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# maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

## Motor data and

operating ranges
of maxon DC motors
Motor behaviour: speed-torque line, current
Motor data and operating ranges

## DC motor as an energy converter

electrical in mechanical energy
speed constant
speed-torque line

PJ R I2

Pel U I

## applies to DC and EC motors

"EC" = "brushless DC" (BLDC)

Pmech

n M
30

torque constant

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

## Characteristic motor data

Further Specifications

Operating Range

## Characteristic motor data

describe the motor design and general behaviour
independent of actual voltage or current

## terminal resistance (phase to phase) R

terminal inductance (phase to phase) L
torque constant kM
speed constant kn

## almost independent of winding (mechanical)

mechanical time constant tm
rotor mass inertia JMot

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Winding resistance
resistance increases from left to right
high resistance winding

## thick wire, few turns

low rated voltage
high rated and

## thin wire, many turns

high rated voltage
low rated and starting

starting currents

currents

(min-1/V)

(min-1/V)

(mNm/A)

(mNm/A)

## low resistance winding

Torque constant kM
produced torque is proportional to motor current
M kM I
defined by motor geometry and magnetic flux densities
measuring torques by measuring the current
unit: mNm/A

current I

current line

M
kM

torque losses

torque M

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

## Torque and current: torque constant

current direction towards brush

force

forces:
conductor in a magnetic field

force

magnetic
field

## current direction towards flange

influencing parameters:
geometry
design
field density
winding number

M kM I
current I

application

## 7, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

torque:
sum of all forces at the
distance to the rotating axis

Speed constant kn
Induced voltage Uind is proportional to motor speed n

Speed constant kn
mostly used for calculating no-load speeds n0
unit:
min-1 / V

n k n Uind
n0 k n U

Generator constant ke
inverse of kn: motor as a generator (e.g. DC-Tacho). How much
voltage is produced per rpm?
units:
mV / min-1
V / 1000 min-1

## law of induction: changing flux in a conductor loop

induced voltage proportional to speed
basically the inverse of kM, but in different units

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

_

U
+

## applied motor voltage U:

U L I R I EMF R I Uind
t

Uind U R I

## EMF: induced voltage Uind

(winding) resistance R
winding inductance L
voltage losses over L can be
neglected in DC motors

n
M
UR
kn
kM
30'000 R
M
n kn U

2

kM

Dn
n kn U
M
DM

## 9, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

EMF

Speed-torque line
speed n

n kn U

Dn
M
DM

Dn
DM

U = UN
MH
IA

torque M
current I

U > UN

n0
n0 k n U

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

by how much is the speed reduced Dn, if the output motor torque
is
Dn 30'000
n

R i
enhanced by DM?
2

DM

speed n

M1, n 1

strong motor:
M2, n 2

DM

## flat speed-torque line, small

Dn/DM
e.g. strong magnet, bigger motor

weak motor:

## steep speed-torque line, high Dn/DM

e.g. weak magnet, smaller motor

Winding series
n

at U constant
thick wire

MH

torque M

Dn

MiH

## electrical input power (voltage,

current of power supply)

## mechanical output power

(speed, torque)

thin wire

M
basically constant for the winding series
constant filling factor: a constant amount of copper fills the air gap

n0

kM

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

## Characteristic motor data

Further Specifications

Operating Range

## Values at nominal voltage

describe the special working points:

at rated voltage UN
at rated current IN

## rated working point

resulting rated speed nN
resulting rated torque MN

Motor at stall
resulting stall torque MH
resulting starting current IA

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

speed n

## motor friction torque with 2 components

MVA: constant factor
c5: speed dependent factor

MR (n) MVA c 5 n
friction torque
good enough for most practical
purposes (c5 is small compared to MVA)

MR kM I0
MR

MH

torque M

I0

IA

current I

## no-load current corresponds to the

n0

Operating points
at a given load torque ML

speed n

motor voltage

deceleration

acceleration
torque M

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Acceleration
acceleration at constant voltage:
n
n
n0
100%
n0
n L ,ML
nL

time t

tm Dt

torque M
acceleration at constant current / torque:
n
n
n0
n0
n L ,ML
nL

Dt

time t

63%

## maxon standard tolerances

Sources

1.1
1.0
0.9

7%
8%

Results
General tolerance level
weaker magnet =>
stronger magnet =>

0.86

1.0

1.16

5 to 10 %
50 %
10 %
enhanced n0
reduced n0

## 18, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

winding resistance
magnetic properties
friction and losses

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Influence of temperature
Cu

temperature

+ 0.39 % per K

AlNiCo

- 0.02 % per K

Ferrite

- 0.2

% per K

NdFeB

- 0.1

% per K

resistance

magnetic properties

R: + 19.5 %

kn + 5 % (no-load speed)

## 19, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

temperature coefficients

example: RE motor
DT = + 50K

kM - 5 % (more current!)
stall torque MH : - 22 %

Max. efficiency
hmax

n (M MR )

30
UI
2

n0

hmax

I
MR

1 0 1
IA
MH

torque M

efficiency h

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

## Characteristic motor data

Further Specifications

Operating Range

## Motor limits: operation ranges

Speed
n

continuous
operation

short term
operation

torque M
current I

MN
IN
- higher ambient temperature
- heat accumulation

## - lower ambient temperature

- good heat dissipation

nmax

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

motor may be overloaded for a short time and repeatedly
Limit: max. permissible winding temperature

5tW
4tW
3tW continous
operation
2tW
1tW

permissible
short term
operation

thermally
prohibited
short term
operation

torque M

MN

2MN

3MN

4MN

duration

## Characteristic motor data

Further Specifications

Operating Range

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

plastic
plate

## depend strongly on mounting conditions

standard mounting:
horizontal
mounting
thermal resistance housing-ambient Rth2
thermal resistance winding-housing Rth1
thermal time constant of winding tthW
free convection
at 25 C ambient
temperature

## thermal time constant of motor tthS

temperature limits
ambient temperature range
max. winding temperature Tmax

## Nominal Torque and Temperature

Example for Tmax= 125 C

MN(TA)
MN(25C)

1.0
Rth2,mod= 0.5 Rth2
0.5

0.0
-20

20

40

60

80

100

Tamb C

1.5

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## maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

## Mechanical motor data

describe maximum speed and the properties of bearings

## max. permissible speed

limited by bearing life considerations (EC)
limited by relative speed between collector and
brushes (DC)
27, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

dynamic: in operation
static: at stall
axial press fit force
(shaft supported)

## Assigned power rating

no general criteria
electrical power at the rated working point
output power at the rated working point:

Ptyp

nN MN
30

anyway

10 W

## assigned power rating

is only a rough
estimate
drive must fulfill both,
torque and speed
requirements

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