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# Laboratory Report Mechanics of Solids SESG1001

## Mohrs Circle and Strain Gauge Rosette

Summary

1 Introduction
Mohrs circle is a graphical method to determine the effect of a coordinate rotation on a
tensor quantity. In the engineering sciences it is applied to analyse the effect of a coordinate
rotation on stress, strain, second moment of area and moment of inertia.
In this experiment,

2 Objectives
The objectives of the experiment are

3 Experimental
3.1 Apparatus
An aluminium alloy beam, clamped at one end within a rig containing a cam whose fullrange rotation leads to a repeatable tip deflection of = 0.5 = 12.7 mm, as shown in
Figure 1. The beam has dimensions as follows: breadth b = 25.4 mm, depth d = 6.35 mm and
length (to the cam) L = 254 mm. Three strain gauges are mounted on the upper surface at 94
mm from the clamped end; these gauges are mounted at 15, 45, and 75 with respect to the
longitudinal, x-axis, of the beam, as shown in Figure 2. Each of these gauges can be selected
using a switchboard, to be one arm of a Wheatstone bridge arrangement [1] research and
describe the working principle of a wheatstone bridge here; give further reference(s), with a
dummy strain gauge providing temperature compensation.

## Laboratory Report Mechanics of Solids SESG1001

Figure 2: Schematic of the strain gauges 1-5 as mounted on top of the beam

3.2 Procedure
1. The strain gauge amplifier should be warmed up, and set to the correct gauge factor of 2.1.
2. Select gauge 1 and balance (zero) the bridge with the beam unloaded. Then, rotate the lever
to bend the beam and note the strain gauge reading. Rotate the lever back to its original
position.
3. Repeat step 2. For gauges 2 and 3 and note the strain.
4. Repeat steps 2) and 3) for gauges 4 and 5 and note the strain in a second table

4. Results
4.1 Measurement
Table 1: Strain measured from gauges 1-3 for unloaded and loaded beam.
Beam condition
Strain []
Strain []
Strain []
gauge 1
gauge 2
gauge 3
0
0
0
Table 2: Strain measured from gauges 4-5 for unloaded and loaded beam.
Beam condition Strain [] Strain []
gauge 4
gauge 5
0
0

## Laboratory Report Mechanics of Solids SESG1001

4.2 Analysis
On a graph paper, construct two Mohrs circles for strain using:
a) the geometrical method shown during the lab applying the reading from gauges 1-3 and
b) the general method applying the reading from gauges 4 and 5 assuming zero shear strain,
i.e. uniaxial strain in the x-direction.
c) From a), determine the principal strains I and II, as well as the direction of maximum
shear strain xy. Also, determine the value of Poissons ratio, , for the material. In this
experiment I should theoretically be equal and in the direction of x. Inevitably there will be
experimental errors so your result may be different. In the discussion section (6.), discuss
possible reasons why the maximum strain obtained may not be predicted to occur in the xdirection,
d) From b) determine the principal strains I and II, as well as the direction of maximum
shear strain xy. Also, determine the value of Poissons ratio, , for the material. compare
your experimental values obtained from gauges 1-3 with the ones from gauges 4 and 5 and
also with values those from theory presented in the following section. (As indicated you may
find it helpful to use xy x etc. for values determined from measurements of gauges 4 and 5,
to differentiate those from the ones derived from measurements of gauges 1-3!)).

5. Theoretical Prediction
For the rectangular beam cross-section, the second moment of area is give by
b d 3 25.4 6.35 3
I=
=
= 542mm 4 = 5.42 1010 m 4 .
12
12

W L3
3 E I
9
2
[give reference].
Assuming
a
Youngs
modulus
for
aluminium
of
the
E
=
70
10
Nm

## required force to produce a deflection of 12.7 mm is given by

The tip deflection of a cantilever beam subject to a force W at the free end is

W =

=
= 88.21N
L3
0.245 3

## Figure 3: Bending moment at strain gauge location

At the strain gauge location, as shown in Figure 3, the bending moment M is
M y
M = W 0.16 = 14.11Nm. Now employ the expression x = I [give reference], and on
6.32
mm = 3.175 103 m , to give
the upper beam surface y =
2
14.11 (3.175 103 )
x =
= 82.7 10 6 Nm2 = 82.7MPa .
5.42 1010

## There is zero stress in the y- and z-directions, so Hookes law reduces to

x =

Thus x =

82.7 10 6
, y = z = 0.3*1181 = 354 .
= 1181106 =
9
1181

70 10

6. Discussion

x = =
, y z
x.
E

7. Conclusion

References
1. PP Benham, RJ Crawford and CG Armstrong, Mechanics of Engineering Materials, 1996,
second edition, Harlow, Addison Wesley Longman
2.

Nomenclature
In alphabetical order, Greek Symbols at end
b
d
depth
E
Youngs modulus

I
L
M
W
x, y, z

## Second moment of area

length
bending moment
Cartesian coordinates
direct strain
direct stress
deflection

Appendices
If required

Notes
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