Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 13

OBJECTIVES

We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while
we are in Form 5. This year the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education has
prepared four tasks for us. We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area
of interest. This project can be done in groups or individually, but each of us are expected to
submit an individually written report. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project
Work, we are to gain valuable experiences and able to:
Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and nonroutine problems;
Experience classroom environments which are challenging, interesting and meaningful
and hence improve their thinking skills.
Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in
meaningful ways in solving real-life problems
Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking
,reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected
Experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances
effective learning.
Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing, and to use
the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely
Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in
ways that increase interest and confidence
Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace
Realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving reallife problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics.
Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate, to
cooperate, and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment
Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively
Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more
creative and innovative
Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics

FOREWARD
First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, for giving me the strength and health to do this
project work. Not forgotten my parents for providing everything, such as money, to buy
anything that are related to this project work and their advice, which is the most needed for
this project. Internet, books , computers, and etc. They also supported me and encouraged
me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate in doing it. Then I would like to
thank my teacher, Pn Siti Azrina for guiding me and my friends throughout this project. We
had some difficulties in doing this task, but she taught us patiently until we knew what to do.
She tried and tried to teacher until we understand what we supposed to do with the project
work. Last but not least, my friends who were doing this project with me and sharing our
ideas. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, we had this task
done.

INTRODUCTION
HISTORY OF INDEX NUMBER
Index numbers are meant to study the change in the effects of such factors which cannot
be
measured directly. According to Bowley, Index numbers are used to measure the changes in
some
quantity which we cannot observe directly. For example, changes in business activity in a
country
are not capable of direct measurement but it is possible to study relative changes in business
activity by studying the variations in the values of some such factors which
affect business activity, and which are capable of direct measurement .Index
numbers are commonly used statistical device for measuring the combined fluctuations in
a group related variables. If we wish to compare the price level of consumer items today
with that prevalent ten years ago, we are not interested in comparing the prices of only one
item, but in comparing some sort of average price levels. We may wish to compare the
present agricultural production or industrial production with that at the time of
independence. Here again, we have to consider all items of production and each item may
have undergone a different fractional increase (or even a decrease). How do we obtain a
composite measure? This composite measure is provided by index numbers which may be
defined as a device for combining the variations that have come in group of related variables
over a period of time, with a view to obtain
a figure that represents the net result of the
change in the constitute variables.

Index numbers may be classified in terms of the variables that they are intended to
measure. In business, different groups of variables in the measurement of which index
number techniques are commonly used are (i) price, (ii) quantity, (iii) value and (iv)
business activity. Thus, we have index of wholesale prices, index of consumer prices, index
of industrial output, index of value of exports and index of business activity, etc. Here we
shall be mainly interested in index numbers of prices showing changes with respect to time,
although methods described can be applied to other cases. In general, the present level of
prices is compared with the level of prices in the past. The present period is called the
current period and some period in the past is called the base period.
Index Numbers
:Index numbers are statistical measures designed to show changes in a variable or groupof
related variables with respect to time, geographic location or other characteristics such as
income, profession, etc. A collection of index numbers for different years, locations, etc., is
sometimes called an index series.

Simple Index Number


:A simple index number is a number that measures a relative change in
a single variable with respect to a base.
Composite Index Number
:A composite index number is a number that measures an average relative changes in agroup
of relative variables with respect to a base.

PART 1
The price of goods sold in shop vary from one shop to another. Shoppers tend to buy
goodswhich are not only reasonably price but also give value for their money.You are
required to carry out a survey on four different items based on the followingcategories:
food, detergent and stationery. The survey should be done in three different shop.
Part 1(a)
Collect picture, newspaper cuttings or photos on item that you have chosen. Design a collage
toillustrate the chosen item.

PART 2
Every year MRSM Tun Ghazali Shafie organizes a carnival to raise funds for the school. This
year the school plans to install CCTV in order to en chance its security. Last year, during the
carnival, your class made and sold nasi lemak.
Due to the popularity of this local food, your class has decided to carry out the same
project for this years carnival.

PART 3
In order to upgrade the security, my school has decided to install closed-circuit TV (CCTV).
Part 3(a)
Suggest a suitable number of cameras to be installed and their
placement. Give your reasons.Illustrate with a plan.
I suggest 4 cameras to be installed at my school. The cameras will be installed
at the staff roomsand the office. This action will be done to avoid any robbery case from
happen.
Part 3(b)
Find out the cost of installation of the CCTV.
A set of CCTV with 4 cameras : RM2100

FUTHEREXPLORATION
Index numbers are being used in many different daily situations, for example air
pollutionindex, stock market index, gold index and property index.Obtain information from
the internet or other reliable sources on the importance of twodifferent types of index
number of your choice. Elaborate the use and the importance of theseindex numbers in daily
life.
Air Pollution Index
Air pollution
is the introduction of chemicals,particulate matter,orbiologicalmaterialsthat cause harm
or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damagesthenatural environmentinto
theatmosphere.The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that
is essential tosupport life on planetEarth.Stratosphericozone depletiondue to air pollution
has long beenrecognized as a threat to human health as well as to the
Earth'secosystems.The Air Quality Index(AQI) (also known as theAir
Pollution Index(API) or P o l l u t a n t Standard Index(PSI) is a number used by
government agencies to characterize the quality of the air at a given location. As the
AQI increases, an increasingly large percentage of thepopulation is likely to
experience increasingly severe adverse health effects. To compute theAQI
requires an air pollutant concentration from a monitor or model. The function used toconvert
from air pollutant concentration to AQI varies by pollutant, and is different in
differentcountries. Air quality index values are divided into ranges, and each
range is assigned adescriptor and a color code. Standardized public health advisories are
associated with each AQIrange. An agency might also encourage members of the public to
take public transportation orwork from home when AQI levels are high.
Limitations of the AQI
Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI. Many countries monitor ground-level
ozone , particulates ,sulphur dioxide ,carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide and calculate
air quality indices for these pollutants.
Causes of Poor Air Quality
The AQI can worsen (go up) due to lack of dilution of air emissions by fresh air. Stagnant air,
often caused by an anticyclone or temperature inversion ,or other lack of winds lets air
pollution remain in a local area.
Indices by location S o u t h K o r e a
The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the Comprehensive Air-quality
Index(CAI) to describe the ambient air quality based on health risk of air pollution. The
index aims to help the public easily understand air quality level and protect the health of
people from air pollution. - The CAI has values of 0 through 500, which are divided
into six categories. The higher the CAI value, the greater the level of air
pollution. - Of values of the five air pollutants ,the highest is the CAI value.

Stock Market Index


A comparison of three major U.S. stock indices: the NASDAQ Composite ,Dow Jones
Industrial Average ,and S&P 500.All three have the same height at March 2007. Notice
the large dot-com spike on the NASDAQ, a result of the large number of tech.
companies on that index.
A stock market index
is a method of measuring a section of the stock market. Many indices are cited by news
or financial services firms and are used as bench marks ,to measure the performance
of port folios such as mutual funds.
Types of indices
Stock market indices may be classed in many ways. A 'world' or 'global' stock market index
includes (typically large) companies without regard for where they are domiciled or traded.
Two examples are MSCI World and S&P Global 100. A
national
index represents the performance of the stock market of a given nation

And by proxy, reflects investor sentiment on the state of its economy. The most regularly
quoted market indices are national indices composed of the stocks of large companies listed

on a nation's largest stock exchanges, such as the American S&P 500,the


Japanese Nikkei 225,andthe British FTSE 100.

The concept may be extended well beyond an exchange. The Dow Jones Total Stock Market
Index, as its name implies, represents the stocks of nearly every publicly traded company in
the United States, including all U.S. stocks traded on the New York Stock Exchange(but not
ADRs) and most traded on th e NASDAQ and American Stock Exchange. Russell Investment
Group added to the family of indices by launching the Russell Global
Index. More specialized indices exist tracking the performance of specific
sectors of the market. The Morgan Stanley Biotech Index ,for example, consists of
36Americanfirms in the biotechnology industry. Other indices may track companies of a
certain size, a certain type of management, or even more specialized criteria

one index published by Linux Weekly News tracks stocks of companies that sell products
and services based on the Linux operating environment.
Index versions
Some indices, such as the S&P 500,have multiple versions.
These versions can differ based on how the index components are weighted and on how
dividends are accounted for. For example, there are three versions of the S&P 500index:
price return, which only considers the price of the components, total return, which accounts
for dividend reinvestment, and net total return, which accounts for dividend reinvestment
after the deduction of a with holding tax. As another example, the Wilshire
4500andWilshire 5000indices have five versions each: full capitalization
total return, full capitalization price, float-adjusted total return, float-adjusted

price, and equal weight. The difference between the full capitalization, floatadjusted, and equal weight versions is in how index components are weighted.
Uses and importance of air pollution index and stock market index
As everyone can see, the air pollution index is use by the government to measure the air
quality index and to detect any pollutants in our countrys air. This is to ensure the air is clean
and safe for us to inhale. Besides that, an early warning can be given to us if the
air pollution is to high for us to get out of our homes. This warning is given based upon
readings and interpretations of the air pollution index. As for the stock market index, it is
mainly for the business entrepreneurs. This type of index is used to determine
the outcome of a stock market and also the conclusion of a stock
market. The stock market index is important because a
countrys economical state sometimes
depend on it.

CONCLUSION
After doing research, answering questions, drawing graphs and some problem solving, I saw
that the usage of index number is important in daily life. It is not just widely used in markets
but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like the air or the water. Especially
in conducting an air-pollution survey. In conclusion, statistics is a daily life
essecities. Without it,
surveys cant be conducted, the stock market cant be interpret and many more.
So, we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of statistics.