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specifications simultaneously

Serdar Ethem Hamamci* Nusret Tan

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Inonu University, 44280 Malatya, Turkey

Abstract

This paper deals with the design of PI controllers which achieve the desired frequency and time domain specifications

simultaneously. A systematic method, which is effective and simple to apply, is proposed. The required values of the

frequency domain performance measures namely the gain and phase margins and the time domain performance

measures such as settling time and overshoot are defined prior to the design. Then, to meet these desired performance

values, a method which presents a graphical relation between the required performance values and the parameters of the

PI controller is given. Thus, a set of PI controllers which attain desired performances can be found using the graphical

relations. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the benefits of the method presented. 2006 ISAThe

Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.

Keywords: Frequency and time domain performancesmap; PI control; Control system design; Gain margin; Phase margin; Overshoot;

Settling time

1. Introduction

PID controllers are used extensively in the process industries because of their robust performance and simplicity. Indeed, more than 90% of

the control loops are PID and most loops are in

fact PI since derivative action is not used very

often 1. Several methods see Refs. 26 and

references therein for determining the parameters

of these controllers have been developed during

past 60 years. Although most of these methods

provide acceptable performances for some transfer

functions of the systems, there is not a general

method for tuning the parameters of these controllers. For example, the Ziegler-Nichols method

which is still widely used in industries for tuning

*Corresponding

author.

shamamci@inonu.edu.tr, ntan@inonu.edu.tr

address:

Therefore, other methods such as the refined

Ziegler-Nichols method, pole-zero cancellation

method, and ISTE performance criteria have been

proposed to improve the performance of control

systems which especially have a time delay. It is

considered in these methods directly either frequency domain specifications such as gain margin

GM and phase margin PM or time domain

specifications like maximum overshoot MO and

settling time ts. However, one cannot specify all

of these specifications before the design while using these methods.

The basic approach for the design of the controller in the modern control theory is first to obtain

the entire set of stabilizing controllers as in the

Youla parameterization, and then to search over

the set to get a controller that meets the given

performance criteria. Several methods have been

recently reported on the computation of all the sta-

0019-0578/2006/$ - see front matter 2006 ISAThe Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society.

530

bilizing P, PI, and PID controllers 710. However, beyond stabilization it is important to design

controllers that guarantee specified performance

measures such as gain and phase margins, settling

time, and overshoot. Although there are some classical formulas that exist which link frequency and

time domain performances such as PM/ 100,

these approximate formulas do not work for time

delay systems or high order control systems. It

seems that the coefficient diagram method CDM

combined with the methods for the computation of

stabilizing controllers can be a good candidate for

designing controllers which attain the time and

frequency domain specifications simultaneously.

CDM is a polynomial approach which was developed and introduced for a good transient response

of the control systems by Manabe 11. The most

important properties of this method are the adaptation of the polynomial representation for both

the plant and controller, the use of the two-degreeof-freedom 2DOF control system structure, the

nonexistence or very small of the overshoot in

the step response of the closed-loop system, the

determination of the desired settling time and the

maximum overshoot at the start and to continue

the design accordingly, and good robustness of the

control system with respect to the parameter

changes.

In this paper, a new method is proposed for the

computation of a set of PI controllers which give

the prescribed frequency and time domain performance criteria such as gain margin, phase margin,

overshoot, and settling time simultaneously. In this

method, using the stability boundary locus approach of Refs. 10,12, all the stabilizing values

of the parameters of the PI controller are first obtained. This stability region is called the global

stability region. In addition to this, all the stabilizing PI controllers within the global stability region

which provide desired frequency domain performance measures are identified. These subsets of

the global stability region are called the local stability region. Then, the settling time and overshoot

which are very important time domain performance measures are chosen for time domain

specifications. Using the CDM, some explicit formulations are obtained between the PI controller

parameters and the time domain specifications.

For this, a method is given for removing errors

due to approximation used for the time delay term.

Finally, a graphical relation on GM, PM, MO, and

system.

This graphical representation is called the frequency and time domain performances (FTDP)

map. Thus, one can easily obtain a set of PI controllers which attains the desired frequency and

time domain performances using the FTDP map.

The paper is organized as follows: The CDM is

revisited in Section 2. The proposed controller design method is explained in Section 3. Simulation

examples are given in Section 4. Section 5 includes some concluding remarks.

2. Coefficient diagram method

The standard block diagram of the CDM control

system is shown in Fig. 1, where r is the reference

input, y is the output, d is the disturbance, and u is

the control signal. N ps and D ps are the numerator and denominator polynomials of the

transfer function of the plant and have not any

common factors. As is the forward denominator

polynomial while Bs and Fs are the feedback

numerator and the reference numerator polynomials of the controller transfer function. Since the

transfer function of the CDM controller has two

numerators, the control system resembles to a

2DOF system structure. As and Bs are designed as to satisfy the desired transient behavior

and defined as

p

A s = l is i ,

i=0

q

B s = k is i

i=0

in the polynomial forms while prefilter Fs is determined as the zero order polynomial and used to

provide the steady-state gain. Better performance

531

Fig. 2. a The effect of the equivalent time constant on the rate of the closed-loop time response. b The effect of the stability

index, 1 on the time response shape.

because it can focus on both tracking the desired

reference signal and disturbance rejection. Unstable pole-zero cancellations and the use of more

numbers of integrators are also avoided in implementations with this structure. The output of the

CDM control system in Fig. 1 is defined as

y=

N p s F s

A s N p s

r+

d,

Ps

Ps

ai 0.

i=0

3

In the literature, it is reported that there are some

certain relations between characteristic polynomial

coefficients and important time domain measures

such as settling time and overshoot 1315.

Manabe integrated these studies with the basic

principles of his method and determined two important design parameters. These parameters are

equivalent time constant and stability indices

i which are defined as

= a1/a0,

i = a2i /ai+1ai1 ,

i = 1 n 1,

0 = n = .

Ptargets = a0

i=2

closed-loop system. This polynomial is a Hurwitz

polynomial with real positive coefficients and described by

P s = A s D p s + B s N p s = a is i,

the target characteristic polynomial of the closedloop system. From Eq. 4, the characteristic polynomial in Eq. 3 can be expressed in terms of

and i as

before the design and then used for determining

i1

1

si + s + 1 .

j

j=1 ij

5

The equivalent time constant specifies the time response speed settling time, especially. The stability indices affect the stability and the shape of

the time response overshoot, especially. For example, consider a characteristic polynomial whose

degree is chosen as n = 2. According to this polynomial, choosing 1 = 3 as constants and changing

the equivalent time constant in the interval of 1

4, the unit step responses of the control system

are shown in Fig. 2a. It is seen in this figure that

is very effective on the settling time of the unitstep response. If the equivalent time constant is

increased, the settling time is also increased. On

the contrary, if is reduced, the system time response can be accelerated as desired. When the

choice = 1 is considered and 1 is changed in the

interval of 0.55, the change of the time response shapes are shown in Fig. 2b. This figure

indicates that the stability index 1 is much effective on the response shape and stability. If 1 is

made bigger, the stability of the control system is

increased and the overshoot is zero. But 1 is of a

the small size, the stability decreases and overshoot is nonzero in this case.

532

s0

s0

If Cs includes an integrator then these conditions can be satisfied. Thus, Cs can be chosen as

Cs = k p +

Fig. 3. A 2DOF control system structure.

For a special case, it is recommended that standard Manabe values for the time response without

overshoot and with the smallest settling time are

used for the CDM design. Stability indices are

chosen as i = 2.5, 2 , 2 , . . . , 2 for i = 1 n 1n

3 in this form. For a third order system i

= 2.7, 2 and 1 = 3 in a second order system,

overshoot is zero. When the standard Manabe values are chosen, the settling time is about

2.5 3. The selection of the standard values can

be relaxed according to the various performance

requirements.

3. Controller design

The proposed method which is used to design a

PI controller satisfying the required time and frequency domain specifications consists of two

steps. In the first step, a method is proposed to

compute the global and the local stability regions

using the stability boundary locus approach

10,12. In the second step, the CDM method is

used to design PI controllers for which the step

responses have a required overshoot and an acceptable settling time. As a result of combining

these two steps, the FTDP map is obtained. The

FTDP map, which is a graphical tool, shows the

relation between the stabilizing parameters of the

PI controllers and the chosen frequency and time

domain performance criteria on the same k p , ki

plane. Thus, one can choose a PI controller providing all of the desired GM, PM, MO, and ts

specification values together.

A general schema of the 2DOF control system is

shown in Fig. 3. This representation is the rational

equivalence of the control system given in Fig. 1.

Here, Cs = Bs / As is the main controller and

C f s = Fs / Bs is the set point filter 16. It can

be shown that the steady-state error to the unit step

change and the unit step disturbance become zero

robustly if

k i k ps + k i

=

s

s

C f s is an appropriate element satisfying Eq. 6.

The proposed design approach consists of a number of distinct steps, which can be summarized as

follows.

I

Frequency response performance

I a Computation of global stability region

Consider a 2DOF control system shown in Fig.

3 where

G a s = G s e s =

N s s

e

Ds

problem is to compute the global stability region

which includes all the parameters of the PI controller of Eq. 7 which stabilize the given system.

The closed-loop characteristic polynomial Ps of

the system, i.e., the numerator of 1 + CsGas,

can be written as

Ps = sDs + k ps + kiNses

= ansn + an1sn1 + + a1s + a0 ,

= 0 , 1 , 2 , . . . , n are the function of k p, ki, and es

depending on the order of Ns, and Ds polynomials. In the parameter space approach, there are

three possibilities for a root of a stable polynomial

to cross over the imaginary axes to become unstable:

a

over the imaginary axis at s = 0. Thus, the

real root boundary can be obtained from

substituting s = 0 in Ps of Eq. 9 which

gives a0 = 0.

Infinite Root Boundary: A real root crosses

over the imaginary axis at s = . Thus, the

infinite root boundary can be characterized

by taking an = 0 from Eq. 9.

Complex Root Boundary: Eq. 9 becomes

unstable at s = j when its roots cross the

imaginary axis which means that the real

zero simultaneously. Thus, the complex

root boundary can be obtained as follows:

Decomposing the numerator and the denominator polynomials of Gs in Eq. 8 into their even

and odd parts, and substituting s = j , gives

G j =

N e 2 + j N o 2

.

D e 2 + j D o 2

10

+ kiNo cos Ne sin = De .

12b

Let

R = Ne cos + No sin , 13a

X = 2D o ,

For simplicity 2 will be dropped in the following equations. Thus, the closed-loop characteristic polynomial of Eq. 9 can be written as

P j = kiNe k p2Nocos

U = No cos Ne sin,

13b

Y =

De .

+ kiNo + k pNesin Do

2

k pQ + k iR = X ,

2k pNosin + De = R P + jI P = 0.

11

Then, equating the real and imaginary parts of

Pj to zero, two equation are obtained as

k pS + k iU = Y .

12a

14

XU Y R

kp =

,

QU RS

ki =

2

Y Q XS

.

QU RS

15

PI controller parameters are obtained as

,

N2e + 2N2o

16

.

N2e + 2N2o

17

kp =

ki =

533

constructed in the k p , ki plane using Eqs. 16

and 17. If at any particular frequency value the

denominator of Eqs. 16 and 17 Ne + 2N2o = 0,

then this value of frequency must not be used. In

this case, a discontinuous stability boundary locus

will be obtained and this will not be a problem for

the computation of stabilizing controllers. Once

then it is necessary to test whether stabilizing controllers exist or not since the stability boundary

locus, lk p , ki , , the real root and infinite root

boundary lines if they are exist may divide the

parameter plane k p , ki plane into stable and unstable regions. It can be found that the line ki = 0 is

the real root boundary line obtained from substi-

534

since a real root of Ps of Eq. 9 can crossover

the imaginary axis at s = 0. Generally, the order of

Ds is greater than order of Ns for proper transfer function. Therefore, there will be no infinite

root boundary line.

It can be seen that the stability boundary locus is

dependent on the frequency which varies from 0

to . However, one can consider the frequency

below the critical frequency, c, or the ultimate

frequency since the controller operates in this frequency range. Thus, the critical frequency can be

used to obtain the stability boundary locus over a

possible smaller range of frequency such as

0 , c. Since the phase of G ps at s = jc is

equal to 180, one can write

tan1

No

Do

tan1

=

Ne

De

18

or

N oD e N eD o

= f .

N eD e + 2N oD o

19

0 , . By plotting tan and f vs , it can

be seen that c is the smallest value of at which

plots of tan and f intersect with each

other. If there is more than one real value of

which satisfies Eq. 19 then the frequency axis

can be divided into a finite number of intervals

and by testing each interval the stability region can

be computed.

I b Computation of local stability regions

Phase and gain margins are two important frequency domain performance measures which are

widely used in the classical control theory for the

controller design. Consider Fig. 3 with a gainphase margin tester 17, Gcs = Aej, which is

connected in the feed forward path. From Eqs.

16 and 17,

,

AN2e + 2N2o

20

,

AN2e + 2N2o

21

kp =

ki =

tan =

tester is not an actual part of the system which is

included in the system in order to obtain the stability regions for prespecified values of the gain

and phase margins. To obtain the stability boundary locus for a given value of gain margin A, one

needs to set = 0 in Eqs. 20 and 21. On the

other hand, setting A = 1 in Eqs. 20 and 21, one

can obtain the stability boundary locus for a given

phase margin . Thus, the local stability regions

for specified gain and phase margins can be identified within the global stability region.

II Time response performance

The CDM technique is used to obtain time domain

performances. However, in this case, it is necessary to use the first-order plus dead time FOPDT

model of the plant. The processes encountered in

model such as

G m s =

N m s s

K s

e =

e ,

D m s

Ts + 1

22

is the dead time. The experimental identification

of these models using many techniques is well described in Ref. 4. It is necessary to use the

FOPDT model for the proposed method, since the

CDM requires high order controllers for high order models. The term es which also represents

the time delay in Eq. 22 is approximated as

es 1 s using the first-order Taylor numerator

approximation. The Taylor numerator approximation is used in order to not affect the denominator

535

Fig. 4. Time delay approximation for corrected and uncorrected cases: a selection of k p and ki parameters and b the step

responses for selected k p and ki values.

of Eq. 22. If the Taylor denominator approximation or Pade approximation is used, theirs denominators lead to a higher order of the approximate

transfer function of the plant and consequently to

more complex resulting controllers. The results

obtained in Section 4 show that the first-order Taylor numerator approximation is acceptable and

gives good results. Thus, for the model transfer

function of Eq. 22, plant polynomials are

N ps = Ks + K,

D ps = Ts + 1.

23

the controller polynomials in Eq. 1 get importance. The most important fact that affects the degrees is the existence of a disturbing signal and its

type. It is advised that the minimum degree polynomials are chosen depending on the type of the

disturbance. In this paper, the controller polynomials are chosen for the step disturbance signal. In

this case, the controller polynomials have the

forms

As = l1s,

B s = k 1s + k 0 .

24

a PI-based control system. From Eqs. 7 and 24,

it can be seen that k1 = k p, k0 = ki and l1 = 1.

II a Computation of the PI controller parameters

for the time domain performance.

In the design, a feedback controller is chosen by

the pole-placement technique and then, a set point

filter is determined so as to match the steady-state

gain of the closed-loop system. According to this,

the controller polynomials which are determined

by Eq. 24 are replaced in Eq. 3. Hence, a polynomial depending on the parameters k p and ki is

obtained. For the FOPDT model transfer function,

the characteristic polynomial of the control system

is determined as

25

Using Eq. 4, 1 and can be obtained as

1 = 1 + Kk p Kki2/KkiT Kk p ,

26a

= 1 + Kk p Kki/Kki .

26b

and separately as

Table 1

1 and k values for some overshoot values.

MO

%

1 values

k values ts k

20

10

5

0a

0

0.8

1.4

1.9

3a

5

11.2

6

5.2

3a

3.9

536

Fig. 5. For K = 1, T = 1, and = 2 in Eq. 22: a ki-k p curves of 1 and , b the step responses for = 4 and different values

of 1 selected from Table 1.

ki = K2 + 2Kk p + 1T 1Kk p

/2K22

for 1 ,

27a

where

= K22 + 2Kk p + 1T 1Kk p2

421 + Kk p2 and

ki = 1 + Kk p/K + K

for .

27b

I a, an interval for k p can be found as k pmin

-k pmax. Using this interval and Eqs. 27a and

27b, ki-k p curves can be plotted. The values of k p

and ki parameters at the intersection of two curves

provide desired vs 1 values. At this point one

should be careful that desired -1 specifications

may not be exactly obtained since an approximation for time delay has been used. Therefore, a

correction process should be implemented. To do

this, a second order Taylor numerator approximation, es 1 s + 0.52s2 is used for the same

controller of Eq. 24. Repeating the same mathematical derivations for and 1, it can be seen

that Eq. 26b remains same but Eq. 26a is

changed to the form

1 = 1 + Kk p Kki2/KkiT Kk p + 0.5K2ki .

28

Using the higher order approximations for correction does not effect the relations for and 1. ki

Fig. 6. For K = 1, T = 1, and = 2 in Eq. 22: a ki-k p curves of 1 and , b the step responses for 1 = 3 and different values

of .

Fig. 7. The global stability region including all of the stabilizing PI parameters for the given plant in Eq. 32.

this figure, it can be seen that ki, k p values which

give the desired specifications are different. The

step responses for PI controllers obtained from

corrected and uncorrected ki-k p curves are shown

in Fig. 4b which indicate that the step response

for the uncorrected case have a 3.2% overshoot

and settling time of 18.2 s, however, the step response for the corrected case has no overshoot and

a settling time of 11.9 s. These values of the settling time have been computed using a tolerance

band of 2% for the steady-state value 18. Thus,

the error due to the time delay approximation can

be removed by this way.

The reference numerator polynomial Fs which is

defined as the prefilter element is chosen to be

Fs = Ps/Nmss=0 = ki .

values for this case can be obtained as

ki = K2 + 2Kk p + 1T 1Kk p

/K222 1

for 1 ,

29a

where

= K22 + 2Kk p + 1T 1Kk p2

2

+ 2 2 11 + Kk p2 and

ki = 1 + Kk p/K + K

for .

29b

give the desired and 1 values can be obtained.

For example, let us choose K = 1, T = 1, and = 2

in Eq. 22 and set 1 = 3 and = 4 for a step response which has no overshoot and approximately

12 s settling time. ki-k p curves for corrected and

537

30

the steady-state response of the closed-loop system is reduced to zero. Finally, the set point filter

in Fig. 3 is obtained by

C f s =

Fs

ki

=

.

B s k ps + k i

31

parameters directly. Therefore, the designer does

not need the extra calculation for the set point filter.

II b Choice of the key parameter values for the

desired time domain properties.

One of the most important properties of the pro-

Fig. 8. Local stability regions: a for some GM values and b for some PM values.

538

Fig. 9. a ki-k p curves for different 1 values in Table 1. b The step responses of these 1 values.

posed method is that the settling time and overshoot information of the control system are determined at the beginning before starting to design. It

is generally aimed that the time response of the

control system must have no overshoot and desired settling time. Table 1 shows the relation between ts and for the desired settling time for the

various overshoot properties. These values of the

general relation are obtained by normalizing the

characteristic polynomial of Eq. 5 for n = 2 and

= 1. For a transfer function with K = 1, T = 1, and

= 2 in Eq. 22, the step responses for = 4 and

different values of 1 selected from Table 1 are

shown in Fig. 5 where it can be seen that the maximum overshoot values given in Table 1 are exactly

met. Similarly, the step responses for 1 = 3 and

clearly shows that there is no overshoot and the

settling time values determined in Table 1 are also

met.

III Building of the FTDP map

The FTDP map is built by plotting the frequency

domain stability regions and the time domain performance curves in the same k p, ki plane. The

frequency domain stability regions include the

global and local stability regions which can be obtained using Eqs. 16, 17, 20, and 21, and the

time domain performance curves which correspond to the various overshoot and settling time

values can be plotted using Eqs. 29a and 29b.

Thus, the designer can choose any points, k p, ki

values, from the FTDP map which satisfy the de-

Fig. 10. a Four different PI controllers in the GM 2 region and on the 1 = 3 curve. b The unit step responses without

overshoot for the selected PI controllers.

539

Table 2

The time domain and frequency domain specifications correspond to selected four points.

kp

ki

MO %

ts s

GM

PM

performance regions in the k p, ki-plane for

Eq. 8:

1 construction of the global stability region

using Eqs. 16 and 17, the stability

boundary locus lk p , ki , and the real root

boundary line ki = 0;

2 obtaining the local stability regions correspond to desired GM and PM values using

Eqs. 20 and 21.

Step 2. Computation of the time performance

curves in the global stability region using

FOPTD model of actual plant given in Eq. 8:

1 obtaining ki = fk p , 1 curves which have

different values of overshoot using Eq.

29a;

3.0941

1.1573

0

6.2

2.3

38.8

2.5002

0.8216

0

8.8

2.95

47.7

2.0601

0.6142

0

10.8

3.6

54.6

1.7201

0.4768

0

12.7

4.4

60

2 finding ki = gk p , curves which have different values of settling time using Eq.

29b.

30 PM 60 filled in gray color and 1 = 3 curve expressed no overshoot property.

building the FTDP map and choosing the controller parameters, the control system shown in Fig. 3

is simulated using the actual process and the designed PI controller. However, for some transfer

functions there are not any k p, ki values which

give the desired performances because of the hard

properties of the plant. For such situations, it is

necessary to relax the desired frequency and time

domain specifications.

In view of the earlier developments, the FTDPmap design procedure linking the frequency and

time domain performances is summarized as follows for the ease of reference:

Step 3. Plotting the frequency domain performance regions together with the time domain

performance curves, thus, obtaining the FTDP

map and finding the desired PI controllers from

this map.

4. Simulation examples

4.1. Example 1

A first order process with a time delay is chosen

as

G a s =

1

es ,

5s + 1

32

is to investigate the PI controller parameters which

have a satisfying frequency and time domain

specifications such as gain margin, phase margin,

overshoot, and settling time. For this, it will be

made use of the FTDP map explained in Section 3.

The global stability region which is shown in

Fig. 7 is computed using the procedure given in

Section 3I a. The global stability region includes

all PI controllers which stabilize the given system.

However, one needs to choose suitable k p and ki

values within this region to obtain the required

frequency and time domain performances. The local stability regions for the specified gain and

phase margins can be identified within the global

stability region using the procedure given in Section 3I b as shown in Figs. 8a and 8b. If the

local regions for the GM and PM values are com-

540

Fig. 12. a Global and desired local stability regions. b Time domain curves related to the overshoot and settling time.

bined, the intersection local regions can be obtained satisfying both the GM and PM together.

Now, it is important that how the PI parameters

which provide the desired frequency domain performances in the local region will exhibit time domain performances. Using Eq. 29a to get the

overshoot information of the control system for

different 1 values in Table 1, Fig. 9a is obtained. According to this 1 values, the step responses are shown in Fig. 9b for k p = 1 and corresponding ki values which are computed from the

1 curves. From the step responses, one can see

that the values of the resultant overshoots are

equal to the results given in Table 1. For example,

for 1 = 1.4, the expected value of the overshoot

from Table 1 is about 10% and this value is exactly obtained as shown in Fig. 9b. Similarly, for

1 = 3 a response without an overshoot is expected

and it can be seen that which is also met.

It is vital to point out that all the values of k p

and ki obtained over any 1 curve do not necessarily give a response having its overshoot property given in Table 1. For satisfactory performance, the gain margin should be greater than 2,

and the phase margin should be between 30 and

60 18. However, the simulation results showed

that especially the gain margin is very effective on

the overshoot property. The part of any 1 curves

within the stability region for GM 2 gives k p

and ki values for which the step responses have the

overshoot values given in Table 1. Note that GM

= 2 is a boundary value and causes a time response

with a little overshoot. For example, the PI controllers which correspond to points 1, 2, 3, and 4

overshoot for 1 = 3 as shown in Fig. 10b.

Eq. 29b can be used to obtain the desired settling time. The four intersection points in Fig.

10a express four different settling time values

for 1 = 3. The intersection points of 1 and

curves give important information: 1 represents

the overshoot, and the settling time obtained from

ts = k. Thus, the values of k p and ki correspond to

the intersection points that give the values of the

overshoot and the settling time. The step responses

for these points are shown in Fig. 10b. It can be

seen that the settling time increases when moving

from point 1 to point 4 as shown in Fig. 10b. It

has been observed that the values of the settling

time and overshoot given in Table 1 are met.

The local region with properties of 2.3 GM

5 and 30 PM 60 is shown in Fig. 11.

541

Fig. 14. Set point and disturbance responses for a points 1, b 2 and c 3.

shaded region. The frequency and time domain

properties for each point are given in Table 2.

Thus, it can be seen that all PI controllers for

which the gain margin is between 2.3 and 4.4, the

phase margin is between 38.3 and 60, the settling time is between 6.2 and 12.7 s, and with no

overshoot is between the points of 14 on 1 = 3

curve within the local region.

From the simulation studies using the FTDPmap method, it has been observed that there are

many k p , ki values which satisfy the proper time

and frequency domain performances simulta-

G a s =

there is not any k p , ki values which give desired

performances. For example, there is not any

k p , ki value for the example studied earlier which

simultaneously provide the gain margin to be 5

and a response without the overshoot, because this

property is out of the desired region. For such situations, it is necessary to relax the desired frequency and time domain specifications.

4.2. Example 2

Consider a higher order process with a large

time delay as

1

e4s .

s + 10.5s + 10.25s + 10.125s + 1

gain margin of the control system greater than 2.3

and the phase margin between 30 and 60. Using

Eqs. 16, 17, 20, and 21 the global and the

33

Fig. 12a. For time domain performances it is

necessary to use the the FOPDT model which is

542

Table 3

The time domain and frequency domain specifications correspond to the selected three points.

kp

ki

MO %

ts s

GM

PM

0.2463

0.1317

5

25.2

2.6

57

0.1295

0.1194

10

29.3

2.8

58.5

0.1034

0.1055

5

31

3.1

60

1 and curves which are directly related to the

time domain performances as explained earlier can

be seen from Fig. 12b. Combining Figs. 12a

and 12b, the FTDP map shown in Fig. 13 is obtained. From this figure, it is clear that it is not

possible to obtain a step response without an overshoot since the 1 = 3 curve does not pass through

the shaded region. Looking at Fig. 13, it is seen

that the shaded region is approximately bounded

by 1 = 1.9 and 1 = 0.8 which give a 5% and 20%

overshoot as stated in Table 1, respectively. Therefore, all PI controllers in the shaded region give

the desired time and frequency domain performances. Three points are selected within this region which are indicated by 1, 2, and 3 as shown

in Fig. 13. Figs. 14a14c show the time responses of the selected three points according to

the set point changes applied at t = 0 s and the disturbance applied at t = 70 s. The time and frequency domain specifications of these points are

shown in Table 3.

5. Conclusions

A new method which is simple to use has been

presented to design PI controllers giving the desired frequency and time domain performances.

One of the most important features of the proposed method is that the desired frequency and

time domain specifications can be specified before

the design. It has been shown that:

i

ii

can be computed using the stability

boundary locus approach.

The values of the parameters of PI controller which achieve desired values of

settling time and overshoot can be estimated using the CDM.

iii

iv

see which parts of the global stability region is important for the required design

specifications.

A set of PI controllers which provide predefined performance specifications can be

computed from FTDP-map.

that the results presented are useful for the design

of PI controllers.

It is known that the mathematical techniques for

obtaining the exact correlation between the step

transient response and frequency response are

available but they are very laborious and of little

practical value 18. However, the method presented in this paper has a potential to show a

graphical relation between the frequency and time

domain performances of high order or time delay

systems. Therefore, the results obtained can be applied for many real applications. The extension of

the method to the PID controller will be very important in the control system design.

References

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control. Control Eng. Pract. 9, 11631175 2001.

2 Ziegler, J. G. and Nichols, N. B., Optimum settings for

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1942.

3 strmK. J., Hgglund, T., Hang, C. C., and Ho, W.

K., Automatic tuning and adaptation for PID

controllersA survey. Control Eng. Pract. 1, 699

714 1993.

4 strm, K. J. and Hgglund, T., PID Controllers:

Theory, Design, and Tuning. Instrument Society of

America, Research Triangle Park, NC, 1995.

5 Zhuang, M. and Atherton, D. P., Automatic tuning of

optimum PID controllers. IEE Proc.-D: Control

Theory Appl. 140, 216224 1993.

6 Ho, W. K., Hang, C. C., and Cao, L. S., Tuning of PID

controllers based on gain and phase margins specifications. Automatica 31, 497502 1995.

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York, 2000.

8 Ackermann, J. and Kaesbauer, D., Design of robust

PID controllers. Proceedings of the 2001 European

Control Conference, 2001, pp. 522527.

9 Sylemez, M. T., Munro, N., and Baki, H., Fast calculation of stabilizing PID controllers. Automatica 39,

121126 2003.

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12

13

14

15

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18

19

ings of the 14th IFAC Symposium on Automatic Control in Aerospace, Seoul, 1998.

Tan, N., Computation of stabilizing PI and PID controllers for processes with time delay. ISA Trans. 44,

213223 2005.

Naslin, P., Essentials of Optimal Control. Boston

Technical, Cambridge, 1969.

Lipatov, A. and Sokolov, N., Some sufficient conditions for stability and instability of continuous linear

stationary systems. Autom. Remote Control Engl.

Transl. 39, 12851291 1979.

Kim, Y. C., Keel, L. H., and Bhattacharyya, S. P.,

Transient response control via characteristic ratio assignment. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 4812, 2238

2244 2003.

Chen, C. T., Analog and Digital Control System Design: Transfer Function, State-Space and Algebraic

Methods. Saunders College, New York, 1992.

Argoun, M. B. and Bayoumi, M. M., Robust gain and

phase margins for interval uncertain systems. Proceedings of the 1993 Canadian Conference on Electrical

and Computer Engineering 1993, pp. 7378.

Ogata, K., Modern Control Engineering. PrenticeHall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1970.

Mann, G. K. I., Hu, B.-G., and Gosine, R. G., Timedomain based design and analysis of new PID tuning

rules. IEE Proc.: Control Theory Appl. 1483, 251

261 2001.

543

from Erciyes University, Kayseri,

Turkey, in 1992 and Firat University, Elazig, Turkey, in 1997, respectively. He obtained a Ph.D.

degree from Firat University, in

2002. He is currently working as

a research assistant in the department of electrical and electronics

engineering at Inonu University,

Malatya, Turkey. His primary area

of research is polynomial control

methods especially the coefficient diagram method and their applications.

Turkey, in 1971. He received a

B.Sc. degree in electrical and

electronics engineering from Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey,

in 1994. He received a Ph.D. degree in control engineering from

University of Sussex, Brighton,

UK, in 2000. He is currently

working as an associate professor

in the department of electrical and

electronics engineering at Inonu

University, Malatya, Turkey. His

primary research interest lies in

the area of systems and control.

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