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ME 571P

Machine Design 2

Comparison between Brakes and Clutches


Brakes are friction devices used to regulate the motion of
bodies: slowing them down, holding their speed constant or
holding them at rest.
Clutches are friction devices used to connect shafts:
speeding up the driven bodies to the same angular velocity
as the driving shaft.
They may be classified as external shoe on drum; internal
shoe on drum; disk on disk; cone in conical surface;
wrapping bands on drums; and expanding bands on drums.
Any one of these fundamental types may either be a brake
or a clutch, although their details of design would be
different.

However, each type has a characteristic use.


An external shoe on a drum is most likely a brake; a disk on
disk is most likely to be a clutch.
Cones and others are widely used for both.
The principle of operation of both the clutch during
engagement and the brake during braking is to bring two
members having relative motion to the state of no relative
motion.
Therefore, the operation of clutch is essentially the same as
that of a brake.
However, there are structural differences in the two units
because of control requirements and the necessity of
providing for heat absorption or dissipation in brakes.

Clutch is a machine member used to connect a


driving shaft to a driven shaft so that the driven shaft may
be started or stopped at will, without stopping the driving
shaft.
The use of a clutch is mostly found in automobiles.
A little consideration will show that in order to change
gears or to stop the vehicle, it is required that the driven
shaft should stop, but the engine should continue to run.
It is, therefore, necessary that the driven shaft should be
disengaged from the driving shaft.
The engagement and disengagement of the shafts is
obtained by means of a clutch which is operated by a lever.
Two Main Types of Clutches:
1. Positive Clutches, and
2. Friction Clutches

Positive Clutch
Positive clutches are used when a positive drive is required.
The simplest type of a positive clutch is a jaw or claw
clutch.
It permits one shaft to drive another through a direct
contact of interlocking jaws.
It consists of two halves, one of which is permanently
fastened to the driving shaft by a sunk key.
The other half of the clutch is movable and it is free to slide
axially on the driven shaft, but it is prevented from turning
relatively to its shaft by means of feather key.
The use of jaw clutches are frequently applied to sprocket
wheels, gears and pulleys.

A square jaw type is used where engagement and


disengagement in motion and under load is not necessary.
This type of clutch will transmit power in either direction of
rotation.
The spiral jaws may be left-hand or right-hand, because
power transmitted by them is in one direction only. This
type of clutch is occasionally used where the clutch must be
engaged and disengaged while in motion.

Friction Clutch
Friction clutch has its principal application in the
transmission of power of shafts and machines which must
be started and stopped frequently.
Its application is also found in cases in which power is to be
delivered to machines partially or fully loaded.
The force of friction is used to start the driven shaft from
rest and gradually brings it up to the proper speed without
excessive slipping of the friction surfaces.
It may be noted that :
1. The contact surfaces should develop a frictional force that
may pick up and hold the load with reasonably low pressure
between the contact surfaces.
2. The heat of friction should be rapidly dissipated and
tendency to grab should be at a minimum.
3. The surfaces should be backed by a material stiff enough to
ensure a reasonably uniform distribution of pressure.

Material for Friction Surfaces


The lining of friction surfaces of a clutch should have the following
characteristics:
1. It should have a high and uniform coefficient of friction.
2. It should not be affected by moisture and oil.
3. It should have the ability to withstand high temperatures caused by
slippage.
4. It should have high heat conductivity.
5. It should have high resistance to wear and scoring.

Types of Friction Clutch


1. Disc or plate clutches (single disc or multiple disc clutch),
2. Cone clutches (axial friction clutches)
3. Centrifugal clutches (radial friction clutch)
Single Disc or Plate Clutch

Design of a Disc or Plate Clutch


Let T torque transmitted by clutch
p intensity of axial pressure with w/c the
contact surfaces are held together
r1 and r2 external and internal radii of friction faces
R mean radius of the friction face
f coefficient of friction

Consider an elementary ring of radius r and thickness dr.


The area of the friction surface or contact surface 2rdr
Normal or axial force on the ring, W pressure X area 2prdr
Frictional force on the ring perpendicular to W and acting tangentially at r ,
Fr f W 2fprdr
Tr frictional torque acting on the ring Fr r 2fpr 2 dr

Before integrating the previous equation, it is


necessary to make assumptions regarding the distribution
of pressure over the entire friction area.
1. Considering uniform pressure
W
p
;W axial thrust with which friction
2
2
r1 r2

are held together


Tr 2fpr 2 dr
r1

r
2fp 3 3
T 2fp r dr 2fp
r1 r2
3
3 r2
r2
r1

W
3 3 2
r13 r23
r r2 fW 2 2

2
2 1
3
r1 r2
r1 r2
2 r13 r23
But, R mean radius of friction surface 2 2
3 r1 r2
2f

T fWR

2. Considering uniform axial wear : The basic principle in designing machine


parts subjected to wear due to sliding friction is that the normal wear is propor tional to the work of friction. Work of friction is proportional to the product of
normal pressure, p and the sliding velocity,V .
Normal wear Work of friction pV
Normal wear kpV
k constant of proportionality
Since V is a function of r ,
Normal wear kpr

It may be noted that when the friction surface is new, there


is a uniform pressure distribution over the entire contact surface.
Hence, the normal wear at the outer radius is kpr1 and at the
inner radius is kpr2 . It follows that wear will be greater at
the outer radius, hence it will wear until it has assumed a shape
such as the one shown in the figure.

This changed shape will result in the redistribution of the pressure,


so that, p2 at the inner radius will be greater than p1 at the outer
radius.
Wear will take place in this manner until the pressure distribution is such
that p1r1 equals p2 r2 . Then the wear will progress uniformly along parallel
lines.

When equilibrium condition is reached,


Normal wear kpr constant
C
p
r
Normal force on the ring, W 2prdr
C
W 2 rdr
r
r1

W 2C dr 2C r r12 2C r1 r2
r

r2

W
2 r1 r2

Tr frictional torque acting on the ring 2fpr 2 dr


C 2
Tr 2f r dr 2fCrdr
r
r1

r
T 2fC rdr 2fC fC r12 r22
2 r2
r2
r1

2 2
W
r1 r2

f
r1 r2 fW
fWR

2
2 r1 r2
r r
R 1 2 mean radius of friction surface
2
considering uniform axial wear

Summary :
1. In general, total frictional torque acting on the friction surfaces
(or on the clutch)
T nfWR
where : n no. of pairs of friction or contact surfaces
R mean radius of friction surface
2 r13 r23
R 2 2 for uniform pressure
3 r1 r2
r1 r2
R
for uniform wear
2
2. For a single disc or plate clutch, normally both sides of the disc are
effective. Therefore, a single disc clutch has two pairs of surfaces in contact,
that is, n 2.

3. Since the intensity of pressure is maximum at the


inner radius, r2 of the friction surface,
pmax r2 C pmax

C
r2

4. Since the intensity of pressure is minimum


at the outer radius, r1 of the friction surface,
pmin r1 C pmin

r1

5. The average pressure on the friction surface,


total force on friction surface
W
pave

cross sectional area of friction surface r12 r22

6. In case of a new clutch, the intensity of pressure is approximately


uniform; but in an old clutch, the uniform wear theory is more approximate.
7. The uniform pressure theory gives a higher friction torque than the
uniform wear theory. Therefore in case of friction clutches, uniform wear
should be considered, unless otherwise specified.

Multiple Disc Clutch

A multiple disc clutch may be used when a large torque is


to be transmitted.
The inside discs (usually of steel) are fastened to the driven
shaft to permit axial motion (except for the last disc).
The outside discs (usually of bronze) are held by bolts and
fastened to the housing which is keyed to the driving shaft.

Let n1 no. of disc on the driving shaft


n2 no. of disc on the driven shaft
No. of pairs of contact surfaces,
n n1 n2 1
Total frictional torque on the clutch or the frictional surfaces,
T nfWR
where : R mean radius of friction surfaces
2 r13 r23
R 2 2 for uniform pressure
3 r1 r2
r1 r2
R
for uniform wear
2

Sample Problem 1
A single disc clutch with both sides of the disc effective is used
to transmit 10 kW power at 900 rpm. The axial pressure is
limited to 0.085 N/mm2. If the external diameter of the friction
lining is 1.25 times the internal diameter, find the required
dimensions of the friction lining and the axial force exerted by
the springs. Assume uniform wear conditions. The coefficient
of friction may be taken as 0.3.

Assuming the same dimensions and the same total axial


thrust, determine the intensity of pressure and the total
frictional torque acting on the friction surfaces considering
uniform pressure conditions.

Given : n 2; P 10 kW 10000W; N 900 rpm;


pmax 0.085 N
2 ;D1 1.25 D2 ;f 0.3
mm

60 P 6010000
T

106.1033N m 106103.3 N mm
2N
2 900
r1 1.25r2
pmax r2 C 0.085r2
r r
T nfWR nfW 1 2 ; W 2C r1 r2
2

T nfC r12 r22 nf 0.085r2 1.25r2 r22

106103.3 2 0.30.085r2 0.5625r22


r2 105.6 mm

r1 1.25105.6 132mm

W 2C r1 r2 2 0.085r2 r1 r2

W 2 0.085105.6 132 105.6 1488.9 N


W
1488.9

0.0756 N
2
2
2
2
2
mm
r1 r2
132 105.6
For uniform pressure conditions :
pave

2 r13 r23
T nfWR; R 2 2
3 r1 r2
3
3
2 132 105.6
T 20.31488.9
106565.5 N mm 106.6 N m
2
2
3 132 105.6

Sample Problem 2
A multiple disc clutch has radial width of the friction material
as 1/5th of the maximum radius. The coefficient of friction is
0.25. Find the total number of discs required to transmit 60
kW at 3000 rpm. The maximum diameter of the clutch is 250
mm and the axial force is limited to 600 N. Also find the mean
unit pressure on each contact surface.
[Ans. 13 ; 0.034 N/mm2]

1
Given : b r1 r2 r1; f 0.25; P 60 kW 60000W;
5
N 3000rpm; D1 250mm;r1 125mm; W 600 N
1
1
r1 r1 r2 r2 1 125 100mm
5
5
1
b 125 25mm
5

60 P 6060000
T

190.9859 N m 190985.9 N mm
2N 2 3000
125 100
190985.9 n0.25600

n 11.32 12 even number


n1 n2 n 1 12 1 13
pmean

W
600
N

0
.
034
2
2
2
2
2
mm
r1 r2
125 100

HW Problems (Disk Clutch):


A single plate clutch with both sides of the plate effective is
required to transmit 25 kW at 1600 rpm. The outer
diameter of the plate is limited to 300 mm and the intensity
of pressure between the plates not to exceed 0.07 N/mm2.
Assuming uniform wear and coefficient of friction 0.3, find
the inner diameter of the plates and the axial force
necessary to engage the clutch.
[Ans. 90 mm ; 2375 N]
A multiple disc clutch employs 3 steel and 2 bronze discs
having outer diameter 300 mm and inner diameter 200
mm. For a coefficient of friction of 0.22, find the axial force
and the power transmitted at 750 rpm, if the normal unit
pressure is 0.13 N/mm2. Also find the axial pressure, if this
clutch transmits 22 kW at 1500 rpm. [Ans. 5105 N ; 44.11
kW ; 0.0324 N/mm2]

Cone Clutch

It consists of one pair of friction


surface only.
The driver is keyed to the driving shaft
by a sunk key and has an inside conical surface or face which exactly fits into the
outside conical surface of the driven.
The driven member resting on the feather key in the driven shaft, may be
shifted along the shaft by a forked lever (shifting fork) provided at groove B,
in order to engage or disengage the clutch.
The compression spring placed around the driven shaft provides the force to
engage the clutch.
The contact surfaces of the clutch may be metal to metal contact, but more
often the driven member is lined with some material like wood, leather, cork
or asbestos, etc.

Design of a Cone Clutch

Let pn intensity of pressure with w/c the conical friction surfaces are held
together that is, normal pressure bet. contact surfaces
r1 and r2 outer and inner radii of friction surface

r1 r2
2
f coefficient of friction between the contact surfaces
R mean radius of the friction surface

semi - angle of the cone (also called face angle of the cone) or
angle of the friction surface with the axis of the clutch
b width of the friction surface or face width or cone face

Consider an elemental surface of radius r and thickness dr.


Let dl be the length of the element, such that,
dr
dl
sin
2rdr
dA 2rdl
sin
p 2 rdr
fp 2 rdr
Normal force Wn on dA n
; Frictional force on dA n
sin
sin

W horizontal component of Wn that is, in the direction of W


p 2 rdr
sin pn 2 rdr
W Wn sin n
sin
fpn 2 rdr
fpn 2 r 2 dr
r
Tr Frictional force x r
sin
sin
Before integrating the above equation, it is necessary to make assumptions
regarding the distribution of pressure over the entire friction area.
1. Considering uniform pressure

W pn 2 rdr W 2pn rdr 2pn


r2

pn

W
r12 r22

r1

r
2
2

p
r

r
n 1
2

2
r

r1

Total frictional torque,


fp n 2
T
sin
2f

3 sin

r1

2fp n r
2fp n 3 3
r r dr sin 3 3 sin r1 r2
r2
2
r1

W
3 3
2 fW
r r2

2
2 1
3 sin
r1 r2

r13 r23
2 2
r1 r2

2. Considering uniform axial wear


Let pr be the normal intensity of pressure at a distance r
from the axis of the clutch.
We know that, in case of uniform wear, the intensity of pressure varies
inversely with the distance.
C
pr r C a constant ; pr
r
The normal force acting on the ring becomes,
p 2 rdr
Wn r
sin
The axial force acting on the ring,
p 2 rdr
sin pr 2 rdr
W Wn sin r
sin
C
W 2 rdr
r

Integration will give the total axial load transmitted to the clutch,
r1

r1

W 2C dr 2C dr 2C r r12 2C r1 r2
r

r2

r2

W
2 r1 r2

The frictional force on the ring acting tangentially at r becomes,


fp 2 rdr
Fr r
sin
fpr 2 rdr
fpr 2 r 2 dr
r
Tr Frictional force x r
sin
sin
C
f 2 r 2 dr
2fC rdr
r

sin
sin
Integrating the above will give the total frictional torque on the clutch,
r1

2fC
2fC r 2
fC 2 2
T
rdr

r1 r2

sin r2
sin 2 r sin
2
r1

W
2 2
fW r1 r2
r

r
sin

1
2

r1 r2
R mean radius of friction surface

2
fWR
T
sin
But, since W Wn sin
T

f
sin

T fWn R

The forces on a friction surface, for steady operation of the


clutch and after the clutch is engaged, is shown below.
From first figure :
r1 r2 b sin

r1 r2
and R
2
r1 r2 2 R
From pn

W
r12 r22

W pn r1 r2 r1 r2
pn 2 R b sin

W Wn sin

Wn pn 2Rb
fWR
sin
f pn 2 R b sin R
T
2fpn R 2b
sin
From T

The following points may be noted for a cone clutch :


1. The above equations are valid for steady operation of the clutch and after
the clutch is engaged.
2. If the clutch is engaged when one member is stationary and the other
rotating (i.e. during)engagement of the clutch
as shown in 2nd fig., then the cone faces will tend to slide on each
other due to the presence of relative motion. Thus an additional force
of magnitude Wn cos acts on the clutch which resists the
engagement, and the axial force required for engaging the clutch increases.
Axial force req' d for engaging the clutch,
We W fWn cos Wn sin fWn cos
Wn sin f cos

It has been found experimentally that the term, fWn cos is only
25% effective.
We Wn sin 0.25 fWn cos Wn sin 0.25 f cos

3. Under steady operation of the clutch, a decrease in the semi - cone angle ( )
increases the torque produced by the clutch (T ) and reduces the axial force (W ).
During engaging period, the axial force required for engaging the clutch (We )
increases under the influence of friction as the angle decreases. The value of
can not be decreased much because smaller semi - cone angle ( ) requires
larger axial force for its disengagement.
If the clutch is to be designed for free disengagement, the value of tan must
be greater than f .
In case the value of tan is less than f , the clutch will not disengage itself
and axial force required to disengage the clutch is given by
Wd Wn f cos sin

Sample Problem 3
A cone clutch is to be designed to transmit 7.5 kW at 900 rpm.
The cone has a face angle of 12. The width of the face is half
of the mean radius and the normal pressure between the
contact faces is not to exceed 0.09 N/mm2. Assuming uniform
wear and the coefficient of friction between the contact faces
as 0.2, find the main dimensions of the clutch and the axial
force required to engage the clutch.
[Ans. R = 112.4 mm ; b = 56.2 mm ; r1 = 118.2 mm ; r2 = 106.6
mm ; We = 917 N]

Given : P 7.5 kW 75000W; N 900rpm;


1
N
b R; 12; pn 0.09
; f 0.2
2
2
mm

60 P 607500

79.5775 N m 79577.5 N mm
2N 2 900

T 2fpn R 2b
1
79577.5 2 0.2 0.09 R 2 R
2
R 112.1mm
1
b 112.1 56.05mm
2
r r
r1 r2 b sin and R 1 2 r1 r2 2 R
2
56.05sin 12 2112.1
2r1 b sin 2 R r1
117.9mm
2
r2 2 R r1 2112.1 117.9 106.3mm
We Wn sin 0.25 f cos
Wn pn 2Rb

We 0.092 112.156.05sin 12 0.250.2 cos 12


We 912.5 N

HW Problems (Cone Clutch):


A soft cone clutch has a cone pitch angle of 10, mean
diameter of 300 mm and a face width of 100 mm. If the
coefficient of friction is 0.2 and has an average pressure of
0.07 N/mm2 for a speed of 500 rpm, find : (a) the force
required to engage the clutch; and (b) the power that can
be transmitted. Assume uniform wear.
[Ans. 1470 N ; 10.4 kW]
A cone clutch is mounted on a shaft which transmits power
at 225 rpm. The small diameter of the cone is 230 mm, the
cone face is 50 mm and the cone face makes an angle of
15 with the horizontal. Determine the axial force necessary
to engage the clutch to transmit 4.5 kW if the coefficient of
friction of the contact surfaces is 0.25. What is the
maximum pressure on the contact surfaces assuming
uniform wear?
[Ans. 2414 N ; 0.216 N/mm2]

Centrifugal Clutch

The centrifugal clutch is usually incorporated into the motor pulley.

It consists of a number of shoes on the inside of a rim of the pulley, as


shown.
The outer surface of the shoes are covered with a friction material. These
shoes, which can move radially in guides, are held against the boss (or
spider) on the driving shaft by means of springs.
The springs exert a radially inward force which is assumed constant.
The weight of the shoe, when revolving causes it to exert a radially outward
force (i.e. centrifugal force).
The magnitude of this centrifugal force depends upon the speed at which
the shoe is revolving.

A little consideration will show that when the centrifugal force is less
than the spring force, the shoe remains in the same position as when
the driving shaft was stationary.
When the centrifugal force is equal to the spring force, the shoe is just
floating.
But when the centrifugal force exceeds the spring force, the shoe
moves outward and comes into contact with the driven member and
presses against it.
The force with which the shoe presses against the driven member is
the difference of the centrifugal force and the spring force.
The increase of speed causes the shoe to press harder and enables
more torque to be transmitted.

Design of a Centrifugal Clutch


In designing a centrifugal clutch, it is required to determine the weight of
the shoe, size of the shoe and dimensions of the spring.
1. Mass of shoes
Consider one shoe of a centrifugal clutch
Let m mass of each shoe
n no. of shoes
r distance of the center of gravity
of the shoe from the center of the spider
R inside radius of the pulley rim
N speed of the pulley in rpm
angular speed of pulley in rad s
1 angular speed at w/c the
engagement begins to take place
f coeff. of friction bet. shoe & rim

We know that centrifugal force acting


on each shoe at the running speed,
FC m 2 r
The speed at w/c the engagement begins
to take place is generally taken as 3 4th of
the running speed. Thus the inward force on
each shoe exerted by the spring is,
2

Total frictional torque transmitted,


T f FC Fs Rn nFR

9
3
Fs m12 r m r m 2 r
16
4
The net outward force (i.e.centrifugal
force) with w/c the shoe presses against
the rim at running speed
7
FC Fs m 2 r
16
Frictional force acting tangentially on each shoe
F f FC Fs
Frictional torque acting on each shoe
FR f FC Fs R

Note :
The radial clearance between the shoe and the rim is about 1.5 mm. Since this
clearance is small as compared to r , therefore it is neglected for design purposes.
If, however, the radial clearance is given, then the operating radius of the mass
centre of the shoe from the axis of the clutch,
r1 r c, where c is the radial clearance
PC m 2 r1
Ps m12 r1

2. Size of shoes
Let l contact length of shoes
b width of shoes
R contact radius of the shoes;
it is the same as the inside
radius of the rim of pulley
angle subtended by the shoes
at the center of the spider in rad .
p intensity of pressure exerted on
the shoe
may use this value in

N
p 0.1
order to ensure reaso -
mm 2

nable life

l R R
R
3

Assuming 60

rad
3

The area of contact of the shoe lb


The force with which the shoe presses against the rim
Ap lbp
Since the force with w/c the shoe presses against the rim at the
running speed is FC Fs ;
FC Fs lbp
3. Dimensions of spring
In determining dimensions of spring, it is necessary to calculate
the load on spring,
9
Fs m 2 r
16

Sample Problem 4
A centrifugal friction clutch has a driving member consisting of
a spider carrying four shoes which are kept from contact with
the clutch case by means of flat springs until increase of
centrifugal force overcomes the resistance of the springs and
the power is transmitted by the friction between the shoes and
the case.
Determine the necessary mass and size of each shoe if 22.5
kW is to be transmitted at 750 rpm with engagement
beginning at 75% of the running speed. The inside diameter of
the drum is 300 mm and the radial distance of the centre of
gravity of each shoe from the shaft axis is 125 mm. Assume
f = 0.25.

Given : n 4; P 22.5kW 22500W; N 750rpm; 1 0.75;


D 300mm R 150mm 0.15m; r 125mm .125m; f 0.25
2N 2 750
rad

78.54
60
60
s
rad
1 speed at w/c the engagement begins 0.7578.5 58.905
s
FC m 2 r
Fs m12 r m0.75 2 r
2

FC Fs 1 0.75 m 2 r
22500
286.4782 N-m
78.54
T nFR f FC Fs Rn
T

286.4782 0.25 1 0.75 m78.54 0.1250.154


m 5.66kg
2

l R

150 157.1mm

FC Fs lbp; p 0.1 N

mm 2

1 0.75 m r lbp

1 0.75 5.6678.54 0.125


b
121.5mm
2

157.10.1