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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges

How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Motor data and


operating ranges
of maxon DC motors
Motor behaviour: speed-torque line, current
Motor data and operating ranges

2010, maxon motor ag, Sachseln, Switzerland

DC motor as an energy converter


electrical in mechanical energy
speed constant
speed-torque line

PJ R I2

Pel U I

applies to DC and EC motors


"EC" = "brushless DC" (BLDC)

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

Pmech

n M
30

2, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

torque constant

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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Characteristic motor data

Further Specifications

Operating Range

3, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

Values at nominal voltage

Characteristic motor data


describe the motor design and general behaviour
independent of actual voltage or current

terminal resistance (phase to phase) R


terminal inductance (phase to phase) L
torque constant kM
speed constant kn

almost independent of winding (mechanical)


speed-torque gradient Dn/DM
mechanical time constant tm
rotor mass inertia JMot

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

4, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

strongly winding dependent values (electromechanical)

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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Winding resistance
resistance increases from left to right
high resistance winding

thick wire, few turns


low rated voltage
high rated and

thin wire, many turns


high rated voltage
low rated and starting

starting currents

currents

high specific speed

low specific speed

(min-1/V)

(min-1/V)

low specific torque

high specific torque

(mNm/A)

(mNm/A)

5, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

low resistance winding

Torque constant kM
produced torque is proportional to motor current
M kM I
defined by motor geometry and magnetic flux densities
measuring torques by measuring the current
unit: mNm/A

current I

current line

M
kM

no-load current I0
torque losses

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

torque M

6, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

for the motor: torque = current

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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Torque and current: torque constant


current direction towards brush

force

forces:
force on current leading
conductor in a magnetic field

force

magnetic
field

current direction towards flange

influencing parameters:
geometry
design
field density
winding number

M kM I
current I

application

7, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

torque:
sum of all forces at the
distance to the rotating axis

Speed constant kn
Induced voltage Uind is proportional to motor speed n

Speed constant kn
mostly used for calculating no-load speeds n0
unit:
min-1 / V

n k n Uind
n0 k n U

Generator constant ke
inverse of kn: motor as a generator (e.g. DC-Tacho). How much
voltage is produced per rpm?
units:
mV / min-1
V / 1000 min-1

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

8, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

law of induction: changing flux in a conductor loop


induced voltage proportional to speed
basically the inverse of kM, but in different units

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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Motor as an electrical circuit


_

U
+

applied motor voltage U:


U L I R I EMF R I Uind
t

Uind U R I

EMF: induced voltage Uind


(winding) resistance R
winding inductance L
voltage losses over L can be
neglected in DC motors

n
M
UR
kn
kM
30'000 R
M
n kn U

2

kM

Dn
n kn U
M
DM

9, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

EMF

Speed-torque line
speed n

n kn U

Dn
M
DM

Dn
DM

U = UN
MH
IA

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

torque M
current I

10, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

U > UN

n0
n0 k n U

Page

maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Speed-torque gradient
by how much is the speed reduced Dn, if the output motor torque
is
Dn 30'000
n

R i
enhanced by DM?
2

DM

speed n

M1, n 1

strong motor:
M2, n 2

DM

flat speed-torque line, small


Dn/DM
not sensitive to load changes
e.g. strong magnet, bigger motor

weak motor:

steep speed-torque line, high Dn/DM


sensitive to load changes
e.g. weak magnet, smaller motor

Winding series
n

at U constant
thick wire

MH

torque M

11, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

Dn

MiH

numerous winding variants adjust

electrical input power (voltage,


current of power supply)

mechanical output power


(speed, torque)

thin wire

M
speed-torque gradient
basically constant for the winding series
constant filling factor: a constant amount of copper fills the air gap

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

12, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

n0

kM

Page

maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Characteristic motor data

Further Specifications

Operating Range

13, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

Values at nominal voltage

Values at nominal voltage


describe the special working points:

at rated voltage UN
at rated current IN

No-load operating point


resulting no-load speed n0
resulting no-load current I0

rated working point


resulting rated speed nN
resulting rated torque MN

Motor at stall
resulting stall torque MH
resulting starting current IA

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

14, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Friction and no-load


speed n

motor friction torque with 2 components


MVA: constant factor
c5: speed dependent factor

MR (n) MVA c 5 n
friction torque
good enough for most practical
purposes (c5 is small compared to MVA)

MR kM I0
MR

MH

torque M

I0

IA

current I

15, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

no-load current corresponds to the

n0

Operating points
Load operating points are characterized by a load speed n L
at a given load torque ML

Motor operating points lie on the speed-torque-line: select

speed n

motor voltage

deceleration

acceleration
torque M

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

16, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

the motor voltage accordingly

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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Acceleration
acceleration at constant voltage:
n
n
n0
100%
n0
n L ,ML
nL

time t

tm Dt

torque M
acceleration at constant current / torque:
n
n
n0
n0
n L ,ML
nL

Dt

time t

17, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

63%

maxon standard tolerances


Sources

1.1
1.0
0.9

7%
8%

Results
General tolerance level
tolerance in no-load current
tolerance in no-load speed
weaker magnet =>
stronger magnet =>

0.86

1.0

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

1.16

5 to 10 %
50 %
10 %
enhanced n0
reduced n0

18, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

winding resistance
magnetic properties
friction and losses

Page

maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Influence of temperature
Cu

temperature

+ 0.39 % per K

AlNiCo

- 0.02 % per K

Ferrite

- 0.2

% per K

NdFeB

- 0.1

% per K

resistance

magnetic properties

R: + 19.5 %

kn + 5 % (no-load speed)

19, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

temperature coefficients

example: RE motor
DT = + 50K

kM - 5 % (more current!)
stall torque MH : - 22 %

Max. efficiency
hmax

n (M MR )

30
UI
2

n0

hmax

I
MR

1 0 1
IA
MH

torque M

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

20, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

efficiency h

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10

maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Characteristic motor data

Further Specifications

Operating Range

21, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

Values at nominal voltage

Motor limits: operation ranges


Speed
n

continuous
operation

short term
operation

torque M
current I

MN
IN
- higher ambient temperature
- heat accumulation

- lower ambient temperature


- good heat dissipation

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

22, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

nmax

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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Short-term operation at overload


motor may be overloaded for a short time and repeatedly
Limit: max. permissible winding temperature

5tW
4tW
3tW continous
operation
2tW
1tW

permissible
short term
operation

thermally
prohibited
short term
operation

torque M
load

MN

2MN

3MN

4MN

23, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

depends on thermal time constant of winding tW and amount


of overload

overload
duration

Characteristic motor data

Further Specifications

Operating Range

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

24, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

Values at nominal voltage

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12

maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Thermal motor data

plastic
plate

describe the motor heating and thermal limits

depend strongly on mounting conditions


standard mounting:
horizontal
mounting
thermal resistance housing-ambient Rth2
thermal resistance winding-housing Rth1
thermal time constant of winding tthW
free convection
at 25 C ambient
temperature

thermal time constant of motor tthS

temperature limits
ambient temperature range
max. winding temperature Tmax

25, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

heating and cooling

Nominal Torque and Temperature


Example for Tmax= 125 C

MN(TA)
MN(25C)

1.0
Rth2,mod= 0.5 Rth2
0.5

0.0
-20

20

40

60

80

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

100

Tamb C

26, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

1.5

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maxon Motor Data and Operating Ranges


How to interpret the data of maxon motors?

Mechanical motor data


describe maximum speed and the properties of bearings

max. permissible speed


limited by bearing life considerations (EC)
limited by relative speed between collector and
brushes (DC)
27, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

axial and radial play


suppressed by a preload

axial and radial bearing load


dynamic: in operation
static: at stall
axial press fit force
(shaft supported)

Assigned power rating


no general criteria
electrical power at the rated working point
output power at the rated working point:

Ptyp

or maximum output power at rated voltage

nN MN
30

anyway

10 W

assigned power rating


is only a rough
estimate
drive must fulfill both,
torque and speed
requirements

2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

28, 2010, maxon motor ag, www.maxonmotor.com/academy

but also "marketing" factors

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