Mach Des

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Mach Des

© All Rights Reserved

- Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine
- Clutch
- Band Brake
- Brakes(Lec8)
- QM Zettili s Solutions-libre
- MD2
- Reaction Turbine Problems.pdf
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- Balancing of Rotating Mass - Lab Report 1
- dts_f
- Keys and Coupling (Design for a Simple Rigid Flanged Coupling)
- Solutions 5th_ Robert L. Norton
- Machine Design - Design of Clutches
- RA 8495 - Mechanical Engineering Law
- PROBLEMS With Solution
- chp-08
- Design of Machine Elements
- GOVERNOR
- PSME QUIZ
- A Proposed Design of Ice Plant

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Machine Design 2

Brakes are friction devices used to regulate the motion of

bodies: slowing them down, holding their speed constant or

holding them at rest.

Clutches are friction devices used to connect shafts:

speeding up the driven bodies to the same angular velocity

as the driving shaft.

They may be classified as external shoe on drum; internal

shoe on drum; disk on disk; cone in conical surface;

wrapping bands on drums; and expanding bands on drums.

Any one of these fundamental types may either be a brake

or a clutch, although their details of design would be

different.

An external shoe on a drum is most likely a brake; a disk on

disk is most likely to be a clutch.

Cones and others are widely used for both.

The principle of operation of both the clutch during

engagement and the brake during braking is to bring two

members having relative motion to the state of no relative

motion.

Therefore, the operation of clutch is essentially the same as

that of a brake.

However, there are structural differences in the two units

because of control requirements and the necessity of

providing for heat absorption or dissipation in brakes.

driving shaft to a driven shaft so that the driven shaft may

be started or stopped at will, without stopping the driving

shaft.

The use of a clutch is mostly found in automobiles.

A little consideration will show that in order to change

gears or to stop the vehicle, it is required that the driven

shaft should stop, but the engine should continue to run.

It is, therefore, necessary that the driven shaft should be

disengaged from the driving shaft.

The engagement and disengagement of the shafts is

obtained by means of a clutch which is operated by a lever.

Two Main Types of Clutches:

1. Positive Clutches, and

2. Friction Clutches

Positive Clutch

Positive clutches are used when a positive drive is required.

The simplest type of a positive clutch is a jaw or claw

clutch.

It permits one shaft to drive another through a direct

contact of interlocking jaws.

It consists of two halves, one of which is permanently

fastened to the driving shaft by a sunk key.

The other half of the clutch is movable and it is free to slide

axially on the driven shaft, but it is prevented from turning

relatively to its shaft by means of feather key.

The use of jaw clutches are frequently applied to sprocket

wheels, gears and pulleys.

disengagement in motion and under load is not necessary.

This type of clutch will transmit power in either direction of

rotation.

The spiral jaws may be left-hand or right-hand, because

power transmitted by them is in one direction only. This

type of clutch is occasionally used where the clutch must be

engaged and disengaged while in motion.

Friction Clutch

Friction clutch has its principal application in the

transmission of power of shafts and machines which must

be started and stopped frequently.

Its application is also found in cases in which power is to be

delivered to machines partially or fully loaded.

The force of friction is used to start the driven shaft from

rest and gradually brings it up to the proper speed without

excessive slipping of the friction surfaces.

It may be noted that :

1. The contact surfaces should develop a frictional force that

may pick up and hold the load with reasonably low pressure

between the contact surfaces.

2. The heat of friction should be rapidly dissipated and

tendency to grab should be at a minimum.

3. The surfaces should be backed by a material stiff enough to

ensure a reasonably uniform distribution of pressure.

The lining of friction surfaces of a clutch should have the following

characteristics:

1. It should have a high and uniform coefficient of friction.

2. It should not be affected by moisture and oil.

3. It should have the ability to withstand high temperatures caused by

slippage.

4. It should have high heat conductivity.

5. It should have high resistance to wear and scoring.

1. Disc or plate clutches (single disc or multiple disc clutch),

2. Cone clutches (axial friction clutches)

3. Centrifugal clutches (radial friction clutch)

Single Disc or Plate Clutch

Let T torque transmitted by clutch

p intensity of axial pressure with w/c the

contact surfaces are held together

r1 and r2 external and internal radii of friction faces

R mean radius of the friction face

f coefficient of friction

The area of the friction surface or contact surface 2rdr

Normal or axial force on the ring, W pressure X area 2prdr

Frictional force on the ring perpendicular to W and acting tangentially at r ,

Fr f W 2fprdr

Tr frictional torque acting on the ring Fr r 2fpr 2 dr

necessary to make assumptions regarding the distribution

of pressure over the entire friction area.

1. Considering uniform pressure

W

p

;W axial thrust with which friction

2

2

r1 r2

Tr 2fpr 2 dr

r1

r

2fp 3 3

T 2fp r dr 2fp

r1 r2

3

3 r2

r2

r1

W

3 3 2

r13 r23

r r2 fW 2 2

2

2 1

3

r1 r2

r1 r2

2 r13 r23

But, R mean radius of friction surface 2 2

3 r1 r2

2f

T fWR

parts subjected to wear due to sliding friction is that the normal wear is propor tional to the work of friction. Work of friction is proportional to the product of

normal pressure, p and the sliding velocity,V .

Normal wear Work of friction pV

Normal wear kpV

k constant of proportionality

Since V is a function of r ,

Normal wear kpr

is a uniform pressure distribution over the entire contact surface.

Hence, the normal wear at the outer radius is kpr1 and at the

inner radius is kpr2 . It follows that wear will be greater at

the outer radius, hence it will wear until it has assumed a shape

such as the one shown in the figure.

so that, p2 at the inner radius will be greater than p1 at the outer

radius.

Wear will take place in this manner until the pressure distribution is such

that p1r1 equals p2 r2 . Then the wear will progress uniformly along parallel

lines.

Normal wear kpr constant

C

p

r

Normal force on the ring, W 2prdr

C

W 2 rdr

r

r1

W 2C dr 2C r r12 2C r1 r2

r

r2

W

2 r1 r2

C 2

Tr 2f r dr 2fCrdr

r

r1

r

T 2fC rdr 2fC fC r12 r22

2 r2

r2

r1

2 2

W

r1 r2

f

r1 r2 fW

fWR

2

2 r1 r2

r r

R 1 2 mean radius of friction surface

2

considering uniform axial wear

Summary :

1. In general, total frictional torque acting on the friction surfaces

(or on the clutch)

T nfWR

where : n no. of pairs of friction or contact surfaces

R mean radius of friction surface

2 r13 r23

R 2 2 for uniform pressure

3 r1 r2

r1 r2

R

for uniform wear

2

2. For a single disc or plate clutch, normally both sides of the disc are

effective. Therefore, a single disc clutch has two pairs of surfaces in contact,

that is, n 2.

inner radius, r2 of the friction surface,

pmax r2 C pmax

C

r2

at the outer radius, r1 of the friction surface,

pmin r1 C pmin

r1

total force on friction surface

W

pave

uniform; but in an old clutch, the uniform wear theory is more approximate.

7. The uniform pressure theory gives a higher friction torque than the

uniform wear theory. Therefore in case of friction clutches, uniform wear

should be considered, unless otherwise specified.

to be transmitted.

The inside discs (usually of steel) are fastened to the driven

shaft to permit axial motion (except for the last disc).

The outside discs (usually of bronze) are held by bolts and

fastened to the housing which is keyed to the driving shaft.

n2 no. of disc on the driven shaft

No. of pairs of contact surfaces,

n n1 n2 1

Total frictional torque on the clutch or the frictional surfaces,

T nfWR

where : R mean radius of friction surfaces

2 r13 r23

R 2 2 for uniform pressure

3 r1 r2

r1 r2

R

for uniform wear

2

Sample Problem 1

A single disc clutch with both sides of the disc effective is used

to transmit 10 kW power at 900 rpm. The axial pressure is

limited to 0.085 N/mm2. If the external diameter of the friction

lining is 1.25 times the internal diameter, find the required

dimensions of the friction lining and the axial force exerted by

the springs. Assume uniform wear conditions. The coefficient

of friction may be taken as 0.3.

thrust, determine the intensity of pressure and the total

frictional torque acting on the friction surfaces considering

uniform pressure conditions.

pmax 0.085 N

2 ;D1 1.25 D2 ;f 0.3

mm

60 P 6010000

T

106.1033N m 106103.3 N mm

2N

2 900

r1 1.25r2

pmax r2 C 0.085r2

r r

T nfWR nfW 1 2 ; W 2C r1 r2

2

r2 105.6 mm

r1 1.25105.6 132mm

W 2C r1 r2 2 0.085r2 r1 r2

W

1488.9

0.0756 N

2

2

2

2

2

mm

r1 r2

132 105.6

For uniform pressure conditions :

pave

2 r13 r23

T nfWR; R 2 2

3 r1 r2

3

3

2 132 105.6

T 20.31488.9

106565.5 N mm 106.6 N m

2

2

3 132 105.6

Sample Problem 2

A multiple disc clutch has radial width of the friction material

as 1/5th of the maximum radius. The coefficient of friction is

0.25. Find the total number of discs required to transmit 60

kW at 3000 rpm. The maximum diameter of the clutch is 250

mm and the axial force is limited to 600 N. Also find the mean

unit pressure on each contact surface.

[Ans. 13 ; 0.034 N/mm2]

1

Given : b r1 r2 r1; f 0.25; P 60 kW 60000W;

5

N 3000rpm; D1 250mm;r1 125mm; W 600 N

1

1

r1 r1 r2 r2 1 125 100mm

5

5

1

b 125 25mm

5

60 P 6060000

T

190.9859 N m 190985.9 N mm

2N 2 3000

125 100

190985.9 n0.25600

n1 n2 n 1 12 1 13

pmean

W

600

N

0

.

034

2

2

2

2

2

mm

r1 r2

125 100

A single plate clutch with both sides of the plate effective is

required to transmit 25 kW at 1600 rpm. The outer

diameter of the plate is limited to 300 mm and the intensity

of pressure between the plates not to exceed 0.07 N/mm2.

Assuming uniform wear and coefficient of friction 0.3, find

the inner diameter of the plates and the axial force

necessary to engage the clutch.

[Ans. 90 mm ; 2375 N]

A multiple disc clutch employs 3 steel and 2 bronze discs

having outer diameter 300 mm and inner diameter 200

mm. For a coefficient of friction of 0.22, find the axial force

and the power transmitted at 750 rpm, if the normal unit

pressure is 0.13 N/mm2. Also find the axial pressure, if this

clutch transmits 22 kW at 1500 rpm. [Ans. 5105 N ; 44.11

kW ; 0.0324 N/mm2]

Cone Clutch

surface only.

The driver is keyed to the driving shaft

by a sunk key and has an inside conical surface or face which exactly fits into the

outside conical surface of the driven.

The driven member resting on the feather key in the driven shaft, may be

shifted along the shaft by a forked lever (shifting fork) provided at groove B,

in order to engage or disengage the clutch.

The compression spring placed around the driven shaft provides the force to

engage the clutch.

The contact surfaces of the clutch may be metal to metal contact, but more

often the driven member is lined with some material like wood, leather, cork

or asbestos, etc.

Let pn intensity of pressure with w/c the conical friction surfaces are held

together that is, normal pressure bet. contact surfaces

r1 and r2 outer and inner radii of friction surface

r1 r2

2

f coefficient of friction between the contact surfaces

R mean radius of the friction surface

semi - angle of the cone (also called face angle of the cone) or

angle of the friction surface with the axis of the clutch

b width of the friction surface or face width or cone face

Let dl be the length of the element, such that,

dr

dl

sin

2rdr

dA 2rdl

sin

p 2 rdr

fp 2 rdr

Normal force Wn on dA n

; Frictional force on dA n

sin

sin

p 2 rdr

sin pn 2 rdr

W Wn sin n

sin

fpn 2 rdr

fpn 2 r 2 dr

r

Tr Frictional force x r

sin

sin

Before integrating the above equation, it is necessary to make assumptions

regarding the distribution of pressure over the entire friction area.

1. Considering uniform pressure

r2

pn

W

r12 r22

r1

r

2

2

p

r

r

n 1

2

2

r

r1

fp n 2

T

sin

2f

3 sin

r1

2fp n r

2fp n 3 3

r r dr sin 3 3 sin r1 r2

r2

2

r1

W

3 3

2 fW

r r2

2

2 1

3 sin

r1 r2

r13 r23

2 2

r1 r2

Let pr be the normal intensity of pressure at a distance r

from the axis of the clutch.

We know that, in case of uniform wear, the intensity of pressure varies

inversely with the distance.

C

pr r C a constant ; pr

r

The normal force acting on the ring becomes,

p 2 rdr

Wn r

sin

The axial force acting on the ring,

p 2 rdr

sin pr 2 rdr

W Wn sin r

sin

C

W 2 rdr

r

Integration will give the total axial load transmitted to the clutch,

r1

r1

W 2C dr 2C dr 2C r r12 2C r1 r2

r

r2

r2

W

2 r1 r2

fp 2 rdr

Fr r

sin

fpr 2 rdr

fpr 2 r 2 dr

r

Tr Frictional force x r

sin

sin

C

f 2 r 2 dr

2fC rdr

r

sin

sin

Integrating the above will give the total frictional torque on the clutch,

r1

2fC

2fC r 2

fC 2 2

T

rdr

r1 r2

sin r2

sin 2 r sin

2

r1

W

2 2

fW r1 r2

r

r

sin

1

2

r1 r2

R mean radius of friction surface

2

fWR

T

sin

But, since W Wn sin

T

f

sin

T fWn R

clutch and after the clutch is engaged, is shown below.

From first figure :

r1 r2 b sin

r1 r2

and R

2

r1 r2 2 R

From pn

W

r12 r22

W pn r1 r2 r1 r2

pn 2 R b sin

W Wn sin

Wn pn 2Rb

fWR

sin

f pn 2 R b sin R

T

2fpn R 2b

sin

From T

1. The above equations are valid for steady operation of the clutch and after

the clutch is engaged.

2. If the clutch is engaged when one member is stationary and the other

rotating (i.e. during)engagement of the clutch

as shown in 2nd fig., then the cone faces will tend to slide on each

other due to the presence of relative motion. Thus an additional force

of magnitude Wn cos acts on the clutch which resists the

engagement, and the axial force required for engaging the clutch increases.

Axial force req' d for engaging the clutch,

We W fWn cos Wn sin fWn cos

Wn sin f cos

It has been found experimentally that the term, fWn cos is only

25% effective.

We Wn sin 0.25 fWn cos Wn sin 0.25 f cos

3. Under steady operation of the clutch, a decrease in the semi - cone angle ( )

increases the torque produced by the clutch (T ) and reduces the axial force (W ).

During engaging period, the axial force required for engaging the clutch (We )

increases under the influence of friction as the angle decreases. The value of

can not be decreased much because smaller semi - cone angle ( ) requires

larger axial force for its disengagement.

If the clutch is to be designed for free disengagement, the value of tan must

be greater than f .

In case the value of tan is less than f , the clutch will not disengage itself

and axial force required to disengage the clutch is given by

Wd Wn f cos sin

Sample Problem 3

A cone clutch is to be designed to transmit 7.5 kW at 900 rpm.

The cone has a face angle of 12. The width of the face is half

of the mean radius and the normal pressure between the

contact faces is not to exceed 0.09 N/mm2. Assuming uniform

wear and the coefficient of friction between the contact faces

as 0.2, find the main dimensions of the clutch and the axial

force required to engage the clutch.

[Ans. R = 112.4 mm ; b = 56.2 mm ; r1 = 118.2 mm ; r2 = 106.6

mm ; We = 917 N]

1

N

b R; 12; pn 0.09

; f 0.2

2

2

mm

60 P 607500

79.5775 N m 79577.5 N mm

2N 2 900

T 2fpn R 2b

1

79577.5 2 0.2 0.09 R 2 R

2

R 112.1mm

1

b 112.1 56.05mm

2

r r

r1 r2 b sin and R 1 2 r1 r2 2 R

2

56.05sin 12 2112.1

2r1 b sin 2 R r1

117.9mm

2

r2 2 R r1 2112.1 117.9 106.3mm

We Wn sin 0.25 f cos

Wn pn 2Rb

We 912.5 N

A soft cone clutch has a cone pitch angle of 10, mean

diameter of 300 mm and a face width of 100 mm. If the

coefficient of friction is 0.2 and has an average pressure of

0.07 N/mm2 for a speed of 500 rpm, find : (a) the force

required to engage the clutch; and (b) the power that can

be transmitted. Assume uniform wear.

[Ans. 1470 N ; 10.4 kW]

A cone clutch is mounted on a shaft which transmits power

at 225 rpm. The small diameter of the cone is 230 mm, the

cone face is 50 mm and the cone face makes an angle of

15 with the horizontal. Determine the axial force necessary

to engage the clutch to transmit 4.5 kW if the coefficient of

friction of the contact surfaces is 0.25. What is the

maximum pressure on the contact surfaces assuming

uniform wear?

[Ans. 2414 N ; 0.216 N/mm2]

Centrifugal Clutch

shown.

The outer surface of the shoes are covered with a friction material. These

shoes, which can move radially in guides, are held against the boss (or

spider) on the driving shaft by means of springs.

The springs exert a radially inward force which is assumed constant.

The weight of the shoe, when revolving causes it to exert a radially outward

force (i.e. centrifugal force).

The magnitude of this centrifugal force depends upon the speed at which

the shoe is revolving.

A little consideration will show that when the centrifugal force is less

than the spring force, the shoe remains in the same position as when

the driving shaft was stationary.

When the centrifugal force is equal to the spring force, the shoe is just

floating.

But when the centrifugal force exceeds the spring force, the shoe

moves outward and comes into contact with the driven member and

presses against it.

The force with which the shoe presses against the driven member is

the difference of the centrifugal force and the spring force.

The increase of speed causes the shoe to press harder and enables

more torque to be transmitted.

In designing a centrifugal clutch, it is required to determine the weight of

the shoe, size of the shoe and dimensions of the spring.

1. Mass of shoes

Consider one shoe of a centrifugal clutch

Let m mass of each shoe

n no. of shoes

r distance of the center of gravity

of the shoe from the center of the spider

R inside radius of the pulley rim

N speed of the pulley in rpm

angular speed of pulley in rad s

1 angular speed at w/c the

engagement begins to take place

f coeff. of friction bet. shoe & rim

on each shoe at the running speed,

FC m 2 r

The speed at w/c the engagement begins

to take place is generally taken as 3 4th of

the running speed. Thus the inward force on

each shoe exerted by the spring is,

2

T f FC Fs Rn nFR

9

3

Fs m12 r m r m 2 r

16

4

The net outward force (i.e.centrifugal

force) with w/c the shoe presses against

the rim at running speed

7

FC Fs m 2 r

16

Frictional force acting tangentially on each shoe

F f FC Fs

Frictional torque acting on each shoe

FR f FC Fs R

Note :

The radial clearance between the shoe and the rim is about 1.5 mm. Since this

clearance is small as compared to r , therefore it is neglected for design purposes.

If, however, the radial clearance is given, then the operating radius of the mass

centre of the shoe from the axis of the clutch,

r1 r c, where c is the radial clearance

PC m 2 r1

Ps m12 r1

2. Size of shoes

Let l contact length of shoes

b width of shoes

R contact radius of the shoes;

it is the same as the inside

radius of the rim of pulley

angle subtended by the shoes

at the center of the spider in rad .

p intensity of pressure exerted on

the shoe

may use this value in

N

p 0.1

order to ensure reaso -

mm 2

nable life

l R R

R

3

Assuming 60

rad

3

The force with which the shoe presses against the rim

Ap lbp

Since the force with w/c the shoe presses against the rim at the

running speed is FC Fs ;

FC Fs lbp

3. Dimensions of spring

In determining dimensions of spring, it is necessary to calculate

the load on spring,

9

Fs m 2 r

16

Sample Problem 4

A centrifugal friction clutch has a driving member consisting of

a spider carrying four shoes which are kept from contact with

the clutch case by means of flat springs until increase of

centrifugal force overcomes the resistance of the springs and

the power is transmitted by the friction between the shoes and

the case.

Determine the necessary mass and size of each shoe if 22.5

kW is to be transmitted at 750 rpm with engagement

beginning at 75% of the running speed. The inside diameter of

the drum is 300 mm and the radial distance of the centre of

gravity of each shoe from the shaft axis is 125 mm. Assume

f = 0.25.

D 300mm R 150mm 0.15m; r 125mm .125m; f 0.25

2N 2 750

rad

78.54

60

60

s

rad

1 speed at w/c the engagement begins 0.7578.5 58.905

s

FC m 2 r

Fs m12 r m0.75 2 r

2

FC Fs 1 0.75 m 2 r

22500

286.4782 N-m

78.54

T nFR f FC Fs Rn

T

m 5.66kg

2

l R

150 157.1mm

FC Fs lbp; p 0.1 N

mm 2

1 0.75 m r lbp

b

121.5mm

2

157.10.1

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