotation Marks
Slash or Virgule
Apostrophe

()
()
( [] )
()
( )
(/)
( s or )

After having seen the symbols of punctuation, now we will discuss them in brief according
to the important and most frequent places of their use. This brief discussion will certainly
help Pakistani students to improve their writing of English. It should be especially noted
that, unlike Urdu or other eastern languages, English almost 100% depends on punctuation.
A good use of punctuation marks not only leaves a healthy impression on the reader, but
also makes a piece of writing easy to understand. Let us now have a look into the use of the
punctuation marks.
PERIOD/FULL STOP
We use a period/full stop ( . ) at the end of a sentence that makes a statement. A full stop
shows the end of a statement including all of its points. There is no space between the last
letter and the full stop. However, we add one space between the full stop and the first letter
of the next sentence.
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a. We have to be in the classroom before it is 9 am.


We use full stops with abbreviations. D.P.O., M.M.A., P.P.P., I.S.I., F.B.I. etc. Generally
there is no space between the abbreviations and the full stops. Nevertheless, acronyms
(usually made up of the first letter from a series of words, which we pronounce as words,
not as a series of letters) do not require full stops. For example: GEPCO, NATO, NADRA,
WAPDA (also written as Gepco, Nato, Nadra, Wapda) etc.
COMMA ( , )
Comma is generally used to set off two verb phrases or clauses of a sentence. It is also
employed between an adverbial conjunction and the remaining sentence to draw balance.
However, when two verb phrases describing the action of the same subject are separated
with the conjunction and, we do not use a comma. For example:
I. Ali works hard and gets a star everyday.
II. I can drive car and bus with an equal expertise.
Nevertheless, we place a comma when there are two subjects and two actions in the
sentence despite the presence of conjunction and.
a. Asif goes to school, and his younger brother stays at home.
We use comma to set off reporting verb from a reported speech when dealing with direct
narration of something or somebody:
a. Ali said to me, Youre my friend.
Similarly, a quoted statement (i.e. a quotation) is generally separated from the rest of the
sentence with a comma:
a. We all know the famous Hadith, The best among the people is one who is most
beneficent to mankind, and its why we try to benefit our Muslim brothers.
EXCLAMATION MARK ( ! )
We use an exclamation mark/point ( ! ) at the end of an emphatic declaration, emotional
situation, interjection, or command.
a. No! he yelled. Do it now!
b. Ah! It was a bad day.
An exclamation mark may be used to close questions that are meant to convey extreme
emotion, as below:
a. What on earth are you doing! Stop it!
An exclamation mark works like a full stop. It ends a sentence when inserted instead of a
full stop. There is no space between the preceding word and the exclamation mark.
However, we add one space between the exclamation mark and the succeeding word.
In academic prose, an exclamation point is used rarely, if at all, and in newspaper
writing the exclamation point is virtually nonexistent. However, in novels, dramas and
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storybooks, which include dialogues and situations, exclamation marks are frequently used
to render situation as more real.
QUESTION MARK ( ? )
We employ a question mark ( ? ) at the end of a direct question. However, indirect questions
do not require question marks.
I. What do you about the criminal? (Direct question)
II. Judge asked him why he was lying in the court. (Indirect question)
It is considered bad form to use a question mark in combination with other marks,
although that is often done in informal prose in an attempt to convey complex tones: He
told you what!? This combination (or similar combination) of punctuation marks is
sometimes called an interrobang, but the interrobang currently has no role in academic
writing.
A tag question is a device used to turn a statement into a question. It nearly always
consists of a pronoun, a helping verb, and sometimes the word not. Although it begins as a
statement, the tag question prevails when it comes to the end-mark; so use a question mark.
We normally use contracted forms of auxiliaries in tag questions.
I. He should stop smoking, shouldnt he?
II. Theyre not playing very well, are they?
Sometimes, we use question marks at the end of apparently affirmative sentences.
Why? In fact, such affirmative sentences that take question marks are only apparently
affirmative but inwardly a direct question. It is an easy job for a native speaker of English to
understand such sentences. It may sound strange to Pakistani students that most questions
are asked by the native English speaker in affirmative overtone. Nevertheless, it generally
occurs in direct speech between the 1st person (speaker) and the 2nd person (immediate
listener). See below for instance:
a.
b.
c.

Hes coming home this evening? (Actually Is he coming home this evening?)
That restaurant is yours? (Is that restaurant yours?)
Hey, youre still sleeping? (Are you still sleeping?)

QUOTATION MARKS ( )
We use quotation marks ( ) to set off material that represents quoted or spoken language.
Quotation marks also set off the titles of things that do not normally stand by themselves:
short stories, poems, and articles, for instance.
I. My favorite epic-poem is Waris Shahs Heer.
II. I have twice read Shakespeares Hamlet.
In direct narration, we always use full quotation marks (i.e. double quotes) to
specify the reported speech. Similarly, to introduce a quotation in a sentence, we quote the
immediate words of the quoted person inside full quotation marks.
I. I dont care, said he, what do you think about it? (Direct narration)
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II. Aristotle was sure of his scholarship despite publicly saying, I know nothing.
(Quotation)
However, we sometimes emphasize or specify a word, phrase or clause using only
single quotes. For example:
a. The final Word of God is Glorious Quran.
SEMI COLON (;)
The semi colon (;) is used to distinguish coordinate clauses which are joined by such
coordinating conjunctions that express position, or introduce an inference; as, therefore,
otherwise, however, so, then, thereafter, yet etc.
a. Eat more fruit; otherwise, you will become skinny.
b. He lives in my neighborhood; therefore, we see each other off and on.
It is also used to separate parallel clauses, which the writer desires to emphasize by
providing a longer pause between them. Moreover, such complete sentences that are
interdependent are generally connected with semi colons to express their integrity and
shorten their independent position. Sometimes we want to describe many independent
things in one expression i.e. in one sentence; thus we employ semi colon. This situation may
be reversed and put in another way: it is used to distinguish or separate loosely related
clauses.
a. Coconut tree gives us fruit; it gives us drink; it gives us oil; it gives us ropes; it gives us
rafters; it gives us materials for roofing; it gives us firewood; in short, it supplies us nearly
all necessary things.28
b. The food for thought is meditation; the food for soul is spiritual practices; the food for
philosophical tendencies is speculation, and there is food for everything.
Similarly, sometimes we quote or categorize things. For this particular purpose, we use
semi colon before quoting any statements or naming the things we categorize.
a. Thus says the Lord in His Holy Book; Do not make mischief in earth.
b. We have a few things to discuss presently; (a) teaching methods (b) debating techniques
(c) arguments and counter arguments.
APOSTROPHE (s or )
Apostrophe marks the possessive case of a nounexpressed as opposed to the possessive
case of pronoun. Apostrophe situation uses an upper comma followed by an s without any
space normally used between words. For instance; Saminas cell phone, Hassans book,
upper rooms key etc.
The example has been taken from New College Composition by Dave, Verma & Aggarwala. The
simple reason to import an example from another book is that the currently quoted example is so
comprehensive and all-embracing that a better sentence with so many semi colons simply becomes
impossible in the current context.
28

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In British English, the use of apostrophe after any words ending on s or ce drops
the s and maintains only the upper comma (e.g. the thesis description is not clear; Pace
all floors are wide and airy). However, American English does not follow this rule and
retains the full use of apostrophe.
When contracting auxiliaries, we use the apostrophe (i.e. the upper comma) to form
short helping verb cases. For instance, Ill, youre, shes, hasnt, wont, isnt, wouldnt etc.
Similarly, the upper comma is also used to form plurals of the numeric figures and
letters. For instance, minus three 2s and two 5s; our PCs are not working properly; all of
the Qs were easy to answer. Modern English, however, does use another easier way of
expressing plurality of numbers and letters. In this modern usage, upper comma is not used
anywhere and lowercase s is straightaway inserted in the end of numbers and letters. For
instance; three 2s and two 5s, PCs, PhDs, Qs etc.

THE BRACKETS
The brackets ([]) are used in the following situations:
We can use them to adduce explanatory words or phrases within quoted language.

THE SLASH OR VIRGULE


A slash or slant or solidus or virgule [ / ] is used to indicate a choice between the words it
separates.
a. Using the pass/fail option backfired on her; she could've gotten an A.
The slash can be translated as or and should not be used where the word or
could not be used in its place. To avoid gender problems with pronouns, some writers use
he/she, his/her, and him/her. Many authorities despise that construction and urge writers
either to pluralize when possible and appropriate (to they, their, them) or to use he or she,
etc. instead. Notice there is no space between the slash and the letters on either side of it.
There is, however, a space when the slash is used to indicate a line-break in quoted
poetry: "The woods are lovely, dark, and deep / but I have promises to keep." (This way of
quoting poetry is limited to four or five lines of verse, within the normal flow of text.)
When using slashes in a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) for a World Wide Web
address (http://www.pu.edu.pk/archaeology/), be especially sure not to include spaces and
not to confuse the slash with its backward cousin, \, used as a path separator in Windows
(for example, c:\program files\Adobe).
THE DASH
The dash is a handy device, informal and essentially playful, telling you that you're about to
take off on a different track but still in some way connected with the present course only
you have to remember that the dash is there, and either put a second dash at the end of the
notion to let the reader know that he is back on course, or else end the sentence, as here,
with a period.
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Use a dash [ ] or dashes as a super-comma or set of super-commas to set off parenthetical


elements, especially when those elements contain internal forms of punctuation:
a. All four of themSaima, Samina, Salma, and Sadiaare doing well at the school.
Do not use dashes to set apart material when commas would do the same job in a better
way. Usually, there are no spaces between the dash and the letters on either side of a dash.
In writing dialogue, the dash is used to show breaks in thought and shifts in tone:
I. "How many times have I asked you not to" Jason suddenly stopped talking and
looked out the window.
II. "Not to do what?" I prompted.
III. "Not to Oh heck, I forget!"
A dash is sometimes used to set off concluding lists and explanations in a more informal
and abrupt manner than the colon. We seldom see the dash used this way in formal,
academic prose.
Modern word processors provide for two kinds of dashes: the regular dash or em dash
(which is the same width as the letter "M," ) and the en dash (which is about half the
width, the same as the letter "N," ). We use the em dash for most purposes and keep its
smaller brother, the en dash, for marking the space between dates in a chronological range:
"Kennedy's presidency (19611963) marked an extraordinary era. . . ."; in time: 6:308:45
p.m.; and between numbers and letters in an indexing scheme: table 13C, CT Statute 144
A.
The en dash is also used to join compound modifiers made up of elements that are
themselves either open compounds (frequently two-word proper nouns) or already
hyphenated compounds: the Puerto RicanUnited States collaboration, the New YorkNew
Jersey border, post-Darwinianpre-Freudian theorems. The Gregg Reference Manual and
the Chicago Manual of Style both recommend using the en dash whenever a compound
modifier is combined with a participle as in "a Frank Lloyd Wrightdesigned building," "a
White Housebacked proposal," and "a foreign exchangedrelated issue." A string of
modifiers in a single compound, though, is joined with hyphens: hilarious, never-to-beforgotten moments. If you are using an old-fashioned typewriter that cannot create an en
dash, you can denote to your typesetter or editor that a hyphen is to be converted to an en
dash by using a hyphen and hand-writing the letter "n" above it.
Some reference manuals are urging editors and publishers to get rid of the en dash
altogether and to use the em dash exclusively, but en and em are still handy words to know
when you're trying to get rid of those extra e's at the end of a Scrabble game. Finally, we use
what is called a 3-em dash (or six typewriter hyphens) when we're showing that someone's
name or a word has been omitted (perhaps for legal reasons or issues of taste):
Professors ______ and ______ were suspended without pay for their refusal to grade papers.

THE HYPHEN

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A hyphen is used to join the parts of a compound word. A hyphen "icon" embedded in some
text - indicates either that a hyphen is called for at that point, or (if you have a hyphen
there already) that the hyphen is not appropriate. We hope that this page will explain why.
The rules for hyphenating at line endings are so complicated that no one can be expected to
keep track of them. If you're ever in a situation where you have to hyphenate at line-breaks,
go to a dictionaryunless you can explain why you would break experience between the e
and the r, that is, and then you can do whatever you want. Remember that if you adjust one
line-break, that may well affect subsequent line-breaks in the text.29
Hyphens have other uses
a) creating compound words, particularly modifiers before nouns (the well-known actor,
my six-year-old daughter, the out-of-date curriculum
b) writing numbers twenty-one to ninety-nine and fractions (five-eighths, one-fourth)
c) creating compounds on-the-fly for fly-by-night organizations
d) adding certain prefixes to words: When a prefix comes before a capitalized word or the
prefix is capitalized, use a hyphen (non-English, A-frame, I-formation). The prefixes
self-, all-, and ex- nearly always require a hyphen (ex-husband, all-inclusive, selfcontrol), and when the prefix ends with the same letter that begins the word, you will
often use a hyphen (anti-intellectual, de-emphasize), but not always (unnatural,
coordinate, cooperate).30
There is no space between a hyphen and the character on either side of it.
Suspended Compounds
With a series of nearly identical compounds, we sometimes delay the final term of the final
term until the last instance, allowing the hyphen to act as a kind of place holder, as in:
a)
b)
c)

The third- and fourth-grade teachers met with the parents.


Both full- and part-time employees will get raises this year.
We don't see many 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children around here.

CAPITALIZATION
CAPITAL LETTERS
Capitalization is an act of writing a word with a capital letter. English has a very general rule
for capitalization that every sentence begins with a capital letter. There is no exception in this
rule, and it is this area of English grammar where it appears no less than a science.

I. A penny saved is a penny earned.


II. People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones.
29

Probably the best reference text for these decisions (next to looking up everything in a dictionary,
i.e.) is The Chicago Manual of Style.
30

For further information about compound nouns and compound modifiers, see Compound Words.

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Moreover, a proper noun always begins with a capital letter.


A proper noun names a specific person, place, or thing. Proper nouns include names of the
people, titles, eves, festivals, languages and nationalities, and the names of days and months
(but not of seasons). For example:
Common Nouns
woman
king
my uncle
country president
a new detergent
my religious studies class
studying a language
month
holiday

Proper Nouns
Saima
Julius Caesar
Uncle Qamar
President Musharraf
Ariel
What Quran Says (book)
German
June
Eid/Thanksgiving

The personal pronoun I is always spelled as a capital letter.


a. When I think of traveling, I always plan to go to Lahore.
A capital letter begins the first, last, and any important word (except prepositions,
conjunctions and articles) in the title of a book, magazine article, story, poem, movie, or other
work.
a. Have you read President Musharraf's book, In the Line of Fire?
When quoting someones original words, such as sayings, poetic verses or even statements of
ordinary humans, we almost always capitalize the initial letter of the first word falling inside
the quotation marks.
a. Shakespeare says in Hamlet, Frailty, thy name is woman.
b. Ahmad had an offer for me as he yesterday proposed, This is a very good salary;
so will you join us in our new enterprise?
c. It is Milton saying, Awake arise or be for ever fallen.

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STAGE 5

LINGUISTIC ASSISTANCE
Diminutives
Diminutives are formed from certain nouns to express smallness, intimacy or contempt.
Here is a list of commonly used diminutives.
Word
Ankle
Arm
Baron
Book
Brook
Bull
Cat
Crown
Dame
Dear
Duck
Eagle
Eye
Hill
Cigar
Isl e
Rose
Table
Nose
Throat
Goose
Weak
Bird
Puss

Diminutive
Form
Anklet
Armlet
Baronet
Booklet
Brooklet
Bullock
Kitten
Coronet
Damsel
Darling
Duckling
Eaglet
Eyelet
Hillock
Cigarette
Islet
Rosette
Tablet
Nozzle
Throttle
Gooseling
Weakling
Birdie
Pussy

Word
Lamb
Lance
Leaf
Man
Nest
Owl
Part
Poet
Ring
River
Shade
Stream
Tower
Cock
Circle
Pouch
Song
Mouth
Sack
Thumb
Nurse
Grain
Lass
Top

Diminutive
Form
Lambkin
Lancet
Leaflet
Manikin
Nesting
Owlet
Particle
Poetaster
Ringlet
Rivulet
Shadow
Streamlet
Turret
Chicken
Circlet
Pocket
Sonnet
Muzzle
Satchel
Thimble
Nurseling
Granule
Lassee
Tip

Plurals
Adding s to the end of a singular noun generally forms plurals in English (e.g. boy,
boys; girl, girls; book, books; cell, cells; letter, letters; cap, caps; person, persons; shirt,
shirts; tree, trees and so on). However, some nouns have different endings than these
regular plurals. All such singular nouns, apart from those Anglicized from other languages,
are changed in plural forms in accordance with their respective endings. Let us have a
categorical look on all such nouns below.
Nouns ending in -s,-ch, -sh, -o, and -x receive -es in their plural forms.
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Singular
Branch
Brush
Buffalo
Cargo
Class
Volcano

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Plural
Branches
Brushes
Buffaloes
Cargoes
Classes
Volcanoes
also
Volcanos

Singular
Box
Dish
Echo
Hero
Kiss
Watch

Plural
Boxes
Dishes
Echoes
Heroes
Kisses
Watches

Singular
Match
Mango
Negro
Potato
Tax
Witch

Plural
Matches
Mangoes
Negroes
Potatoes
Taxes
Witches

However some singular nouns ending in -o form regular plurals and receive only -s
rather than -es in plural cases.
Singular
Canto
Kilo
Piano
Ratio
Homo

Plural
Cantos
Kilos
Pianos
Ratios
Homos

Singular
Commando
Memento
Quarto
Solo
Pro

Plural
Commandos
Mementos
Quartos
Solos
Pros

Singular
Dynamo
Photo
Logo
Stereo

Plural
Dynamos
Photos
Logos
Stereos

Nouns that end in y and if this y succeeds a consonant, plurals are formed in this
situation by replacing y with ies. For instance:
Singular
Army
Baby

Plural
Armies
Babies

Singular
City
Lady

Plural
Cities
Ladies

Singular
Hobby
Story

Plural
Hobbies
Stories

Anglicized Greek Singulars-Plurals


Singular
Axis
Analysis
Parenthesis
Automaton
Stoma

Plural
Axes
Analyses
Parentheses
Automata
Stomata
Stomas
Paralyses
Criteria
Theses

Paralysis
Criterion
Thesis
Dogma

Dogmata
Dogmas

Singular
Basis
Crisis
Phenomenon
Polyhedron
Schema
Diagnosis
Hypothesis
Stigma
--

Plural
Bases
Crises
Phenomena
Polyhedra
Schemata
Schemas
Diagnoses
Hypotheses
Stigmata
Stigmas
--

Anglicized Latin Singulars-Plurals


Singular
Alumna

Plural
Alumnae

Alumnus

Alumni

Singular
Erratum

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Errata

Singular
Formula

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Formulae
Formulas

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Index

Indices

Matrix

Memorandum

Memoranda

Radius

Matrices
Matrixes
Radii

Vertex

Ve r t i c e s

Terminus

Agenda
Agendas

Addendum

Addenda

Datum
Also Data

Termini
Terminuses
Da t a
Da t a

Agendum
Also Agenda
Forum

F o ra
Forums

Medium

Media
Mediums
Medias

Millennium

Millennia

Viscera
Ca c t i
Cactuses
Genera
Appendices

Corpus
Octopus

C o r po r a
Octopi
Octopuses
Corrigenda
Spectra

Also Media
Syllabus
Fungus

Syllabi
Fungi

Viscous
Cactus

Focus
Alga
Also Algae

F o ci
Algae

Genus
Appendix

Corrigendum
Spectrum

Anglicized Hebrew Singulars-Plurals


Singular
Cherub

Plural
Cherubim
Cherubs

Singular
El

Plural
Elohim

Singular
Seraph

Plural
Seraphim
Seraphs

Anglicized French Singulars-Plurals


Singular
Madame
Madam
Bureau
Chateau

Plural
Mesdames

Singular
Monsieur

Plural
Messieurs

Singular
Dame

Plural
Damsel

Bureaux
Bureaus
Chateaux
Chateaus

Beau

Beaux
Beaus
--

Tableau
--

Tableaux
Tableaus
--

Singular
Signora

Plural
Signore

--

Anglicized Italian Singulars-Plurals


Singular
Bandit

Plural
Banditti
Bandits

Singular
Signor
Also
Signore

Plural
Signori

Compound Plurals
Singular
Commander in Chief (Commander-inChief)
Coat-of-Mail
Son-in-Law
Daughter-in-Law
Stepson
Stepdaughter

Bilcans Grammar Word

Plurals
Commanders in Chief (Commanders-inChief)
Coats-of-Mail
Sons-in-Law
Daughters-in-Law
Stepsons
Stepdaughters

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Stepbrother
Stepsister
Passer-by (also Passerby)
Maidservant
Manservant
Onlooker
Looker-on
Man-of-War
Man-of-Courage
Friendly-fire
Governor-General
Court Martial
Attorney-General
Woman-doctor
Man-child
Prime Minister
Major General
Lieutenant General
Head of State

Stepbrothers
Stepsisters
Passers-by (Passersby)
Maidservants
Menservants
Onlookers
Lookers-on
Men-of-War
Men-of-Courage
Friendly-fires
Governors-General
Courts Martial
Attorneys-General
Women-doctors
Men-children
Prime Ministers
Major Generals
Lieutenant Generals
Heads of States/Heads of State

Irregular Plurals
Singular
Brother
C ow
Medium

Person

Plural
Brothers
Brethren
Kine
Cows
Media
Also
Mediums

Singular
Child

Plural
Children

Singular
Cloth

Die

Dies
Dice
Oxen

Egg

Persons
People

Sister

Sisters
Sistren

Hose

Ox

Penny

Plural
Clothes
Cloths
E gg ys
E gg s
Pennies
Pence
Hosen
Hoses

Ablaut or Mutated Plurals (Such plurals as are formed by the simple change of inner
vowel(s) and vowel sound.)
Singular
Goose
Man

Plural
Geese
Men

Singular
Foot
Mouse

Woman

Women

--

Plural
Feet
Mice
(But:
Computer
Mouses)
--

Singular
Louse
Tooth

--

Plural
Lice
Teeth

--

Collective English Nouns Used As Plural


Bilcans Grammar Word

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Alms, Annals, Assets, Bellows, Breeches, Cattle, Chattels, Drawers, Eaves, Environs,
Gentry, Glasses, Jeans, Obsequies, Nuptials, Pants, People, Pincers, Poultry, Pajamas,
Riches, Scissors, Shorts, Spectacles, Thanks, Tidings, Tights, Tongs, Trousers, Underwears,
Vermin

Nouns Used Alike in Singular & Plural Cases


Aircraft, Bison, Cannon (also cannons), Cod, Deer, Dozen, Fishes, Gross, Hundred, Moose,
News, Pair, Pike, Salmon, Score, Series, Sheep, Spacecraft, Species, Swine, Thousand,
Trout
Nation-Nationalities
Singular National
Englishman
Englishwoman

Plurals Nationals

Nation/Nationality

The Englishmen
The Englishwomen

The English (England)

Dutchman
Dutchwoman

The Dutchmen
The Dutchwomen

The Dutch (Holland)

Frenchman
Frenchwoman

The Frenchmen
The Frenchwomen

The French (France)

Irishman
Irishwoman

The Irishmen
The Irishwomen

The Irish (Ireland)

Scotsman
Scotswoman

The Scotsmen
The Scotsmen

The Scots (Scotland)

Welshman
Welshwoman

Welshmen
Welshwomen

The Welsh (Wales)

Dane

Danes

The Danes (Denmark)


The Danish

Norwegian

Norwegians

The Norwegians (Norway)

Spaniard

Spaniards

The Spaniards (Spain)


The Spanish

Fin

Fins

The Fins (Finland)


The Finnish

Swede

Swedes

The Swedes (Sweden)


The Swedish

Indian

Indians

The Indians (India)

Chinese

Chinese

The Chinese (China)

Japanese

Japanese

The Japanese (Japan)

Pakistani

Pakistanis

The Pakistanis (Pakistan)

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Synonyms
Word
(Verb)

Synonym(s)

Word
(Noun &
Adjective)

Synonym(s)

Abstain

Refrain,

Abject

Worthless, mean

Abandon

Desert, Leave,
Forsake, Quit

Abomination

Disgust, abhorrence

Abjure

Forswear,
recant

Abortive

Vain, useless, futile

Abolish

Nullify, annul,
annihilate

Absurd

Stupid, foolish

Absolve

Pardon, forgive,
exempt

Battle

War, Encounter

Admire

Praise,
Appreciate

Character

Conduct

Abide

Bide, endure

Corpse

Carcass, dead body

Allow

Permit, Assent

Custom

Habit

Alter

Change,
Transform

Crime

Vice, sin

Answer

Reply, Respond

House

Home

Appear

Seem,

P ar t

Portion, Share

Assist

Aid, Help

Price

Cost, value

Avenge

Revenge

Roof

Ceiling

Banish

Exile, Expel,
Dismiss

Ancient

Olden, Old, Historical

Bring

Fetch

Addicted

Devoted

Defend

Protect

Beautiful

Handsome, Pretty,
Lovely

De n y

Refuse

Big

Large, Great

Discover

Find, invent,
detect, disclose

De a d

Deceased, Lifeless

Deceive

Cheat

Obstinate

Stubborn

He a r

Listen

Ve r b a l

Or a l

Look

See

Envious

Jealous

Regret

Sorry

Afraid

Timid, scared

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Witness

See

Agony

Pain, affliction,
torment, anguish

Alleviate

Mitigate, lessen,
relieve, soften

Aim

Goal, object, intention,


determination

Animals, Their Children and Their Sounds


Animal

Baby Animal

Sound

Bear

Cub

Growl

Boar, Pig, Swine,

Porkling

Grunt

Cat

Kitten

Mew, Purr

Cow, Ox

Calf

Low, Bellow

Buffalo

Calf

Low, Bellow

Deer

Fawn

Dog

Puppy

Bark, Howl, Yelp

Duck

Duckling

Quack

Eagle

Eaglet

Scream

Elephant

Baby Elephant

Squeal, Trumpet

F ox

Cub

Bark, Yelp

Frog, Toad

Tadpole

Croak

Goat

Kid

Bleat

Goose

Gosling

Gaggle

H ar e

Leveret

H en

Chicken

Cackle

Horse

Colt, Foal

Neigh

Lion

Whelt

Roar

Sheep

Lamb

Bleat

Swan

Cygint

Tiger

Cub

Roar

Wolf

Cub

Howl, Yell

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300 Most Common Pitfalls in Pakistani Use of English


Incorrect

Correct

1. Open this book on page 100.

Open this book at page 100.

2. He was born in nineteen hundreds


fifty-two.

He was born in nineteen hundred fiftytwo.


He does not know right from wrong.

3. He does not know wrong from right.


4. The English is difficult to learn.

English is difficult to learn.


The English language is difficult to
learn.

5. Bible is a sacred book of Christians.


Quran is a sacred book of Muslims.

The Bible is a sacred book of


Christians.
The Quran is a sacred book of Muslims.

6. His father gave him many advices.

His father gave him many pieces of


advice.
His father gave him much advice.

7. That book gives us many informations


about Shahab-ud-Din Ghauri.

That book gives us much information


about Shahab-ud-Din Ghauri. `

8. The furnitures of this house are not


very costly.

The furniture of this house is not very


costly.

9. He is one of the best poet this country


has ever produced.

He is one of the best poets this country


has ever produced.

10. He prefers to write with blue ink.

He prefers to write in blue ink.

11. Where you spent your last summer


vacations.

Where did you spend your last summer


vacation?

12. The hen has lain eight eggs.

The hen has laid eight eggs.

13. She enjoys very bad health.

She has very bad health.

14. He never said anything of the kind.

He said nothing of the kind.

15. I should be glad if you will come in


the evening.

I should be glad if you would come in


the evening.

16. I am the one who am to blame.

I am the one who is to blame.

17. At his sight, I trembled with fear.

At the sight of him, I trembled with


fear.
We should pray to God everyday.

18. We should pray God everyday.


19. The subject of her essay is about
Politeness.

The subject of her essay is Politeness.

20. As I am ill, so I will not be able to


attend college today.

As I am ill, I will not be able to attend


college today.

21. I do not know who are you.

I do not know who you are.

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22. So quickly we walked that we


reached the school in time.

So quickly did we walk that we reached


the school in time.

23. I neither met Ahmad or his father.

I met neither Ahmad nor his father.

24. Greek is not only difficult to read,


but also to write.

Greek is difficult not only to read, but


also to write.

25. I did not intend to punish the boy, but


only to prevent further offence.

I intended not to punish the boy, but


only to prevent further offence.

26. He says that his mother is sick.

He says that his mother is ill.

27. Please see my certificates.

Please look at my certificates.

28. He meditates upon revenge.

He meditates revenge.

29. He has no influence upon the king.

He has no influence over the king.

30. It is half past five in my watch.

It is half past five by my watch.

31. He is true to his words.

He is true to his word.

32. The magistrate passed order for his


acquittal.

The magistrate passed orders for his


acquittal.

33. His family members have gone to


Murree.

The members of his family have gone


to Murree.

34. The examination begins from


Monday.

The examination begins on Monday.

34. Health is more preferable than riches.

Health is preferable to riches.

36. His claim is prior than yours.

His claim is prior to yours.

37. He is the most happiest man on the


earth.

He is the happiest man on the earth.

38. The elephant is larger than any


animal.

The elephant is larger than any other


animal.

39. Solomon was wiser than any king.

Solomon was wiser than any other king.

40. No boy in the class is so intelligent


as Ahmad.

No other boy in the class is so


intelligent as Ahmad.

41. He is the worthiest and sympathetic


man in the town.

He is the worthiest and the most


sympathetic man in the town.

42. Hassan has been suffering from fever


from Friday.

Hassan has been suffering from fever


since Friday.

43. He has been absent since ten days.

He has been absent for ten days.

44. I have not seen Ahmad since a long


time.

I have not seen Ahmad for a long time.

45. My brother died since a fortnight.

My brother died a fortnight since/ago.

46. I will not be here before two months.

I will not be here for two months.

47. You must finish this work before two

You must finish this work within two

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hours.

hours.

48. I expect a letter from her after a


week.

I expect a letter from her in a week.

49. I received his letter long before.

I received his letter long ago.

50. The train will arrive just now.

The train will arrive presently.

51. Every flower and every leaf proclaim


the glory of the Almighty.

Every flower and every leaf proclaims


the glory of Almighty.

52. The sum and substance of his speech


are as follow.

The sum and substance of his speech is


as follows.

53. I received his letter long before.

I received his letter long ago.

54. The bus will arrive just now.

The bus will arrive presently.

55. Character, and not riches, win us


respect.

Character, and not riches, wins us


respect.

56. Every flower and every leaf proclaim


the glory of God.

Every flower and every leaf proclaims


the glory of God.

57. The sum and substance of his speech


are as follow.

The sum and substance of his is as


follows.

58. Sixty rupees are not a large sum for


this toy.

Sixty rupees is not a large sum for this


toy.

59. Principles of Physics are a good


book.

Principles of Physics is a good book.

60. The majority was present at the


meeting.

The majority were present at the


meeting.

61. None but those having some teaching


experience needs apply.

None but those having some teaching


experience need apply.

62. It were the girls that defied their


teachers orders.

It was the girls that defied their


teachers orders.

63. Everyone should be careful of ones


health.

Everyone should be careful of his


health.

64. Neither the students nor the teacher


was there.

Neither the teacher nor the students


were there.

65. Walking along the Mall Road, his


head dashed against a lamppost.

As he was walking along the Mall


Road, his head dashed against the
lamppost.
While he was walking along the Mall
Road, his head dashed against the
lamppost.

66. Being a fine day, they went to the


lake to enjoy a picnic.

It being a fine day, they went to the lake


to enjoy a picnic.
As it was a fine day, they went to the

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lake to enjoy a picnic.

67. Failing in the first attempt, no second


attempt was made.

Failing in the first attempt, he made no


second attempt.

68. He has an urgent business at home.

He has an urgent piece of business at


home.

69. He has many businesses today.

He has much business today.

70. There was no temple there but I


visited.

There was no temple there that I did not


visit.

71. He as well as I am wrong.

He is wrong as well as I.

72. We have come here to take your


leave.

We have come here to take leave for


you.

73. I cannot endure her separation.

I cannot endure separation from her.

74. Do you know who are you referring


to?

Do you know whom you are referring?

75. You should follow their advice who


are superior to you in intellect.

You should follow the advice of those


who are superior to you in intellect.

76. He dares not speak against me.

He dares not to speak against me.

77. I was greatly wondered at what met


my eyes.

I was greatly astonished at what met my


eyes.

78. I admitted my brother to the G.C.


College.

I got my brother admitted to the G.C.


College.

79. He took admission into Bab-ul-Ilm


Public School.

He was admitted to Bab-ul-Ilm Public


School.

80. He did nothing but sang.

He did nothing but sing.

81. I am feeling feverish.

I feel feverish.

82. I intend to inform his misbehavior to


his father.

I intend to his father of his misbehavior.

83. Please pardon me for giving you this


trouble.

Please pardon me for the trouble I am


giving you.
Please excuse me for the trouble I am
putting you to.

84. Many kinds of fruits grow in


Balochistan, such as apples, palms,
apricots etc.

Many kinds of fruit, such as apples,


palms, and apricots, grow in
Balochistan.

85. With regard my conduct, I beg to


submit as follows.

With regard to my conduct, I beg to


submit as follows.
As regards my conduct, I beg to submit
as follows.

86. He told these news to his mother.

He told his mother this news.

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87. He packed his luggages.

He packed his luggage.

88. She provided the blinds with food


and clothes.

She provided the blind with food and


clothes.

89. The poors of our city are starving.

The poor of our city are starving.

90. Scouts wear half pants.

Scouts wear shorts.

91. There is no place in his compartment.

There is no room in his compartment.


There is no space in his compartment.

92. Ahmad hit an over boundary.

Ahmad hit a six.

93. We saw a joker at the circus.

We saw a clown at the circus.

94. We had a good play of cricket.

We had a good game of cricket.

95. I saw a theater last night.

I saw a play last night.


I saw theater last night.

96. Wont you like to take part in drama?

Wont you like to act?


Wont you like to act in drama?

97. He is a tall gentleman.

He is a tall man.

98. These females have come here to talk


to you.

These women have come here to talk to


you.

99. He got a bad companionship.

He got into bad company.

100. Here is my cup please fill.

Here is my cup; please fill it.

101. I asked for my book, but he did not


give me.

I asked for my book, but he did not give


it to me.

102. The boy who stands first he will get


a prize.

The boy who stands first will get a


prize.

103. I with some friends went for a walk.

I went for a walk with some friends.

104. The teacher tested the boy if he


could speak English.

The teacher tested if the boy could


speak English.

105. Ahsan is elder than me.

Ahsan is older than I.

106. He will spend his remaining life


here.

He will spend the rest of his life here.

107. That is a worth seeing building.

That is a building worth seeing.

108. He got nearly cent percent marks.

He got nearly full marks.

109. She got an employment in the


National Bank.

She got employment in the National


Bank.

110. You should make noise.

You should not make a noise.

111. What a fun!

What fun!

112. I do not care for you.

I do not care what you do.

113. He does not care for his money.

He does not take care of his money.

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114. He got angry before I said a word.

He got angry before I had said a word.

115. If I would have worked hard, I


would have passed.

If I had worked hard, I would have


passed.

116. I left playing.


I have left playing.

I stopped playing.
I have stopped playing.

117. I take my food.

I have my food.

118. I want that I should get leave.

I want to get leave.

119. I like to play hockey.

I want to play hockey.


I would like to play hockey.

120. He is troubling me.

He is giving me trouble.

121. He gave a speech.

He made a speech.
He delivered a speech.

122. She would not hear me.

She would not listen to me.

123. I cannot pull on with my work.

I cannot manage my work.

124. He has ordered for a new racquet.

He has ordered a new racquet.

125. Open the light.

Turn on the light.

126. Shut the light.

Turn off the light.

127. He was very kind enough to comply


with my request.

He was kind enough to comply with my


request.

128. He behaved cowardly.

He behaved in a cowardly manner.


He behaved like a coward.

129. If he works hard, then he will pass.

If he works hard, he will pass.

130. Because he is clever, therefore he


gets good marks.

Because he is clever, he gets good


marks.

131. He is ill since three months.

He has been ill for three months.

132. I will explain him this.

I will explain this to him.

133. Send this letter on my address.

Send this letter to my address.

134. He suggested me this.

He suggested this to me.

135. He goes in the school.

He goes to the school.

136. We always go to picnic.

We always go on picnic.

137. He was favorite to his friends.

He was favorite with his friends.

138. I did not ask any question to him.

I did not ask him any question.

139. The match starts from four oclock.

The match starts at four oclock.

140. He rides on a car.

He rides in a car.

141. Ahmad bought five dozens eggs.

Ahmad bought five dozen eggs.

142. Muslims recite Glorious Quran

The Muslims recite the Glorious Quran

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every Morning.

every morning.

143. Do not speak a lie.

Do not tell a lie.

144. Look research in the dictionary.

Look up research in the dictionary.

145. They are anxious to visit Swat.

They are eager to visit Swat.

146. Please answer my letter


immediately.

Please reply my letter immediately.

147. Ahmads confidential report is full


of averse remarks.

Ahmads confidential report is full of


adverse remarks.

148. He is well beware that his friend is


cunning.

He is well aware that his friend is


cunning.

149. King Akbar had many childish


habits.

King Akbar had many child-like habits.

150. Convey my complements to your


siblings.

Convey my compliments to your


siblings.

151. In fact, my signature on the check


bear difference.

In fact, my signature on the cheque bear


difference.

152. The final rites of his diseased father


were performed today.

The final rites of his deceased father


were performed today.

153. Columbus explored America in 15th


century.

Columbus discovered America in 15th


century.

154. I know my writing is eligible.

I know my writing is illegible.

155. We added farther into the amount.

We added further into the amount.

156. The convict will be hung today.

The convict will be hanged today.

157. He, as a serial-killer, earned a great


fame.

He, as a serial-killer, earned a great


notoriety.

158. Everyone knows that Aslam is a


man of principals.

Everyone knows that Aslam is a man of


principles.

159. Morning walk is beneficent to


health.

Morning walk is beneficial to health.

160. Zaheer sells diary products.

Zaheer sells dairy products.

161. He seems to be conscientious of his


faults.

He seems to be conscious of his faults.

162. Samina has a very noisy voice.

Samina has a very loud voice.

163. Hey, its harmful to lean out of the


train.

Hey, its dangerous to lean out of the


train.

164. My teacher asked why I am late.

My teacher asked why I was late.

165. He and I am going to visit Lahore


together.

He and I are going to visit Lahore


together.

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166. All of the money I had were spent.

All of the money I had was spent.

167. Slow and steady win the race.

Slow and steady wins the race.

168. Neither Ahmad nor his sister like


apples.

Neither Ahmad nor his sister likes


apples.

169. Politics are my main area of


interest.

Politics is my main area of interest.

170. The sceneries of Kalaam are


amazing.

The scenery of Kalaam is amazing.

171. Ahmad was wearing a trouser when


playing.

Ahmad was wearing a pair of trousers


when playing. Or
Ahmad was wearing trousers when
playing.

172. Can you give me your scissor?

Can you give me your scissors? Or


Can you give me your pair of scissors?

173. It is strange that Salma has stopped


her study.

It is strange that Salma has stopped her


studies.

174. The United Nations have become


American puppet.

The United Nations


American puppet.

175. I will go nowhere in these


December vacations.

I will go nowhere in these December


vacation.

176. The lockers door needs to be fixed.

The door of locker needs to be fixed.

177. That books price is out of my


reach.

The price of that book is out of my


reach.

178. Hi there, its me (it is me).

Hi there, its I (it is I).

179. Let you and I have some tea


together.

Let us have some tea together.

180. Every teacher and every student


should earn a good name for their
college.

Every teacher and every student should


earn a good name for his college.

181. One must not forget his


responsibilities.

One
must
not
responsibilities.

182. Neither of the three girls have


arrived.

None of the three girls has arrived.

183. None of the two students visit our


shop regularly.

Neither of the two students visits our


shop regularly.

184. Everybody/Everyone who see you


respect you.

Everybody/Everyone who sees you


respects you.

185. Neither of the sisters got what they


expected.

Neither of the sisters got what she


expected.

186. I am, your sincerely. Or

I am, yours sincerely.

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has

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I am, yours sincerely.


187. Either Ahmad or Aslam go there
daily.

Either Ahmad or Aslam goes there


daily.

188. Your shoes are like Faisal.

Your shoes are like Faisals.

189. Our institute is one the best


institutue of the city.

Our institute is one of the best institutes


of the city.

190. Ahmad is elder that I.

Ahmad is elder to me.

191. Salma is older than me.

Salma is older than I.

192. Ahmad and Hassan are kind to one


another.

Ahmad and Hassan are kind to each


other.

193. A several boys and girls visited the


park.

Several boys and girls visited the park.

194. He did not give me some money.

He did not give me any money.

195. He advanced foolishly arguments.

He advanced foolish arguments. or


He advanced arguments foolishly.

196. In fact, any members were present


at the meeting.

In fact, some members were present at


the meeting.

197. Many a students are intelligent.

Many a student is industrious.

198. There are no less than one dozen


bananas in the basket.

There are no fewer than one dozen


bananas in the basket.

199. I am quite good, and how about


you?

I am quite well, and how about you?

200. I want little sugar please.

I want some sugar please.

201. Little knowledge is dangerous.

A little knowledge is dangerous.

202. I dont want to buy something.

I dont want to buy anything.

203. All is good that ends good.

All is well that ends well.

204. Good begun is half done.

Well begun is half done.

205. She was a woman in thousand.

She was a woman in a thousand.

206. Boy you wanted to see was there.

The boy you wanted to see was there.

207. Nazim inaugurated the Spring


Festival.

The Nazim inaugurated the Spring


Festival.

208. Himalayas means a home of snow.

The Himalayas mans a home of snow.

209. Indus is the longest river in


Pakistan.

The Indus is the longest river in


Pakistan.

210. She still has lot of work to do.

She still has a lot of work to do.

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211. Ahmad is seeking employment.

Ahmad is seeking an employment.

212. He is a honest person.

He is an honest person.

213. English live in England.

The English live in England.

214. What Quran Says is best book


available in market.

What Quran Says is the best book


available in market.

215. More you study better you achieve.

The more you study the better you


achieve.

216. The man is a social animal.

Man is a social animal.

217. The gold is a precious metal.

Gold is a precious metal.

218. Rich should help poor.

The rich should help the poor.

219. Always speak truth.

Always speak the truth.

220. The Islamabad is the capital of


Pakistan.

Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan.

221. The both brothers were good


football players.

Both brothers were good football


players.

222. Elizabeth second is the current


queen of England.

Elizabeth the second is the current


queen of England.

223. Do you have a 100 rupees note?

Do you have a 100 rupee note?

224. Tradition of Besakhi Festival in


Punjab is very old.

The tradition of Besakhi Festival in


Punjab is very old.

225. Can you please send me Rs. 1000 in


money order?

Can you please send me Rs. 1000 by


money order?

226. I hope that you are hail and harty.

I hope that you are hale and hearty.

227. Ahmad and Salma are the best pair I


have ever met.

Ahmad and Salma are the best couple I


have ever met.

228. With reference your letter, I want to


inform you that

With reference to your letter, I want to


inform you that

229. Promotion
hardworking.

Promotion always demands hard work.

always

demands

230. Your hairs have grown white.


231. Mathematics/physics/ethics
excellently taught in this institute.

Your hair has grown white.


ar e

Mathematics/physics/ethics is excellently
taught in this institute.

232. Ahmads weight is 62 kilos.

Ahmads weight is 62 kilo.

233. He has bought a new underwear.

He has bought a new pair of underwears.

234. Measle has broken out in the


village. (or)
Measles has broken out in the village.

Measles have broken out in the village.

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235. I and she are friends. (or)


I and he are friends.

She and I are friends.


He and I are friends.

236. Every soldier and every policeman


should fight for their country.

Every soldier and every policeman should


fight for his country.

237. Naila is my older sister.

Naila is my elder sister.

238. In fact, he never has no money to


buy us something.

In fact, he never has any money to buy us


something.

239. Of these two roads leading to the


city, the right one is the shortest.

Of these two roads leading to the city, the


right one is shorter.

240. She is M.A. in philosophy.

She is an M.A. in philosophy.

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STAGE 6

COMPOSITION
PARAPHRASING
English derives the term paraphrase via Latin paraphrasis from the Greek words
para phrasein, meaing additional manner of expression. Paraphrasing, according to
Oxford Dictionary, means expressing what somebody has said or written using different
words, especially in order to make it easier to understand. Para in the Greek language
means beyond or additional. Phrase means to tell or say something in a particular
way. However, when para occurs with phrase to make a compound as paraphrase, it
means saying something using a particular way, or as Wren and Martin put it, saying,
equivalent sentence.31 Paraphrasing is also called paraphrasis, a name given after its Latin
derivative.32 In our Pakistani use of English, we almost always use the word explanation
instead of paraphrasing to refer to the issue under consideration. Explanation, in fact,
forms only one aspect of the paraphrasing.
In the world of grammar, the question is, what can be the objectives of this
grammatical device of paraphrasing? A noted grammarian puts it in this way; What is
aimed at in a paraphrase is a free rendering of the sense of the passage in order to secure
greater clearness and simplicity. To paraphrase a passage is to express its meaning in a
language different from that of the original.33 In other words, the language of what is
paraphrased is replaced with a newpeculiarly writers owndiction, but the content as
well as theme undergoes no change whatsoever. Thus, paraphrasing seems to have gained
popularity as the mode of the restatement of ideas, facts, and information of a certain
statement/literary piece in a different, somewhat relaxed and simplified language. However,
what is important to mind while practicing paraphrasing is that one is not supposed to
convert good English into bad. It is strange that this usually happens in our country. In
majority of the cases, the actual writing and the paraphrase of the students stand poles apart.
When in a study of grammar, a question pops up that: what can be the objectives of
this grammatical device of paraphrasing? A noted grammarian puts it in this way; What is
aimed at in a paraphrase is a free rendering of the sense of the passage in order to secure
greater clearness and simplicity. To paraphrase a passage is to express its meaning in a
language different from that of the original.34 In other words, the language of what is
paraphrased is replaced with a newpeculiarly the subsequent writers owndiction, but
the contents as well as theme undergoes no change whatsoever. Thus, paraphrasing seems
to have gained popularity as the mode of the restatement of ideas, facts, and information of
a certain statement/literary piece in a different, somewhat relaxed and simplified language.
31

Wren & Martin, High School English Grammar, p. 366

32

Paraphrase and paraphrases, both, will be employed here in an identical context to mean the same

thing.
33

Sayyid Saadat Ali Shah, Exploring the World of English, Lahore: Ilmi Kitab Khana, 2004, p. 699

34

Sayyid Saadat Ali Shah, Exploring the World of English, Lahore: Ilmi Kitab Khana, 2004, p. 699

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However, what is important to mind while practicing paraphrasing is that one is not
supposed to convert good English into bad. It is strange that this usually happens in our
country. In majority of the cases, the actual writing and the paraphrase of the students stand
poles apart.

Benefits of Paraphrasing
In addition to have a purpose, paraphrasing must be an end in itself in order to prove its
raison dtre. A paraphrase is made for two primary reasons, (i) to someone understand a
certain statement or piece of writing that he had not heard or read, and (ii) to prove that we
have completely comprehended the meaning of the statement or piece of writing and our
understanding is capable enough to restate it. Paraphrase can help Pakistani students in
many ways in the process of understanding English. Paraphrasing is, for instance, a very
good practice to judge ones ability of understanding what one reads. One masters
translation if one is good at paraphrasing. Since reading is always at the back of learning, it
is a perfect way to get a good much of acquaintance with English vocabulary, grammar, and
syntax. Similarly, paraphrasing improves ones expression, for it trains one to focus ones
mind on reading, translating, reproducing and writing. Ones ability of expressing becomes
clearer and superior as one gets along with the art of paraphrasing.
Paraphrasing is undoubtedly a valuable means of explanation. The art of
explanation finds its perfection in the art of paraphrasing. Paraphrasing has, per se, all the
properties of a good piece of literary writing, and thus it is capable of transmitting the
message of even an obscure poetry. Paraphrase is, in fact, a combination of several literary
devices and qualities that are generally disjoint. Per our opinion, the best quality that is
manifest in paraphrasing is the superior art of translation. It is ones expertise of translation
that makes a good paraphrase. However, this is not an inter-lingual translation, but a
translation that can be spoken of as intra-lingual. It may appear to some a very difficult
task, which it is indeed, but the good news about such a practice is that a successful
paraphrase is a very worthwhile task.
Paraphrasing may well be distinguished in two ways, i.e. the paraphrase of poetry
and the paraphrase of prose. Our primary concern lies with the paraphrase of poetry. Both
types are almost similar in many areas. However, the paraphrase of poetry is somewhat
lengthy, explanatory and different in word order as compared to the paraphrase of prose.
Poetry has, in its entirety, a diction of its own. Some expressions and constructions are
peculiar to poetry, which can in no way find place with prose. Therefore, any paraphrasing
of a piece of poetry cannot become a simplified illustration of a pithy expression, a lucid
saying or a maxim. It is, rather, a change of form as well as diction. In this process, it is
quite inescapable to omit a few qualities of the verse for the simple reason that they cannot
reappear in the prose. What must be given consideration in such a situation is to find and
employ appropriate equivalents of the words, phrases and expressions omitted. On the other
hand, a compressed statement or a proverb is much easier to tackle in paraphrasis. Its
diction does not slip away as does that of poetry, and what one is required to do is only to
retain the ideas and replace the words. Such a paraphrasis of prose should be, at least,
double the size of the original statement or writing.
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A Good Paraphrase
A good paraphrase should necessarily have these qualities:
1. Correct Translation
2. Simplicity and Clearness
3. Relevance
4. Expansion and Explanation
5. Completeness and Wholeness
1. Correct Translation
Paraphrase is, in one way or another, a piece of translation. The better the translation, the
more impressive the paraphrase. However, paraphrase is not a translation of a language into
another, as stated above, but a translation of the words and ideas of the original writer into
the words (only words) of the paraphrasing writer. No new ideas can be introduced or some
of the original omittedas to make a pick and choose work. It is only the words,
constructions and expressions that are to be altered in entirety. To get everything
accomplished in a satisfactory way, it is important that this intra-lingual translation is
correct. The case with Pakistani students may, nevertheless, be different, for they need in
most of the cases to translate a piece of writing into Urdu (or their native language) first,
and it is only after that primary translation that they retranslate the whole translated thing
back into the original language. Hence, the process invites complexities.
2. Simplicity and Clearness
As the final verdict on English, Oxford Dictionary, declares paraphrasing an art of
expressing what somebody has said or written using different words, especially in order to
make it easier to understand, the wisest thing to do is to follow this line as a rule. Nowhere
can a simple and clear language benefit more than it does in paraphrasing. The chief goal of
the art of paraphrasing is the simpler and clearer exposition of something originally said
or written in less a simple way. If a paraphrase lacks this quality, that is only a bad
paraphraseor no paraphrase at all.
3. Relevance
Relevance can be listed amongst the most desired qualities while attempting a paraphrasis.
Beyond doubt, a paraphrase should be relevantthat is to say in our academic language to
the point. Since paraphrasing is the process of the transformation of one diction into
another, the process itself gets compelled to minimize the possibility of irrelevance. After a
correct translation, it is the merit of relevance that has the central role to play.
4. Expansion and Explanation
Although expansion being a completely different art, it is intertwined with explanation in
the art of paraphrasing. One must not forget that the fundamental function of paraphrasis is
to interpret something using a simple language. This is impossible until one gets into some
degree of expansion. It is certainly not possible to exhaust the subject without expanding the
issue as to achieve the degree of a reasonable explanation. Therefore, one should perceive of
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paraphrasing as an act of interpreting a statement or piece of writing that introduces new


words and phrases without a limit. The length may be the choice of the interpreter, for there
is no rule regarding a standard length of the paraphrase.
5. Completeness and Wholeness
A paraphrase is a reproduction of the original statement or piece of writing as a whole. It
represents in complete the facts, information and details of the original piece of writing.
Nothing of the original writing is skipped or left without being addressed. In this case, it is
neither a summary nor a calculation of every line and every idea of the original writing; it
actually means a restatement of an originally terse statement or a piece of poetry in a
somewhat easy language covering everything of the original. Nothing of this is broken
apart, nor is everything summarized in the ordinary sense. Completeness means that the
paraphrasis should be complete in every respect, whereas wholeness means that everything
should be discussed, at a broader scale, as a whole.

Test of Paraphrase
When doing the criticism of a paraphrase, we have a test to evaluate the merits and demerits
of a paraphrase. In this process, we will check:
a. If a paraphrase has all the ideas of the original statement or piece of writing.
b. If there is no addition of any new ideas.
c. If the words and constructions are not difficultsince difficulty of language goes
against the spirit of paraphrasing.
d. If the paraphrase makes complete sense even to an ordinary reader, i.e. an inexpert.
e. If the paraphrase is not affected by the diction and vocabulary of the original statement
or piece of writing.
f. If it does not pull away from the spirit of the original, i.e. it has been made sure that the
standard of the original text and the paraphrase match.
If a paraphrase clears this test, it is marked as successful paraphrase. In case any
of the above stated principles have been ignoredor even compromisedsuch a
paraphrase will be ranked among poor attempts.
PARAPHRASE (1)
No time to turn at Beautys glance,
And watch her feet how they can dance,
No time to wait till her mouth can,
Enrich that smile her eyes began.

(William Henry Davies, Leisure)


Theme:
Humankind is facing an extreme lack of time in the present mechanical age. Metaphorically
speaking, human beings have become machines, busy and bound within a roundabout cycle
of time. Our 24-hour cycle seems to have become much shorter than the lag our busy life
desires. The beauty of Nature that finds itself manifest in every object of the world stands
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beyond the reach of our eyesight. There is a curtain between us and the Nature that veils
everything before our eyes and we are, in spite of having the power of seeing, unable to
witness what aesthetic heights are culminated in the rhythmic dance of the goddess of
Beauty.
PARAPHRASE (2)
O you detained in the glamour of present civilization, listen:
Uncertainty of Faith is worse than bondage.

(Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Bng-e-Dar)


Theme: The worst of the times is the state of being uncertain, which is accredited even
lower than slavery.

PARAPHRASE (3)
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread,
Till thou return unto the ground;
For out of it wast thou taken:
For dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.

(Holy Bible, Book of Genesis 3:19)


Theme:

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ESSAY WRITING
Literary composition is the art of expressing thought or feeling effectively by words, says
a modern grammarian. The word essay, when functioning as verb, means to attempt or
strive; however, in literature essay stands for a literary composition on any subject.
Essay is a medium of composition that has become a standard style, especially in
academics, of non-fictional writing. Today, from scholarly opinions to newspaper columns,
from compositions giving information to narrative details, almost every non-fictional piece
of writing falls into the category of essay. Some famous essays in English are those written
by Sir Francis Bacon and Lord McCauley, whereof the formers essays are compressed and
eloquent and the latters are verbose and lengthy. We will add below a specimen essay by
Francis Bacon to let our readers have a most inspiring insight into the pithy and eloquent
composition of essay.
In the current instance, we are going to deal with the academic essay exclusively
the one that students are required to commit to writing while taking post-matriculation
examinations.

STRUCTURE
An essay must be balanced and relevant to the subject. If outlines are a requirement asked
by the examiner, make up your mind to follow a sequence of things and commit this
sequence on the paper in an indented or numbered way. Outlines serve as the skeleton of the
body of text, without which, no essay can be congruous or concise. If the outlines are not
demanded, still spend some time to make a mental sketch of what you are going to write
and then divide your subject into different sections. Now these sections will function as
your outlines, for each of them will represent at least one organic part of the composition.
An outline does not mean to write something as a heading in the paper, but it stands for a
guiding idea that knits one after another all-important features of the essay. An essay
should, according to an expert, begin with the most recent general survey of the topic
covering and including in the essay the latest research on the topic.35
To begin the essay in a reasonable way, do not get into the detailed discussion on the
subject straightaway; rather insert a small introductory paragraph to the subject at first. Use
small sentences at this stage to avoid syntactic lapses. Moreover, the employing of subjectdefinition from some standard dictionaries, such as Oxford Dictionary or Webster
Dictionary, would be a great device to leave a healthy impression. Similarly, scholarly
quotations would be appreciated as well.
A good essay will essentially possess the characteristics described immediately below:
a. Organic unity
b. Sequential order
c. Brevity and eloquence
d. Impersonal touch (unless asked for your own opinion)
e. An argumentative & summarizing conclusion

John Clanchy & Brigid Ballard, How to Write Essays, Longman Melbourne: Cheshire Pty Limited,
1983, P. 21
35

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LANGUAGE & SYNTAX


Language should be neither too easy nor too complex. Simple, understandable language
with few mistakes is far-better than sophisticated language with quite a few mistakes. Errors
of syntax have extremely negative effect on the reader; therefore, it is strongly suggested to
avoid syntax mistakes as much as possible. For essay writing, a good understanding of
tenses (active & passive voices) is inevitable. A mind teemed with ideas is unable to pen
down those ideas until it has the power of language. This language-factor further demands
smart selection of words and a good understanding of their use.
OUTLINES
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary defines outline as a description of the main facts
or points involved in something. The use of outlines in essay-writing is a very effective
technique to organize our disorderly thoughts and focus on the subject. This is simply to
make sure that we do not make any mistakes while committing our thoughts to writing.
Well-structured and balanced outlines are an end in themselves in addition to a purpose, for
well-structured outlines make it far easy and simple to organize all the text putting ideas in a
sequence and write the essay. This balancing and structuring of outlines help us move point
to point and step to step with great ease, which, in turn, creates a naturalness in the flow
of the essay. In the smooth flow of the essay, thereby, pops up what is called the punch
line leading forth to the conclusion.
Outlines can be written in two ways. We can either use complete sentences
containing finite verb or write outlines in a heading style. I prefer the heading style, and it
is this style that has been employed in this book. Giving complete sentences or headings as
outlines under traditional 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 outline-markers or excluding these markers make
no real difference. However, what is important at this stage is the organization of the
outlines. The title should be placed at the top, and then should follow the introduction.
The upcoming outlines should cover the main body of the essay that is usually classed in
different sections. Each section is represented by a paragraph, and it is technically
appropriate to supply an outline for each of such sections. Conclusion comes in the end. The
conclusion has two chief objectives: (i) the summary of supporting information and
evidences showing how the essay writer has reached this conclusion, and (ii) essay writers
concluding remarks.
An outline helps us determine the length of the essay in addition to organize our
thoughts. Furthermore, outlines are also a great help at determining the length of
paragraphs. We should do well to bear in mind that a good organization of outlines can
make our work of writing an essay as easy and simple as filling in banks. We can say,
therefore, with great ease that outlines guide us from beginning through middle to the end of
the essay.

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Specimen Essay
Of Studies
Studies serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is
in privateness and retiring; for ornament is in discourse; and for ability is in the judgement
and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and perhaps judge of particulars,
one by one; but the general counsels, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best
from those that are learned. To spend too much time in studies make judgement wholly by
their rules is the humour of a scholar. They perfect nature, and are perfected by experience:
for natural abilities are like natural plants, that need pruning by study; and studies
themselves do give forth directions too much at large, except they be bounded in by
experience. Crafty men contemn studies; simple men admire them; and wise men use them:
for they teach not their own use; but that is a wisdom without them and above them, won by
observation. Read not to contradict and confute; nor to believe and take for granted; nor to
find talk and discourse; but to weight and consider. Some books are to be tasted, others to
be swallowed, and some few to be chewed and digested: that is, some books are to be read
only in parts; other to be read but not curiously; and some few to be read wholly, and with
diligence and attention. Some books also may be read by deputy, and extracts made of them
by others: but that would be only in the less important arguments and the meaner sort of
books; else distilled books are like common distilled waters, flashy things. Reading maketh
a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man. And therefore, if a man write
little he had need have a present wit; and if he read little he had need have much cunning to
seem to know that he doth not. Histories make men wise; poets, witty; the mathematics,
subtle; natural philosophy, deep; moral, grave; logic and rhetoric, able to contend. Abeunt
studia in mores. Nay there is no stond or impediment in the wit but may be wrought out by
fit studies: like as diseases of the body may have appropriate exercises. Bowling is good for
the stone and reins; shooting for the lungs and breast; gentle walking for the stomach; riding
for the head; and the like. So if a mans wit be wandering, let him study the mathematics;
for in demonstrations, if his wit be called away never so little, he must begin again. If his
wit be not apt to distinguish or find differences, let him study the schoolmen; for they
Cymini sectores. If he be not apt to beat over matters, and to call up one thing to prove and
illustrate another, let him study lawyers cases. So every defect of mind may have a special
receipt.
(Sir Francis Bacon)

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ESSAY. 1

DEMOCRACY
Outlines

1. An Introduction to Democracy
a. Genesis of Democracy
b. Linguistic Aspect & Implications of Democracy
2. Historical Development
a. Democracy in Medieval Europe
b. Democracy in Present World
3. Democracy in Comparison with Monarchy, Oligarchy & Dictatorship
4. Some Problems Inherent in Democratic System
5. Epilogue

English word democracy is a compound of two Greek words, namely, demos, people,
and kratos, rule. In this sense, democracy stands to mean the rule of people. In modern
context, political scientists define the word, saying, that the sovereignty of state lies with its
masses in the democratic setup. Ancient Greek people were the first one to practice
democracy in their city-states. However, the world after Greek civilization forgot
democracy, and thus it had to be rediscovered in the historic accord of Magna Karta. Since
1215 CE until French Revolution, the growth of democracy was relatively slow in Europe.
However, after the fall of monarchy in France in 1789, democracy became imperative for
the European nations. They discarded the monarchical, oligarchical and theological systems
of medieval days, and adopted the new vision of the new world based on Liberty, Equality
and Fraternity.
Democracy in the present world has two principal expositions called Presidential and
Parliamentarian forms of government. Presidential form of government in its most
accomplished format is being practiced in USA today, whereas Parliamentary form of
government is being practiced by Great Britain most skillfully. All other democratic
countries owe their democratic setups to these two nations.
Some other political systems witnessed by the world are monarchy, oligarchy and
dictatorship. Strange enough that monarchy and dictatorship vest the absolute power of state
in one single person. History has seen the play of monarchs and dictators, and then
eventually it discarded them in the favor of democracy. Another resembling system is
oligarchy, which accounts for the rule of many people or groups simultaneously. However,
this again falls short when measured against the riches of democracy.
Despite the apparent beauties of democracy, there are certain problems inherent in its
nature. Democracy does not suit the taste of certain nations in the Orient. Moreover, the
vote of a highly educated citizen and that of an illiterate have equal power. The turnout in
almost every instance explains that hardly 50% of the eligible voters cast their votes.
Further, change in government takes place after a specified tenure and the policies are rarely
resumed by the following administration.
It can be summed up here that democracy is a very effective political system. Despite its
minor drawbacks, democracy addresses the political needs of man in most effective manner.
Thus, modern man has forgotten all other political systems in the presence of democracy.

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ESSAY. 2

CORRUPTION
OR

HOW TO FIGHT CORRUPTION


Outlines
1. An Introduction to Corruption
a. Individual Corruption
b. Corrupt Setup
2. What Major Factors Cater Corruption?
a. Death of Conscience
b. Selfishness and Self-Centeredness
c. Spending beyond Means
3. Some Other Roots of Corruption
a. Inflation & Price Hike
b. Loose Legal Grip
4. Practical Remedies
a. Remodeling of Administrative Setup
b. Inflation and Unemployment Be Checked
c. Public Awareness
5. Epilogue

Corruption is a word that is looked down upon throughout the world. Indeed this
tendency is not wrong, for corruption is a state of negative skills. It mainly deals with the
phenomenon of earning living; hence earning it by crooked means implies the state of being
corrupt. There may still be another kind of corruption, which, although out of our scope, has
no lesser deteriorating effects. To this kind we call moral corruption, and it emerges from
the degeneration of human character. Corruption is such a social evil that the whole world,
since all ages, has been fighting with; but to our sorrow, by no means can an absolute check
be put on it. A corrupt person always seeks after illegal means to boost his income; thence
becoming selfish. By and large, corruption is the worst form of exploiting and usurping
others rights.
There may be two broad categories of economic corruption when critically analyzed.
These categories are (a) individual corruption and (b) collective corruption. On individual
level, a corrupt person cannot be honest with his duties due to bad company, intriguing
economic needs and negativity of thinking. This gradually mounts to the death of his
conscience, which, in turn, bears the tendency of cheating on others and forgetting to be
answerable to God. The second type belongs to the whole social and economic sphere. In
this category, not only individuals, but whole departments are involved in cheating on
others and murdering their rights. In our country, it is primarily this type that has permeated
across the nation. From a peon to the head of state, everyone is, in one way or another,
corrupt, hence culpable.
We should bear in mind that corruption cannot be curbed or cured in absolute sense.
Nothing can avail us while living in a dynamic society to uproot the problem of corruption.
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All techniques thereby turn turtle against the harsh realities. However, some pragmatic
remedies can reduce the magnitude of this bedeviling phenomenon.
Let us now turn to some practical remedies. At this stage, it is important to keep
solely our own nation in view.
The administrative structure of Pakistan, since the birth of country, has not been
corrected or exacted. It has been moving ever since in the very wrong direction it started
with. To overcome the problem of corruption, a radical transformation of whole society is
but a basic need. Secondly, the problems of inflation and unemployment have almost
killed the spirit of living a standard life among our people; it is thus important that
government take measures for adjusting prices and fixing unemployment issues. Lastly,
awareness should be promoted on mass scale using mass media as well as the moral
injunctions of Islam. Standardizing education will be another step forward to educate
people concerning their rights and duties. If one protects ones rights, it naturally leads to
the offering of ones duties in the best possible way.
ESSAY. 3

THE USE OF INTERNET IN OUR EDUCATION SYSTEM


Outlines
1. Introduction
2. Pakistan and Other World: A Comparison of Educational Structures
3. Blessings of Internet as a Means of Education
a.
Worldwide Accessibility
b.
Mass Media of Information
4. Present Situation
a.
Healthy Latest Developments
b.
Influences of the Developments
5. Suggestions and Conclusion

Internet is a peerless blessing of modern age. To count and consider the benefits of Internet,
our vocabulary may fall short. The fact is that the educational system of Pakistan is still
lingering behind the world of today. Most countries of the world have developed much
more sophisticated and practical educational setups. The commonality among all those
foreign educational structures is the centrality of information technology and worldwide
web. Nowhere in the world, indeed, has Internet been spared in education sector, but only in
Pakistan. It is our system, beginning from roofless primary schools to the most elaborated
national universities, where the technological blessing of Internet has permanently been
overlooked.
The Western Europe and America started using Internet service in their education systems
some two decades ago. The Second World, that is, the communist world also hastened to
follow the suit and developed disciplines giving room to the use of Internet in their
education system. India may be another example to cite, where I.T. has become national
pride and by dint of their advanced educational structure, India is lining up among major
world powers.
With great sorrow is this stated that Pakistani schools, colleges and universities remained
deprived of computers and Internet services until recent past. We could not evolve a
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philosophy that to what ends we would employ Internet in education system. Our
recognition of Internet suffered with severe problems, because Internet has until now been
only a means of entertainment for our nation.
In these circumstances, a new day dawned; a blow of fresh air felt, and our students heard
good news that Pakistani educational structure was soon going to be blessed with Internet
facilities. Now it will revolutionize our whole understanding of education and educational
communication. The world has already shrunk into a global village. The distances have
reduced and postal-letters have changed into emails. Today is the time of electronic books
and soft-research-copies. A student sitting in his school lab can access the richest American
library in Washington within minutes. Today, dictionaries of all languages, all latest
researches, and all sorts of information are at our easy disposal. No man of past had ever
thought of so great an advancement of human communication and sources of learning.
Towards end, it would be appropriate to shower some suggestions regarding the role of
Internet in our educational setup. It is suggest-worthy that more IT universities like Virtual
University be established; discipline of Worldwide Web be made a part of Computer
Science department in every college and university; every high school be furnished with a
lab of at least 20 PCs. And the most important, a high-speed Internet connection must be
given for free by the government to every educational institution.
Essay 4.

TERRORISM
Outlines

1. An Introduction to Terrorism
a. Brief Historical Survey
b. Modern Tendencies
2. Terrorism and Muslims
a. Is Every Muslim A Terrorist?
b. Western Bias
3. Difference between Terrorism and Jihad
a. Role of Al-Qaeda
b. Role of Taliban
c. Obsession of Ordinary Muslims
4. The Need of the Hour
a. A Review of American Policies
b. Changing War on Terror into Dialogue on Terror
5. Epilogue

Terrorism is a word that has drawn really big attention of the present world. Terrorism
means creating fear among people in a systematic way. This word was used for the first
time during French Revolution. The recent discovery of terrorism is based on a modern
definition of the word, which was invented after the attacks of 9/11.
The current layer of terrorism got birth during the Afghan Jihad from 1979 to 1988.
After Russian retreat from Afghanistan, the Jihadis spread all over the world. Usama bin
Laden established his Jihadi organization called Al-Qaeda. Taliban began to emerge, and
afterwards they quickly took over Afghanistan. After the plane attacks on World Trade
Center and Pentagon on 11 September 2001, the whole world has completely changed.
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Terrorism is not basically an invention of the Muslims; instead, Christians


introduced it as a technique of spreading fear during Crusades. Later on, it continued to be a
Christian tactics during war and peace times. 1st and 2nd World Wars were the peak of
Christian terrorism that kept the world under its terror for many decades.
The label of terrorism is being pasted only on the Muslim world today. Every
Muslim is seen by the West with suspicion. Every bearded person is believed to be a
terrorist. This shows Western bias against the Muslims. Islam believes in Jihad and Jihad is
a word America really hates. That is why Western media does not distinguish between Jihad
and terrorism.
Here, we need to understand the difference between terrorism and Jihad. Every
Muslim is a Mujahid, but every Muslim is not a terrorist. The negative role of Al-Qaeda and
sick Jihad of Taliban have defamed the Muslim world. Further, an ordinary Muslim is
completely obsessed with this situation. He does not know whether Al-Qaeda and Taliban
are striving for Jihad or terrorism. However, the latest layer of terrorism in the form of
suicide attacks and target killing has made all Muslims realize that this cannot be Jihad.
On the other hand, America and Europe need to understand their duties. A review
of American policy on War on Terror is a greatly needed step today. America should with
no delay change the War on Terror into the Dialogue on Terror. This will bring peace to the
world.
In the final say, it is again stated that terrorism is an evil; hence it needs to be addressed.
However, terrorism should not be subdued by force, but culminated through wise and
peaceful measures.
ESSAY. 5

ATOMIC ENERGY AND SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS


OR
ATOM FOR PEACE

Outlines
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

An Introduction to Atom
Atomic Energy Used for Destructive Ends
Atomic Energy Used in Service of Mankind
Atoms Use to Cure Fatal Diseases
Help in Agriculture
Critical Appreciation

Atom is a Greek word, which means a thing that cannot be cut apart and broken. However,
it is no longer undivided and unbroken today; the scientists have broken it into further
smaller particles. They are called electrons, protons, and neutrons. They release great power
and energy.
It was the great scientist Albert Einstein who began to work on the theory of producing
energy from atom in 1905. He explained many new things. At first, he showed that mater
and energy are two different forms of the same thing. In other words, mater can be
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converted into energy and vice versa. Second, a small amount of mater can produce a great
amount of energy.
The discovery of atomic energy is one of the wonders of modern science. Atomic
energy is a double-edged weapon. It can be utilized for destructive as well as peaceful ends.
The scientists first of all used it for destructive ends. They prepared atomic bombs that
could destroy towns and cities within moments. It was in 1945 that two atomic bombs,
Little Boy and Fat Boy, destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They killed hundreds of
thousands human beings and deserted vast areas of land. Now all the big powers possess
much more dangerous atomic and hydrogen bombs. They can raze the world to ground if
they are carelessly used. Atomic energy can also be used for the welfare of mankind. The
scientists in USA, England, France, Canada, Pakistan and Germany are at work for the
peaceful uses of nuclear energy. An Atom for Peace conference was held at Geneva to
consider the positive use of nuclear energy. The USA has already started to use this energy
to propel submarines and space-rockets. Presently, electricity is being produced from
nuclear energy in USA, Russia, Britain, Germany, and similar. Our scientists are also trying
to build up nuclear power plants. The scientists are also working to find out ways of using
atomic power as fuel in ships, airplanes, motorcars etc. Today, atomic reactors for boiling
water exist in different countries of the world. Atomic energy is safely used to conquer
many fatal diseases. Radium is an important branch of medical sciences. Thus, atomic
energy is of immense help to alleviate human suffering.
Nuclear energy has also brought a revolution in the field of industry. Petrol and coal
are other well-known sources of energy and power. The supply of these two natural
resources is, sooner or later, coming to an end. The world is in search of an alternative
source of power. It is, of course, nuclear energy. Electronic machines, computers and
nuclear elements are being used in our industry. They are used in the plastic, glass, paper,
textile, rubber, and cement industries.
Atomic energy is of great help in agriculture. Barren lands can be tilled into smiling
fields with the help of atomic formulas, computerized tractors and machines. Crops can be
ripened in a very short time. The yield of crops per acre can also be multiplied. In this way,
the scientists are trying to solve the shortage of food problem. Therefore, we can say that
atomic energy can be used with full advantages for the welfare of mankind.
ESSAY. 6

CAREERS FOR WOMEN


OR

PROFESSIONS FOR EDUCATED WOMEN


Outlines
1. Introduction
a. Women in Past
b. Women in Present Age
2. Career Opportunities
a. Major Areas for Female Career

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b. Main Field Women like to Join


3. Womens Contribution in Development
4. The Women of Pakistan
5. Epilogue

In the ancient world, the state of women was extremely miserable. They were treated in a
disgraceful way and were considered equal to slaves viz. half-humans. The exclusive
profession for the women was to serve and entertain their men. If any other activity was to
be carried out by her, that required her mans permission in advance. The whole of the
ancient literature, with few exceptions, is full of such expressions that regard women as a
lowly creature. The women were confined to the kitchen and nursery. However, things have
now changed to a reasonable degree. Education, print and electronic media, and cultural
globalization have changed their outlook so much so that they have become conscious of
their rights. They have started taking active part in every field of life.
Education has refined and polished the mental faculties of this so-called half-human.
Hence, with great success has todays woman proved her worth in all walks of life. The
women of modern age have practically come forward to lend a helping hand to the male
gender. They can do any kind of job, which fits their physique, ability and aptitude. There
are quite a number of jobs, which women can perform with greatest care and comfort.
Firstly, the profession of nursing is greatly suitable to the genius and aptitude of
women. Our country is in a great need of lady doctors. Our women, in fact, feel hesitation to
disclose their womanly secrets to male doctors. They cannot tell them their trouble frankly.
This difficulty could be solved if we have more lady doctors. Mother of the Nation, Fatima
Jinnah, can be, as a dentist, a fitting example for the ladies ambitious to become doctors.
Secondly, lady officers are also required in all areas of government services. There are
female traffic wardens and police officers these days, and this thing has successfully fixed a
number of problems in the concerned area. Moreover, they can successfully accomplish
assignments while working in high offices, such as District Management, Foreign Office,
Railways, Postal Services, and the similar. Likewise, private companies like banks,
finances, telecommunications etc. are also open for the woman of 21st century.
Thirdly, in the same way, teaching is another profession, which our women can easily
adopt. They are very suitable for the teaching of small children. They have motherly love
for them. On the other hand, women having high education can become lecturers and
professors to teach in colleges and universities.
Fourthly, women with practical knowledge and enterprise can become sale girls,
managers and advertising agents. There are many other professions ready to welcome girls.
They can become airhostesses in different airlines. Women should come forward to do such
jobs that are suitable to their aptitude.
In these ways, of course, women can serve the country and contribute in the
development of our beloved Pakistan.
ESSAY. 7

SUPERSTITIONS
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Outlines
1. A Brief Introduction to Superstition
a. Ancient Practice of Superstitions
b. Superstition in Modern Times
2. Superstitions in West
3. Superstitions in Pakistan
4. Reasons behind Superstitious Systems
5. Need for the Spread of Scientific Knowledge
6. Epilogue

J.K. Lavater once said, Superstition always inspires bitterness; religion grandeur of mind.
Superstition is such a belief that has no basis either in science or in religion. In fact,
superstition is founded on fear and ignorance. It thereafter leads men to form false ideas and
ideals. Belief in omens and oracles also belong to the domain of superstition. This practice
has never ceased to exist in human society. It is strange that even the wisest of men have
been found influenced by the superstition, which is such an awesome thing that reminds us
Francis Bacons words: In all superstition, wise men follow fools.
A tree is judged by its fruits and the fruits of superstition are all evil. It has been
responsible for a vast amount of cruelty, misery and madness. In old times, men offered
sacrifices to please imaginary gods. In the Middle Ages, the belief in witchcraft paved the
way of old womens persecution, who were believed to be witches. Even today in the
civilized countries, superstition produces narrow-mindedness, fanaticism and fear.
Superstitions are too numerous and they vary with nations and localities in kind and
degree. In Asia and Africa, people are perhaps more superstitious than they are in Europe.
People all over the world believe in one superstition or another. Certain things or moments
are believed to bring luck and other things or moments are believed less luckyor
sometimes unlucky. An English villager would associate good-luck with black cats and
horseshoes. He will, however, associate bad-luck with the howling of dogs, spilling of salt,
number 13, and walking under a ladder.
In our country, too, we have similar superstitions. The sight of a corps is considered
ominous. One should not undertake a journey if one sneezes at the time of start. Similarly,
the encounter with a black cat is also held as having evil-effects for journey. Some old
women are thought to have supernatural powers. The screeching of owls and ravens is also
believed as bad omen in Pakistan as well as in England. However, owl is a symbol of
wisdom in West and a symbol of wickedness and stupidity in Pakistan.
A similar belief is held in East and West in ghosts. It has been observed that the socalled ghosts are common in our villages. The illiterate villagers are more superstitious than
the educated ones. It is ignorance and lack of education, which gives birth to superstitions.
That is why people have more faith in quacks, and witchdoctors than in medical doctors and
psychiatrists.
Superstitions always hamper the progress of both individuals and society. Popular
superstitions have a long history of evolution. We inherit jinni-creatures from our ancestors
that still haunt our forests.
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Many cruel things have been done in the past because of belief in superstitions. It was
a common say in Middle Ages; She was found guilty of witchcraft and thus burnt alive as
witch. Only education can eliminate superstitions from our societies. Knowledge
increases, superstition decreases. The advancement in scientific knowledge has aided us
to check our irrational fears and superstitions.
ESSAY. 8

ISLAMA COMPLETE CODE OF LIFE


OR

THE RELIGION OF ISLAM


Outlines
1. What is a Code of Life?
a. Need of Religion as Code of Life
b. Our Modern Understanding of Code of Life
2. Islam is the only Code of Life
a. All Definitions Prove Islam as the most Perfect Code of Life
b. Islam Fits in Modern Age
3. Pakistan & Islam
4. Humanism in Islam
5. Womans Status in Islam
6. Social, Economic & Political Sides of Islam
7. Epilogue

A code of life means such a system that owns and accommodates all essential aspects of
human life. It not only owns, but also regulates human life in accordance with the natural
needs, wants and instincts of mankind. Our present understanding of code of life may
contradict with that of past, but the matter of fact is that only a religion can overwhelm the
social life of man.
Islam, by all means and definitions, is the most perfect code of life. No other religion,
scientific precept, social theory or ideology of life can compete Islams role in this area.
From birth to death, from sleeping to awakening, from ignorance to knowledge, and from
ethics to law, all dimensions of life find fulfillment in Islamic doctrine.
Islam is against the concept of nationalism. It does not allow the formation of any
social order based on narrow nationalistic interests. It aims at uniting the whole humanity.
Hence, Islam intends to set up a universal social order free from all discriminations of race
and geography. Its religious aspect is organically related to its social aspect. Islam does not
restrict itself to mosque.
Pakistan is an Islamic state. It came into being on 14th of August, 1947, in the name of
Islam. Thus, Pakistan is different from many other countries in the respect of ideology. All
other countries found the seeds of existence in nationalism or communalism; Pakistan was,
however, made by Islam, for Islam, and it will always be about Islam. Other countries of
world unify their people on the bases of language, color and ethnicity. Contrarily, Pakistan
is the only country where Islam is the sole binding force of the whole nation. More than 150
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languages are spoken in Pakistan; over 100 ethnicities reside here; people have different
castes, clans and cultures; thus, no other but the force of Islam keeps them fully united.
In the economic life, Islam intends to create a society that is free from all types of
exploitation and usurpation. Islam lays great stress on the just distribution of wealth. It
urges rich people to help the poor and needy in crucial times. It has established a system of
Zakat to cater the economic purposes. On the political side, the Quran says that absolute
power rests with God alone. Therefore, all governments or states become agents of the
Supreme Ruler, God. As such, they have to obey the commands of God and frame their
laws according to Quran and Sunnah.
Islam guides us about the duties of government, criminal law, war and peace, taxation,
business, and ownership of land. It also lays enormous stress on the rights of neighbors. We
can, therefore, conclude with full confidence that Islam is a perfect religion that offers a
solution to all our problems; hence, a code of life, manifestly.
ESSAY. 9

INFLATION
OR

PRICE-HIKE
Outlines
1. An Introduction to Inflation
2. The Impact of Inflation/Price-Hike on Common Mann
3. Why Inflation Occurs?
4. Some Good Means to Overcome Inflation Problem
5. International & National Economic Conditions in Comparison
6. Epilogue

The prices of necessities of life are rising consistently. The problem of rising prices has
become a universal problem. This problem has assumed an acute form in the developing
countries like Pakistan. The majority of people in our country belong to the low-income
group. Usually they have limited sources of income. Very often the income of people is
fixed. Therefore, the hike of prices of essential goods hits them hard. The result is that the
standard of living of the poor is dwindling day by day.
Since people do not have means to buy the necessities of life. They are
compelled to use unfair means to have them. Those government servants who cannot make
both ends meet become corrupt. The gulf between the rich and the poor goes on widening
until it results in some revolutions in the name of equality and justice.
Rising prices also affect national life in the economic field. The businessmen
think of adulteration, black marketing and others similar methods to maximize their profits.
Since the prices of goods are beyond the reach of common man, the standard of living goes
on falling gradually. There are many factors that cause rise in prices. First, the most
important of these is the increase in population. If we compare it with the increase in means
of production and economic development, the rise in prices becomes inevitable.
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Second, if the demand is high than the supply, the goods will naturally be sold
at higher prices. Sometimes, the government imposes duties and taxes on certain
commodities, and thereby the prices of such commodities go up. The wrongs of smuggling
and black-marketing of necessities also account for their shortage, mounting the prices
rapidly.
Third, if a businessman has monopoly in the production and sale of a certain
commodity, he can raise its prices at will. In developing countries like Pakistan, the
developmental activities usually cause inflation. The fund and loans that are given by
foreign countries as well as IMF and the World Bank are supposed to be invested on
developmental projects. If they are fairly handled, they increase the circulation of money in
the country. When people have more money in their pockets, they will be prepared to have
more and better facilities life offers. However, this foreign money always vanishes in some
selective pockets.
All these economic pressures join hands and create a serious problem for the
common man. More than 90% of our population is, therefore, never at peace.
Our first duty should be to check the birthrate. Secondly, the government should
not impose so many taxes, duties or surcharges on those commodities that are considered
necessary for human life. Such taxes simply suffocate the poor. Besides that, the most
important duty of government is to keep an eye on he production and sale of essential
goods. Undue profit making should not be allowed in any way or any case.
ESSAY. 10

THE VALUE OF ENGLISH IN MODERN AGE


OR

ENGLISH AS GLOBAL LINGUA FRANCA


OR

ENGLISH IN PAKISTAN
Outlines
1. An Introduction to English Language
2. English in Past
a. English & Greek
b. English & Latin
3. Classical English & Modern English
4. English in Pakistan
5. Shortcomings of English
6. International Lingua Franca
7. Can We Neglect English?
8. Epilogue

English is a language that has a long historical background. It came into its current
expression in 15th century, and thereafter, English saw another rise in 16th century
Renaissance movement. English inherited most of its vocabulary from Greek and Latin
languages. French also left a good deal of influence on it. English was completely different
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in classical times, and it found much lesser value and appreciation than Latin even among
its own people. However, modern English is a wonderful language, which has won
appreciation from every circle. Today, it has become a global language.
English came into Subcontinent with English invaders. Since then, the people of
Subcontinent have been under its influence. It was Sir Syed Ahmad Khan who urged upon
the Muslims to study English for the first time. Under his advice, the Muslims learnt
English and began to compete the Hindus in every field of life.
English is the language of international community. It is spoken and read in almost
every country of the world. It has linked various parts of the world and thereby has
promoted understanding among people of different countries. Pakistan is a country where
people love to study and speak their mother tongues. However, they also like to study and
speak English. Pakistanis have a good command over English, as more than 90% of
businesses in Pakistan are run using English. Further, it is our office language. Similarly, all
of our foreign trade with foreign countries is done in English. Therefore, the knowledge of
English is compulsory for Pakistanis to get an employment. It is taught in our schools,
colleges and universities. Intellectuals use English for the communication of refined ideas.
However, all this does not underrate the importance of Urdu language.
Becoming more precise on Pakistan, English has played a crucial role in our struggle
for freedom. All activities of Independence Movement were carried out through the medium
of English. Hence, as Pakistanis, we are sure to say that we cannot neglect English. It has its
roots very deep in our society. It has been the official language of Subcontinent for more
than two centuries.
The importance of English in the modern world is undeniable. English is the only
language that can foster unity among different countries of the worldhence international
lingua franca. English has since long become language of knowledge and learning. All our
scientific and technical knowledge comes from this language. It deals with commerce and
trade in rich expression. The knowledge of medicine, engineering, technology, surgery and
military equipments is communicated by one country to another in English.
The most advanced understanding in poetry, drama, novel, and other branches of
literature are climactically found in English. No other language gives us standard
terminology and symbols in various branches of literature, science and technology.
We can conclude on logical grounds that the future of English in Pakistan as well as
throughout the world is secure and bright.
ESSAY. 11

MY AIM IN LIFE
OR
MY GOAL IN LIFE/MY AMBITION IN LIFE/THE DREAM OF MY LIFE
OR
THE PROFESSION OF MY CHOICE

Outlines
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1. The Place of Aim in Ones Life


a. The Role Aim Plays in Active Life
b. A Life without Aim or Ambition
c. Idles Brain is Devils Workshop
2. My Dream of Life
a. Law Studies as My Favorite Discipline
b. Advocacy: My Way of Serving Nation
3. Justification for Choosing to Become Lawyer
4. The Status of Legal Practitioners in Modern States
5. Justice, Judiciary & Lawyers
5. Epilogue

Aim, ambition or dream in life constitutes the most crucial part of human thinking. It is but
natural that everybody sets some goals before him, and these targets serve as his guiding
principles. These principles assign dimensions to every striver. Indeed a man without aim or
goal in life is no worth than animals, and all efforts of such a man eventually prove fruitless.
Doubtless that idles have no contribution in the activity of life. Aim in life never lets us
sit idly and become good for nothing. It is rather a transcendent thing, something that
demands constant struggle and high ideals.
My dream of life, i.e. the highest aim, is to become a law practitioner. This desire runs
in my veins with blood, as I find myself incomplete without thinking of it. My mind is
greatly inclined to the discipline of law. It doubly works on law studies than it works on
anything else. Becoming lawyer does not have any material ends, but only the goal of
serving humanity. I understand that justice has become the most costly but least available
thing in our country today. Therefore, I see a great chance that fate is going to bestow me to
help people get justice. I will, thus, contribute in the development of my country by
bringing people justice and awareness of the value of justice.
I know there are a lot of opportunities of making wealth in legal practice. However, I
find asylum in the thought of service only. Legal advocacy is, in a sense, an equation of
medical science; both heal humansmedical science heals the body and legal advocacy
heals the problems of exploitation and criminality. Thus, society is purged of the evils that
plague our lives.
Modern state is a fully independent political institution. Judiciary is the 3rd article of the
state, and, of course, advocacy and judiciary are essential to each other. They are
intertwined and neither of the two can function without the other. Therefore, it would be
wise to say that the function of state as well as its existence depends, to a reasonable degree,
on law practice. If criminals are punished, innocent relieved and deprived given rights,
country will function in much superior way. Law practice indirectly influences the peace of
society. Here lawyers appear to be a bridge between common man and the courts of justice.
Lawyers movement in recent past has proven that only independent judiciary and a
supporting advocacy can stabilize the country. Restoration of judiciary is a landmark of the
lawyers, for which nation owes them a debt of gratitude.

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Thus, I find myself fully justified for dreaming to become a lawyer. Some may argue
against this ambition, but it cannot prevent me from achieving my goal. As a human being, I
have the full right to choose for myself whatever fits my aptitude.
ESSAY. 12

MY FAVORITE PERSONALITY IN HISTORY


OR
MY FAVORITE HERO/MY FAVORITE HISTORICAL FIGURE

Outlines
1. An Introduction to My Favorite Personality
a. Brief Background
b. Field of Specialty
2. Why I Ranked Him Above Many Others?
3. Achievements of the Holy Prophet (PBUH)
a. Worldly Achievements
b. Moral Achievements
c. Spiritual Achievements
4. His Message
a. The Influence of Message
b. Durability of the Message
5. A Final Say

The Prophet of Islam, Muhammad (PBUH), is my favorite personality in history. I have


many reasons to call him my favorite personality. This statement of mine does not seek its
origin in the dedication and respect Muslims have for the Prophet (PBUH), but it originates
from well-recorded historical facts. It would not hold water if I, as a follower of him, rank
the Prophet (PBUH) above others on purely religious grounds. The justification of the
current argument requires logical, methodical and historical evidences that, when comparing
with other great men, would prove the Prophet (PBUH) matchless.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was born on April 20, CE 570, as orphan. His birthplace
was Makkah. He was only six when his mother died and only eight when caring grandfather
also passed away. Then his uncle took him into his custodianship and catered for his every
desire. He spent a blotless youth-life and married Khadijah, a widow and 15 years senior to
him, when he was 25. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was a merchant those days. His genius
as well as dealing found appreciation from every acquaintance of him.
In the age of 40, Holy Prophet (PBUH) entered the final, but most decisive phase,
phase. Now he was going to change the world once for all. His message was about to strike
the worlds heart. Thus, he finally declared his Prophethood and invited people to his
religionthe religion of Allah. He publicly announced:
There is no god but Allah (and) Muhammad (PBUH) is His Messenger.
This event took place in CE 610. The new message of monotheism brought an
earthquake in the minds of pagan Arabs. They could not believe that quiet Muhammad
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(PBUH) could speak of such a sublime thing. Secondly, they were not ready to replace 360
gods with one single God of Muhammad (PBUH). They cursed him calling magician, poet
and oracle. The Prophet (PBUH) and his early followers heavily suffered, but they were
firm in their faith in God Almighty. No one could stir their ideals, and finally they became a
force.
Makkah expelled new religion and its followers in CE 622. Muslims and their Prophet
(PBUH) took refuge in Madinah. It since became the everlasting home of Islam and the
City of the Prophet (PBUH). Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) returned Makkah as a
conqueror in CE 630 and forgave all of his enemies. He set slaves free, abolished usury,
gave rights to women, and unified Arabia.
Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) performed his Farewell Hajj in CE 632 and there he
delivered his Final Sermon, the future manifesto of mankind. He thereby became the
liberator of humanity and the greatest reformer of all times. World embraced the influence
of his message and responded eagerly to his call. It was because of these particulars that
famous American author Michael Hart ranked him on top among the 100 greatest men in his
book The 100.
I am certain that there is no other human being of an equal standing in history. Thus, I
am justified to choose Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as my favorite hero on merit.
ESSAY. 13

LOAD SHEDDING
OR

THE POWER/ENERGY CRISIS IN PAKISTAN


Outlines
1. An Introduction to Current Power Crisis
2. A Short History of Energy Crisis
3. The Available Electricity
4. The Power Consumption in Pakistan
5. Different Means of Power Production
a. Hydel Power
b. Thermal Power
c. Nuclear Power
6. Epilogue

The energy crisis has brought Pakistani industrial machinery to a standstill. This has, in
turn, reduced Pakistani economy to a zero condition, cutting down GDP. Moreover,
common man is extremely disturbed due to the energy crisis.
Energy crisis is not a recent phenomenon; rather it appeared at least a decade ago.
Pakistan was producing enough energy to export in 1995, but now the situation has
reversed. This may be due to many factors. 13% increase in power consumption has been
observed from 2002 to 2007, says an official survey. The shortfall will further increase by
the end of 2010. Today, the available electricity is 15055 Megawatts and the demand is
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19000 MW. This is primarily due to the growing middle class. The second factor may be
the rapid growth of industry accounting for 31% of the total energy. Household sector is the
largest consumer of electricity in Pakistan, which covers 42% of the total power. Of course,
it is this sector that has been hit hard by the energy crisis.
By the end of 2007, Pakistan was running short of electricity as much as 4000
megawatts. By the end of 2010, the shortfall will become 5500 MW. Pakistani water
reservoirs have a total capacity of producing 56000-megawatt electricity. However,
Pakistan is producing only 34% of the total power from water i.e. 6000 MW. Apart from
hydel power, the major area of producing power is thermal power. It accounts for 60% of
Pakistans power production. The last and the least used is nuclear power. It accounts for
only 6% of total energy.
The area of energy production was completely neglected by the government during the
last decade. The present situation is extremely grave. Nights are generally dark in Pakistan,
as streetlights and house lights remain off. Load shedding is always done without a
schedule. Sometimes the duration of power stoppage mounts up to 16 hours a day. All this
is unacceptable in a modern state of 21st century.
Currently, Water and Power Development Authorities (Wapda) is taking steps to keep
the situation under control. A number of small dams are under construction at various sites.
Similarly, nuclear energy plants are also being erected in different cities. The coal of Thar is
also under consideration for the production of electricity. This may be the easiest means of
producing energy on long-term basis.
Finally, we can simply urge on the government to cope with the worsening situation of
energy crisis to relieve the citizens. We strongly hope that the problem will be fixed in
compliance with governments promises.
ESSAY. 14

NATIONAL UNITY
OR

NATIONALISM/WHY WE SHOULD BE UNITED


Outlines
1. Natural Love for the Country
2. East or West, Home is the Best
3. Pakistan: A Homeland of Different Cultures
a. Race, Languages & Colors
b. Belief in Unity & Harmony
4. Islam: The Binding Force
5. Lessons from History
a. Pakistan Movement
b. War of 1965
c. Fall of Decca
6. Epilogue

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National unity is the most desired thing in the modern world of interdependence. The
modern concept of nation is radically different from the old one, and it is why we need to
understand in the light of this new concept that how unity of the nation matters a lot today.
In old times, people believed in community and race, and thought that these two entities
were their nations. However, today we have a better, wider definition. Citizens of an
independent country have a unified identity for the international world. People are today
either Americans, Indians, Germans, English or Pakistanis. Nobody thinks of the provinces,
districts or cities that one belongs, but only the country.
It is but natural that everyone loves his birthplace. A common maxim also states the
same fact, saying, East or West, home is the best. This natural tendency helps us modify
our passion of patriotism, so that we may put it into some channel for the progress of
country. This very tendency is helpful for creating national unity.
Pakistan is indeed the home of many different cultures. Pashtoons, Sindhis, Balochis,
Punjabis, Saraikis, Kashmiris, and the like reside this land; they speak different languages
and have different complexions. However, they all are Pakistanis, for all of them believe in
the governing entity of state, Pakistan. Thus, they consider themselves the part of the same
nation, and thereby they use their efforts to bring unity and harmony among the people of
Pakistan. Sometimes, ethnic slogans are raised by certain shortsighted politicians, but only a
few respond them and majority rejects such villains.
Islam is the greatest binding force of Pakistan. It ties people up in the bond of religion,
assigning them common religious ideals. Although sectarianism exists to a certain degree in
Pakistan, but recent developments exhibit that people of Pakistan do not favor sectarianism.
Indeed, it is the need of the hour that sectarianism be curbed, and the philosophy of to live
and let live be promoted.
There are numerous lessons for us in our history regarding unity and nationalism.
Pakistan Movement only succeeded because of the unity of the Muslims of Subcontinent.
India was beaten back in the War of 1965 because the whole nation stood united behind Pak
Army. However, when national unity was at stake in 1971, and Bengalis went for Bengali
nationalismrejecting the ideal of Pakistani Nationour enemies took the full benefit of
the situation and broke Pakistan apart.
The only words that can be effective in the conclusion are that national unity is a
precious thing. Only those nations make progress that are internally united. Our country is
currently passing through the most crucial period of its history, and it is the real time to
show harmony, patriotism and nationalism. This will, of course, become our contribution in
saving Pakistan.
ESSAY. 15

SCIENCE AND MANKIND


OR
SCIENCE AT THE SERVICE OF MANKIND/MERITS AND DEMERITS OF MODERN
SCIENCE/IS SCIENCE A CURSE?

Outlines
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1. An Introduction to Modern Science


a. A Brief Historical Background
b. Industrial Revolution
2. Wonders of Modern Science
3. Blessings of Modern Science
a. Facilities of Life
b. A Successful Journey from survival to living
4. Some Problems with Modern Science
a. Too Materialistic Approach
b. No Ends in Itself
5. Epilogue

The scientific revolution of 20th century has created a whole new world that we reside today.
It is, in all aspects, a new world. The man of past could have never thought of flying
airplanes, or traveling on fast-moving trains or vehicles. All these are the wonders of
science. How did this all happen?
The Renaissance Revolution of 16th century laid the foundations of modern science.
Industrial Revolution in 18th century was the immediate product of scientific researches.
Industrial Revolution later on paved the way for Technological Revolution of 20th century.
And today, we have vast areas for the study of science. Since then, the man has never seen
back.
The wonders of modern science include internet services, space discoveries, safe air
traveling, globally operating electronic media, luxury vehicles, comfortable houses, so on
and so forth. These are such phenomena that distinguish the world of today from all ancient
times. Due to the blessings of modern science, man has seen a successful journey from
ancient survival to modern comfortable living. The population of the world that was only
one billion at the dawn of 20th century has now mounted to 6.2 billion within one century.
The possibility of death in diseases, natural disasters, accidents etc. has reduced to the
minimal point. All this became true due to the scientific researches, and the facilities it
conferred upon us.
Despite all the merits of modern science, it has some demerits too. The portrayal of
blessings does not mean that modern science is error-free. There are huge problems in
certain areas of science. First of all, it is too materialistic and does not care for the spiritual
needs of man. Further, it is indifferent to morality and ethics; it does not support the idea of
religion, and, in most cases, it takes us away from our beliefs. Moreover, the amount of
wealth spent on less beneficial space science can, if spent, deliver mankind from the
problem of poverty and disease; but no scientists think of this. Scientists are men of
laboratories rather than living, emotional humans. The worst of all, the invention of nuclear
weapons has become a constant threat for the world. The tragedies of Hiroshima and
Nagasaki are the brutalities of modern science, which should in no way be repeated. These
problems need to be addressed to make science accurate and infallible.
We can safely conclude in the end that modern science is a worth-appreciating thing. It
is a blessing for mankind in itself, although human beings some time use it for negative
ends.
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ESSAY 16

UNEMPLOYMENT
Outlines
1. Introduction
a. Magnitude of Unemployment
b. Economic Depression
2. Unemployment around the Globe
3. Categorizing Unemployed Folks
4. Major Causes of Unemployment
a. Pakistan as an Agrarian Society
b. Smallness of Industry
c. Transfer of Capital
5. Major Areas to be Addressed
6. A Final Say

An individual that does not own any means of earning living can be said to be in a state of
unemployment. He is, therefore, called an unemployed person. Unemployment has appeared
in the recent years as a global problem. Recent economic depression has added to the
intensity of the problem. Several businesses like banks and other trade and commerce
companies have closed down due to economic pressure, and this has, in turn, created more
unemployment.
Today, in almost every country of the world, university graduates carrying their
degrees in hands move from place to place for jobs. But the jobs are few. This situation is
more critical in underdeveloped and developing countries as compared to the developed
countries. In 3rd World countries like Pakistan, people with high qualification, including
those with foreign qualification, wander hither and thither aimlessly. They are out for jobs,
but jobs are scarce. This situation may be seen at two levels, i.e. (a) unemployment among
educated people and (b) unemployment among uneducated people. Moreover, daily-wages
laborers are yet another class that can technically be called an unemployed people.
There may be plenty of causes for unemployment on such a large scale. Primarily,
Pakistan is an agricultural country and the majority of people depend on agriculture and
livestock for earning living. However, since this area has not been modernized on scientific
bases, our educated youth is unwilling to adopt it for a permanent profession. Similarly,
feudal lords have dominated this realm and their servants are generally not paid in line with
their services. Moreover, industry is still on its nascent stages, and we see that it has not
diffused in many dense areas of the country. Only 2% of the total employment is offered by
the factories and mills in Pakistan. This is indeed not an encouraging situation. Next,
education sector also deserves reforms, for it is this sector where our economic needs
stumble. The quality of education is very low and only those with extraordinary individual
efforts get through it. The old British system of producing clerks, constables and peons is
still working in the same lines.
Rapid increase in population and transfer of capital to foreign countries also account
for unemployment. Rich people, instead of investing in Pakistan, move their money abroad,
perhaps, out of social insecurity and greed for fixed profit. This practice must be
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discouraged. Government should take measures to shorten currently existing economic gap
between the rich, upper middle class and the poor. Pakistani capitalists should invest their
money in Pakistan to create more jobs for their compatriots. Education system should
produce quality professionals, such as engineers, technicians, scientists and similar.
We should learn from other countries to cope with growing unemployment. If we
continue to ignore unemployment threat, our country will be on the verge of ruin very soon.
The frustration of unemployed youth can easily be overcome by introducing new means of
employment.
ESSAY. 17

COEDUCATION
(also spelled Co-Education)
Outlines
1. An Introduction to Coeducation
2. Coeducation, West & Pakistan
3. Drawbacks of Coeducation
a. Anti-Oriental System of Education
b. Un-Islamic Mode of Education
c. Free Mixing of Both Genders: A Hanging Sword
4. Some Merits of Coeducation
5. Comparison of Merits and Demerits
6. The Final Word

The word coeducation stands for a system of education in which both girls and boys study
together. Originally, this is a Western system and is widely being practiced in all Western
countries. Our country, Pakistan, has also seen in the recent years a shift from segregated
education system to combine education system. In the following lines, we will attempt to
understand some of the major problems this system is destined to have, whereas a few
meritsthe only merits of combine educationwill also be given some consideration.
Primarily, it is a fact that coeducation has a number of inherent problems. Today, some
people want to adopt coeducation to implement it in our schools and colleges, but they
simply ignore the fact that Pakistan is an Islamic country. Moreover, the cultural values and
traditions of the Orient, also, do not allow the free mixing of boys and girlseven if it is for
the sake of education. Ours is a backward country and the people are not yet so modern as
to see the broad scenarios of such an educational system.
At next, psychologically speaking, it has been observed that the female students are not
generally well-off when studying together with the boys. This is due to their inner shyness
and instinctual reluctance. They feel psychological pressure, when among boys, even in the
issues of dresses and bodily care; thus, in most of the instances they have to overdress and
overcoat themselves.

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What has been observed from educational experiments around the globe is that
coeducation cannot raise educational standard. Sexual temptation coupled with flirtation is a
dominant feature of such a system wherein two opposite genders get together. They usually
fool around instead of answering the call for attending their studies. Textbooks become
fewer and immoral writings, such as cheap poetry and substandard stories, replace them in
students bags. Standard of education can only be raised by facilitating and modernizing our
educational infrastructure on scientific lines.
Our schools and colleges are already overcrowded and thus we need to build hundreds
of new educational institutions every year. Therefore, it is no wise to cut half the number of
boys and girls in their respective institutions to refill those seats with the candidates of
opposite gender.
There may be a few merits found in the system of combine education, and it is
certainly no justice to ignore them. Coeducation can bring the sense of equality between the
two genders. This may be an aid to the female class in an allegedly male-dominated society.
Secondly, the thought of competition will develop among girls and boys in coeducation. It
can enhance the progress of society, becoming the standard of a progressive social thought.
However, despite these merits of coeducation, it is wise to stay away from this system
of free mixing. When drawing a comparison between the merits and demerits of
coeducation, one will see that it is the side of demerits that accounts for the larger share.
Therefore, let us conclude that coeducation is not in line with the inclination of Pakistani
minds. Let us stand resolute to resist all such efforts that are made to diffuse coeducation in
Pakistan.
ESSAY. 18

FEMALE EDUCATION
OR
EDUCATION FOR WOMEN/EDUCATION IS THE REAL ORNAMENT OF WOMEN

ESSAY. 19

DRUG-ADDICTION
OR
ADDICTION/USE OF DRUGS

Outlines
1. An Introduction to Drug-Addiction
a. The Genesis of the Problem
b. Present Situation
2. Chief Causes of Drug-Addiction
a. Lack of Awareness among Masses
b. Corrupt Network of Police and Anti-Narcotics Force
Negative Effects of Drug-Addiction on Society
a. Socio-Economic Disturbance

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b. Rise in Crime Rate


c. Plethora of Evils being Father by Drug-Addiction
d. National Instability
Some Pragmatic Remedies
a. Better Educational Infrastructure
b. Awareness of Public Regarding Drug-Addiction
c. Remodeling of Administrative Structure
d. Reforms in Economic Setup
Epilogue

Indeed it is an observable reality that drug-addiction is a problem with a nationwide


existence. Drugs had, in fact, only a nominal existence in Pakistan until 1970s. However,
wide availability of drugs was a direct result of Soviet-Afghan War, which pushed two
million refugees into Pakistani territory. These Afghan refugees brought with them the gifts
of opium, heroin as well as handguns.
Certainly, drug-addiction has become such a curse today that has threatened the
very bases of our social structure. It has fathered a number of economic, social, religious,
and moral problems. The peace of our society, which was once ideal, has greatly been
disturbed by this ever-growing, ubiquitous problem.
A historical fact is that drug-addiction has taken an alarming position during the
last decade. Although it has nominal existence prior to that, yet its current posture seems to
have become a national crisis. It is why that the cancer of drug-addiction needs to be curbed
or cured immediately.
It is sorrowfully stated that the problem in question has not exclusively threatened
Pakistan, but it has a worldwide existence. According to a recent survey, drug-addiction has
seriously disturbed the whole world. Every country of the world is, today, seriously
considering the issue to get rid of it.
The intensity of drug-addiction in Pakistan has recently grown to its utmost
extent. Surprisingly, it has not spared any of the social, educational or economic institutions.
The causes behind this crucial situation are numerous. The chief cause of the spread of
drug-addiction is the untidy and corrupt network of Police and Anti-Narcotics Force. The
disease of being insincere as well as unserious to the duty has got a strong hold over highranking officers. Temptation of wealth has killed the spirit of serving motherland. Proper
time and consideration are not given to the socio-economic issues, and this results in the
birth of several unheard problems.
Our government has almost failed to put a stoppage to the bedeviling results of
drug-addiction. Drugs are freely sold on public places and young generation is the primary
buyer of it. City streets contain the stench of drugs, and one can see our youth openly using
drugs every now and then. No immediate steps are being taken against it. The most
fundamental cause of drug-addiction is lack of awareness as well as education in our nation.
This single drawback leads to a plethora of problems.
Concerning the remedies, it is suggest-worthy that a better cooperation between
the government and masses be established, for it will be of great help in this situation.
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Further, the administrative structure should be remodeled without delay. Some effective
steps should be taken on other frontiers as well. Literacy rate and public awareness should
be given boost to overcome the menace of drug-addiction. Workshops and seminars on the
harms of drug-addiction should be conducted by the government and concerning NGOs to
educate people. This will, at length, help people realize their rights and duties. National as
well as religious unity can bring unpredicted results, particularly, in this issue. Islam is a
perfect code of life, hence it can guide us through all difficult situations.
In conclusion, we can say with great certainty that the above-suggested steps can
effectively uproot the problem of drug-addiction from Pakistan. Good governance and a
check on this evil imply the welfare of our people. Indeed, this will stabilize our society
giving it all sorts of brilliance and brightness.

ESSAY. 20

NUCLEAR WEAPONS
OR

NUCLEAR WAR
Outlines
1. An Introduction to the Nuclear Weapons
2. Declared and Non-declared Nuclear States
3. A Short History of Nuclear Weapons
a. The Use of Nuclear Weapons
b. Certain Destruction Passed Off
Treaties for Saving the World from the Harms of Nuclear Warfare
Epilogue

A nuclear weapon is the strongest device in the list of modern weaponry we have today. It
consists of uranium or plutonium atoms, which pass through the process of fusion for
atomic enrichment. It contains so much power that a single nuclear device is sufficient to
wipe out a whole big city from the face of earth.
There are eight declared nuclear states in the world today. Among these nuclear states
are the United States of America, Russia, Great Britain, France, China, India, Pakistan and
North Korea. Two other countries, namely Israel and Iran, are the non-declared nuclear
states.
In the terminology of warfare, the nuclear weapons are termed as non-conventional
weapons. Only on two instances have these terrible weapons been used in their history.
Both of these instances were the successive nuclear attacks carried out by the United States
of America against Japan. The first nuclear bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on the 5th of
August, 1945. Another bomb was dropped on another Japanese city, Nagasaki, only 4 days
later on the 9th of August, 1945. These two events mark the greatest tragedy of human
history. Never since that black week have these weapons been used, which is certainly a
good news. However, the possibility of the use of nuclear weapons was always present
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during the Cold War. The Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, for instance, was one of those
critical moments when atomic warfare seemed only a pushbutton away. In the modern
history, it is the nuclear arsenals of the two states of India and Pakistan that are seen by the
world as the next potential threat to the world peace. In fact, they are traditional rival states
now possessing sensitive nuclear devices.
Two famous treaties were negotiated by the declared nuclear states. These treaties are
known by the world as Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which came into effect in 1969,
and Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which came into effect in 1995. Both of these
treaties are meant to protect the world from the proliferation and a subsequent destruction
likely to be caused by the nuclear weapons. India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea are
among those potential countries that have not, as yet, signed these treaties.
Indeed it is a long aspired thing that the whole world, particularly the states that
own nuclear arsenals, agree on nuclear disarmament. If it so happens that the world destroys
all nuclear weapons, a safer future will become a guaranty.
ESSAY. 21

POLLUTION
OR

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Outlines
1. An Introduction to Pollution
2. Effects of Pollution in Ecosystem
a. Extinction of Species
b. Global Warming
c. Large Scale Diffusion of Dangerous Diseases
3. Major Causes of Pollution
4. Concern of the World
5. Some Practical Remedies
6. A Final Say

Pollution has emerged in the twentieth century as one of the largest problems that humanity
has been facing. Ecologically, this phenomenon is known as environmental pollution. It is
destroying the environment, especially the habitats of different species. Atmosphere and
biosphere are, being the primary hits, getting disturbed from the increase in pollution.
The bomb of pollution, historically speaking, burst after the inception of Industrial
Revolution. Man became independent ruler of earths resources, and thus he began to use
them according to his desires. Aided by these resources, man was able to build himself an
unprecedented civilization of luxury. However, all this was achieved at some cost. Ever
since the mid of 18th century, environmental pollution has been on a rapid growth. By the
start of 21st century, it has come to the stage of alarming the whole world, thus becoming a
global phenomenon. The effects it has exercised on the planet can be seen as global
warming, deforestation, extinction of several species, destruction of green fields, decrease in
agricultural yield (sterilization of agricultural land), so on and so forth.
Among the chief causes of pollution are industrial chemicals, poisonous gases,
nuclear waste, contaminated smoke, overpopulation, urbanization, noise, pesticides and the
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similar. Millions of factories and a much larger number of automobiles are, in fact, two
major threats to the environment, for they are the primary producers of chemical discharges,
poisonous smokes, and noise. The effects of these pollutants, which have as yet been
witnessed only at a starting point, are far from our perception. Our present generation is
breathing in a polluted atmosphere, and it is likely that the population of our planet become
a victim of dangerous diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, hepatitis, to name a few. The
average life in the 3rd World countries has already fallen to a great extent. Children are born
impaired and handicapped. Moreover, pollution factor has become a constant danger for the
Ozone Layer, which is the protective shield of Earth. Earth uses this shield to safeguard
itself against the radioactivity of the sun. If Ozone is destroyed, as pollution will eventually
do it, humanity will greatly sufferquite possibly it be pushed towards extinction. Glaciers
are already on the verge of melting and boiling. They can cause a sudden rise in the sea
level, if once melted.
There are hundreds of safety measures to tackle the pollution phenomenon. Every
single country of the world is trying hard to figure out a solution for this problem. Our
government should also take immediate steps to fix the issue. All pollution-generating
factories and automobiles should be banned. Deforestation should be checked and any
future losses prevented. Forestation and greenery should be promoted on a vast scale,
particularly, under governments supervision. Population and urbanization should be
controlled and put in a channel. Public should also come forward to save our home planets
environment. Indeed only such measures can resolve the pollution problem.
ESSAY. 21

HOBBIES
OR
MY HOBBY

Outlines
Every single individual of our species wants to enjoy the leisure time. The world is full of
beautiful objects and scenes. Since all human beings have mutually different tendencies and
aptitudes, the leisure of every person demands a different type of amusement. Some people
like to travel; some enjoy sports; and some others stay at home and watch T.V. However,
there are some individuals that appear strange as far as the leisure time is concerned, for
they evolve peculiar hobbies which later on mean to them as the pursuit for life. Hobbies
are, as such, these pursuits that are instrumental of keeping our lives warm and full of
excitement.
Primarily, hobbies are the mindful spending of our free time in a good,
constructive way. Sometimes, nevertheless, they take the shape of an organic chapter of our
life. Such hobbies that turn into the pleasure-area of life often cost us too much. No hobbies,
per se, ever owe us anything, nor do we require them for earning purposes. They are rather
self-created habits, which remain with us forever.
Categorically, our leisurely activities may be divided into two types viz. healthy
activities and unhealthy activities. The hobbies, in most cases, fall into the category of
healthy activities. On the other hand, however, if they are becoming a waste of money or
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time, or even if they force us into some negative activity, they are unhealthy, hence must be
avoided.
Now let us see some of the major hobbies that people frequently adopt. There may
be as many hobbies in the world as people, for the human nature varies from person to
person. However, there are some hobbies that are commonplace. For instance, coin
collection, postal-ticket collection, cartoons, movies, video games, so on and so forth. Of
course, these are all healthy activities and they should be adopted in accordance with ones
aptitude.
My hobby is book collection, which can, in other words, be called bookkeeping. This is really a wonderfulrather dignifyinghobby, because it has earned me a
lot of respect as well as bestowed me knowledge of every kind. I have about 500 books in
my personal library over a variety of subjects. By putting great efforts, I have collected
these books from various places of the country. I have visited almost all famous bookstores
in Lahore and Islamabad to satisfy the thirst of my hobby. And in this way have I been able
to organize a small personal library consisting of some 500 universally acclaimed books on
different subjects. I understand that book-keeping is a little expensive hobby, but I can
manage it. I save some of my pocket money and towards the end of every month I buy two
or three new books. Buying these books does not mean, as one might perceive, that I simply
store them and do not read them; rather, I get into these excellent readings in free time to
enjoy their message and information in full. In fact, I love to make notable books my bed
readings, especially, in the winter.
ESSAY. 22

POPULATION EXPLOSION
Outlines
Population is the backbone of a nations strength. It is the manpower that runs a country
from top to bottom. The matter of fact is that in every walk of life, manpower is required as
the fundamental element. However, the unbridled increase in population, which is not
proportionate to the growth of economic means, is extremely dangerous for the very
existence of a country. If the ratio of increase in population is not at par with the facilities
and economic opportunities that a country offers her citizens, the country necessarily
undergoes multi-faceted setbacks within a short lag of time. However, on the other hand, if
a country is well-balanced on both sides and the birthrate is well in control, that country
quickly begins to witness the fruitful results of her planning.
A rich country can be rich as long as she has a firm control over population
growth; that is to suggest that the country is capable of creating enough jobs for the youth
from time to time, providing qualitative training in different areas to all her citizens,
insuring quality education from schools to universities, and, above all, making sure of the
security of fundamental human rights. Conversely, a high ratio in population growth is
always a potential threat to the economy of underdeveloped and developing countries. The
name of Pakistan is also in this list, which shows her among the countries with high
birthrate but low economic means. In Pakistan, every passing minute receives six new
births. Due to the lack of medical facilities, the death rate of newborn per 1000 is above
50a number considered alarming in the reports of World Health Organization (WHO).
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ESSAY. 23

MY NATIONAL HERO
OR
QUAID-E-AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH

Outlines
A Brief Introduction to the Great Leader
Early Life and Education
Entry into Politics
Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity
From Jinnah to Quaid-e-Azam
The Creation of Pakistan
A Final Say

Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah is the founder of Pakistan and a man of high
standing among the great leaders of the world. Certainly, he is the man who can rightly be
considered the hero of our nation. He shaped the course of the history with his will and
practical struggle.
Quaid-e-Azam was born on 25th of December, 1876, in Karachi. His family was a
rich merchant family that had only recently migrated from Kathiawar. His father, Jinnah
Poonja, was a successful leather merchant. After having obtained his early education from
Sindh Madrisatul-Islam, Karachi, Quaid-e-Azam went to England on his fathers advice for
further education. There he became a law student at Lincolns Inn and earned his degree of
barristership after four years of study. Thus, he returned home and started legal practice at
the bar of Karachi and later on continued it at Bombay.
Soon after, Quaid-e-Azam entered politics and joined Indian National Congress.
His entry into politics was predetermined with the objectives of Hindu-Muslim unity and
self-government of India. In 1913, he also became of member of All India Muslim League
on the pursuance of Liaquat Ali Khan. It was the climactic period of Quaids struggle for
Hindu-Muslim unity, and it was in the reward of his untiring efforts that he was declared
Ambassador of Hindu-Muslim Unity. His efforts to bring the two hostile nations close
fructified in 1916 as Lucknow Pact was signed by Congress and Muslim League in
concordance. However, the period to follow was of dismay and disintegration of HinduMuslim relations. Quaid-e-Azam soon realized the pro-Hindus policies of Congress, and he,
therefore, resigned from Congress in 1920. Nevertheless, he did not give up his hope in the
notion of Hindu-Muslim unity and continued to work for this objective as the head of
Muslim League. To his disappointment, all his hopes turned turtle by the end of 1927 and
he left India to permanently settle in England.
A major turn came about in Quaids political career in 1936 when he, putting a
firm belief in Two Nation Theory, returned India for a decisive combat. He was a selfless,
seasoned and disciplined politician. Similarly, he was a great visionary, who had, like
Allama Iqbal, beforehand envisaged the birth of a Muslim state within Indian Subcontinent.
Seeking this end, the Muslims of India passed a resolution for a separate Muslim country on
23 March, 1940. Thus, the struggle of the Muslims gained momentum as it had now found a
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vivid directionthe direction of freedom. This struggle became Independence Movement


and thence the Muslims won independence within 7 years from British rule and Hindu
dominance under the able leadership of Quaid-e-Azam. The new state came into being on
14 August, 1947, and it was named Pakistan. It was the beginning of a new era and a new
struggle. Quaid-e-Azam became the first Governor General of Pakistan. Despite unstable
health and weakness, Quaid worked day and night for the prosperity of Pakistan. Doctors
advised him to take rest, but he did not listened to their word and continued to work
restlessly. It was due to this constant work that he became extremely ill and breathed his last
on 11th of September, 1948. His tomb is in Karachi.
The nation honored Muhammad Ali Jinnah with the titles of Father of the
Nation and Quaid-e-Azam for his selfless services.
ESSAY. 24

POET OF THE ORIENT ALLAMA MUHAMMAD IQBAL


OR
MY FAVORITE POET

Outlines:
1.
2.
3.
4.

A Brief Introduction to My Favorite Poet


Early Life of Iqbal and His Childhood
Iqbals Poetry and Its Message
Iqbal, Politics and Pakistan
c. Remarkable Role in Indian Politics to Champion the Muslim Cause
d. Prophecy of Pakistan
5. Iqbalthe Poet of the Orient
6. Conclusion
ESSAY. 25

FASHION
Outlines:
An Introduction to Fashion
Fashion and Youth
The Psyche of Fashion
Sources of Fashion
III. Showbiz and Media
IV. College and Universities
Exposition of West
A Reasonable Approach

Fashion stands for a popular way of behaving or doing an activity at a particular


time. Fashion is a style followed by the majority of the society, especially the youth. For
instance, if a particular hairstyle gets popularity among the people, they begin to adopt it on
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a mass scale. Similarly, when a particular dress style makes its appearance in public and
people begin to follow the style; all this is termed as fashion.
Sometimes a fashion lasts a little more than usual and sometimes it is only short-lived.
Fashion per se originates from mans instinctual desire to appear more appealing to the
opposite sex. Interestingly, to this end, the people of both sexes use every means to look
distinct and attractive. The impulse of blindly following a fashion is stronger in the women
than in men. They are more susceptible towards new layers of fashion and it is why their
fashion changes every once a while. Observing this weakness of women, Francois
Rochefoucauld remarked; A fashionable woman is always in love with herself. Moreover,
the instinct to show oneself off is always on climax among the youthful people, for the aged
people have something serious to do and their priorities are different than that of the young
people.
Fashion carries a psychological effect with it: that is, it evolves two vivid tendencies,
the sense of pride and the sense of deprivation, in the people of a particular period. Those
whose means and circumstances allow practicing the latest fashions become proud, as they
generally look down upon those who do not or cannot follow the suit. The second is the
group of the people who get jealous of the fashionable individuals due to the fact that they
cannot themselves practice latest fashions due to poverty or some other reason. This sense
of deprivation causes them feel inferiority complex resulting in the feeling of envy for
others.
A number of motives play role in the emergence and spread of a fashion. Unlike past,
the primary source of fashion amongst many is the electronic media today. Individuals
belonging to show business, i.e. actors and actresses, are fashion-setters in the first place.
Dress designers and makeup artists introduce new styles every now and then to run their
businesses and therefore they hire the showbiz celebrities to meet their ends. Modeling is a
department of showbiz that wholly rotates fashion, for models are paid for being fashionworker. Catwalks are arranged in fashion halls to popularize new variety of dresses.
Similarly, T.V. commercials play a potent role in the fashion of other products. Further,
colleges and universities cannot acquit themselves of the calumny in the present case. At
schools, children are too innocent to indulge in any fashion-practices. However, at college
and above all at universities, the exposure of fashion is too great. Students coming of
remote areas are quite often unable to stand the temptation. Such students, especially girls,
fall too quickly in the habit of becoming ultramodern, thus, losing the morals our society is
proud of.
It will dawn upon us after a careful observation that our society has no genuine fashion
of its own. Our sole practice in this regard is to follow the West. Fashion is indeed the
reflection of a society, its behaviors and customs. Western fashion paints a bleak picture of
the Westdevoid of any moral standards. It is strange, however, that the people of the
Orient, especially Pakistani Muslims, blindly follow the immoral West. Fashion must be
limited and according to the social norms in order to be practiced. Our youth has plenty of
superior things to do and goals to follow than wasting their money and time to cater their
petty wish of becoming fashionable.

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ESSAY. 26

PATRIOTISM
OR
WHY I LOVE PAKISTAN

Outlines
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What does Love for Country Stand for?


Patriotism: The Best Manifestation of Love for the Country
Ideology of Pakistan and My Faithfulness to It
Pakistan: The Reward of a Long, Historic Struggle
A Land Blessed with All Mighty Blessings of Nature
I am Proud to be a Pakistani

Love for country is an instinctual part of human nature. Every one loves his country and
feels utmost pleasure in so doing. Country becomes a living being for a patriotic soul and he
experiences a sublime, ineffable identification of the self with the country. This love
replicates our love for the parents, particularly mother. It is chiefly due to this extreme love
and devotion that we call our country motherland.
Man is always in the need of building strong relationship with other fellow beings.
This relationship stands for the mutual dependence of human beings, so much so that it
takes the shape of a symbiotic relation. Man seeks to form a union of the people in strictly
social and political termsthe social union being society and the political union
country. Nation-state is the strongest as well as largest political unit in modern times, and
it is this phenomenon that we term our country today. We, therefore, feel no reluctance to
identify ourselves as its citizens or members.
Now let us become a little personal in this current discussion. Islamic Republic of
Pakistan is my country. I love Pakistan because she is my motherland. I was born free on
this land; she brought me up and provided me with every kind of facilities required for life.
Pakistan is the political union of four provinces, where people of different ethnicities,
languages and colors live in perfect harmony, sharing their bond of compatriotism. Indeed
they are one, fully united, under the name of Pakistan.
Personally speaking, love for the country is the greatest of all of my feelings. My
country is the flesh of my flesh and bone of my bone. Pakistan was the reward of the
century-long struggle of the Muslims of Subcontinent against the compound of British Rule
and religious bias of Hindus. Only after a long episode of struggle and millions of sacrifices
became it possible that God blessed us with this beautiful piece of landthe land we call
Pakistan, meaning, Holy Land. The day of the creation of Pakistan was 27 Ramadan in
Islamic Calendar, Friday, 14th of August, 1947. The creation of Pakistan could not be, thus,
a mere coincidence or an accidental event of history; instead, it was a divine miracle that
Pakistan came into being on the day of Qurans revelation. Indubitably, Pakistan is the only
country in the world with ideological foundations. Indeed the slogan raised by Quaid-eAzam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his team fully satisfies my ideology of nationalism and
philosophy of life. Therefore, I have rather strong reason to love and serve my country.
Unlike most of the European nations, where there was no struggle carried out in the making
of the nation or country, the freedom manifest in the name of Pakistan could only be won
after a great many sacrifices. Millions of people were killed and the number of homeless,
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penniless refugees was rather high. The Pakistanis are, moreover, a nation that has in its
veins the blood of Islam. The evolution from the status of Indian Muslims to the
dignifying identification of Pakistanis was a direct result of our spiritual leaders prayers,
political leaders struggle and above all divine succor.
It is beyond doubt that all of us owe everything we possess to Pakistan. Our
identity in the world is solely indebted to Pakistan. Pakistan is the land of love, harmony
and religious forbearance. This land is profusely blessed with all mighty blessings of
Nature. My country has high mountains, large rivers, beautiful lakes, lush green fields,
mighty deserts, highly engineered canal system, and above all a spirited, extremely talented
people. We are Pakistanis and I am proud to be so.
ESSAY. 27

MY CONCEPT OF QUALITY EDUCATION


Outlines
1. An Introduction to Quality Education
2. Does Pakistani Education System Represent a Quality Education System?
3. Difference between Pakistani Western Educational Setups

a. Creativity
b. Information Technology

4. Upgrading of Educational Setup, How and When?


5. Epilogue

My concept of quality education does not seek its origin from a system of cramming and
copying. My concept, rather, feeds upon the idea of a progressive thought and polishing of
the students. My concept isnt only a purpose per se, but also an end in itself. Im sure
that my concept isnt crippled with the occupation of proving its raison dtre, for our
system of education is already on the verge of doom, and intriguing minds are in the
search of an alternative.
I am convinced that an obsolete education system, as is ours, cannot hold its own
when measured against the parameters of the world. Were lagging behind by decades as
far as education is concerned. Our educational setup needs radical reforms to introduce a
better, more functional system.
A system where students are like audiocassettes and their teachers tape recorders,
and teachers only job is to record these cassettes, such a system is bound to sink into
annihilation. Communication of a progressive thought that, in turn, modifies ones instinct
of creativity is but the hallmark of a quality education. If were producing nice crammers,
were, in fact, making no original contribution in the global development. Western
countries have gone far ahead of us due to their much more pragmatic systems of
education, where education means making humans instead of making clerks,
constables, politicians or bureaucrats.
Since humans are wise beings, there is no trouble for them to learn from start till
end on an entirely different format. When a child starts his school, he can be taught how
to utter new words and how to assign meaning to those uttered words. By every passing
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level, this ability should be enhanced and polished. Assignments, presentations and
creative projects should be a part of the study. Paper setting and examinational setups also
need to pass through a process of reformation. We should get rid of the monotonous
means of evaluation we have in our education. Examination should be categorized
according to school, college and university stages and it should be made sure that students
take a practical part in the examination.
I believe my concept of quality education will be an aid to intellectual minds to
start a higher study on the issue in question.
ESSAY. 28

PLEASURES OF CHILDHOOD
ESSAY. 29

BEAUTIES OF NATURE
OR
RICHES OF NATURE

Outlines
Manifestation of Gods Artistic Hand in Nature
ESSAY. 30

AGE OF MACHINES
OR
MODERN AGE AND MACHINES
OR
THE ROLE OF MACHINES IN THE MAKING OF MODERN CIVILIZATION

Outlines
1. An Introduction to the Age of Machines
a. Inception of Machines
b. Mans Scientific Progress
2. The Industrial Revolution
3. Importance of Machines in the Present Civilization
a. We Cannot Do Without Machines
b. Machine: An Untiring Alternative of Manpower
4. MachinesOur Masters or Servants?
5. Redefinition of Life in the Age of Machines
a. Modern Mindset and Habits
b. Agrarian Society of Past
c. Industrial and Mechanic Society of Present
6. Epilogue

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It was the 18th century of our Common Era when mankind witnessed the greatest of the
historical revolutions. It was, in fact, a revolution of the birth of machine that we term as
Industrial Revolution. The only revolution of note prior to the industrial one was the
ancient agricultural revolution that historians call Neolithic Revolution.
By the close of 18th century, an industry operated by machines sprang up in
England, which gradually spread in the neighboring countries afterwards. During 19th
century, machines became rampant everywhere in Europe and America. Unlike ancient
days, the modern industry was totally dependent on powerful machines; this situation
continues to the date.
Precisely speaking, manpower was only required to assist these machines in
working properly. The second need of manpower industry was in regard to propel the
machines, set them to work, and stop them. Mans status therefore reduced to that of a
watchman or assistant. In a sense, it was a journey of man from an agricultural age to an
industrial age, so much so that his life radically changed.
Ever since the inception of the machines, the life of our species has become
extremely hectic. Today man is no more a man of leisure as the man of past was fortunate
enough to be. In this age of science and technology, he has to rush all the time to earn
living; the competition for the survival of the fittest has become rather challenging.
Industry and machines continue working round the clock. The machines have become the
master of mankind. The visible sight of our planet from a distance describes that factories
raise their heads everywhere; automobiles supersede the number of men in the world;
airplanes and space shuttles operate every moment; in short, the whole mechanism of life
seems to have become dependent on machines. The modern mindset has grown completely
new habits, which, by and large, express an orientation to machines. Indeed this is a
pathetic situation.
In addition to the merits of machines, there are numerous demerits of the machines
as well. There is no doubt that modern men give value to the machines more than the
fellowmen. Machines, due to extensive fuel burning, have created environmental pollution
on a mega scale and, as such, our earths atmosphere is no longer clean. The rate of
accidents has risen to enormous degree and it is no wonder that modern man considers
them a part of everyday life. In simple words, we can conclude that the man of mechanical
age faces as many problems because of machines as he thinks there are facilities that he
enjoys by their use.
ESSAY. 31

WEDDING CEREMONY IN PAKISTAN


OR

FEATURES OF A TRADITIONAL PAKISTANI WEDDING


Outlines
1. A Snapshot of Pakistani Wedding Ceremonies
2. A Blend of Traditional and Modern Elements
3. Pre-Marriage Goodwill Songs for Happy Married Life of the Couple

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4. Rasm-e-Henna
5. The Wedding
a. The Bridegroom
b. Marriage Procession
c. Nikah Ceremony
6. Brides Departure and New Home
7. Walima

Marriage is an event of great importance in the life of both man and woman. It is a literal
beginning of a new life, in which the two genders join in a bond lasting for life.
The traditional wedding ceremony in Pakistan has a charm of its own. Pakistani
weddings are, by and large, a typical emblem of the Orient. Wests isolated culture cannot
even dream of such hearty and rejuvenating ceremonies as those of Pakistani weddings. A
Pakistani wedding ceremonyparticularly that of Punjabislasts for at least three days.
Before the appointed day of marriage, several customs are followed by both families as a
social practice. Boys and girls assemble at the homes of groom and bride every evening to
sing the conventional goodwill songs. These festive songs are sung for about two weeks
before the wedding.
One day ahead of the wedding date, Rasm-e-Henna is performed by the friends of
the bridegroom on one hand and by the friends of the bride on the other. Both bridegroom
and bride, covered in bridal-wreaths, are seated in the center of each party. Candles are lit in
henna platters, yellow dresses are worn by the youth, henna is applied on hands, and rose
petals are spread all over. Folk songs and cultural dances, such as Luddi and Bhangra,
are the chief features of Rasm-e-Henna. This exciting ceremony ends late at night.
The bridegroom comes to the brides home leading a huge wedding procession,
generally, in a motorcade on the appointed day. A musical band, usually termed as
Military Band, plays before the procession as the bridegroom approaches brides place.
They are warmly welcomed by the brides family. The Dulha is offered a glass of milk in
front of the brides home, which costs him heavily. The sisters and friends of bride demand
a big amount of money as the price of the milk. Afterwards, the procession halts at the
reception hall where the Baratis are offered drinks and other refreshments. Currently, this
custom has changed and marriage halls have replaced traditional reception halls. At next is
the stage of Nikah. A priest and the official Nikah-registrar approach the bridegroom to
conduct the Nikah Ceremony. The bridegroom publicly ratifies Nikah on religious
principles and thence signs the Nikah Nama. When the Nikah ceremony is over, a show
of gunpowder begins and lasts for several minutes. Soon afterwards, the bride departs from
her family with her life partner who takes her to his home in a decorated car.
Everyone seems excited at bridegrooms place. On the couples arrival, a small
rocket is fired. Women and girls of the locality visit bridegrooms house to sight the bride.
This sighting eve entails comments of the visitors regarding the appearance and manners of
the bride. The night to follow is called Bridegrooms Night.
On the following day, the ceremony of Walima is performed. Walima is the
Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH), which has rooted itself deep in Pakistani culture. In fact,
it is a grand feast organized by the bridegroom for all his relatives, especially the family of
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the bride. Walima marks the final stage of a traditional Pakistani wedding. And, in this way,
a happy event of wedding comes to an end.

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LETTER AND APPLICATION WRITING


Letter writing is a social activity, which has been popular in human societies ever since
the earliest known times of history. Correspondence of a certain type, in fact, never ceased
to exist among the humans of ancient cultures. The activity of sending oral messages is very
old that predates our written history; whereas the act of submitting travelers a crude form of
written documents was a later development. Of course, such a development became
possible only after the invention of the system of writing. Although that correspondence
was a rudimentary type of what one might call a letter, the idea of writing to others was
not altogether absent from ancient cultures.
Today, however, the practice of letter writing is gradually getting reduced due to the
existence of modern means of telecommunication. It is indeed, in one way, the blessing of
modern culture that we have emails and text messages as the fastest means of
communication today. Although the combination of satellite and electronic inventions has
reduced the time span on one hand and overcome the geographical limitations on the other,
we still use the same terminology as is used by the physical mail system. For instance, we
use the words like mail, inbox, mailbox, address, subject, sender, delivery, letter, junk
mail, so on and so forth, for our satellite-based correspondence. Likewise, we send emails
and text messages in an identical manner to our acquaintances and loved ones as were sent
the letters. Moreover, certain kinds of applications and interdepartmental or official letters
form an inseparable part of modern administrative setup. The political organization of
modern states gives space to such a system of intradepartmental and interdepartmental
correspondence that is largely based on (official) letters, notifications, and (invited)
applications. Similarly, business letters orient the arena of business, and they have to be
written to keep the world active and busy in the activities of business.
Considering all of these varieties in a broad sense, there may be two basic categories
of letters, namely:
(1) Formal Letters
(2) Informal Letters
Formal Letters include all such letters that do not involve a personal relation. Such letters
are written to press, official departments, and authorities. Moreover, business letters,
applications for job or other applications, invitations, notices, complaints etc. also form a
part of this category. What is important about such letters is that they have a very formal
and to-the-point language in addition to having a uniform subject-matter. These letters
should not start with salutations as my dear sir, my dear or other similar words expressing
intimacy. Instead, it is important to begin such letters straightaway with Sir or Madam.
Some grammars insist that Sir and Madam can be preceded by dear. However, we
suggest our readers to avoid the hackneyed dear salutation, for this word creates an effect
of personal relationship. Moreover, a careful mention of the name/designation and address
of the addressee is of utmost importance in formal letters. However, these details can be
omitted in informal letters if the writer so wills.
Informal Letters include letters to family, relatives and friends. The second name for these
letters is Personal Letters. The contents of informal letters are radically different from the
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contents of formal letters. These letters are, in various ways, an everyday discussion
between two intimate individuals. The only difference between a conversation and an
informal letter being the involved distance. Moreover, an informal letter is a reflection of its
writer. It is the very being of the letter-writer that is incarnated in words and these words are
sent to someone very much endeared. All conventionality is thrown away in such letters,
and informal letters, as the name reflects, do not stumble from the blocks of formalities.
Writing an informal letter is like sending ones remembrance to the person on the other side,
and thus it is important that this remembrance be as much clear and embracive as possible.
The style of such letters is always natural and homely, and the language is simple and
unaffected (from drudgeries of formality and refined expressions). Colloquialism can, to
some extent, creep into the language of the Personal Letters. However, slang is not
admissible in this kind even if the letter is written to a very close friend, and it should be,
therefore, avoided.

Composition of a Letter
We have to follow the rules of a good conversation in a letter in addition to considering the
rules of a good composition. A letter is always subjective and thereby it shares nothing
except for a good dictionwith an essay. Essays are always objective and general, whereas
a letter is always subjective and personal, hence a contact between I and You. When
writing for academic purposes, it is imperative to include a subject before the actual
writing of the letter begins.

The Date
Date is an integral part of a letter. It is to secure the place of letters writing time in history.
Date is, in fact, the simplest and the easiest constituent of a letter, which is usually given no
real consideration. It is why that the date is, in a number of instances, either incorrectly
written or completely skipped.
In a letter, date can be written variablyusing several ways. The date may be written in the
following styles:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

April 20, 2010 (as written in the current book)


20 April, 2010
The 20th April, 2010
The 20th of April, 2010
April 20th, 2010

If one likes, one may insert a period/dot (.) after the year, although this practice has
become extremely rare in the present. For the months with longer names, we can use the
first three/four letters of their names followed by a dot (.) for precision. For instance:
1) Dec. 23rd, 2010
2) 23rd Sept., 2010
3) The 1st of Aug., 2010
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4) Nov. 10, 2010

The Salutation
In formal letters, one can express intimacy using dear before the relation or name of the
addressee. For instance, one can write My Dear Father, My Dear Mother, My Dear Sister,
or just Dear Father, Dear Mother, Dear Sister; however, when writing to a friend, one
should use name after dear as My Dear Ahmad or Dear Ahmad. For official
letters/applications, it is recommended to employ only Sir in case of male and Madam
in case of female. However, a sense of reverence can be expressed using respected before
sir/madam as Respected Sir or Respected Madam. Other formal letters should also follow
the rule of the official letters. Moreover, Dear Sir can be written if already there is some
formal acquaintance, generally that of a business relation, instead of Sir alone.

The Close
This part of the letter is also called Subscription. The essential qualification for this
section is that it should necessarily correspond with the salutation. In easy language, it can
be said that the subscription or close of the letter is a reflection of the salutation. One will
suffer with no difficulty to write a subscription in line with the salutation when one has
already inserted a particular type of salutation. Before writing the salutation, one should be
clear who one is writing to.

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Salutation

Subscription/Close

In a letter to;

Obediently,

Principal, Official Authorities,


Teachers and Business Links
(Formal)

Obediently, yours, or Yours Obediently,

Sir/Madam

Respectfully,
Yours Respectfully,

Dear Sir,
Dear Teacher,
Dear Professor,
In a letter to;

Sincerely,

Newspapers/Editors (Formal)

Sincerely, yours, or Yours Sincerely,

Sir/Madam,

Yours very sincerely,

Dear Sir/Madam

Truly,
Truly, yours, or Yours truly,

In letters to;
Relatives
(Informal)

Affectionately,
and

Friends

Affectionately, yours, or Yours


affectionately,
Yours very affectionately,
Your affectionate son/daughter,
sister/brother,
Yours loving,
Yours very loving,

In letters to;

Sincerely,

Friends

Sincerely, yours, or Yours sincerely,

The Subject
Subject is not a necessity for a letter. However, it is always commendable if one uses the
Subject when writing a letter.

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Letter Sketch
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City)
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
(The head of the newspaper organization)
The Daily Dawn,
(The newspaper title/name)
Karachi
(The head office of the newspaper)
Subject: USE UPPERCASE CHARACTERS AND UNDERLINE THE SUBJECT
Sir,
Introductory Paragraph: It should in no way exceed three sentences. This
should include greetings, short introduction to the purpose of writing or the problem, and
opening of the main discussion.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Main Body: The length of main body depends on the nature of the subject. It may
precisely be pulled to a reasonable length. While writing to a newspaper, the main body
should not only consist of the review of problem, but it should also contain some practical
suggestions for the solution of the problem being discussed. To this end, main body can be
subdivided into two paragraphsone of reviewing problem and the other of suggestions.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
_________
Final Paragraph: In this paragraph, the letter-writer should close the letter in a
formal way, hoping that his letter will find space in the newspaper. Moreover, formal
greetings should be paid in the subscription. Transitional phrase like coming to the end,
towards end or in the final say would last healthy influence if used in this paragraph.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________
Sincerely,
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X.Y.Z.

Some Precautions:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

A Letter to Editor should necessarily discuss some problem(s). Such a form of letter
has basically been designed to draw public attention to those problems of society
that usually remain unsolved.
Never provide any of your personal information. Your name in the letter is XYZ
and your city has been named as ABC.
Do not get into unnecessary details.
In formal letters, such as those to the newspapers, all informal words like my dear,
your loving, your affectionately etc. must be avoided.
The designation of the addressee should properly be written and when writing to a
newspaper, the letter should be directed to the Chief Editor or Editor only.
Moreover, in the location column, the city of the head office of the newspaper
should be named.

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Specimen Letters
1. A condolence letter from Abraham Lincoln to Mrs. Bixby, a Civil War Gold Star
(American Military Award) Mother
(This letter has also been included in famous Hollywood World War II film Saving
Private Ryan. This film is based on the story of saving the last surviving brother of the
four, fighting in World War II. This letter by Abraham Lincoln to Mrs. Bixby is read in the
film as an ideal example of a father of nation to immediate the saving mission.)
Executive Mansion,
Washington,
November 21, 1864
Dear Madam,
I have been shown in the files of the War Department a statement of the AdjutantGeneral of Massachusetts, that you are the mother of five sons who have died gloriously on
the field of battle.
I feel how weak and fruitless must be any word of mine which should attempt to
beguile you from the grief of a loss so overwhelming. But I cannot refrain from tendering to
you the consolation that may be found in the thanks of the Republic they died to save.
I pray that our Heavenly Father may assuage the anguish of your bereavement,
and leave you only the cherished memory of the loved and lost, and the solemn pride that
must be yours, to have laid so costly a sacrifice upon the altar of Freedom.
Yours very sincerely and respectfully,
A. Lincoln
A personal letter of Lord Byron to Goethe
(Written on the eve of his voyage to Greece)
Leghorn,
July 24th, 1823.
Illustrious Sir,
I cannot thank you as you ought to be thanked for the line, which my young friend,
Mr. Sterling sent me of yours; and it would but ill become me to pretend to exchange verses
with him who, for fifty years, has been the undisputed sovereign of European literature. You
must, therefore, accept my most sincere acknowledgements in prose and in hasty prose too;
for I am at the present on my voyage to Greece once more and surrounded by hurry and
bustle, which hardly allow a moment even of gratitude and admiration to express
themselves.
I sailed from Genoa some days ago, was driven back by a gale of wind and have since
sailed and arrived here Leghorn, this morning, to receive on board some Greek passengers
for their struggling country.
Here also I found your lines and Mr. Sterlings letter; and I could not have had a more
favourable omen, a more agreeable surprise, than a word of Goethe, written by his own
hand. I am returning to Greece to see if I can be of any little use there: if ever I come back I
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will pay a visit to Weimar, to offer the sincere homage of one of the many millions of your
admirers.
I have the honour to be, ever and most,
Your obliged,
Noel Byron.
Both of these letters are brief and cogent. They reflect the mastery of their writers over
words and a perfect knowledge of the construction of words into sentences and arranging of
the sentences in a most appealing order. Readers are advised to go through these letters
before they start with the subsequently following letters in this section. It will certainly
deepen their insight and sharpen their knowledge of letter writing.

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Formal Letters
Letter No. 1

A LETTER TO A NEWSPAPER ON THE EVILS OF STREET BEGGING


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
April 20, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: STREET BEGGING BEING A BEDEVILING SOCIAL PROBLEM
NEEDS ATTENTION
Sir,
I should be much obliged if you allow me some space in your esteemed paper. This
will enable me to bring home to your readers that the evils of street begging are becoming
greater by every passing day.
Begging in streets is such a long established custom in our country that it seems to
have become an unbreakable part of society. No bazaar, street, or garden is without beggars.
From children to aged people are in the habit of begging, whereas some of them are healthy
and able to earn living. In most cases, the beggars pester people at their doorsteps or cling to
them while moving from one place to another. Sometimes, child-abduction mafia operates
in this disguise.
Regarding solutions, I believe begging of all sorts is a curse; hence all of its forms
should be banned. Government must take measures to accommodate needy beggars, while
the able-bodied beggars be forced to work. Beggars suffering from infectious ailments
should be hospitalized at governments expense.
I hope my suggestions will be taken up and acted upon before begging paralyzes the
society.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 2

A LETTER TO A NEWSPAPER DRAWING ATTENTION TO THE INSANITARY CONDITION OF


CITY/CITY STREETS
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
May 5, 2010
The Chief Editor,
Daily The News,
Lahore
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Subject: INSANITARY ATMOSPHERE OF THE AREA DEMANDS QUICK


OFFICIAL ATTENTION
Sir,
This instance of writing to your esteemed paper is indeed a way to enable myself to
draw the attention of authorities to the poor sanitary condition of our city.
We have a Corporation and I guess over half a dozen Health Officers. However,
unfortunately, these gentlemen are unaware of the miseries of the citizens. The citizens are
forced to live by heaps of dirt scattered here and there in the flooded streets of insanitary
city slums. Further, our sewerage line has also broken and thus streets have become dirty
ponds. Let the Town Nazim or Sanitary Inspector take a walk through the streets, and I
believe that the disturbing sights and smells will convince him of the necessity of taking
quick steps for sanitation improvement.
I would like to suggest a few points to this end. First, the streets should be provided
with concrete and covered drains. Secondly, every street should be supplied large dustbins
to keep people from throwing filth in streets. Lastly, the citizens should be educated
regarding the importance of sanitation using media and other similar ways.
I hope my suggestions will be taken up and acted upon before an epidemic really breaks
out.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 3

A LETTER TO EDITOR ON THE PROBLEMS OF WORKING WOMEN


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: THE PROBLEMS OF WORKING WOMEN NEED TO BE ADDRESSED
Sir,
The current instance of writing to your daily is indeed a means to enable myself to draw
the attention of authorities to the problems of working women.
Ours is a male-dominated society and a workingwoman faces countless problems here.
The problem of transport is a major concern for the females. The bus and van conductors
are never civilized towards women. Similarly, male gender is dominant in almost all
departments. A woman has to work along with her male mates in a manly way, which is not
a healthy situation for the soft-gender. Moreover, lonely women have no sense of security
when out at work. Ruffians and loafers often chase women in markets and create
disturbances for their free movement.
Some practical measures can offer remedy to this situation. First, ladies transport with
female crew should be introduced. Government should add special seats for women in all
official departments. Women should be spared from hard jobs. Lastly, free movement of
ladies for their daily activities should be insured by state and society.
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I believe my letter will find space in your esteemed paper to highlight these problems.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 4

A LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF A NEWSPAPER ABOUT TRAFFIC MESS ON CITY ROADS


Or
A LETTER TO THE MAYOR OF MUNICIPAL CORPORATION ON THE PROBLEM OF
TRAFFIC JAMS
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Mayor Municipal Corporation,
The Daily Dawn,
A.B.C.
Karachi
Subject: CITIZENS NEED AN IMMEDIATE RELIEF FROM TRAFFIC JAMS
Sir,
The current instance of writing you is indeed a means to enable myself to draw the
attention of authorities to the bad condition of roads and problem of traffic jams.
The evil of traffic jams in addition to worst road conditions has become a permanent
panic for the citizens. It is no doubt that traffic jams and road destruction are the problems
of everyday life. Ditches and cavities emerge to last forever. Despite bad state of roads, no
one bothers to wait. Similarly, traffic jams are always noisy and fussy. Disorderly traffic
paralyzes transportation, and pressure horns further add to the problem. All this is due to the
bad condition of roads and a crippled transportation system.
Quick steps can redeem people of this problem. First, roads should be properly
constructed, maintained, and governed. Secondly, traffic signals should be installed in every
important square. Thirdly, there should be a complete ban on pressure horns. Lastly, speed
limits must be prescribed to avoid road destruction and accidents.
I hope my suggestions will be taken up and acted upon before this problem paralyzes
our society.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 5

A LETTER TO THE EDITOR ON THE INCREASING PROBLEM OF TERRORISM


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
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Karachi
Subject: PROBLEM OF TERRORISM ON INCREASESAVE PAKISANI
PUBLIC!
Sir,
The current instance of writing you is indeed a means to enable myself to draw the
attention of authorities to the increasing problem of terrorism in Pakistan.
Terrorism has become widespread in the recent years, and it is still on a rapid
increase. Our countrymen daily hear about suicide blasts and target killing. Some of them
become victim of such brutalities carried in the name of Islam. All this is enough to scare
peace-loving Pakistani citizens. No true Muslim can favor this type of so-called Jihad. Islam
preaches a message of peace, fraternity and humanity. The Taliban and other foreign-aided
militants want to break Pakistan into pieces.
This dark situation can be changed and days of peace can return. However, this
needs bold steps to be taken by the government. Our government should not waste any more
time in fighting against terror for America; instead all energies should be used to restore its
writ and cope with foreign hand in terrorism. Intelligence agencies and security forces
should be modernized in line with present needs. Religious scholars should also come to aid
government and preach true Islamic teachings. Further, a strict national stance is a need of
the hour to unify our nation.
I hope my letter will find place in your paper.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 6

A LETTER TO THE EDITOR ON THE PROBLEMS/FLAWS/DRAWBACKS OF PREVALENT


EXAMINATION SYSTEM
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: DRAWBACKS AND PROBLEMS OF PREVALENT EXAMINATION
SYSTEM
Sir,
Using the channel of your esteemed newspaper, I want to bring in light the public
opinion about present examination system. Let me highlight a few things here.
It is a fact that our examinational setup is full of flaws; hence, it is no wonder to say
that the current examination system is on the verge of doom. The flaws may be seen on
various sides, such as paper-setting, paper-marking, inspection, time-duration, possibility of
cheating, so on and so forth. The technique of cramming is the most detestable sin of our
examination system. Students make selective preparations, as they are aware of the
repeatedly given so-called important questions; thus, without personal effort and creativity,
they memorize word for word all important questions and get maximum score. Similarly,
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inspection does not come to up to the desired standards. Many a times candidates exchange
their sheets due to poor inspection. Sometimes the inspectors or examiners are even bribed;
mark-sheets are tempered; question papers are leaded out; hence a dangerous situation.
We request to the authorities to form a commission comprising of esteemed
educational experts to work out a better, more practicable and befitting examination system.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 7

A LETTER TO THE EDITOR ON THE BAD/WORSENING SITUATION OF LAW AND


ORDER IN YOUR CITY
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: WORSENING SITUATION OF LAW AND ORDER IN THE CITY
Sir
With the help of your esteemed newspaper, I want to highlight the day-by-day
worsening situation of law and order in the city. I, as a responsible citizen, am extremely
concerned about the growing crime-rate, which demands immediate attention of the
authorities. Let me explain a few facts here below:
Gangs of thieves are active in the city and thefts are occurring regularly.
Similarly, daylight robberies are also on rapid growth. Some big merchants of the city have
become beggars after having lost everything in such robberies. City slums are the pivots of
street crimes. No one dares to walk alone in the less busy streets after it is dark. A big
number of people have lost their valuables in such incidents. Abduction is another major
concern of the city. Rich people are abducted for acquiring money. Minor or individual
rows are commonplace also. Target killing seems to have plagued the city as well. People
have no sense of protection.
Suicide attacks and other bomb blasts add to the graveness of the situation. The
Police Department appears as if it is not bothered about the law and order situation. Some
practical measures can curb these problems and peace can be restored in the city. These
practical measures may include deployment of police squads in sensitive areas, installment
of hidden cameras and checkpoints, private security arrangements and the similar.
I will be grateful if you allow me some space in your newspaper.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 8

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A LETTER TO THE EDITOR ABOUT THE PROBLEMS OF OVERLOADING AND


OVERCHARGING OF THE FARES IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: OVERLOADING AND OVERCHARGING OF FARES IN PUBLIC
TRANSPORT
Sir,
The current instance of writing to your esteemed paper is indeed a means to draw the
attention of authorities to the problems of overloading and overcharging in public transport.
Let me tell you a few facts regarding these problems below here.
There is no proper system of transportation in Pakistan. Local route van and buses
overload and overcharge the passengers. Nobody cares for the humanity of the passengers,
and they are treated by the drivers and conductors as lowly creatures. The class of
transporters has their exclusive concern with fare and they perceive of passengers not as
humans, but five, ten or twenty rupee person. Moreover, the government has announced an
official fare for different routes, which is generally displayed inside vans and buses.
However, conductors have a way of their own. They charge whatever amount they want,
and if somebody resists, they force him to get down. Traffic sergeants seem to have no
interest in this situation. Moreover, overloading has already caused several casualties.
People fall from the buses and reach hospitals, but still no one tends to the situation.
Government should take immediate notice of the situation. Transporters should be
given a code to follow. They should not become the masters of the passengers. Inspection
should be done by the government on secret basis and responsible persons should be
punished. This is the only way that the respect and money of the passengers will be saved
and transportation values be strengthened.
I hope my letter will be allowed some space in your newspaper.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 9

LETTER TO THE EDITOR ON THE PROBLEM OF DRUG-ADDICTION


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
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Subject: ATTENTION REQUIRED FOR THE WORSENING PROBLEM OF


DRUG-ADDICTION
Sir,
I should be much obliged if you allow me some space in your esteemed paper. This
will enable me to draw the public as well as official attention to the ever-growing problem
of drug-addiction.
We all know that drug-addiction is a big problem of our society, which is worsening
day by day. It is leaving extremely negative effects on the people, especially on youth.
There is no proper education regarding the problem of drug-addiction in our country, hence
masses are reckless of it. Concerned official department is also heedless due to the corrupt
structure. Drug-addiction has almost paralyzed the society, as the society has now come to
standstill. City slums and overcrowded areas are the centers of drug-addiction.
The government on the issue of drug-addiction should take immediate measures. The
concerned department should be made active to cure the problem of drug-addiction.
Moreover, common people should be educated in this regard using mass media and public
workshops. Public should mutually cooperate to check drug-addiction and other similar
problems on their own.
I hope my suggestions will be taken up and acted upon before we are doomed.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 10

A LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF A NEWSPAPER ABOUT VULGARITY IN FILMS


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: FILMS NEED TO BE CENSORED DUE TO VULGARITY
Sir,
I will be much obliged if I am allowed some space in your esteemed daily. This
will serve me as a channel to draw official attention towards the potential issue of vulgarity
in films.
As it is in the notice of the public as well as media that the standard of filmmaking in Pakistan is on a rapid decadence. The moral heights and the purity of language
that were once the specialty of our films have now changed into the nadirs of obscenity and
vulgar language. It appears to us that there is no official regulation or ethic code prescribed
for the film industry. It is in everyones knowledge that government has inducted a Censor
Board for the censorship of vulgarity from the films. However, no effect has been noticed of
the presence of this regulating body on the cinema screen. The matter of fact is that our
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youth is being led into moral decadence, and the composed society of ours is, due to the
vulgarity in films, is gradually getting exposed.
I am hopeful that the government officials and concerned individuals will pay
immediate attention on the potential issue discussed in this letter.
Yours sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 11

A LETTER TO A REPUTED NATIONAL DAILY ON THE POOR/DECLINING STANDARD OF


EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: THE ALARM OF THE POOR STANDARD OF EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
Sir,
I will be much obliged if I am allowed some space in your esteemed daily. This
will serve me as a channel to draw official attention towards the potential issue of the
declining standard of education in the country.
It is a sad fact that the standard of education in Pakistan has seen a gradual decline
during the past decade. Unfortunately, no concrete measures were taken by the government
throughout our national history regarding the improvement of education. We still feel the
lack of a central policy on education, as the people are fed up with new experiments
conducted every now and then. Moreover, the private education sector has worsened the
problem. There is a severe lack of facilities in the government schools and colleges. Further,
none of our universities is currently ranked as among the top thousand universities of the
world. The private education sector adds to the problem. There is a host of private schools
and colleges everywhere. Moreover, high ratio of fees, mutually different uniforms and
syllabi, inexperienced teachers with comparatively low education, so on and so forth, are all
the hallmark of the private educational institutions.
It is but inevitable now that the government take some effective measures to
reverse the situation. All government schools and colleges should be facilitated in line with
modern needs. Our Federal Government should adopt a national accreditation policy to
issue NOC to the new applicants as well as to evaluate the existing private institutions.
I am quite optimistic that my voice, the voice of the public, will be heard and my
proposals will be taken up and acted upon.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.

Letter No. 12

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A LETTER TO THE EDITOR ON THE EVIL OF FOOD ADULTERATION


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: THE PROBLEM OF FOOD ADULTERATION AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH
Sir,
I will be much obliged if I am allowed some space in your esteemed daily. This
will serve me as a channel to draw official attention towards the potential issue of food
adulteration.
Food adulteration is not new in human history, and it is why that our Holy Prophet
warned those to be given severe punishments who

Letter No. 13

A LETTER TO A NATIONAL DAILY ON THE POTENTIAL ISSUE OF SMOKING IN


EXAMINATION HALL
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Editor,
The Nation,
Lahore
Subject: THE HARMS OF SMOKING IN EXAMINATION HALL
Sir,
I will be extremely grateful if I am allowed some space in your esteemed daily.
This will indeed get me a chance to draw official attention towards the harms of smoking in
examination hall.
It has been on several instances observed that the examinees unhesitatingly smoke
in examination halls. The reason behind this act of theirs is that, as the examinees excuse,
they are by this way able to think clearly and recollect ideas. Certainly, this excuse is in no
way justifiable. In fact, the most number of examinees do not smoke, and the smoke of
cigarettes becomes a panic for them. Since the smoke permeates the hall-air, they cannot
work handily, and it is due to the fact that the non-smokers generally feel giddy in such an
atmosphere. It is strange that even the examiners and inspection authorities do not object to
or curtail the practice of smoking in examination halls; rather, they very often smoke
themselves. This practice also goes against the code of ethics. Further, there is the
possibility of the hall getting caught in fire, which may very likely cause a big loss of life
and money.
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On the basis of the above enumerated grounds, I believe that the practice of
smoking in examination halls should be banned without delay. I am sure that my voice, the
voice of the majority, will be heard among the authorities.
Truly,
X.Y.Z.

Letter No. 14

A LETTER TO A NEWSPAPER ON THE PROBLEM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: THE HARMS OF POLLUTION TO OUR ENVIRONMENT
Sir,
I will be much obliged if I am allowed some space in your esteemed daily. This
will serve me as a channel to draw official attention towards the potential issue of
environmental pollution.

Letter No. 15

A LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF A NEWSPAPER ON THE WORSENING PROBLEM OF


UNEMPLOYMENT
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Chief Editor,
The Daily Dawn,
Karachi
Subject: EVER-GROWING UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG EDUCATED YOUTH
Sir,
I will be much obliged if I am allowed some space in your esteemed daily. This
will serve me as a channel to draw official attention towards the potential problem of
unemployment.

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Letter No. 16

A LETTER TO THE EDITOR OF A FAMOUS NEWSPAPER, COMPLAINING ABOUT POWER


CRISIS
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
10 June, 2009
The Editor,
The Frontier Post,
Peshawar
Subject: THE POWER CRISIS AND ITS EFFECTS ON EVERYDAY LIFE
Sir,
It will be a great honor for me if my letter is given some space in the columns of
your reputed daily. It will certainly serve our primary end to invite official attention towards
the problems created by the ongoing power crisis in the country.
It is a fact that the current power crisis has become the biggest as well as longest
crisis of our national history. It has, beyond doubt, made hell of our life. Not to speak of the
load shedding factor, even the supply of electricitywhatever hours it is suppliedis
unsatisfactory. It would have been acceptable if it were only about the load shedding thing,
but, in fact, the unscheduled load shedding has added to the problem. It is the worst part of
the story, let me say, that the concerned ministry has not been able to issue a schedule for
the power stoppage. The power supply is generally terminated by Wapda power stations on
critical moments; when it is the office time; when it is the cooking time; and many a times
at night. Those people who cannot afford generators have become psycho cases because of
the unbearable heat, closure of businesses, and other similar hindrances caused in everyday
life by the long duration power failure. The matter of fact is that our nights have become
sleepless and days workless. Neither politicians nor government officials are ready to hear
the voice of the miserable public, let own solving the problem. It is an ironic situation for a
modern state, a nuclear power par excellence, that she is unable to facilitate her people in
21st century by generating enough electricity.
I hope my letter will pull the attention of the concerned authorities before there
erupts a strong agitation against the government ultimately changing into civil disobedience.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.

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Application/Official Letter Sketch


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City)
20 April, 2010
Designation of the Authority,
(e.g. The Governor Punjab,)
Location of the Seat
(e.g. Lahore)
Subject: USE UPPERCASE CHARACTERS AND UNDERLINE THE SUBJECT
Sir,
Introductory Paragraph: It should be kept within a limit of one to two sentences. This
should include greetings, short introduction to the purpose of writing or the problem, and
opening of the main discussion.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Main Body: The length of main body depends on the nature of the subject. It may precisely
be pulled to a reasonable length; but it must not be too lengthy in applications. The chief
objective of writing should be discussed in this passage without indulging in any
irrelevancies. If it is a job-application, give details of your age, your educational
background, your experience and what makes you qualify for this job in this section.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________
Final Paragraph: In this paragraph, the applicant should close the application in a formal
way, hoping for the best. Moreover, formal greetings should be paid in the subscription.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________
Sincerely/Obediently,
X.Y.Z.

Hints for Writing Application


1. An application differs from a letter in at least two major ways: (i) an application is
always addressed to an authority (generally official), and (ii) the text of an application is
smaller and more to-the-point than a letter.
2. Application does not include any suggestions. Instead, an application may contain request
or demand. Job application is, in fact, a request for being accepted in an offered job.
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3. Some grammars suggest a way of writing Resume/Curriculum Vitae in applications that


is radically against the rule of application writing. Resume/CV should be written after the
close, as a CV is always, being a separate sheet of facts, enclosed with the written
application. Therefore, it is incorrect to add a CV before the subscription of the applicant
(X.Y.Z. for examinational purposes).

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1. GRADUATE LADY TEACHER WANTED IN A LOCAL SCHOOL (ADVERTISEMENT)


Or
WRITE AN APPLICATION FOR THE POST OF GRADUATE LADY TEACHER ADVERTISED IN
NEWSPAPER.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Principal,
Bab-ul-Ilm Public School,
ABC
Subject: APPLICATION AGAINST THE ADVERTISED POST OF GRADUATE LADY
TEACHER
Sir/Madam,
This letter is in response to your advertisement in the daily Dawn of 1st April, 2010,
inviting applications against the post of graduate lady teacher.
I am twenty years old and a graduate. I took my B.A. degree in 1st division from
Punjab University last year. My electives were Economics and Persian. I have been working
as a primary school teacher since March 2009 in a local school. I am mentally and
physically fit and have a good taste for teaching. I believe I have all educational and other
qualifications held mandatory for this post. I will happily work hard to give every
satisfaction.
I am enclosing herewith copies of testimonials in addition to my CV. I hope that I
will be given a chance to prove my ability.
Obediently, yours,
X.Y.Z.
Curriculum Vitae
Full Name
X.Y.Z.
Father Name
I.J.K.
Religion
Islam
Nationality
Pakistani
Domicile
Punjab (ABC)
Details Below
Educational
Background
Matriculation
From Gujranwala Board in 2005 in 1st division
(Science)
Intermediate
From Gujranwala Board in 2007 in 1st division
(F.Sc.)
Graduation
From Punjab University in 2009 in 1st division
(B.A.)
Work
1-year experience of working as a teacher of primary
Experience
classes at a reputed school of the city.
Reference
M.N.O.
Contact Details
Examination Hall, ABC
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2. WRITE AN APPLICATION TO THE SECRETARY HIGHER EDUCATION FOR THE


GRANTING OF SCHOLARSHIP FOR HIGHER STUDIES ABROAD.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Secretary Higher Education Commission,
Islamabad
Subject: REQUEST FOR BEING GRANTED SCHOLARSHIP FOR HIGHER
STUDIES ABROAD
Sir,
I am writing you to present my case for being awarded a scholarship to continue my
studies abroad. This application is based on the notion that I deserve such an award owing
to my excellent academic record.
Sir, I have completed my graduation in distinction, securing top position in district.
Now I am ambitious to have a masters degree in International Law. Unfortunately, no
university in Pakistan offers this course. Thus, I am unable to find a way out. However, a
great many universities in foreign countries offer course in International Law. To my
misfortune, I am come of a poor family; therefore, I cannot afford to study abroad on my
own. I request Higher Education Commission to assist me in this regard. Please consider my
case for the granting of a Study-Abroad Scholarship. I will be extremely grateful in case
my application is entertained.
I hope my case will be given due consideration.
Obediently,
X.Y.Z.
3. WRITE AN APPLICATION TO THE GENERAL MANAGER OF A TEXTILE MILLS FOR THE
JOB OF A FEMALE SECRETARY.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The General Manager,
Sitara Textile Mills,
Faisalabad
Subject: APPLICATION FOR THE VACANT POSITION OF FEMALE
SECRETARY
Sir,
I came to know from the advertisement that your office needs a female secretary. I
consider myself a befitting candidate for this post on various grounds.
I am a graduate and only 21 years of age. Further, I have 2-year experience of
working as office secretary in a multinational firm. My fluency of English language is
excellent, whereas I also know all important computer operations. I have always been active
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and smart at work, as all of my ex-colleagues held high opinion about my personality and
skills. My expertise on managing documents was especially admired.
In accordance with your demand, I attach herewith my resume. I hope my
application will be given due consideration.
Faithfully, yours,
X.Y.Z.
Resume
Full Name
X.Y.Z.
Father Name
I.J.K.
Religion
Islam
Nationality
Pakistani
Domicile
Punjab (ABC)
Educational
Background
Matriculation
From Gujranwala Board in 2005 in 1st division
(Science)
Intermediate
From Gujranwala Board in 2007 in 1st division
(F.Sc.)
Graduation (B.A.)
From Punjab University in 2009 in 1st division
Work Experience
2-year experience of working as Office Secretary in a
national firm.
Reference
M.N.O.
Contact Details
Examination Hall, ABC
4. APPLICATION TO THE PRINCIPAL FOR THE ISSUING OF COLLEGE CHARACTER
CERTIFICATE.
Examination Hal,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Principal,
Government Degree College,
A.B.C.
Subject: APPLICATION FOR THE ISSUING OF COLLEGE CHARACTER
CERTIFICATE
Sir,
May I humbly request you to issue me the character certificate of my college career?
I urgently require it to apply for a job offered by a multinational company. Below are the
particulars regarding my stay at college:
1. I joined the college as first year student in 2004 and was held in high opinion by my
teachers.
2. I passed Intermediate (F.Sc.) in distinction in 2006 and was awarded scholarship for
having obtained high 1st division.
3. My passing of B.A. came about in 2008 and again I secured 1st division.
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4. I was very regular at college and my attendance in all subjects remained above 90%.
5. I also took part in sports and debates and won different prizes for the college.
6. Nobody ever complained about my code and conduct, for I was a disciplined student.
My behavior towards teachers and other staff was full of respect.
Please mention these facts in the character certificate and issue it to me within this
week. I will be grateful for this act of kindness.
Obediently, yours,
X.Y.Z.
5. WRITE AN APPLICATION FOR THE REMISSION OF FINE (FOR BEING ABSENT).
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Principal,
Government College for Boys,
A.B.C.
Subject: REMISSION OF THE FINE CHARGED FOR ABSENCE
Sir,
It is respectfully stated that I am unable to pay the fine I have been charged for being
absent from the college. This request has many logical grounds to be backed with.
I could not attend college for the first three weeks of January due to pneumonia. The
disease prolonged itself despite I continued to take medicine. Since no other student goes to
the college from my village, as I live in the remotest area of the district, I could neither send
an application nor a message by some other means.
Sir, I belong to a very poor family. Moreover, I work in part time to pay for my
studies; my father is a laborer and our family of seven members is living hand to mouth.
Further, I have also attached a medical certificate issued from regional civil hospital.
Therefore, I request you to relieve me from the extra burden of Rs. 450 and remit my fine.
I hope my application will be considered kindly and my fine be remitted.
Obediently, yours,
X.Y.Z.
6. WRITE AN APPLICATION TO THE SECRETARY EDUCATION FOR THE OPENING OF
PRIMARY/MIDDLE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Secretary Education (Punjab),
Lahore
Subject: OPENING OF A PRIMARY/MIDDLE SCHOOL FOR GIRLS
Sir,
It is humbly stated that we, the residents of village R.S., district Lahore, want to
bring to your kind notice that our village does not have a primary/middle school for girls.
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The Government of Punjab is trying utmost to spread education everywhere; however, it is


sad that in the present age of science, our village is still deprived of education for females.
Most of the parents keep their daughters uneducated and ignorant due to this factor.
However, a few rich parents send their daughters for education to other villages or cities.
This is a very hard exercise for all of us. Let me tell you that a school can be opened in our
village without much expenditure. The idle-sitting educated girls of the village can be
employed as teachers to fill the staff. Further, vacant government buildings of our village,
which are quite a few, can be used for the school purposes.
I hope our application will be given due consideration and entertained.
Obediently,
X.Y.Z.
7. WRITE AN APPLICATION TO THE PRINCIPAL OF YOUR COLLEGE REQUESTING TO
GRANT YOU 15 DAYS LEAVE.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Principal,
Government College for Women,
A.B.C.
Subject: LEAVE FOR 15 DAYS REQUIRED FOR MEDICAL TREATMENT
Madam,
I have not been feeling very good for a few past days. Yesterday, I had a complete
medical checkup and the doctor, a famous physician of the region, advised me to have a
minimum rest of two weeks. I was given permission by the doctor during the previous
checkup to continue my college, for the fever then seemed under control. However, the
situation worsened the day before yesterday and I was admitted to our family doctors clinic
immediately. After the checkup, it was discovered that the fever had elongated and for a
complete recovery, it might take a period of two weeks.
Therefore, it is humbly requested to you that I be granted 15 days leave, so that I
can take rest to escape further running down of health. I am hopeful that my application will
be treated kindly and my request will be accepted.
Obediently, yours,
X.Y.Z.
8. WRITE AN APPLICATION TO THE D.I.G. POLICE ON THE BAD/WORSENING
SITUATION OF LAW AND ORDER IN YOUR CITY.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The D.I.G.,
A.B.C. (Division)
Subject: WORSENING SITUATION OF LAW AND ORDER IN THE CITY
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Sir
The purpose of todays writing is to bring to your kind notice the day-by-day
worsening situation of law and order in the city. I am, as a responsible citizen, extremely
concerned about the growing crime-rate.
As you already know that thieves are active in the city and thefts are occurring
regularly. Similarly, daylight robberies are also on rapid growth. Some big merchants of the
city have become beggars after having lost everything in these robberies. City slums are the
pivots of street crimes. No one dares to walk alone in the less busy streets after it is dark. A
big number of people have lost their valuables in such incidents. Abduction is another major
concern of the city. Rich people are abducted for acquiring money. Minor or individual
rows are commonplace also. Target killing seems to have plagued the city as well. People
have no sense of protection.
Suicide attacks and other bomb blasts add to the graveness of the situation. The
Police Department appears as if it is not bothered about the law and order situation. Sir, if
your department does not give protection to the citizens, who will guard them? Your
attention to such issues can save hundreds of lives.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
9. REPLY TO AN ADVERTISEMENT FOR THE POSITION OF A CLERK/JUNIOR CLERK.
Advertisement
Wanted a young man with reasonable knowledge of English and Urdu for Railway
Office. State qualification, age, experience, if any, and minimum pay acceptable.
Apply to the Manager, Railway Corporation Stores, Lahore.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
20 April, 2010
The Manager,
Railway Corporation Stores,
Lahore
Subject: APPLICATION FOR THE VACANCY OF CLERK/JUNIOR CLERK
Sir,
In response to your advertisement in The Dawn daily of 10th April, 2010, for the
vacancy of clerk/junior clerk with the compulsory knowledge of English and Urdu for
Railway Office, I beg respectfully to offer my services.
I am a graduate and only 21 years of age. Further, I have 1-year experience of
working as a Junior Clerk in Lahore Development Authority. My fluency of English
language is excellent, whereas Urdu is my mother language. I also know all important
computer operations. I have always been active and smart at work, as all of my colleagues
hold high opinion about my personality and skills. My expertise on managing documents
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and other clerical work is especially admired. I am ready to accept whatever salary is
announced by the department.
In accordance with the departmental requirements, I attach herewith my resume. I
hope my application will be given due consideration.
Sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Resume
Full Name
X.Y.Z.
Father Name
I.J.K.
Religion
Islam
Nationality
Pakistani
Domicile
Punjab (Lahore)
Educational
Background
Matriculation
From Lahore Board in 2005 in 1st division
(Science)
Intermediate (F.Sc.)
From Lahore Board in 2007 in 1st division
Graduation (B.A.)
From Punjab University in 2009 in 1st division
Work Experience
1-year experience of working as a clerk in Lahore
Development Authority.
Reference
M.N.O.
Contact Details
Examination Hall, ABC

10. WRITE AN APPLICATION/OFFICIAL LETTER TO THE NAZIM OF YOUR CITY


REGARDING THE POOR SANITARY CONDITION AND BROKEN SEWERAGE LINE OF YOUR
AREA.
Or
WRITE AN APPLICATION TO THE MAYOR OF YOUR CITY ABOUT THE POOR SANITARY
CONDITION OF YOUR AREA.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
April 20, 2010
The District Nazim,
ABC

The Mayor,
ABC

Subject: POOR SANITARY CONDITION OF THE AREA DEMANDS QUICK


OFFICIAL ATTENTION
Sir,
The purpose behind writing you today is to bring home an extremely important but
constantly ignored issue. I want you and other concerning authorities to have a look at the
poor sanitary condition of our area.
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It is true that we have a Health and Sanitary Corporation and I guess over half a dozen
Health Officers. However, unfortunately, none of these gentlemen shows concern for the
miseries of the citizens. The citizens are forced to live by heaps of dirt scattered here and
there in the flooded streets of insanitary city slums. Further, our sewerage line has also
broken and thus streets have become dirty ponds. Let the Sanitary Inspector take a walk
through the streets, and, I believe, he will immediately get convinced when having been
once in this insanitary atmosphere.
Since it is a public issue, I would like to suggest a few things. First, the streets should be
provided with concrete and covered drains. Second, every street should be supplied large
dustbins to keep people from throwing filth in the streets. Lastly, the citizens should be
educated regarding the importance of sanitation using media and other similar ways.
I hope you, as the chief authority in the city, will give some consideration to this issue
and take all necessary measures before an epidemic really breaks out.
Obediently,
X.Y.Z.
11. WRITE AN APPLICATION TO THE PRINCIPAL OF YOUR COLLEGE ABOUT THE
SHORTAGE OF SPORTS FACILITIES IN COLLEGE.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
21 April, 2010
The Principal,
Government ABC College,
A.B.C.
Subject: SHORTAGE OF SPORTS FACILITIES IN THE COLLEGE
Sir,
Respectfully, it is stated that our college lacks the facilities of sports that almost
every college offers. After having waiting for a long time, we consider it a high time to
bring this problem into your kind notice.
It is no doubt that ours is a big college of the city. It not only accommodates the
majority of the students of our city, but it also welcomes hundreds of students coming from
adjacent areas. As a host of both urban and rural students, the responsibility of the college to
facilitate the students grows several times. However, the case of our college is otherwise.
The thing that has been desperately felt is the shortage of sports facilities. There is no
playground in the college. Moreover, the nominal facilities offered to the sports section are
also inadequate. Games like hockey, volleyball, handball, kabadi, and squash are always
ignored, whereas the teams of cricket and football are ill-equipped. Further, the sportsmen
are not given any relaxation from the tight study schedule. It is why neither of our two
teams reached victory-stand in the university tournaments.
Since extracurricular activities, such as games, are also a part of healthy
education, we are optimistic that you will take an instant notice of the shortage of sports
facilities in the college. We should not forget that a healthy body has a healthy brain.
Obediently,
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X.Y.Z.

12. WRITE AN APPLICATION TO THE EXECUTIVE ENGINEER (ELECTRICITY) ABOUT THE


POWER BREAKDOWN IN YOUR AREA/ZONE.
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
21 April, 0202
Executive Engineer (Electricity),
D.E.F. Division,
A.B.C.
Subject: UNSCHEDULED FAILURE OF POWER
Sir,
The purpose of writing to your office is to draw your attention to the continual
breakdown of power in our zone.
It is noticeable that this is not the complaint of only our locality, but almost all
adjacent areas suffer with the same problem. I live in the western zone of the city, the
locality called S.T.U. People have been tired with lodging complaints every now and then,
for the response from the authorities has never been encouraging. The S.D.O. is, in fact,
responsible for this suffering of ours. Despite our applications, he has not given any
consideration to the issuenot even to issue a schedule for the power outages.
Sir, it is 21st century, but still our nights are dark and days perspiring. We have
been denied our basic right of energy i.e. electricity, for which we have to pay heavy bills
every month. Moreover, the water supply is also affected due to the power breakdown. All
this has made our area into an inferno.
Now it is my request to you on the behalf of a whole locality that you take
immediate steps to fix the problem. More dutiful individuals should be assigned
responsibilities. A schedule should also be issued, and electricity should be resumed in the
morning and evening at least, if not more.
Obediently,
X.Y.Z.
13. A LETTER TO THE MINISTRY OF HEALTH GIVING SOME SUGGESTIONS TO
ERADICATE SMOKING FROM SOCIETY
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
March 23, 2008
The Secretary,
Ministry of Health,
Islamabad
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Subject: GIVING SUGGESTIONS ON ERADICATING SMOKING FROM SOCIETY


Sir,
I want to draw your kind attention towards the ever-growing problem of smoking
in our society. The issue of smoking certainly demands a sincere consideration.
Smoking is very much an addiction like the addiction of drugs. It is an interesting
fact that all cigarette-packets bear the caution that smoking is injurious to health. However,
ironically, the number of smokers is on a rapid increase. The youth is the primary prey of
the smoking-cancer. Let alone the boys, now even the girls have begun smoking quite
liberally. Certainly, this is an alarming situation, which seems to be on its worst.
I personally feel inclined to say that the time is ripe to take effective steps against
the problem to eradicate it from the society once for all. I am obliged to suggest some
measures in this regard, as below:
1. The publicity of tobacco products on T.V. and radio should be banned immediately.
2. Public workshops, seminars and walks should be organized nationwide to raise the
level of awareness regarding the harms of smoking.
3. Smoking should be declared prohibited in transports and at all public places.
4. Well planned anti-smoking campaign should be launched using electronic and print
media.
5. Civil society workers and NGOs should play an active as well as proactive role in
this particular issue.
6. The ratio of taxes on tobacco products should be doubled as to discourage the buyer
from buying any tobacco products resulting due to the high prices.
I am sure that if these steps are effectively taken, the result will be very fruitful
and there will be healthy changes in the society within months.
Faithfully,
X.Y.Z.

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Informal Letters
Letter No. 1

A LETTER TO THE TEACHER THANKING HIM FOR THE GUIDANCE HE PROVIDED YOU IN
YOUR STUDIES/PREPARATION OF EXAMINATION
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
May 10, 2010
Subject: EXPRESSING GRATITUDE TO THE TEACHER FOR HIS GUIDANCE IN STUDIES
Respected Teacher,
Assalam-O-Alaikum!
I was much excited to have received your kind letter yesterday. Thank you very
much sir for expressing your concern through this letter and remembering me. I am doing
fine in my studies as well as enjoying a good health.
Since it is, as a student, my duty to reply to your letter, I have decided to write
you back in detail immediately. I want to inform you that I have obtained A-Grade in the
Board examination. The result was announced only a few days ago. Every one is extremely
happy on this remarkable success of mine. This brilliant performance is certainly indebted
to your benevolent guidance that you provided me in the preparation of the Board
examination. My parents also express a sense of gratitude and thank you for your selfless
assistance. Sir, I will for ever more remember you in my happy memories as well as prayers
for this act of kindness. May Allah Almighty bestow upon you a very good health and all
the blessings of life. Amen!
I will soon pay a personal visit to your home to express my feelings of gratitude.
With regards,
Yours obediently,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 2

A LETTER TO YOUR FATHER REQUESTING HIM FOR INCREASE IN YOUR MONTHLY


ALLOWANCE

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
May 20, 2011
Subject: REQUEST FOR INCREASE IN MONTHLY ALLOWANCE
My Dear Father,
I received your very kind letter this noon. The news of your promotion came like a glad
news in the nostalgic moments of hostel life, and I am extremely happy as to have been
informed about this healthy development. Dear dad, I congratulate you from the recess of
my heart.
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Furthermore, I hope that everyone at home is doing fine. I was a little anxious about
moms health, for she was not well for quite some time; but your letter brought me a sense
of satisfaction that mothers health is good now. Moreover, you will also be delighted with
the information that my performance in studies has greatly improved. You can call it now
excellent.
Taking advantage of this occasion, I want to tell you something very important. I have
been having hard times in meeting hostel and tuition expenses for some time. My tuition
fee, hostel rent, and other living expenses have almost doubled in the recent months.
Similarly, every educational item has witnessed price-hike as well. In such circumstances, it
has become extremely difficult for me to meet all of my expenses in the current monthly
allowance. Thus, it is my request to my beloved father that you increase my monthly
allowance by Rs. 2500. This will really help me in continuing my studies with peace of
mind.
Pay special compliments to mother.
Affectionately, yours,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 3

A LETTER TO YOUR YOUNGER BROTHER, WHO IS STUDYING IN COLLEGE, POINTING HIM


OUT THE EVILS OF CRAMMING

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
March 23, 2009
Subject: EVILS OF CRAMMING AND THE MEANS OF GOOD STUDY
Very Dear Ali,
I was delighted to have received your letter yesterday. Thank you for the prayers.
I am doing fine and I am sure you will be enjoying your college life and progress in studies.
As you have stated in your letter the differences between the school and college
atmosphere, I understand that there is a big gulf between the life of the two stages. It is my
advice to you that you study regularly and attentively even at college. I know that the
majority of the students are in the habit of cramming their lessons from guidebooks and
other notes. They learn nothing in this way but lose what their minds possess.
Here is a caution for you: you should know that the cramming habit destroys a
students creative genius. When cramming, a student does not use his own brain and
depends totally on the cramming. Hence, his power of thinking gradually dies out. I
strongly recommend you to use your own mind in your studies by keeping yourself away
from cramming. Further, you should seek the guidance of your teachers for preparing yours
lessons instead of using other short-cuts.
I am quite optimistic that you will act upon my advice.
With best regards,
Yours Affectionately,
X.Y.Z.
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Letter No. 4

A LETTER TO THE FRIEND CONGRATULATING HIM ON HIS BRILLIANT


SUCCESS/PERFORMANCE IN EXAMINATION
Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
May 10, 2008
Subject: CONGRATULATION TO FRIEND ON HIS BRILLIANT SUCCESS IN EXAMINATION
Assalam-O-Alaikum Dear Ahmad,
I was extremely excited to learn from your letter about your brilliant performance
in the Intermediate examination. It was a great news that filled me with a sense of joy as
well as relief. I am sure this success is a great moment of joy for you and your family.
In fact, I was keenly waiting for the announcement of your result. My joy knew
no bounds when I learnt that you had secured high 1st division in F.Sc. My friend, I
congratulate you from the inner recesses of my heart on this remarkable performance. I do
hope that you will show an equally brilliant performance in your future examinations and
will always stand above the rest. I also expect that you will arrange a grand feast on this
occasion of jubilation inviting all of your classmates and friends.
Please express my Salaam and compliments to your mom and dad.
With best wishes,
Yours sincerely,
X.Y.Z
Letter No. 5

A LETTER TO YOUR FATHER INFORMING HIM OF YOUR PROGRESS IN STUDIES


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
April 21, 2006
Subject: INFORMING FATHER ABOUT PROGRESS IN STUDIES
My Dear Daddy,
It was an unspeakable excitement to have received your affectionate letter in the
hostel. My feeling of joy was on climax after reading it, and it is why I liked to share the
joy-bringing words of yours with my roommates. Certainly, this letter has offered the effect
of a healing medicine in the panic of nostalgia. I am glad to have the news that every one of
our family members is enjoying good health.
As you have asked me in your letter to inform you about my progress in studies,
you will be pleased to know that I am paying real attention on my studies. Due to the deeper
concentration, I have shown a very high performance in the college mid-term tests. I stood
2nd in the class. Now, I am quite hopeful that, God-willing, I will repeat my excellent
performance in the final examination with a hope of standing 1st in the class. To your
further joy, I am very optimistic to secure a position in the Board results. Please, pray for
my success unceasingly.
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Pay my compliments to mom and love to young Ali.


With regards,
Yours affectionately,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 6

A LETTER TO THE FRIEND EXPRESSING CONDOLENCE ON THE DEATH OF HIS MOTHER


Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
February 28, 2008
Subject: CONDOLING THE DEATH OF FRIENDS MOTHER
Dear Ahmad,
I was really shocked to hear the news of the untimely death of your mother. May
her soul rest in peace and her grave be a place of Paradise under Divine benediction. Amen!
Ahmad, you should remember that Allah Almighty does whatever He likes. It is a
fact that we all have to taste death sooner or later. We can do nothing in this matter but to
for the forgiveness of departing souls. The best thing to do after someones death is to recite
Holy Quran and invoke Allahs mercy through supplications.
Your mothers death is indeed a great loss to your family. However, I advise you
to bear this loss patiently; as it is the promise of Allah in Holy Quran:
Verily, Allah is with those who are patient.
I will, God-willing, visit you soon for offering Fatehah. Please convey my condolence to
your father as well.
With best wishes,
Yours sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 7

A LETTER TO YOUR FATHER EXPRESSING YOUR FEELING OF DISLIKE FOR THE HOSTEL
LIFE

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
January 1, 2011
Subject: THE PROBLEMS OF HOSTEL LIFE
Dear Papa,
It was a moment of thrill when the postman delivered me your letter today
afternoon. After reading it, I could not wait to reply later. So, I have just forsaken every
other activity to write back to my dear Papa. Indeed it is due to the grace of God that every
one at home including mother is doing fine.
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You have asked me to express my views about hostel life. Certainly, I am upset
with it. I want to let you know straightaway that I feel loneliness and homesickness here. I
miss my home very much. The hostel life is not so comfortable as it appears from distance
or is generally assumed about it. These difficult moments make me remember you, mother,
and my cute younger brother Ali. In fact, the food quality at hostel mess is not very good.
Moreover, there is much noise, which disturbs our study.
To sum all this in a few words, I am keenly waiting for the summer vacation to
get back to home and enjoy the blessing of being with my family. Please pay my
compliments to all elders and love to all the young ones at home.
Yours affectionately,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 8

A LETTER TO THE FRIEND DESCRIBING HIM YOUR IMPRESSION OF THE FIRST DAY AT
COLLEGE

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
October 10, 2010
Subject: THE FIRST DAY-IMPRESSION OF THE COLLEGE
Dear Sadaf,
I hope you will be energetic and enthusiastic in life like ever. Beyond mere words,
I was really excited to have received your letter yesterday. Further, I was surprised to find
an interesting demand from you. It sounds strange that somebody has asked me to write
briefly about my first day-impression of the college.
You are fully aware of the fact that there is a hell of difference between school
and college. Certainly, every passing day of the college has its own impressions and
experiences. However, the first day was indeed the most remarkable one for me. We entered
college with hopes and fears. The senior students welcomed us with jokes as well as
pleasant remarks. Not very many classes were conducted but a few on the first day. Only
two teachers came to our class and sufficed to introduce themselves. Interestingly, it was
the girls from the graduation section who disguised themselves as teachers and made real
fun of the new comers. Further, as we did not know any locations, such as canteen,
library, and washrooms, inside the college, hence, we wandered here and there as strangers.
It has been over a month since that day, and I obviously feel myself much
changed today. I acclimatized myself very quickly in this new atmosphere, and, as I have
plenty of new friends, I am really enjoying my college life. I hope college will play a keyrole in the building of my personality.
Please pay my compliments to all at home, especially to your mother.
With best of the wishes,
Yours sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
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Letter No. 9

A LETTER TO THE FRIEND REQUESTING HIM TO LEND YOU HIS CAMERA FOR A FEW
DAYS

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
March 10, 2008
Subject: REQUESTING FRIEND TO LEND HIS CAMERA FOR A FEW DAYS
My Dear Aadil,
I am sure that you and your family will be hale and hearty. I am also hopeful that
your interest in studies will have doubly grown and your performance will have mounted to
the level of your satisfaction.
Here, I am going to request you to lend me something. I believe that you will not
disappoint me. As you already know that I am greatly fond of traveling and photography.
My family has made a program to visit Kaghan near the end of this month. It is in your
knowledge that the Saif-al-Malook Lake is a wonderful scene for photography. I do not
want to miss these memorable moments from being captured in camera. However, as you
know, I have no camera of my own. Therefore, I humbly request you to lend me your
camera for a week. I am optimistic that you will not turn down my request, so that I may be
able to save those moments passed near natural scenery everlasting.
I am looking forward to listen from you in positive.
With best wishes,
Yours sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 10

A LETTER TO THE FRIEND, INVITING HIM TO SPEND SOME TIME WITH YOU AT YOUR
VILLAGE DURING SUMMER VACATION

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
June 15, 2010
Subject: INVITING A FRIEND TO THE VILLAGE DURING SUMMER VACATION
Dear Muhammad Ali,
I hope you will be doing fine after having freed yourself from the busy schedule
of studies. Through this letter, in fact, I want to remind you of the promise you made with
me last year. I am sure that you have not forgotten your promise of spending a few days
with me in my village during summer vacation. As it is in your knowledge that the
commencement of summer vacation has taken effect on the 10th of this month, so, taking
advantage of the eve, I again formally invite you to come to my village.
Let me tell you some prominent features of my village that might appeal you to
abandon your activities in the city and immediately set out for my village. Due to the
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location of my village near river Jehlum, the climate is wonderfully pleasant here in
summer. There are several beautiful gardens and green fields around the village. Mediumsized water channels irrigate these fields and gardens. All this makes the whole scenery
extremely beautiful and appealing. If you join me, we will together visit these places
everyday and enjoy ourselves as well as our studies. Further, both of us will study under the
soothing shade of the garden trees every noon. In the afternoon, we will visit the river bank
and have a walk there by the flowing cool water. Our evenings will be spent in playing hide
and seek with other guys of our age. I promise that your time spent at my village will
become the most memorable period of your life.
Please inform me of the date and time of your arrival beforehand. I am looking
forward to have a reply from you in positive.
With best of the wishes,
Yours sincerely,
X.Y.Z.
Letter No. 11

A LETTER TO THE FRIEND EXPRESSING SYMPATHY FOR HIS FAILURE IN THE


EXAMINATION AND ENCOURAGING HIM FOR ANOTHER ATTEMPT

Examination Hall,
A.B.C. (City),
September 17, 2006
Subject: EXPRESSING CONCERN FOR THE FRIEND ON HIS FAILURE IN EXAMINATION
My dear Ayesha,
I am extremely sorry to learn about your failure to pass the Board examination. I
can understand how bad you must be feeling at the moment.
It is certainly not out of my knowledge that you worked really hard for the Board
examination. However, unfortunately, you could not get through. Sometimes, it so happens
in our life that we do not get what we strive for. To this we can only call bad luck.
Moreover, I believe that some of the paper was out of course, which, perhaps, the students
were not informed about. Another thing that might be held responsible for your failure was
your weak health. When I last saw you during the examination days, your health seemed on
decline. Therefore, the guilt of failure cannot be ascribed to you, as you did try your level
best to make headway.
Now take my words very seriously and reflect upon them. Please do not lose
heart, for it is only a timely failure. You should now make another attempt and appear in the
coming examination without delay. I am sure God will reward your hard work and your
score will be very high this time.
Better luck next time!
Yours very sincerely,
X.Y.Z.

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Prcis
Prcis is a French word and it implies accurate expression. It was adopted in English in
1760, in Lord Chesterfields Letters. At the time of its adoption, this loanword meant
summary in French as a noun, whereas as an adjective it implied condensed. Prcis is,
in a technical sense, the art of compressing, condensing and summarizing. According to
I.M. Verma, a famous Indian grammarian, a prcis is the gist or main theme of a passage
expressed in as few words as possible.36 Prcis should indeed be lucid, succinct, and
complete. It should include all important points of the main passage with an equal emphasis
on the focused points.
1. Technically, prcis writing has two fundamental steps, i.e. reading and writing.
2. A good prcis is a continuous piece of prose. It should in no way be a collection of
disjoined sentences and half-spoken ideas.
3. Prcis should be clear and sense-making. Use your own language to express it as
distinctly as possible. There should be no pan of artificiality on your language.
4. A prcis should necessarily contain the leading thoughts and the general
impression of the original passage.
5. No irrelevant materials should be included; rather all that seems unnecessary should
be omitted. This scrutiny will prove a major step in the making of a brief, eloquent
and precise prcis.
6. The prcis must not be sketchy, i.e. an outer sketch of the passage. It should be,
instead, complete and integrated as an organic whole.
7. Prcis must not become paraphrasing. Paraphrasing is a completely different
technique. Prcis should only address the ideas/points of the original passage rather
than focusing on the sentences.
8. A careful reading of the passage should be done before precising it. Lines
containing main points should be underlined and reread. You must be able to
distinguish what is important from what is unimportant.
9. The use of articles should be avoided as much as possible. Moreover, long phrases,
lengthy expressions, unnecessary conjunctions, prepositions and adverbs, and
obscure words only contribute in the making of a bad prcis.
10. The use of contraction (contracted forms of auxiliary verbs) is a very impressive as
well as effective technique in the making of a good prcis.
11. The tense and the tone of the original passage should by no means be disturbed.
The prcis must contain the tense structure of the original passage alongside the
theme.
12. A good understanding of the use of punctuation marks, especially that of commas,
semi-colons, colons, and hyphens, can greatly benefit in the art of prcis writing.

COMPREHENSION
Comprehension means the act of understanding. Sometimes, it is also referred as
faculty of understanding. In both cases, the word of emphasis is understanding; it,
36

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therefore, implies that the exercise of comprehension has straightaway to do with our
understanding of something. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary says that
comprehension is an exercise that trains students to understand a language.
Comprehension was derived from Latin root word comprehendere, to grasp, to
seize, to comprise. Latin noun-equivalent in the present case is comprehensionem, which
means a seizing. Therefore, we are sure to assert that the word in its derivative sense
means the seizing of something by our brain.
In academic writing, especially in Pakistani style, a comprehension practice consists
of a passage, and a minimum number of 5 questions are asked at the end of the given
passage. These questions are essentially based on the original text of the passage, and they
may demand either exact words or information in answer, or an idea inferred from a certain
area of the passage. Thus, we at first understand the themes running in the passage, and
thereafter we attempt to comprehend the meaning and direction of each question asked.

GOLDEN HINTS FOR A SUCCESSFUL COMPREHENSION


1. Have a quick reading through the given passage to infer a general idea of its nature.
2. Read all of the questions very carefully as well as thoroughly and attempt to understand
their directions.
3. Read again the text of the passage, and this time underline all relevant sentences
marking them in accordance with the number of corresponding questions.
4. Rethink and reconstruct each marked sentence.
5. Now try to make each answer compatible with the corresponding question.
6. Use your own English and syntax, and never yearn for making it a copy of the text
given in the passage. Also avoid artificial or ambiguous style.
7. Use complete sentences when answering, and avoid tag or hung-up answers.
8. The answer must be brief and relevant.
9. The length of the answer should be about one to three sentences. The answer should not
be made lengthy unless asked for a certain length.
10. In case you are asked to define a word or write the meaning of a phrase, the answer
should be expressed as clearly as possible. Similarly, if possible, do provide
information on the position of the questioned word in Parts of Speech. Phrases can be
spoken of as idioms or maxims.

A Model Prcis

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PASSAGES FOR COMPREHENSION AND PRCIS


1. Mega projects of translation of Christian and ancient Greek literature from GrecoRoman languages into Arabic had extremely negative effects on the subsequent
development of Islams theological thought. Muslims naturally craved for a better
understanding of their own religion in the light of newly acquired cognitive standards from
the People of Book, that was soon to develop a situation analogous to square peg in a
round hole. The presence of John of Damascus, poet Akhtal, and other Christians at the
court of the Umayyads in high offices rendered the situation extremely dangerous for the
health of a purely Muslim thought. Christians being well-versed in the Semitic religious
history posed a grim threat to Islams inherent knowledge, and Muslims in turn, being too
nave in the early history of their religious growth, were ready to take Isa and JudoChristian Bible as the touchstones for the reconsideration of Islam and its Prophet.
(Sayyed Waqas Hayder, What Quran Says)
Questions:
1. What was translated into Arabic and from which languages?
2. Name two important Christians who were in high offices at the Umayyad court.
3. What became the touchstone for the Muslims during the early growth of their religion?
4. Where were the cognitive standards acquired from? Do you agree with the authors
view?
5. Did the translation work leave a positive thought on the subsequent development of
Islamic theological thought? What was the natural craving of the Muslims?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest the prcised passage a suitable title.
2. The third great defect of our civilization is that it does not know what to do with its
knowledge. Science has given powers fit for the gods, yet we use them like small children.
For example, we do not know how to manage our machines. Machines were made to be
mans servants; yet he has grown so dependant on them that they are in a fair way to
become his masters. Already most men spent most of their lives looking after and waiting
upon machines. And the machines are very stern masters. They must be fed with coal, and
given patrol to drink, and oil to wash with, and they must be kept at the right temperature.
And if they do not get their meals when they expect them, they grow sulky and refuse to
work, or burst with rage, and blow up, and spread ruin and destruction all round them. So
we have to wait upon them very attentively and do all that we can, to keep them in a good
temper. Already we find it difficult either to work or play without the machines, and a time
may come when they will rule us altogether, just as we ruled the animals.
(C. M. Joad)
Questions:
1. Instead of making machines our servants, the author says they have become our
masters. In what sense has this come about?
2. The use of machines has brought us more leisure and more energy. But the author
says that this has been a curse rather than a blessing. Why?
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3. What exactly is the meaning of civilization? Do you agree with authors views?
Try to be as exact as possible.
4. What is the third great defect of our civilization? Give a short reply in your own
words.
5. In what respect will the machines rule humankind, according to the author?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
3. The Prophet, when passing through the phase of teenage, happened to participate in one
of the famous Arabian wars known as Harb-e-Fijar, the Sacrilegious War. The spasmodic
war broke out during the sacred pagan months, wherein bloodshed or fighting was strictly
forbidden; hence, it was given the name of sacrilegious war. This war became an
important event in the Arabian history, as it was remembered on the account of violating the
law of the sacred months. Since the war was an inter-tribal show of poweran aftermath of
a murderProphet Muhammad joined the war-stage from the side of Qureshite coalition.
However, the Prophet had no literal fighting during the lag of his stay on the frontier, for it
would not befit the dignity of a merciful Prophet to harm his opponents without being aware
of their sin. Thus, he contented to be an observer only, while he attended on his uncle and
volunteered himself for the secondary activity of gathering the shot arrows. It is quite
surprising that an arrow-gathering volunteer, without even the least bit of chivalric
experience, became the wisest commander of all times, who, later on, led a whole side of
chivalric heroes in a number of battles. Another interesting point here for consideration is
that the battles fought under his leadership were far more effective and productive for social
welfare and achieving desired objectives than being lethal to humanity.
(Sayyed Waqas Hayder, A Critical Look into the Life of Muhammad)
Questions:
1. In what war did the Prophet of Arabia participate?
2. What major duties were performed by the Prophet during the war?
3. Why did the Arabs call this war Harb-e-Fijar, the Sacrilegious War?
4. How many times has the word Muhammad been mentioned in the passage? What
do you know of this man?
5. It would not befit the dignity of a merciful Prophet to harm his opponents
without being aware of their sin. Do you agree with the stance of the author
expressed in this line?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
4. Totalitarian governments of Left sought to avoid these problems by subordinating the
whole of civil society to their control including what their citizens were allowed to think.
But such a system in its pure form could be maintained only through a terror that threatened
the systems own rulers. Once that terror was relaxed, a long process of degeneration set in,
during which the state lost control of certain key aspects of civil society. Most important
was its loss of control over the belief system. And since the socialist formula for economic
growth was defective, the state could not prevent its citizens from taking note of this fact
and drawing own conclusions.
(Francis Fukuyama, The End of History and the Last Man)
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Questions:
1. Who sought to avoid the problems and by what means?
2. Which formula has been called by the author as defective?
3. What is that formula all about?
4. How could the Totalitarian system of the Left be maintained in its pure form?
5. What does the author mean by saying taking note of this fact and drawing own
conclusions?
6. Make a prcis of the passage suggesting a suitable title.
5. One context of dialogue is the personal quarrel, characterized by aggressive personal
attack, heightened appeal to emotions, and a desire to win the argument at all costs. The
quarrel is characterized by bitter recrimination, a loss of balanced perspective, and,
afterwards, most often a regret for excessive personal attacks that were not meant or
deserved. The quarrel is no friend of logic and frequently represents argument at its worst.
The goal of the quarrel is for each arguer to attack or hit his opponent at all costs, using
any means, whether reasonable, fair, or not. Thus the quarrel is characterized by the
fallacious ad hominem attack (attack against the person, rather than the argument) and by
emotional arguments that would not be judged relevant by more reasonable standards of
argument.
(Douglas N. Walton, Informal Logic)
Questions:
1. What is this passage about?
2. Does a quarrel, in any way, represent argument?
3. What is the goal of the quarrel?
4. What special term is used in Logic for an attack against the person instead of the
argument?
5. Can you interpret the first sentence in simple words?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
6. In every society children do not need to be taught grammar to learn how to speak.
They begin to grasp the essential structure of their language at a very early age, without
direct instruction. If you show English-speaking children a picture of gork (a strange
creature) and then a picture of two of these creatures, they will say there are two gorks.
Somehow they know that adding an s to a noun means more than one. But they do not know
this consciously, and adults may not either. One of the most surprising features of human
language is that meaningful sounds and sound sequences are combined according to rules
that often are not consciously known by the speakers. These rules should not be equated
with the rules of grammar you were taught in school so that you would speak correctly.
Rather, when linguists talk about rules, they are referring to the patterns of speaking that are
discoverable in actual speech. Needless to say, there is some overlap between the actual
rules of speaking and the rules taught in school. But there are rules that children never hear
about in school, because their teachers are not linguists and are not aware of them.
(Carol R. Ember, Anthropology)
Questions:
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1. What is the specialty of children? What do they not hear in the school?
2. How will English-speaking children pluralize something?
3. When do the children begin to understand the fundamental structure of their parents
language?
4. What is the most interesting as well as surprising feature of human language?
5. Does the expression of sound sequences are combined according to rules mean
grammar? If yes, why?
6. Why are the school teachers not aware of the actual rules of speaking and with what
should these rules not be equated?
7. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest a suitable title to the paragraph.
7. Until the more recent developments of sociolinguistics, many scholars tended to have
rather a monolithic view of individual languages. Languages were seen as clearly
differentiated one from another, and the territories in which they were spoken possessed
distinct boundaries. Languages changed in well-defined ways, the sound changes following
patterns so regular in their behavior that they could be said to follow laws. Today the
variations within a language at a set time are given more prominencethe spatial variations
reflecting different dialects, and also the different customs of pronunciation, vocabulary and
grammar, which accompany social distinctions within a community. The changes in
pronunciation, which took place over time, so that related words in adjacent languages can
have quite different appearances, were the first to be understood.
(Colin Renfrew, Archaeology & Language)
Questions:
1. What are the features of a language that are given prominence today?
2. Can you name the discipline in which recent developments have changed the opinion
of scholars about languages?
3. How were the languages seen before some recent developments?
4. What in the writers opinion was the first thing to be understood in this process of
linguistic study?
5. What do you understand from languages changed in well-defined ways?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest a suitable title to the paragraph.
8. Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing
for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These
passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a
deep ocean of anguish, reaching to very verge of despair. I have sought love, first, because
it brings ecstasyecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a
few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because it relieves lonelinessthat terrible
loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the
cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it, finally, because the union of love I have
seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have
imagined. This is what I sought, and thought it might too good for human life, this is
whatat lastI have found. With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to
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understand the hearts of man. I have wished to know why the stars shine. A little of this, but
not much, I have achieved.
(Bertrand Russell, Principia Mathematica)
Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

What passions have governed Bertrand Russell throughout his life?


Which of these passions did you find most appealing and powerful?
What do you understand from the phrase deep ocean of anguish as used by
Russell here?
What much of the knowledge does the author claim to have achieved?
What is ecstasy in your opinion and how does the author explain its impact on
him?
Make a prcis of the passage and suggest a suitable title to the paragraph.

9. We observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom, symbolizing an


end as well as a beginning, signifying renewal as well as change. For I have sworn before
you and Almighty God the same solemn oath our forebears prescribed nearly a century and
three quarters ago. The world is very different now. For man holds in his mortal hands the
power to abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life. And yet the same
revolutionary belief for which our forebears fought is still at issue around the globe, the
belief that the rights of man come not from the generosity of the state but from the hand of
God. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of that first revolution. Let the world go
forth from this time and place, to friend and foe alike, that the torch has been passed to a
new generation of Americans, born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard
and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage, and unwilling to witness or permit the slow
undoing of those human rights to which this nation has always been committed, and to
which we are committed today at home and around the world. Let every nation now,
whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any
hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of
liberty.
(John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address)
Questions:
1. What office does the speaker hold?
2. Explain: a celebration of freedom, symbolizing an end as well as a beginning,
signifying renewal as well as change.
3. According to the speaker, the world is very different now. Why is it so?
4. Who are disciplined by a hard and bitter peace? What has been passed to them?
5. Where does the rights of man come from?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
10. Most people who bother with the matter at all would admit that the English language is
in a bad way, but it is generally assumed that we cannot by conscious action do anything
about it. Our civilization is decadent and our languageso the argument runsmust
inevitably share in the general collapse. It follows that any struggle against the abuse of
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language is a sentimental archaism, like preferring candles to electric light or hansom cabs
to aeroplanes. Underneath this lies the half-conscious belief that language is a natural
growth and not an instrument, which we shape for our own purposes. Now, it is clear that
the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is not due
simple to the bad influence of this or that individual writer. But an effect can become a
cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the same effect in an intensified form,
and so indefinitely. It becomes ugly and inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, the
slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts. He point is that
the process is reversible. Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits
which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary
trouble.
(George Orwell, Politics and the English Language)
Questions:
What does the expression general collapse signify?
Why do the bad habits exist and where do they come from?
What causes must the decline of a language have?
Reproduce the analogical examples of sentimental archaism quoted by the
author in the passage.
5. The author has said that English language is in a bad way. Please interpret
this statement of the author in at least five sentences using simple language.
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
1.
2.
3.
4.

11. At the end of this past summer, I had plans to go away for a week, simply a week,
without my husband. It was the first time in three years that I was making such a solo
pilgrimage, and I was frightened. As I walked down the long corridor to the plane, I looked
straight ahead, turning a bottle of tranquilizers over and over in my pocket. I felt like a child
lost in a department store; my palms were sweaty and my face was flushed. I tried to
remember other solitary departures when I had been similarly discomforted: the walk to the
first day of school; the bus ride to Girl School camp when I was 9 and my sister, who was
also on the bus, was 10 and suddenly wanted nothing to do with me; the midnight jet to
college. Of what was I so afraid? I was afraid of being by myself, of being wholly quiet, of
being with people who did not know my name and did not care. I was afraid of being liked
by strangers and of not being liked by strangers. Mostly I was afraid of being alone again,
even for so short a time. After four and a half years of marriage I had simply lost the habit.
(Anne Taylor Fleming, The Fear of Being Alone)
Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Why was Anne Taylor Fleming frightened?


What did she feel like when walking down the long corridor?
She says, I had simply lost the habit? What habit is she referring to?
What happened when she was only 9?
A pilgrimage is usually a religious trip. Why has she used the phrase solo
pilgrimage to describe her journey?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
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12. The changing attitude of the Muslim League towards the constitutional issues between
1938 and 1940 provides an interesting study. The Leagues policy underwent a radical
change regarding the provinces as well as the Center in the light of Muslim experience of
the provincial autonomyparticularly in the Hindu-majority province. In December, 1938,
at its annual session at Patna, the All India Muslim League authorized Jinnah to explore
the possibility of a suitable alternative which would completely safeguard the interests of
Musalmans and other minorities in India. In pursuance of that resolution, in March, 1939,
the League Working Committee appointed a committee under Jinnahs presidentship, to
examine various schemes already propounded and those that may be submitted hereafter
and to report to the Working Committee their conclusions. Thus by the beginning of 1940
Muslim politics had decidedly taken a new and significant turn. The departure from the pre1937 policy was remarkable. The Muslims no longer wanted an Indian federation. No
longer was it a question of merely voting in favour of, or against a certain (or even any)
federal scheme. Federation would not do at all.
(Ishtiaq Husain Qureshi, The Struggle for Pakistan)
Questions:
1. When did the policy of Muslim League undergo a radical change and what was the
change?
2. What do you understand from the expression to explore the possibility of a suitable
alternative which would completely safeguard the interests of Musalmans and other
minorities in India?
3. Who was authorized by the All India Muslim League to find a suitable
alternative?when and where?
4. Did the pre-1937 policy of All India Muslim League show that the Muslims of
India wanted a federation with Hindus? Illustrate your answer with a solid example.
5. What was the decisive year when Indian politics took a significant turn? Can you
explain the particular experience that served as the background of all that
development?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
13. Scientists are the most important occupational group in the world today. At this
moment, what they do is of passionate concern to the whole of human society. At this
moment, the scientists have little influence on the world effect of what they do. Yet,
potentially, they can have great influence. The rest of the world is frightened both of what
they dothat is, of intellectual discoveries of scienceand of its effect. The rest of the
world, transferring its fears, is frightened of the scientists themselves and tends to think of
them as radically different from the other men. As an ex-scientist, if I may call myself so, I
know that is nonsense. I have even tried to express in fiction some kinds of scientific
temperament and scientific experience. I know well-enough that scientists are very much
like other men. After all, we are all humans, even if some of us dont give that appearance. I
think I would be prepared to risk a generalization. The scientists I have known have been in
certain respects just perceptibly more morally admirable than most other groups of
intelligent men.
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(C.P. Snow, The Moral Un-Neutrality of Science)

Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

The writer has a belief about the scientists. Can you please illustrate that belief?
What is the writer complaining all about?
What for is the rest of the world afraid?
What has the writer tried to express and what medium has he used to this end?
How does the writer compare scientists with other groups of intelligent people and
what is the point of central importance?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
14. The scattering of galaxies, the habits of macromolecules, and the astounding
abundance of stars are forcing those who ponder such matters to a further adjustment of
their concept of the place and functioning of man in the material universe. In the history of
the evolving human mind, with its increasing knowledge of the surrounding world, their
must have been a time when the philosophers of the early tribes began to realize that the
world was not simply anthropocentriccentered on man himself. The geocentric concept
became common doctrine. It accepted a universe centered on the earth. This first adjustment
was only mildly deflationary to the human ego, for man appeared to surpass all other living
forms. The second adjustment in the relation of man to the physical universe, that is, the
abandonment of the earth-center theory, was not generally acceptable until the sixteenthcentury Copernican revolution soundly established the heliocentric conceptthe theory of a
universe centered on the sun. Man is a stubborn adherent to official dogma. Eventually,
however, he accepted the sun as the center not only of the local family of planets, but also
of the total sidereal assemblage, and long held that view. He had slowly given up the earthcenter. But why, in spite of increasing evidence, did he then hold so persistently to the
heliocentric view? Was it only because of vanity?
(Harlow Shapley, Mans Fourth Adjustment)
Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Define the word anthropocentric and explain its relation with the earth.
What was the second adjustment of man according to the author?
Who has given up the earth-center and why?
What was the heliocentric concept and which revolution established it?
What does the author of Mans Fourth Adjustment want to prove in conclusion?
Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.

15. The gods had condemned Sisyphus to ceaselessly rolling a rock to the top of a
mountain, whence the stone would fall back of its own weight. They had thought with some
reason that there is no more dreadful punishment than futile and hopeless labor. If one
believes Homer, Sisyphus was the wisest and most prudent of mortals. According to another
tradition, however, he was disposed to practice the profession of highwayman. I see no
contradiction in this. Opinions differ as to the reasons why he became the futile laborer of
the underworld. To begin with, he is accused of a certain levity in regard to the gods. He
stole their secrets. Aegina, the daughter of Aesopus, was carried off by Jupiter. The father
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was shocked by that disappearance and complained to Sisyphus. He, who knew of the
abduction, offered to tell about it on condition that Aesopus would give water to the citadel
of Corinth. To the celestial thunderbolts he preferred the benediction of water. He was
punished for this in the underworld. Homer tells us also that Sisyphus had put Death in
chains. Pluto could not endure the sight of his deserted, silent empire. He dispatched the god
of water, who liberated Death from the hands of her conqueror.
(Albert Camus, The Myth of Sisyphus)
Questions:
1. Who had been condemned by the gods and with what punishment?
2. Who was Aegina and what did her disappearance result in?
3. How is seen the futile and hopeless labor in this passage? What was the motive
behind such a labor?
4. Who conquered Death and who eventually librated it?
5. Who is Homer and what is his role in this passage?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
16. For three thousand years, poets have been enchanted and moved and perplexed by the
power of their own imagination. In a short and summary essay, I can hope at most to live
one small corner of that mystery; and yet it is a critical corner. I shall ask: What goes on in
the mind when we imagine? You will hear from me that one answer to this question is fairly
specific: which is to say, that we can describe the working of imagination. And when we
describe it as I shall do, it becomes plain that imagination is a specifically human gift. To
imagine is the characteristic act, not of the poets mind, or the painters, or the scientists,
but of the mind of man. My stress here on the word human implies that there is a clear
difference in this between the actions of men and those of other animals. Let me then start
with a classical experiment with animals and children, which Walter Hunter thought out in
Chicago about 1910. That was the time when scientists were agog with the success of Ivan
Pavlov in forming and changing the reflex actions of dogs, which Pavlov had first
announced in 1903. Pavlov had been given a Nobel Prize the next year in 1904.
(Jacob Bronowski, The Reach of Imagination)
Questions:
1. What will the author ask and why?
2. For how long have poets moved and perplexed? By what have they been moved?
3. The Noble Prize was given to someone 1904. Who was he and why was he awarded
the Nobel Prize?
4. What is the characteristic of man? Where does lie a clear difference?
5. I can hope at most to live one small corner of that mystery, and yet it is a critical
corner. What does this sentence mean according to your understanding?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
17. For the first time ever, there are more women than men enrolled in Americans colleges.
The immediate implications of this are bound to upset people who need stereotypes to
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preserve the illusion of stability in a chaotic universe. Joe College, for example, now
becomes a false metaphor for the college student. Discussing college people collectively, we
must learn to call them the college woman. Womens place is in the home went the old
saw women hated. Now they can say, Womens place is in the college. What does it mean
for football, which has traditionally been to college what the nightstick is to the police?
Does it make sense for a college population dominated by women to have the bulk of its
athletic budget spent on a sport that can be played only by 200-pound women with
shoulders like stevedores and legs like oak trees.
(Russell Baker, Collegiettes)
Questions:
1.
2.
3.
4.

What is the real point of comparison here?


What according to the author happened with the old saw?
What new saw was coined to replace the old one?
Which college has been cited by the author as an example?example of
what?
5. Is this a serious essay? Does it create a sense of respect for the women?
Elaborate your answer with evidence.
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest a suitable title.
18. A name is a prison, God is free, once observed the Greek poet Nikos Kazantzakis. He
meant, I think, that valuable though language is to man, it is by very necessity limiting, and
creates for man an invisible prison. Language implies boundaries. A word spoken creates a
dog, a rabbit, a man. It fixes their nature before our eyes; henceforth their shapes are, in a
sense, our own creation. They are no longer part of the unnamed shifting architecture of the
universe. They have been transfixed as if by sorcery frozen into a concept, a word. Powerful
though the spell of human language has proved itself to be, it has laid boundaries upon the
cosmos. No matter how far-ranging some of the mental probes that man has philosophically
devised, by his own created nature he is forced to hold the specious and emerging present
and transform it into words. The words are startling in their immediate effectiveness, but at
the same time, they are always finally imprisoning because man has constituted himself a
prison keeper. He does so out of no conscious intention, but because for immediate
purposes he has created an unnatural world of his own.
(Loren Eiseley, The Cosmic Prison)
Questions:
1. What idea of languages function has been presented by the author in the passage?
2. What has been declared a prison and who was the one, according to the author, to
say so?
3. What does a word that is spoken create and what is that it fixes?
4. Despite the effectiveness of language, what has man ended up to be?
5. Is language something natural to humans? If not, what does then the author want to
say about it?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.
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19. The joys of parents are secret, and so are their griefs and fears; they cannot
utter the one, nor they will not utter the other. Children sweeten labours, but they
make misfortunes more bitter; they increase the cares of life, but they mitigate the
remembrance of death. The perpetuity by generation is common to beasts; but
memory, merit, and noble works, are proper to men: and surely a man shall see the
noblest works and foundations have proceeded from childless men, which have
sought to express the images of their minds where those of their bodies have failed;
so the care of posterity is most in them that have no posterity. They that are the first
raisers of their houses are most indulgent towards their children, beholding them as
the continuance, not only of their kind, but of their work; and so both children and
creatures. The difference in affection of parents towards their several children is
many times unequal, and sometimes unworthy, especially in the mother; as Solomon
saith, A wise son rejoiceth the father, but an ungracious son shames the mother. A
man shall see, where there is a house full of children, one or two of the eldest
respected, and the youngest made wantons; but in the midst some that are as it were
forgotten, who, many times, nevertheless prove the best. The illiberality of parents,
in allowance towards their children, is an harmful error.
(Francis Bacon, Of Parents and Children)
Questions:
What is the role of children in parents lives according to Francis Bacon?
Explain the expression children sweeten labours adducing acceptable example of
your interpretation.
Bacon has quoted Solomon in this passage. What do you understand from
Solomons statement about father and mother quoted here?
What is common between mankind and beasts and what are the things that the
writer terms as proper to man?
How do the first raisers of their houses behold their children? Your answer should
be at least three sentences.
Make a prcis of the subject and suggest it a suitable title.

20. Unless man exploits others, he has to work in order to live. However primitive
and simple is method of work may be, by the very fact of production, he has risen
above the animal kingdom; rightly has he been defined as the animal that
produces. But work is not only an inescapable necessity for man. Work is also his
liberator from nature, his creator as a social and independent being. In the process of
work, that is, the molding and changing of nature outside of himself, man molds and
changes himself. He emerges from nature by mastering her; he develops his powers
of cooperation, of reason, his sense of beauty. He separates himself from nature,
from the original unity with her, but at the same time unites himself with her again
as her master and builder. The more his work develops, the more his individuality
develops. In molding nature and re-creating her, he learns to make use of his
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powers, increasing his skill and creativeness. Whether we think of the beautiful
paintings of caves of Southern France, the ornaments on weapons among primitive
people, the statues and temples of Greece, the cathedrals of the Middle Ages, the
chairs and tables made by skilled craftsmen, or the cultivation of flowers, trees or
corn by peasantsall are expressions of the creative transformation of nature by
mens reason and skill.
(Erich Fromm, Work in an Aliented Society)
Questions:
1. How has man risen above the animal kingdom? Name the quality that makes him
unique in the light of this passage.
2. What is the process that molds man himself and by what means does he carry out
this process?
3. Name the archaeology discussed in this passage?
4. How does man learn to use his power and what is the product of his use of power?
5. Unless man exploits others, he has to work. However, if he exploits other, why does
he not have to work?
6. Make a prcis of the passage and suggest it a suitable title.

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Dialogue Writing
Dialogue writing is a very attractive form of English composition. Dialogue means a
formal or informal discussion between two persons or groups. Dialogue writing is a
useful practice to create naturalness and fluency in ones own language. It is the only form
of composition in which we do not require a lot of literary talent and linguistic artistry. A
dialogue remains a great help at using simple and natural constructions. It is, in one way or
another, a localization of English. Unfortunately, our students generally maintain only a
bookish understanding of English constructions. They lack naturalness in their speech and
remain potentially unaware of the informal use of English. Another problem with Pakistani
students, as regards dialogue writing, is the ambiguous idea of the beginning and ending of
a dialogue. This problem will be addressed in the present discussion and the solution of this
part of the problem will be sought here.
Golden Hints for Dialogue Writing

1. While attempting to write a dialogue, students must not fall prey to the temptation
of using difficult, bookish, or artificial language. They must avoid unnatural
expressions.
2. A good much of time i.e. almost equal time should be given to each participant. This is to
create symmetry in the dialogue.
3. Language of the dialogue must be naturalized and made simple as well as appropriate to
the setting where the dialogue happens to take place.
4. All auxiliaries should be used in contraction; a frequent use of interjection (e.g. oh, wow)
and catchwords (e.g. well, ok) or catchphrases (e.g. you know) will animate any dialogue
written by a non-native speaker.
5. The sentences of the dialogue must not be too long or verbose that the dialogue, as a
whole, reflects literary art and becomes a piece of literature instead of an everyday
discussion on a randomly chosen topic.
6. Natural and local greetings should in no way be neglected, nor a customary activity be
ignored. Pakistani speakers are supposed to begin their dialogue with Assalam-o-Alaikum
rather than any English greeting, whereas saying Allah Hafiz on departure will give a
healthy native touch to the dialogue.
7. In case the situation of dialogue emerges later on in the general gossip of friends,
classmates, or discussants, it should depict a sudden development towards the subject that is
the result of a certain preceding talk. Here, we do not require any greetings in the beginning,
for the participants are already present and that they have already greeted one another
before the start of the given dialogue.
8. The ending greetings can also be omitted in case we do not want to end our dialogue at
the departure of the participants. However, the subject must be brought to a satisfactory
conclusionwith or without participants saying good-bye.

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A Model Dialogue on SMOKING

Ahmad: Assalam-o-Alaikum Hassan!


Hassan: Wa Alaikum as-Salaam! (Forwarding hand) Howre you doing Ahmad?
Ahmad: Im doing fine? How about your health?
Hassan: Just doing so so buddy! I havent been quite fit for some time; dont know why.
Ahmad: (Smilingly) Probably your smoking habit is really teasing you.
Hassan: I guess its not that way.
Ahmad: But Hassan, dont you think its too dangerous for the health of young people?
Hassan: Huh! All thats a false tale created by doctors to run their business.
Ahmad: No sir, for your kind information, latest researches clearly exhibit that the chief
cause of cancer is smoking. You can see the precautions printed on cigarette packets with
your own eyes.
Hassan: All right all right, Im not in a mood to debate over this issue. I know its
dangerous.
Ahmad: My friend, I want you to consider this issue seriously. I can see your constant
coughing and bad health; these arent good symptoms. I wish you see a doctor and have a
medical checkup. And before that, another important thing: immediately quit smoking!
Hassan: Ok, I surrender. Let me see when I can manage that. Would you accompany me, by
the way?
Ahmad: Why not! Id be glad to!
Hassan: Many thanks for these kind words of advice. Youre a true friend. But my friend,
smoking isnt easy to get rid of. I doubt Ill ever succeed in it.
Ahmad: Oh, never mind. Everything will be alright. You just need to be confident.
Hassan: I will try to be!
Ahmad: (Hearing the bell) Ok buddy let me leave now; the bells rung and Im getting late
from the class. See ya later.
Hassan: (Shaking hand) Sure. I must leave too. Take care! Allah Hafiz.
Ahmad: Allah Hafiz and dont forget to spare some time for the checkup!
Activity for Students
Students should exercise dialogue writing on Pollution, Terrorism, Global Warming, PriceHike, Street Crimes, Co-education, Problems of Our Education System, Importance of
Sports, Traffic Problems, Unemployment, Hobbies, Teachers, Advantages of Internet and
Technical Education on the same lines. Follow the Golden Hints stated above when doing
this exercise.
(Note: In Graduation papers, students should prefer translation to dialogue. However,
in case of being bad at translation, or in case of finding the paragraph full of difficult and/or
technical terminology, students should choose dialogue as a more favorable alternative.)
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STORY WRITING
Story-telling is one of the most ancient literary practices of mankind. Men and women have
been narrating things in the forms of fables, parables, anecdotes, etc. ever since the dawn of
civilization. Perhaps, story-telling as a technique of keeping ones listeners amused in the
leisurely time or maintaining interest in life predates the civilized age of mankind. All
myths and legends are such stories that mankind somehow came up with and thereby the
preceding generations passed on this heritage to the succeeding generations, chest to chest,
lips to lips.
Story writing is, as such, an important branch of written composition. A story originally
means a narrative description of an event, fictitious or real, whose particulars occur in a
sequence. It is generally agreed that a story is an orderly, continuous account of the
successive particulars of an event or transaction, or of a series of events.37 A story can be
based on a single event, or it can be a combination of different chronologically occurring
symbiotic events or anecdotes. Every story is, generally, fictitious, for no real event can be
described with exact details and without ones own attachment. There may be some reality
in the nucleus of every story, but fiction getting birth in speculation of a handy narrator
mind always constructs a more idealistic as well as appealing story.
As far as the aim of story writing is concerned, it should be the arousing of the interest of
a reader in the story. It is inevitable for a good story that readers get so much immersed in
the story as to become restless to know what is coming next.
When writing a story in Pakistani academic system, it is seen almost always compulsory
that a moral lesson should be tagged with the story towards the end as a conclusive
commentary.
A story follows certain principles. These principles are the most crucial qualification for a
story to be rendered as a well-built story, and without which an account may not be deemed
as a good one.
1. Plot
2. Order
3. Setting/Environment
4. Time-Zone
5. Balance

37

Verma, Dave & Aggarwala, New College Composition, p. 353

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Direct & Indirect Narration


We humans as the beings of language have two ways of reporting a statement or any words
of a speaker. We may either quote him in original words or altered words: these two
techniques of quotation are called Direct Narration and Indirect Narration. Direct narration
or speech stands for the original words of a speaker with no alteration whatsoever; e.g.
Salma said, Ill buy some stationery today. Indirect narration or speech comprises of
altered words now chosen by the narrator; e.g. Salma told that she would buy some
stationery that day. However, this pick and choose of the altered words does not take place
in a random manner; rather, it has certain rules and regulations. English has a complete code
for the transformation of a direct speech into indirect speech and this code guides us on all
major or minor steps.
The principal speech is the direct speech, for it is someone we quote in a different
space and time. Thus, as we owe our reference to the original speaker, our words become
subsequent or secondary to the original speakers words.
In direct speech, we generally have two clauses, namely, reporting verb/speech
and reported speech. Reporting verb is the determining clause, from where we obtain our
information of the addressee, addressed, and the time (past, present, future). Reported
speech, the secondary clause, is always double-quoted, for it contains the original words of
the speaker. In the making of indirect speech, the change takes place in reported speech (the
quoted clause).
Reporting Verb/Speech
(The determining clause)

Reported Speech_____________
(The clause supposed to embrace changes)

While changing direct sentences into indirect, the following words are replaced
with the ones given next to them.
Direct
(Original word)
1 . He r e

Indirect
(Replacement)
There

2. Ago
3 . No w
4 . T o d ay
5. Tomorrow

Before
Then/Right away
That day
Next/Following
day
That night
Previous day/the
day before
Previous Night
Following week
Previous week

6. Tonight
7. Yesterday
8. Last night
9. Next week
10. Last week

Direct
(Original word)
11. Day after
tomorrow
12. Thus
13. Too
14. This/It
15. These

Indirect
(Replacement)
Two
d a ys
later
So
Also
That
Those

16. Hither
17. Hence

Thither
Thence

18. Thus
19. Come
20. That

In that way/so
Go/Come
That

Change in the tense of reported speech (the clause supplied inverted commas) also
occurs when the principal verb i.e. the reporting verb has a past tense. The change will take
place in the following manner:
Tense in Direct

Tense in Indirect

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Narration
Present
Present Indefinite
Present progressive
Present Perfect

Narration
Past
Past Indefinite
Past progressive
Past Perfect

Narration
Do/Does
Did
Was/Were
Ha d

Present Perfect
Progressive
Past Indefinite

Past Perfect
Progressive
Past Perfect

Shall/Will

Past Progressive

Past Perfect
Progressive
No Change Occurs
No Change Occurs

Past Perfect
Past Perfect Progressive

Na r r a t io n
Did
Ha d
Ha d b e e n
Ha d
(No change occurs)
Would

Will have
Shall have
Ma y

Would have

Can
Should
Must

Could
Should/should have
Must have/had
to/would have to

Might

We have some exceptional cases in Direct & Indirect narrations. These exceptions may
well be termed as the anomalies of reported speech. For instance, Im only 21 years of
age (she said.) can be changed into reported speech in two i.e. emphatic and non-emphatic
ways:
She said that she is only 21 years of age. (Emphatic)
She said that she was only 21 years of age. (Non-emphatic)
Similarly, some other situations also apply the above exceptional rule on the account of
the fact that the original speaker was talking about a present or future situation that is still
present or future when the words are reported. Hence, the tenses may not change after a past
reporting verb. (Michael Swan) However, this is not a must rule; but only a choice at the
disposal of the students that they either change the reported speech in the past to accord with
the reporting verb, or leave it in the original present tense to put emphasis. For instance:

The earth is round, Said he. (He said that the earth is/was round)
Where does he work? (I have often wondered where he works/worked.)
It will be rainy tomorrow. They said. (They said it will/would be rainy
tomorrow.)

We normally distribute the reported speech into six broad categories. We call them:
1. Indicative, Assertive or Declarative
(i. Affirmative ii. Negative)
2. Interrogative
(i. Simple/Single Interrogative ii. Double/Wh Interrogative)
3. Imperative
(Expressing i. Command ii. Request iii. Prohibition iv. Advice)
4. Exclamatory
5. Optative
6. Universal Truth
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In addition to the change in auxiliaries and verb forms, change in persons (i.e.
pronouns) also takes place in Indirect Narration. Before we understand how the change in
pronoun cases takes effect, it is important that we take a cursory look into the Persons
Table to understand in what many cases a personal pronoun (or even a noun used as
subject) changes.
Position of Person

Subjective Case

1st Person Singular


1st Person Plural
2nd Person Singular

I
We
You

Possessive
Case
my/mine
our/ours
your/yours

Objective Case

Reflexive Situation

me
us
you

myself
ourselves
yourself

2nd Person Plural


3rd Person Singular
(Male)
3rd Person Singular
(Female)
3rd Person Singular
(Neuter Gender)
Noun as 3rd Person
(Singular)
3rd Person Plurals

You
He

your/yours
h is

you
h im

yourselves
himself

Sh e

her/hers

her

herself

It

its

it

itself

Ahmad/Samina/
Chair
They

his/her/its

him/her/it

himself/herself/itself

their/theirs

them

themselves

The change in persons always occurs in reported speech. This change is not
independent, for it always follows the pronouns or nouns (i.e. the persons) appearing in the
reporting section. When occurring in the reported speech, the situations of 1st person (I and
we), in all of their cases (subjective, possessive, objective, reflexive), undergo changes in
accordance with the subject of the reporting clause. 2nd person (You) and its cases embrace
changes to suit to the object of reporting clause. The situations of 3rd person (he, she, it and
they) are never changed, for they are already in a state of absence from the direct
communication as to be used in indirect narration.
(Reported Speech) I & We ___________into__________Subject (of Reporting Clause)
(Reported Speech) You______________into__________Object (of Reporting Clause)
(Reported Speech) He, She, It & They_____________________ (Never changed)

Important Tip: If the object of the reporting verb is missing, we should perceive of
the situation as if 1st person singular (I) is present there (i.e. the object of the reporting
verb/speech). For instance, She said, Youre a very lucky boy will become She said that I
was a very lucky boy.

KINDS
1. Indicative or Assertive
For an indicative indirect speech, conjunction that replaces inverted
commas/quotation marks () and the comma (,). In Subcontinent, we generally change
said to of the reporting verb into told. Although it being a good way to distinguish
both narrations, English grammar does not make this change an obligatory condition for the
conversion of direct speech into indirect. For example:
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Direct: Ahmad said to his father, I want to buy some books.


Indirect: Ahmad told his father that he wanted to buy some books.
Also, Ahmad said to his father that he wanted to buy some books.
Direct: My brother said to his friend, I cannot stay inside the room when it is sunny out.
Indirect: My brother said to his friend that he could not stay inside the room when it was
sunny out.
Also, My brother informed his friend that he could not stay inside the room when it was
sunny out.
Direct: She said, You are a foolish guy. (Direct)
Indirect: She said that I was a foolish guy.
Also, She told that I was a foolish guy.
Sometimes we drop that conjunction in the above kind of situation (e.g. She said I was a
foolish guy). However, this situation normally pops up in speaking rather than writing.
Moreover, a present reporting verb will not affect the tense of the reported speech in
indirect narration.
Direct: Samina says to you, We will go to market today.
Indirect: Samina says to you that they will go to market today.
Also, Samina tells you that they will go to market today.
This sentence will, however, witness a complete change in case the tense of the reporting
verb is past.
Direct: Samina said to you, We will go to the market today.
Indirect: Samina informed you that they would go to the market that day.

2. Interrogative
In interrogative situation, as shown above, we have two cases. The first is the case
of such questions that need to be answered in simple yes or no. Provided that, no
logical reasoning is required at this stage, hence we term this case Single Interrogative in
our general language. Such single interrogative direct sentences, when changing into
indirect, use if or whether conjunction to replace punctuations; the sense of question
is also transferred to the conjunction. However, there takes place a fundamental change in
the sentence and the situation after if or whether becomes declarative from interrogative.
Reporting verb said to is changed into asked or questioned, and if the former
occurs in present form, the latter two will also use their present forms to replace the
reporting verb.
(Subject + ask/asked + object + if/whether + declarative clause.)
Direct: He said, Are you a Pakistani?
Indirect: He asked if/whether I was a Pakistani. (Or He asked if/whether I am a
Pakistani.)
Direct: Ahmad said to you, Can I join your company now for some time?
Indirect: Ahmad questioned you if/whether he could join your company then for some
time.
Direct: You said to her, Will you not cook for us tonight?
Indirect: You asked her if/whether she would not cook for you that night.
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Remember that neither ask/asked nor question/questioned take a preposition after it.
Moreover, the question mark (?) of Direct Narration is omitted in Indirect Narration.
In the second category, the interrogative situation develops from a simple yes-no
answer to a logical reasoninga cogent answer. This situation may well have a minimum
number of seven ways of posing questions. For instance, interrogative pronouns where,
when, why, which, who, what, and how are such words that, when used in a question, need
to be satisfied in a logical manner given the nature of the question. If the question is: why do
you go to college?the answerer is expected to produce at least one acceptable reason to
justify his act of going to college, and this will, in turn, satisfy the nature of the question.
When dealing with this type of questions in Direct & Indirect section, the
transformation of direct narration into indirect does not experience any structural change.
The only difference lies in the point that the question word (i.e. wh-word/how) will take the
position of whether/if that it takes in the single interrogatives and the following clause
would assume same indicative structure.
Direct: Ahmad said to Aslam, When have you come from Lahore?
Indirect: Ahmad asked Aslam when he had come from Lahore.

3. Imperative
Our next kind expresses command, prohibition, request or advice. To this kind we call
Imperativenaming it after command. Among all of the kinds of Direct and Indirect
Narrations, this one has a different structure. In Direct Narration, an imperative reported
speech begins with a verb (command), negative present indefinite auxiliary do not/dont
(prohibition),38 exclamation please (request) or with regular subject succeeded by modal
verb should or ought to (advice). Nevertheless, structural variation does not affect the
general rules of Direct & Indirect Narration, and we get equally compelled to interchange
the pronouns and their cases as well as tenses even in this kind.
For expressing a command, says/said to will be replaced with orders/ordered in Indirect
Narration.
For expressing a request, says/said to will be replaced with requests/requested in Indirect
Narration.
For expressing a prohibition, says/said to will be replaced with forbids/forbade in Indirect
Narration.
For expressing an advice, says/said to will be replaced with advises/advised in Indirect
Narration.
In this case, the commas of direct speech are replaced with infinitive (e.g. to work).
Instead of conjoining two clauses, as do the assertive and interrogative kinds with the help
of a conjunction, we simply put to before the main verb of reported speech used as an
Sometimes never takes the place of dont. This situation, wherein never is inserted before the
verb in Reported Speech, expresses emphasis in negation, and hence it will follow the same rule as
dont situation does.
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imperative/request, thus, rendering the combination of to and main verb as infinitive. In


request situation, exclamation (as please) is omitted to form the infinitive; in advice
situation, modal verb is omitted alongside the subject of the reported speech. For instance,
Direct: Hassan said to his father, Please allow me to go on scouting. (Request)
Indirect: Hassan requested his father to allow him to go on scouting.
Direct: My mother said to me, You should sleep early because it is cold. (Advice)
Indirect: My mother advised me to sleep early because it was cold.
Direct: The Chief Minister says to the Inspector General, Free all innocent prisoners.
(Command)
Indirect: The Chief Minister orders the Inspector General to free all innocent
prisoners.
Direct: The gardener said to Ahmad, Dont steal any mangoes. (Prohibition)
Indirect: a. The gardener forbade Ahmad to steal any mangoes. Or
b. The gardener warned Ahmad not to steal any mangoes.
The last situation speaks of a warning in which Ahmad is being told of the unfriendly
consequences of stealing mangoes. This situation has two indirect expressions. Prohibitive
verb to forbid eliminates the role of not in reported speech when used as reporting verb,
and it thereby allows us the use of infinitive to express a negative command (prohibition).
However, the omission of not does not take place when to warn or similar cautionary
verbs are employed in the position of reporting verb; in this particular type of situation, we
use not before the infinitive.

4. Exclamatory
Exclamatory kind, as it becomes evident from the name, expresses exclamations and
desires. The conversion of an exclamatory direct speech into indirect accommodates either
an adverb right after the reporting verb or a preposition (i.e. with) followed by a noun. For
the most part, nouns like sorrow, joy, kindness, love, hatred, sympathy, surprise, wonder
etc. occur after the preposition, with. When preferring the use of an adverb instead of with +
noun, these very nouns are changed into adverbsgenerally supplied ly suffix to form
Adverbs of Manner. In Direct narration, reported speech begins with an exclamation
expressing happiness, grief, affection, contempt, bewilderment and similar.
The reporting verb again witnesses a replacement, and this time the replacing verb may
be any of exclaim/exclaimed, desire/desired and wish/wished. Moreover, conjunction that
reappears in this category of narration to eliminate commasas it does in Indicative
sentences.
See below, for instance;
Direct: She said to her friend, Great! Our college got the first position.
Indirect: She exclaimed joyfully to her friend that their college had gotten the first
position.
Direct: Ahmad said, Alas! Pakistan cricket team has lost the match.
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Indirect: Ahmad exclaimed regretfully (or with sorrow) that Pakistan cricket team had
lost the match.

5. Optative
The fifth kind in narration, optative speech, expresses prayers, wishes, cordial
greetings and so forth. This may, in one way, have an underlying linkage with the
forerunner kind, exclamatory. However, when speaking of the structure, it bears slightly
different structural frame. In direct narration, reported speech begins with modal verb
may. This kind may be transformed into indirect speech in two ways. In the first way, the
reporting verb, says/said to, will find a replacement in prays/prayed, wishes/wished, and
bids/bade, and the remaining sentence will be structured on the pattern of assertive, that is
to say, conjunction that will interlink the reporting clause and reported speech. Model
verb may thus jumps next to the subject; if the reporting verb shows past tense, it changes
into might. In the second way, the less formal, the reported speech becomes a noun
sentence. In this structure, the replacement of reporting verb functions as the sole main verb
of the sentence and the corresponding noun of the verb used in reported speech is employed
instead of the verb.
Direct: She said, May my brother pass the written test.
Indirect: She prayed that her brother might pass the written test.
(also) She wished her brother success in the written test.
Direct: My mother said to me, May you prosper in life and achieve great goals.
Indirect: My mother prayed that I might prosper in life and achieve great goals.
(also) My mother wished/bade me prosperity and the achievement of great goals in
life.

6. Universal Truth
A reality that seems to have a scientific, religious or cultural acceptance all over the
globe is called a universal truth. A statement will become universally acclaimed truth if
majority of the world population recognizes it to be true. For instance, God is one is such
a statement that finds acknowledgement throughout the world; even if some groups of
people do not attest it, people of three major world religions, Islam, Christianity and
Judaism, accept this statement as truth, hence a universal truth. This kind of statements,
when occurring in reported speech, are not changed or modified; even the general laws of
narration, such as past reporting verb makes present reported speech into past, do not apply
to this situation. Here again conjunction that connects the two clauses. Let us see a few
sentences, for instance;
Direct: Our teacher said yesterday, The earth is round.
Indirect: Our teacher told yesterday that the earth is round.
Direct: He said to Ahmad, Prophet Muhammad is the final Messenger of God.
Indirect: He informed Ahmad that Prophet Muhammad is the final Messenger of God.
Direct: You said to him, 2 + 2 is equal to 4.
Indirect: You told him that 2 + 2 is equal to 4.
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Sometimes a statement involving universal truth has a negative narration.


Direct: The sun is not a planet, said her mother.
Indirect: Her mother said that the sun is not a planet.

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Direct & Indirect Narration Exercises

Attempt these exercises with the help of Direct & Indirect Narration
section.
KINDS

Kind 1. Assertive Sentences


Present
1. He says, I dont know him.
2. She says, My father smokes.
3. I say to him, Youre a good student.
4. She will say, She cannot deliver the speech.
5. Ahmad says, Im in trouble now.
6. I say, Theyre all bad boys.
7. Asma says, She was going to Islamabad.
8. Hassan says, I cannot speak English.
9. He says to my father, My father will come tomorrow.
10. They say to us, They obey their elders.
Past
1. My father said, Ill come and see you as soon as I can.
2. Ahsan said to me, Though hes my brother, I cant trust him.
3. Hassan said, As far as I know the students, this student is quite correct.
4. I said to him, Theres nothing to be afraid of; youll be quite able to do it.
5. She said to her daughter, You can go to market in my absence from home.
6. He said to his mother, He was taking his paper last month.
7. We said to our teacher, Were unable to do this exercise properly.
8. Samina said, Im sure Ill find a job by the end of this month.
9. Teacher Salma said to Ahmad and Hassan, You both are good but a little naughty
students.
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10. Faisal said to his father, I cant photocopy these documents as accurately as they
want.

Kind 2. Interrogative
1. I said to her, Have you consulted any psychiatrist?
2. She said to her friend, Can you give me you physics book for today?
3. They said to us, Were you sleeping in this room yesterday?
4. He said to my father, Will you allow Ahmad to go on a trip with us?
5. His father said to him, Why did you beat your younger brother at night?
6. She said to them, Was he really trying to cheat you?
7. I said to him, Where do you live?
8. He said to me, Wherere you going now?
9. Hassan said to me, Are you not planning to go to office today?
10. She said to me, Why doesnt Samina go to Bilcans Institute?

Kind 3. Imperative
1. Ali said to me, Dont/Do not talk to him.
2. Mother said to the guests, Dont/Do not sit on those chairs.
3. She said to her younger sister, Dont/Do not burn wood in so large an amount.
4. He said to us, Dont/Do not play with your future.
5. President said to the engineers, Let us build the largest dam of our country.
6. She said to her boss, Kindly forgive me this time.
7. Principal said to us, Keep quiet in the class.
8. He said to me, Please teach me archaeology.
9. They said to their teacher, Give us the latest information on anthropological
researches.
10. My father said to me, Sleep early to get up early.
11. He said to his servant, Bring me a glass of milk.
12. They said to us, Please help us in these crises.
13. Faisals father said to Faisal, Quickly photocopy these documents.
14. The master said to slave, Open the pot and pour the milk into cups.
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15. She said to the maidservant, Wash the stairs within 15 minutes.
16. He said to me, You should work hard to achieve your goals.
17. The teacher said to the students, Every student ought to look after his parents.
18. He said to his son, Never long for low targets.
19. Ahmads teacher said to Ahmad, Dont/Do not get into unnecessary arguments
with others.
20. Stop, said Asim to you.

Kind 4. Exclamatory
1. She said, What a lovely flower it is.
2. Ahmad said to me, Alas! How foolish I am.
3. Aslam said, Alas! My grandmother is dead.
4. The colonel said to the juniors, Hurrah! We have won the war against India.
5. Mother said, Bravo! Faisal youve done well.
6. Alas! We have acted extremely slowly, said they.
7. Hassan said, Masha-Allah! How well we all have done.
8. He said, Wow! This hat makes you look like a prince.
9. She cried, Phooey! I feel extremely tired now.
10. The players shouted together, How nicely weve won the match against Indian
team.

Kind 5. Optative
1. May you get 1st division, said my friend.
2. Grandmother said, May you live long.
3. Ahmad said to me, May you succeed in your mission.
4. Faisal said to Ali, Would that you were a brave chap.
5. The priest said, May Allah pardon you.
6. The old man said to the urchin, May you go to Hell.
7. The people in the ground said, May the Chief Justice live long and enjoy health.
8. May you live happily and prosper in life, said Hassan.
9. Father said to his son, God bless you.
10. The students said, May our teacher recover soon from the fever.
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Kind 6. Universal Truth


1. The Prophets of Muslims and Jews said, God is one and there is nothing like Him.
2. The scientist said on the seminar, The earth goes around the sun.
3. The doctors said, Human heart is on the left side of chest.
4. The teacher said, The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
5. Mother said to the son, Honesty is the best policy.
6. The holy man said, Charity begins at home.
7. She said, Love begets love.
8. Wise people say, God helps those who help themselves.
9. The Imam Masjid said, Quran is the final Word of God.
10. Teacher said to us, Mount Everest is the highest peak on earth.

The End
(All is well that ends well.)

We Wish You Best Of Luck!

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21. Joseph Devlin, A Dictionary of Synonyms and Antonyms, New York: Warner
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and

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