Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 71

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

Table of Contents
Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment..........................................................1
7.1 Network and Cell ID............................................................................................................. 1
7.1.1 Cell Global ID............................................................................................................. 1
7.1.2 Base Station Identity Code........................................................................................ 3
7.2 Paging and Access Control Parameters...............................................................................6
7.2.1 Number of Access Grant Reserved Blocks (BS_AG_BLK_RES or AG)....................6
7.2.2 Frame Number Coding Between Identical Paging.....................................................7
7.2.3 Common Control Channel Configuration (CCCH-CONF)..........................................8
7.2.4 Extended Transmission Slots (TX_INTEGER)...........................................................9
7.2.5 Minimum Access Level of RACH.............................................................................11
7.2.6 Random Access Error Threshold.............................................................................12
7.2.7 Access Control Class (ACC)....................................................................................13
7.2.8 Maximum Retransmission Times (RET)..................................................................14
7.2.9 Control Class of MS Maximum Transmit Power (MS-TXPWR-MAX-CCH)..............15
7.2.10 Power Offset (POWEROFFSET)...........................................................................16
7.2.11 IMSI Attach/Detach Allowed...................................................................................16
7.2.12 Direct Retry (DR)................................................................................................... 17
7.3 Serial Parameters of Cell Selection and Reselection.........................................................18
7.3.1 cell_bar_access....................................................................................................... 18
7.3.2 cell_bar_qualify........................................................................................................ 19
7.3.3 Minimum Received Level Allowing MS to Access (RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN)............21
7.3.4 Additional Reselection Parameter Indicator.............................................................21
7.3.5 Cell Reselection Parameter Indicator......................................................................22
7.3.6 Cell Reselection Offset, Temporary Offset, and Penalty Time..................................22
7.3.7 Cell Reselection Hysteresis (CRH)..........................................................................25
7.4 Parameters Affecting Network Functions...........................................................................26
7.4.1 Newly Established Cause Indicator (NECI)..............................................................26
7.4.2 Power Control Indicator (PWRC).............................................................................26
7.4.3 Discontinuous Transmit of Uplink.............................................................................27
7.4.4 Discontinuous Transmit of Downlink........................................................................28
7.4.5 Call Resetup Allowed............................................................................................... 28
7.4.6 Emergency Call Allowed.......................................................................................... 29
7.4.7 Early Classmark Sending Control............................................................................30
7.5 Frequency Hopping Parameters........................................................................................ 31
7.5.1 Frequency Hopping Sequence Number...................................................................31

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 1 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.5.2 Mobile Allocation...................................................................................................... 32


7.5.3 Mobile Allocation Index Offset..................................................................................32
7.6 Distance Control Parameters............................................................................................. 33
7.6.1 Call Clearing............................................................................................................ 33
7.6.2 TA Handover Threshold (MSRANGEMAX)..............................................................34
7.6.3 TA Restriction (MS_BS_DIST_USED).....................................................................34
7.7 Radio Link Failure Process and Parameters......................................................................35
7.7.1 Radio Link Failure Counter (RLC or Radio Link Timeout)........................................35
7.7.2 SACCH Multiframe (RLTO_BS)...............................................................................37
7.8 Handover and Related Parameters....................................................................................38
7.8.1 PBGT Handover Threshold (HoMargin)...................................................................38
7.8.2 Minimum Downlink Power of Handover Candidate Cells (rxLevMinCell).................39
7.8.3 Handover Threshold at Uplink Edge........................................................................39
7.8.4 Handover Threshold at Downlink Edge....................................................................40
7.8.5 Downlink Quality Restriction of Emergency Handover.............................................40
7.8.6 Uplink Quality Restriction of Emergency Handover.................................................41
7.8.7 Uplink Quality Threshold of Interference Handover.................................................41
7.8.8 Downlink Quality Threshold of Interference Handover.............................................42
7.8.9 Uplink Received Power Threshold of Interference Handover..................................43
7.8.10 Downlink Received Power Threshold of Interference Handover............................43
7.8.11 Maximum Repeated Times of Physical Messages (NY1).......................................44
7.8.12 Multiband Indicator (multiband_reporting).............................................................45
7.8.13 Permitted Network Color Code (ncc permitted).....................................................46
7.9 Power Control and Related Parameters.............................................................................47
7.9.1 Maximum Transmit Power of MS (MSTXPWRMX)..................................................47
7.9.2 Received Level Threshold of Downlink Power Increment (LDR).............................48
7.9.3 Received Level Threshold of Uplink Power Increment (LUR)..................................49
7.9.4 Received Quality Threshold of Downlink Power Increment (LDR)...........................50
7.9.5 Received Quality Threshold of Uplink Power Increment (LUR)...............................50
7.9.6 Received Level Threshold of Downlink Power Decrement (UDR)...........................51
7.9.7 Received Level Threshold of Uplink Power Decrement (UUR)................................52
7.9.8 Received Quality Threshold of Downlink Power Decrement (UDR).........................53
7.9.9 Received Quality Threshold of Uplink Power Decrement (UUR).............................54
7.9.10 Power Control Interval (INT)..................................................................................55
7.9.11 Power Increment Step (INC)..................................................................................55
7.9.12 Power Decrement Step (RED)...............................................................................55
7.10 Systematic Important Timers............................................................................................ 56
7.10.1 T3101..................................................................................................................... 56
7.10.2 T3103..................................................................................................................... 57
7.10.3 T3105..................................................................................................................... 57
7.10.4 T3107..................................................................................................................... 58
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 2 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.10.5 T3109..................................................................................................................... 59
7.10.6 T3111..................................................................................................................... 59
7.10.7 Parameter T3212................................................................................................... 60
7.10.8 T3122..................................................................................................................... 61
7.10.9 T3124..................................................................................................................... 62
7.10.10 T11....................................................................................................................... 63
7.10.11 T200..................................................................................................................... 63
7.10.12 N200.................................................................................................................... 65

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 3 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and


Adjustment
When operators prepare to construct a mobile communication network, they must
predict coverage according to traffic prediction and local radio propagation
environment. This guides project design of the system and parameter configuration of
radio network.
The project design includes the following aspects:

Network topology design

Selecting the location of base station

Frequency planning

Cell parameter configuration

The RF planning determines the coverage range of a cell, and the serving range of
the cell is determined based on the combination of RF planning and cell parameter
configuration. By this, the MS always enjoys optimal services and maximum network
capacity at the best cell.
This chapter discusses the meaning and effect of important parameters in GSM radio
communication. Mastering the effect and impact of these parameters helps to
configure network parameters and optimize the network in later stages.
In a GSM network, abundant radio parameters are configured according to cells or
partial areas; however, the parameter configuration might affect neighbor areas.
Therefore, while configuring and adjusting parameters, you must pay attention to the
impact of configuring parameters on other areas, especially neighbor areas.

7.1 Network and Cell ID


7.1.1 Cell Global ID
I. Definition
GSM is a global cellular mobile communication system. To ensure that each cell
corresponds to a unique ID globally, the GSM system numbers the following items:

2006-07-10

Each GSM network in each country

Each location area


Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 1 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Each base station

Each cell

Internal Open

Numbering the previous items aims as follows:

An MS can identify the serving network so that the MS can select a network in
any environment.

The network can obtain the precise location of the MS so that the network can
process various service requests involving the MS.

The MS can report information about neighbor cells to the network during calling
to avoid call drop.

The cell global identity (CGI) is a major network identity parameter. CGI consists of
location area identity (LAI) and cell identity (CI). LAI includes mobile country code
(MCC), mobile network code (MNC), and location area code (LAC), shown in Figure
1.1.

Figure 1.1 CGI composition


The system transmits CGI information through system information (SI) transmitted by
cell broadcast. When an MS receives SI, it demodulates SI for CGI information. The
MS judge whether to camp on the cell according to the MCC and MNC. It also judges
whether the current location area changes to determine updating location. While
updating location, the MS reports LAI information to the network so that the network
can know the location area of the MS.

II. Format
The CGI is MCC-MNC-LAC-CI, with details as follows:

MCC consists of three decimal digits, ranging from 000 to 999.

MNC consists of two decimal digits, ranging from 00 to 99.

LAC ranges from 0 to 65535

CI ranges from 0 to 65535.

III. Configuration and Influence


As a globally unique mobile identity, the MCC is uniformly distributed and managed
by international telecommunication union (ITU). The MCC for China is 460 (decimal).

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 2 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

The MNC is uniformly distributed by state telecommunication management organs.


Now two GSM networks exist in China. The MNC for China Mobile is 00. The MNC for
China Unicom is 01.
The method for coding LAC is ruled by each country accordingly. This caters for
China also (refer to GSM system from Ministry of Information Industry). At the early
stage of network construction, the LAC is coded and distributed. The LAC is seldom
changed in the later stages.
The coverage areas related to the LAC is vital in the network. You can configure it as
great as possible.
No special restriction is on the distribution of CI. The CI ranges from 0 to 65535
(decimal). It must be ensured that two equivalent CIs exist in the same location area.
This is determined in the system design. Except for special situations (such as
constructing base stations), the CI must not be changed during the system operation.

IV. Precautions
You must pay attention to the following aspects:

The MNC is unchangeable.

While configuring the LAC, you must follow related regulations. Equivalent LACs
must not exist in the state network.

Equivalent CIs must not exist in the same location area.

7.1.2 Base Station Identity Code


I. Definition
In a GSM network, each base station corresponds to a distributed local color code,
called base station identity code (BSIC). When the MS receives broadcast control
channel (BCCH) carriers of two cells at the same time, with same channel number,
the MS distinguishes them by BSIC.
In network planning, the BCCH carriers of neighbor cells are different in frequency to
reduce intra-frequency interference. The cellular communication system features that
the BCCH carrier might be reused. Therefore, the BSIC of the cells with the same
BCCH carrier must be different, shown in Figure 1.1.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 3 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

Figure 1.1 Schematic drawing of BSIC selection


In Figure 1.1, the carriers of the cell A, B, C, D, E, and F use the same absolute
channel number, and other cells uses BCCH carriers of different channel number.
Usually, the cell A, B, C, D, E, and F use different BSIC. When the BSIC resources
are inadequate, the cells near use different BSIC.
Take cell E for example. If the BSIC resources are limited, you use different BSICs
between cell D and E, B and E, F and E for preference. You might use the same BSIC
between cell A and E, C and E.
The BSIC consists of network color code (NCC) and base station color code (BCC),
shown in Figure 1.2.

Figure 1.2 BSIC composition


The system transmits BSIC on synchronization channel (SCH) of each cell. The effect
of BSIC is as follows:

The BSIC involves in decoding process of random access channel (RACH) to


prevent base stations from connecting to the RACH sent to the neighbor cells by
the MS by error.

After the MS receives SCH messages, it judges that it has been synchronous to
the cell. Decoding information on the downlink common signaling channel
correctly requires training sequence code (TSC) used on common signaling
channel.
GSM regulations describe TSC in eight fixed formats, and the sequence number
of them is 07. The cell BCC determines the TSC used by the common signaling

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 4 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

channel of a cell. Therefore the BSIC helps inform the MS of the TSC used by
the common signaling channel of the serving cell.

In a call, the MS must measure the level of BCCH carrier of neighbor cells and
report it to the base station according to regulations to neighbor cell list of BCCH.
Meanwhile, the MS must provide measured BSIC of the carrier in the uplink
measurement reports. When the neighbor cells of a cell include two or more cells
with the same BCCH carrier, the base station can distinguish the cells by BSIC to
avoid incorrect handover.

In a call, the MS must measure signals of neighbor cells, and sends


measurement reports to the network. The measurement report can contain
information about six neighbor cells only, so the MS must be controlled to report
the cells actually related to handover. The first three digits of BSIC (namely,
NCC) aims as previously mentioned. Operators control the MS to report the
neighbor cell information permitted by the serving cell NCC by broadcast
parameters NCC permitted.

II. Format
The BSIC is NCC-BCC, with details as follows:

The NCC ranges from 0 to 7.

The BCC ranges from 0 to 7.

III. Configuration and Influence


Usually different GSM PLMNs use the same frequency resource, but, to some
degree, their network planning is independent. The neighbor GSM PLMNs use
different NCCs according to regulations. This ensures that the neighbor base stations
with same frequency use different BSICs.
The BCC is part of the BSIC. It helps identify different base stations with same BCCH
carrier number in the same GSM PLMN. The values of BCC must meet the previous
requirements. According to GSM regulations, the TSC of cell BCCH carrier must be
same as that of cell BCC. The equipment providers must ensure the TSC
consistency.

IV. Precautions
The neighbor cells or cells nearby using the same BCCH carrier must use different
BSICs. Especially when two or more cells use the same BCCH carrier in the neighbor
cell list of a cell, theses cells must use different BSIC. Pay attention to cells at the
bordering areas between provinces and cities, and otherwise cross-cell handover
might fail and abundant mistaken access problems might occur.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 5 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.2 Paging and Access Control Parameters


7.2.1 Number of Access Grant Reserved Blocks (BS_AG_BLK_RES or AG)
I. Definition
The common control channel consists of access grant channel (AGCH) and paging
channel (PCH).
For different CCCHs, each BCCH multiframe (including 51 frames) contains CCCH
message blocks different number. The CCCH is shared by AGCH and PCH.
According g to regulations, partial message blocks on CCCH are especially reserved
for AGCH. This avoids that the AGCH messages are blocked when the PCH traffic is
great.
The number of parameter access grant reserved blocks (AG) refers to the number of
message blocks reserved for AGCH on CCCH in each BCCH multiframe.

II. Format
The AG ranges from 0 to 2 when CCCH shares physical channel (CCCH_CONF = 1)
with stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH).
The AG ranges from 0 to 5 when CCCH does not share physical channel
(CCCH_CONF=0) with stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH).

III. Configuration and Influence


When the channel combination of the cell is fixed, the parameter AG adjusts the ratio
of AGCH and PCH in CCCH. When the PCH is idle, it can send immediate
assignment messages. The AGCH does not transmit paging messages. Equipment
operators can balance AGCH and PCH by adjusting AG, with the following principles.
The principle for AG value is that based on no overload of AGCH, you must reduce
the parameter to shorten the time for MS to respond to paging, and to improve
system service performance. When the immediate assignment messages are
superior to paging messages to be sent, configure AG to 0.
The value of AG is recommended as follows:

AG is 1 when the CCCH and SDCCH share a physical channel.

AG is 2 or 3 in other situations.

In network operation, take statistics of overload situations of AGCH and adjust AG


accordingly. By default the immediate assignment messages are superior to paging
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 6 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

messages to be sent in the network, so you need not reserve a channel for immediate
assignment messages. In this situation, configure AG to 0.

7.2.2 Frame Number Coding Between Identical Paging


Frame number coding between identical paging is BS_PA_MFRMS (MFR for short).

I. Definition
According to GSM regulations, each MS (corresponding to an IMSI) belongs to a
paging group (for calculation of paging groups, see GSM regulation 05.02). Each
paging group in a cell corresponds to a paging subchannel. According to its IMSI, the
MS calculates the paging group that it belongs to, and then calculates the location of
paging subchannel that belongs to the paging group. The MS only receives the
signals of the paging subchannel that it belongs to, and neglects that of other paging
subchannels. In addition, the MS even powers off some hardware of itself during
other paging subchannel to lower power cost of itself.
The number of paging channel multiframe (MFR) is the number of multiframes used
in a period of paging subchannel. The MFR determines the number of paging
subchannels that the cell PCH is divided into.

II. Format
The MFR ranges from 2 to 9, which respectively means that the same paging group
cycles in a period of 2 to 9 multiframes.

III. Configuration and Influence


According to the definition of CCCH, AG, and MFT, you can calculate the number of
paging channel in each cell.

When the CCCH and SDCCH share a physical channel, there is (3 - AG) MFRs.

When the CCCH and SDCCH share a physical channel, there is (9 - AG) MFRs.

According to the previous analysis, the greater the MFR is, the more the paging
channels of the cell are (see the calculation of paging groups in GSM regulation
05.02). Theoretically, the capacity of paging channels does not increase with the
increase of MFR. The number of buffers for buffering paging messages on each base
transceiver station (BTS) increases. The paging messages are sent more evenly both
in time and space, so it seldom occurs that the paging messages overflow in the
buffers so call lost occurs (related to functions by equipment providers).

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 7 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

However, to enjoy the previous advantages, you will have a longer delay of paging
messages on the radio channels. The greater the MFR is, the greater the delay of
paging messages in the space is, and the lower the average service performance of
the system is. Therefore, the MFR is an important parameter in network optimization.
The following principle caters for configuring MFR:
The configured strategy for buffers of each equipment provider is different, so you
must select the MFR properly so that the paging messages do not overflow on PCH.
Based on this, configure the parameter as small as possible. In addition, you must
measurement the overflow situations of PCH periodically while the network is running,
and adjust MFR accordingly.

IV. Precautions
Any paging message of the same location area must be sent to all cells in the location
areas at the same time, so the PCH capacity of each cell in the location area must be
equivalent or close to each other. Otherwise, you must consider smaller PCH capacity
as the evidence for designing location area.

7.2.3 Common Control Channel Configuration (CCCH-CONF)


I. Definition
The CCCH includes AGCH and PCH. It sends immediate assignment messages and
paging messages. In each cell, all traffic channels (TCHs) share CCCH. According to
the TCH configuration and traffic model of the cell, the CCCH can be one or more
physical channels. In addition, the CCCH and SDCCH share a physical channel. The
combination methods for CCH are determined by CCCH parameter CCCH_CONF.

II. Format
The CCCH_CONF consists of three bits, with the coding methods listed in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1 CCCH configuration coding
CCCH_CONF

Meaning

Number of CCCH message


blocks in a BCCH multiframe

000

One physical channel for

used for CCCH, not shared


with SDCCH
001
2006-07-10

One physical channel for

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 8 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

used for CCCH, shared with


SDCCH
010

Two physical channels for

18

used for CCCH, not shared


with SDCCH
100

Three physical channels for

27

used for CCCH, not shared


with SDCCH
110

Four physical channels for

36

used for CCCH, not shared


with SDCCH

III. Configuration and Influence


According to II. 1Table 1.1, when the CCCH and SDCCH share one physical channel,
the CCCH has the minimum channel capacity. When the CCCH and SDCCH do not
share a physical channel, the more physical channels that the CCCH uses, the
greater the capacity is.
The CCCH_CONF is determined by the operators based on combination of cell traffic
model and paging capacity of the location area where a cell belongs to. It is
determined in system design, and adjusted in network expansion. According to
experiences, when the paging capacity in the location area is not high and cell has
one or two carriers, it is recommended that the CCCH uses one physical channel and
share it with SDCCH (in combination CCCH methods). This spares a physical
channel for paging. Otherwise, the method that CCCH and SDCCH do not share one
physical channel is used.
When the cell TRX exceeds 6 and CCCH OVERLOAD occurs in the cell, it is
recommended that the CCCH uses two or more basic physical channel and does not
share them with SDCCH.

IV. Precautions
The CCCH_CONF must be consistent with the actual configuration of cell CCCH. In
addition, you must consider the influence on the access grant reserved blocks.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 9 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.2.4 Extended Transmission Slots (TX_INTEGER)


I. Definition
In a GSM network, a random access channel (RACH) is an ALOH. To reduce the
conflicting times on RACH when an MS accesses the network, and to increase RACH
efficiency, GSM regulations (sections 3.3.1.2 of 04.08) prescribe the compulsory
access algorithm for MS. The algorithm defines three parameters as follows:

Extended transmission slots T

Maximum retransmission times RET

T
It is the number of slots between two sending when the MS keeps sending
multiple channel request messages.

S
It is related to channel combination, and is an intermediate variable of access
algorithm. It is determined by T and CCCH configuration.

II. Format
The value of T is from 3 to 12, 14, 16, 20, 25, 32, and 50.
The value of S ranges as listed in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1 Values of S
T

S in different CCCH combination methods


The CCCH and SDCCH

The CCCH and SDCCH share a

does not share a physical

physical channel

channel

2006-07-10

3, 8, 14, 50

55

41

4, 9, 16

76

52

5, 10, 20

109

58

6, 11, 25

163

86

7, 12, 32

217

115

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 10 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


To access the network, the MS must originate an immediate assignment process. To
begin the process, the MS sends (RET + 1) channel request messages on RACH. To
reduce conflicts on RACH, the time for MS to send channel request messages must
meet the following requirements:

The number of slots (not including slots for sending messages) between
originating immediate assignment process by MS and sending the first channel
request messages is random. Its range is {0, 1, , MAX (T, 8) - 1}. When the MS
originates the immediate assignment process, it takes a value from the range
according to even distribution probability.

The number of slots (not including slots for sending messages) between a
channel request message and the next is from {S, S + 1, , S + T - 1} according
to even distribution probability.

According to previous analysis, the greater the T is, the larger the range of intervals
between one channel request message and the next, and the less the RACH
conflicting times is. The greater the S is, the greater the interval between one channel
request message and the next, the less the RACH conflicting times is, and the more
efficiently the SDCCH is used. However, the increase of T and S leads to longer time
for MS to access the network, so the access performance of the whole network
declines. Therefore you must configure T and S properly.
S is calculated by MS according to T and combination of CCH. You can configure T
freely and sends it to MS by system information. Usually, you need configure T
properly to make T + S as small as possible (to reduce the time for MS to access the
network); meanwhile you must ensure an effective assignment of SDCCH to avoid
overload (for all random access requests, the system does not distinguish whether
they are from the same MS, but assigns a SDCCH). In operation, you can adjust the
value according to traffic measurement of cell immediate assignment.

7.2.5 Minimum Access Level of RACH


I. Definition
The minimum access level of RACH is the level threshold for the system to judge
whether there is a random access request.

II. Format
The minimum access level of RACH ranges from 0 to 63 (corresponding to 110 dBm
to 47 dBm).
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 11 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

The unit is level grade value.

III. Configuration and Influence


When the access burst level of RACH is greater than the threshold, the BTS judges
that there is an access request. The BTS, together with the parameter random access
error threshold, determines whether the random access burst is valid. To configure
the parameter properly, you must combine actual sensitivity of the base station and
the parameter minimum received level permitted for MS to access. This prevents
the MS from failing in calling though there are signals. The access burst level of
RACH affects call drop rate and access range (coverage), so you must pay attention
to the influence on access of MS.

7.2.6 Random Access Error Threshold


I. Definition
GSM protocols prescribe that by relativity of judgment training sequence (41 bits) the
system can judge whether the received signals are the random access signals of MS.

II. Format
The value ranges from 0 to 255. The recommended value is 180.

III. Configuration and Influence


The random access error threshold defines the relativity of training sequence. If the
smaller it is, the more errors of random access signals permitted by the network are,
the easily the MS randomly accesses the network, and the greater the report error
rate is. If the greater the random access error threshold is, the smaller the report error
rate is, and the more difficult the access to the network is when signals are weak. See
protocol 0408, 0502.
The system requires the random access error threshold transferred by current bit of
41 bit training sequence.

2006-07-10

90100

33

101120

34

121140

35

141160

36

161175

37
Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 12 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

176195

38

196221

39

222243

40

244250

41

089 or 251255

38

Internal Open

The two parameters random access error threshold and minimum access level of
RACH determine the validity of random access burst.

7.2.7 Access Control Class (ACC)


I. Definition
GSM regulations (02.11) prescribe that each GSM user (common user) corresponds
to an access class, ranging from class 0 to class 9. The access class is stored in SIM
of mobile users. For special users, GSM regulations reserves five special access
classes, ranging from class 11 to class 15. Theses classes are prior to other classes
in accessing. Special users might have one or more access classes (between 11 and
15), which are also stored in user SIM. Users of class 11 to 15 are prior to that of
class 0 to 9. However, the class between 0 and 9 or between 11 and 15 does not
mean priority.
The access class is distributed as follows:

Class 09: common users

Class 11: users for PLMN management

Class 12: users for security departments

Class 13: common business departments (in charge of water, gas)

Class 14: emergency services

Class 15: PLMN staff

Users of class 09 have its access rights catering for home PLMN and visited PLMN.
Users of class 11 and 15 have its access rights catering for visited PLMN only. Users
of class 12, 13, and 14 have its access rights catering for in the country where home
PLMN belongs to.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 13 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

II. Format
The access control class consists of two parts:

Common access control class


Value range: a check option, including class 0 disabled, , class 9 disabled.
Recommended value: all 0.

Special access control class


Value range: a check option, including class 11 disabled, , class 15 disabled.
Recommended value: all 0.

If a class is configured to 1, it means that access is forbidden. For example, a


common access class is configured to 1000000000; common users excluding class 0
users can access the network.

III. Configuration and Influence


C0C15 (excluding C10) are set by equipment room operators. Usually these bits are
configured to 1. Proper configuration contributes to network optimization as follow:

When installing a base station, starting a base station, or maintaining and testing
in some cells, configure C0C15 (excluding C10) to 1. In this way, different users
are prevented from accessing the network, so the installing and maintenance is
less influenced.

During busy hours of cells with high traffic, congestion occurs, RACH conflicting
time increase, AGCH traffic overloads, and Abis interface traffic overloads. When
you configure class of some users to 1, you can reduce the traffic of the cell.

7.2.8 Maximum Retransmission Times (RET)


I. Definition
See GSM regulation 04.08. When an MS originates an immediate assignment
process, it sends a channel request message to the network on RACH. The RACH is
an ALOH, so the MS can send multiple channel request messages before receiving
immediate assignment messages, to increase access success rate of MS. The
maximum retransmission times M (RET) is determined by equipment room operators,
and sent to MS by SI.

II. Format
The maximum retransmission times consists of two bits, with the meanings listed in
Table 1.1.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 14 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

Table 1.1 Coding of maximum transmission times M


M

maximum transmission times

00

01

10

11

III. Configuration and Influence


The greater the M is, the higher the success rate of call attempt is, and the higher the
connection rate is, but the load of RACH, CCCH, and SDCCH increase. In cell with
high traffic, if the RET is over great, overload of radio channels and congestion occur,
so the connection rate and radio resource utilization declines sharply. If the RET is
over small, the call attempt times of MS reduces, success rate reduces, so the
connection rate reduces. Therefore, proper configuration of RET for each cell help
utilize network radio resources and improve connection rate.
For configuration of RET M, refer to the following methods:

For areas with low traffic, such as in suburban or rural areas, configure RET to 7
to increase the access success rate of MS.

For areas with average traffic, such as common urban areas, configure RET to 4.

For microcell with high traffic and of apparent congestion, configure RET to 1.

7.2.9 Control Class of MS Maximum Transmit Power (MS-TXPWR-MAX-CCH)


I. Definition
MS-TXPWR-MAX-CCH is sent in BCCH SIs. It affects behavior of MS in idle mode. It
is also used in calculating C1 and C2, and determines cell selection and reselection.

C1 = RLA_C - RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN - MAX((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH - P), 0)

RLA_C: average received level by MS

RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN: minimum received level permitted for MS to access

MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH: maximum power level of control channel (control class


of MS maximum transmit power)

2006-07-10

P: Maximum transmit power level of MS

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 15 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

II. Format
The range of MS-TXPWR-MAX-CCH is 031. For cells of GSM900 and GSM1800,
the dBm values corresponding to the control class are different.

In a GSM900 network, the 32 control class of maximum transmit power


corresponding to 031 is as follows:
{39, 39, 39, 37, 35, 33, 31, 29, 27, 25, 23, 21, 19, 17, 15, 13, 11, 9, 7, 5, 5, 5, 5,
5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5}

In a GSM1800 network, the 32 control class of maximum transmit power


corresponding to 031 is as follows:
{30, 28, 26, 24, 22, 20, 18, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 36, 34, 32}

Recommended values are 5 for GSM900 and 0 for GSM1800.

III. Configuration and Influence


MS-TXPWR-MAX-CCH determines the power class used before MS receives power
control messages. For details, see protocol 0508.
The smaller it is, the greater the output power of MS is. The MS near the base station
interferes with neighbor channels of the cell, so the access to the network by other
MSs and communication quality are influenced. The greater it is, the smaller the
output power of MS is, and the lower the access success rate of MS at cell borders is.
You must configure MS-TXPWR-MAX-CCH properly according to the serving range of
the cell.

7.2.10 Power Offset (POWEROFFSET)


I. Definition
When the MS accesses the network and before it receives the initial power control
messages, all GSM900 MSs and type 1 and type 2 DCS1800 MSs use
MS_TXPWR_MX_CCH of BCCH. If the MS_TXPWR_MX_CCH exceeds the
maximum transmit power of MS, the MS uses the closest power.
The parameter POWEROFFSET is effective to type 3 DCS1800 MSs. When the type
3 DCS1800 MS accesses the network, it use total power of MS_TXPWR_MX_CCH +
POWEROFFSET before receiving the initial power control message. See protocol
GSM0508.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 16 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

II. Format
The values of 03 correspond to 0 dB, 2 dB, 4 dB, and 6 dB.
The recommended value is 2.

III. Configuration and Influence


The greater the parameter is, the more easily the type 3 DCS1800 MS accesses the
network. A great POWEROFFSET enables MS to access the network afar, but does
not help control cross-cell interference, so the network quality is influenced.

7.2.11 IMSI Attach/Detach Allowed


I. Definition
The IMSI detach means that the MS informs the network of itself work state changing
from working to non-working. Usually it refers to when the MS powers off or the SIM is
taken off MS. After receiving the inform from MS, the network sets the IMSI as in nonworking state.
The IMSI attach is opposite of IMSI detach. It means that MS informs the network of
itself work state changing to working. Usually it refers to when the MS powers on or
the SIM is put into MS again. After the MS turns to working state again, it detects
whether the current location areas (LAI) is the same as that recorded in MS at last.

If yes, the MS starts IMSI attach process (this is one of location updating).

If no, the MS starts location updating process of cross location area.

After receiving the location updating message or IMSI message from MS, the network
sets the IMSI as in working state.
The parameter IMSI attach/detach allowed (ATT) is used for informing MS of the IMSI
attach/detach process.

II. Format
The value of ATT includes YES/NO. NO means that starting IMSI attach/detach
process by MS is forbidden. YES means that starting IMSI attach/detach process by
MS is compulsory.

III. Configuration and Influence


Usually configure ATT to YES so that the network will not process the proceeding of
the MS after the MS powers off. This frees system resources (such as PCH).
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 17 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

IV. Precautions
The ATT of different cells in the same location area must be the same to avoid
abnormalities while the MS is called. For example, in a cell with YES as the value of
ATT, when the MS powers off, it starts IMSI detach process. Therefore the network
records that the MS is in non-working state, so it does not page the MS. In a cell with
No as the value of ATT and the cell being different from the one where the MS powers
off, when the MS powers on again in the cell, the MS does not start IMSI attach
process. In this situation, the MS cannot be called normally until it starts location
updating process.

7.2.12 Direct Retry (DR)


I. Definition
During the assignment process of call setup, congestion might cause assignment
failure. The assignment failure causes failure of the whole call. GSM networks has a
function to avoid such failures, namely, DR. The DR is that the BSS directly assign
MS to TCH of neighbor cells. The parameter is used by system to set whether to
allow direct retry function.

II. Format
The value of DR includes YES and NO. YES means that the system allows directional
retry. NO means that the system does not support direction retry function.

III. Configuration and Influence


DR improves call success rate. If conditions are ready, start DR. On the contrary, DR
is that the BSS directly assign MS to TCH of neighbor cells when congestion occurs
in the cell where the MS camps, so the MS can originates a call in the non-best cell
with lowest received level, and extra interference might be brought about in frequency
reuse networks. Therefore, you must use the function properly according to
comprehensive network situations.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 18 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.3 Serial Parameters of Cell Selection and Reselection


7.3.1 cell_bar_access
I. Definition
In the SI broadcasted in each cell, a bit indicates whether the MS is allowed to access
the network in the cell, namely, cell_bar_access.

II. Format
The value of cell_bar_access includes 1 and 0. The value 0 indicates that MS is
allowed to access the network from the cell. The value 1 indicates that the MS is
barred to access the network from the cell. Actually whether to allow MS to access
the network from the cell is determined by both cell_bar_access and cell_bar_qualify.

III. Configuration and Influence


The cell_bar_access is configured by equipment room operators. Usually the MS is
allowed to access the network from all the cells, so cell_bar_access is configured to
0. In special situations, the operators want some cell for handover service only, so
cell_bar_access is configured to 1 (cell_bar_qualify is 0), as shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Schematic drawing of cell access barred


The area A in Figure 1.1 are busy areas (metropolitan commercial areas). The
microcell coverage method is used to improve the access performance in the area
with limited frequency resources. The double-layer network is used to reduce crosscell handover when the MS moves at a high speed, so wide-coverage base station G
(capacity can be small) is constructed to cover area A.
The MS usually works in microcells (you can configure the priority of cells and
reselection parameters to enable this). When the MS is calling while moving fast, the
network force MS to hand over to the base station G. The signals of base station G

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 19 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

are stronger than microcell base station in most areas. When the call terminates, the
MS just camps near base station G and at edge of microcell cells, the MS will not
reselect a cell according to GSM regulations, therefore the MS cannot return to
microcell.
The capacity of base station G is usually small, so the previous phenomenon leads to
congestion of base station G. To solve the problem, you can configure the
cell_bar_access to 1, namely, to forbid MS directly accessing base station G. In area
A, handover is allowed to base station G.

IV. Precautions
The cell_bar_access is used only in some special areas. For common cells, it is
configured to 0.

7.3.2 cell_bar_qualify
I. Definition
The cell_bar_qualify determines the priority of cells, namely, it enables MS to select
some cell by preference.

II. Format
The value of cell_bar_qualify includes 1 and 0. The cell_bar_qualify and
cell_bar_access determine the priority state of cells, as listed in Table 1.1.
Table 1.1 Cell priorities
cell_bar_qualify cell_bar_access

Cell selection priority

Cell reselection state

Normal

Normal

Barred

Barred

Low

Normal

Low

Normal

An exception is that the cell selection priority and cell reselection state are normal
when the following conditions are met:

2006-07-10

The cell belongs to the PLMN which the MS belongs to.

The MS is in cell test operation mode.

The cell_bar_access is 1.

The cell_bar_qualify is 0.
Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 20 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

The access control class 15 is disabled.

III. Configuration and Influence


The priority of all the cells are usually configured to normal, namely, cell_bar_qualify
= 0. In microcell and dualband networking, operators might want MS to camps on the
cell of some type by preference. In this situation, the equipment room operators can
configure the priority of these cells to normal and other cells to low.
During cell selection, when the proper cells with normal as the priority is not present
(proper cells means that all parameters meet the conditions for cell selection, namely,
C1 > 0, and the cell is allowed to access), the MS will select cells with low priority.

IV. Precautions
Pay attention to the following aspects:

When cell priority is used as a method to optimize network, the cell_bar_qualify


only affects cell selection, without any influence on cell reselection. You must
optimize the network by combining cell_bar_qualify and C2.

During cell selection, when the proper cells with normal as the priority is not
present, the MS will select cells with low priority. Therefore when the level of the
cell with normal priority is low, and cells with low priority and high level are
present, the MS will access the network slowly while powering on.

7.3.3 Minimum Received Level Allowing MS to Access


(RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN)
I. Definition
To avoid bad communication quality, call drop, and a waste of network radio
resources due to MS accessing the network at low received signal level, GSM
regulations prescribe that when an MS accesses the network the received level must
be greater than the threshold level, namely, the minimum received level allowing MS
to access.

II. Format
The value range of RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 21 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


The recommended RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN needs to be approximately equal to the
receiving sensitivity of MS. The RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN affects cell selection
parameter C1, so it is important to traffic adjustment and network optimization.
For cells with over high traffic and severe congestion, you can increase
RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN. In this way, the C1 and C2 of the cells decrease, and the
effective coverage range decreases. You must not configure RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN
over great, because this might cause non-seamless coverage and complaints for
signal fluctuation. It is recommended that the RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is smaller than
or equal to 90 dBm.

IV. Precautions
Except for areas of high density of base stations and of qualified coverage, adjusting
cell traffic by RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN is not recommended.

7.3.4 Additional Reselection Parameter Indicator


I. Definition
The cell selection and reselection by MS depends on the parameters C1 and C2.
Whether C2 is the cell reselection parameter is determined by network operators.
Additional reselection parameter indicator (ADDITIONAL RESELECT) informs MS of
whether to use C2 in cell reselection.

II. Format
ADDITIONAL RESELECT consists of 1 bit. In SI3, it is meaningless, and equipment
manufacturers configure it to N. The MS uses ADDITIONAL RESELECT of SI4.

When ADDITIONAL RESELECT is configured to N, the meaning is: if the rest


bytes of SI4 (SI4RestOctets) are present, the MS must abstract and calculate
parameters related to C2 and related cell reselection parameter PI.

When ADDITIONAL RESELECT is configured to Y, the meaning is that the MS


must abstract and calculate parameters related to C2 and related cell reselection
parameter PI.

III. Configuration and Influence


Cells seldom use SI7 and SI8, so you can configure ADDITIONAL RESELECT to N.
When cells use SI7 and SI8, and the parameter C2 is used in cell reselection, you
can configure ADDITIONAL RESELECT to Y.
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 22 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.3.5 Cell Reselection Parameter Indicator


I. Definition
The cell reselection parameter indicator (CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND) is used in
informing MS of whether C2 is a cell reselection parameter and whether C2 is
present.

II. Format
The value of CELL_RESELECT_PARAM_IND includes Y and N, with the meanings
as follows:

Y: The MS must calculate C2 by abstracting parameters from SIs of cell


broadcast, and set C2 as the standard for cell reselection.

N: The MS must set C1 as the standard, namely, C2 = C1.

III. Configuration and Influence


The equipment room operators determine the value of PI. Configure PI to Y if related
cells set C2 as the standard for cell reselection; otherwise, configure it to N.

7.3.6 Cell Reselection Offset, Temporary Offset, and Penalty Time


I. Definition
After the MS selects a cell, without great change of all the conditions, the MS will
camp on the selected cell. Meanwhile, it does as follow:

Starts measuring signals level of BCCH carrier in neighbor cells.

Records the 6 neighbor cells with greatest signal level.

Abstract various SI and control information of each neighbor cell from the 6 cells.

When conditions are met, the MS hands over from the selected cell to another. This
process is called cell reselection. The conditions include:

Cell priority

Whether the cell is barred to access

Radio channel level (important)

When the signal level of neighbor cells exceeds that of the serving cell, cell
reselection occurs. The channel level standard used in cell reselection is C2, with the
calculation as follows:
1)

When PENELTY_TIME 11111:


C2 = C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET - TEMPORARY_OFFSET * H

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 23 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

(PENALTY_TIME - T)
Wherein, if PENALTY_TIME - T (x) < 0, the function H(x) = 0; if x 0, H(x) = 1.
2)

When PENELTY_TIME = 11111:


C2 = C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET

T is a timer, with 0 as the initial value. When a cell is listed by MS in the list of cells
with maximum signal level, start T with step of 4.62ms (a TDMA frame). When the cell
is removed from the list, the associated T is reset.
After cell reselection, the T of original cell works as PENALTY_TIME. Namely,
temporary offset is not performed on the original cell.
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET (CRO) modifies cell reselecting time C2.
TEMPORARY_OFFSET (TO) is supplemented to C2 from starting working of T to the
prescribed time.
PENALTY_TIME is the time for TEMPORARY_OFFSET having effect on C2. When
PENALTY_TIME = 11111, the MS is informed of using C2 = C1 CRO.
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET, TEMPORARY_OFFSET, and PENALTY_TIME are cell
reselection parameters.

When the cell reselection parameter PI is 1, the MS is informed of receiving


values of three parameters on BCCH.

If PI is 0, the MS judges that the previous three parameters are 0, namely C2 =


C1.

If the C2 of a cell (in the same location area as the serving cell) calculated by MS is
greater than the C2 of the cell where MS camps, and this lasts for over 5s, the MS
reselects to camp on the cell.
If the C2 of a cell (in different location area as the serving cell) calculated by MS is
greater than the sum of C2 of the cell where MS camps and cell reselect hysteresis,
and this lasts for over 5s, the MS reselects to camp on the cell.
The interval between two reselections is at least 15s, and this avoids frequent cell
reselection by MS.
C2 is formed on the combination of C1 and artificial offset parameters. The artificial
offset parameters help MS camp on or prevent MS from camping on some cell. This
balances the traffic of the network.

II. Format
1)

The cell reselection offset (CRO) is in decimal, with unit of dB. It ranges from 0 to
63, which means 0 to 126 dB (2 dB as the step). The recommended value is 0.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 24 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

2)

Internal Open

The temporary offset (TO) is in decimal, with unit of dB. It ranges from 0 to 7,
which means 0 to 70 dB (10 dB as the step). The recommended value is 0.

3)

The penalty time (PT) is in decimal, with unit of second. It ranges from 0 to 31.
The value 0 to 30 means 20s to 620s (20s as the step). The value 31 is reserved
for changing the effect direction of C2 by CRO. The recommended value is 0.

III. Configurationa and Influence


The previous parameters can be adjusted accordingly in the following three
situations:
1)

When the communication quality is bad due to heavy traffic or other causes,
change the parameters to enable MS not camps on the cell (the cell is exclusive
from the MS). For this situation, configure PT to 31, so TO is ineffective. C2 = C1
CRO. The C2 is artificially lowered. So the probability for MS to reselect the
cell decreases. In addition, the equipment room operators can configure CRO to
a proper value according to the exclusive level of the cell by MS. The greater the
exclusion is, the greater the CRO is.

2)

For cells with low traffic and equipment of low utilization, change the parameters
to enable MS to camp on the cell (the cell is prior). In this situation, configure
CRO to 020 dB according to the priority. The higher the priority is, the greater
the CRO is. TO is configured the same as or a little greater than CRO. PT helps
avoid over frequent cell reselection, the recommended value of PT is 20s or 40s.

3)

For cell with average traffic, configure CRO to 0, PT to 11111 so that C2 = C1. No
artificial influence is on the cell.

IV. Precautions
In whatever situations, the CRO must not be greater than 30 dB, because over great
CRO leads to unstable network, such as complaints about signal fluctuation.

7.3.7 Cell Reselection Hysteresis (CRH)


I. Definition
CRH affects cell reselection of cross location area. The MS starts cell reselection if
the following conditions are met:

The signal level of neighbor cell (in different location area) is greater than that of
the serving cell.

The difference between the signal levels of the neighbor cell and the serving cell
must be greater than the value prescribed by cell reselection hysteresis.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 25 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

The difference is based on the cell reselection methods used by MS. If the MS
reselects a cell with C2, then compare values of C2.

II. Format
CRH is in decimal, with unit of dB. The range is 0 to 14, with step of 2 dB. The
recommended value is 4.

III. Configuration and Influence


If the original cell and target cell belongs to different location areas, the MS must
originate a location updating process after cell reselection. Due to the attenuation
feature of radio channels, the C2 of two cells measured at the bordering area of
neighbor cells fluctuates much, so the MS reselect cells frequently. The interval
between two reselections is over 15s, which is rather short for location updating. The
signal flow of network increases sharply, radio resources cannot be fully utilized.
During location updating, the MS cannot respond to paging, so the connection rate
decreases. Adjust CRH according to signal flow and coverage. When signal flow
overloads or location updating of cross location area is frequent, the cell reselection
hysteresis is increased as recommended. You must avoid abnormal coverage due to
over large location area.

IV. Precautions
Do not configure CRH to 0 dB.

7.4 Parameters Affecting Network Functions


7.4.1 Newly Established Cause Indicator (NECI)
I. Definition
In a GSM network, the traffic channel (TCH) consists of full-speed TCH and halfspeed TCH. When the network supports half-speed TCH, the MS is informed of
whether the area supports half-speed TCH by NECI.

II. Format
The value of NECI includes Y and N, with the meaning as follows:

2006-07-10

Y means that the area support half-speed TCH.

N means that the area cannot support half-speed TCH.


Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 26 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


Half-speed TCHs enable each carrier to support more traffic channel, but you must
confirm whether the system support half-speed TCH.

7.4.2 Power Control Indicator (PWRC)


I. Definition
The PWRC informs MS of whether to take statistics of downlink level of BCCH carrier
slot for measuring average value when the BCCH frequency participates in frequency
hopping. The causes to configuring PWRC are as follows:

GSM regulations allow frequency hopping channels to use BCCH (frequency


hopping not in BCCH slots) .

GSM regulations allow downlink power control over frequency hopping channels.

The MS needs signal level of the measured neighbor cells, so the power of each
slot on BCCH frequency is prohibited to change. The downlink power control
does not involve carrier slots for BCCH which includes the frequency hopping.

For previous causes, when the MS measures the average downlink channel level with
common methods, the measurement result is inaccurate for power control because
the average value includes the downlink received level of BCCH carriers the power of
which are not controlled, so the measurement report is inaccurate for power control.
To avoid the influence on power control, when the MS calculates average received
level during frequency hopping, the received level obtained from BCCH carrier slot
must be removed (see GSM regulations 05.08).

II. Format
The value of PWRC includes 0 and 1, with meanings as follows:

When PWRC is 0, the measurement result by MS includes BCCH carrier.

When PWRC is 1, the measurement result by MS does not include BCCH


carrier.

III. Configuration and Influence


The PWRC is usually configured to 0. Configure it to 1 if all the following conditions
are met:

2006-07-10

Channels have frequency hopping on two or more frequencies.

One of the frequency is BCCH carrier frequency.

The system uses downlink power control.

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 27 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

IV. Precautions
The value of PWRC depends actually on the following parameters:

Whether to use frequency hopping.

Whether the hopping frequency includes BCCH carrier.

Whether the system uses downlink power control.

7.4.3 Discontinuous Transmit of Uplink


I. Definition
Discontinuous transmit of uplink (DTXU) refers to the process for MS not to transmit
signals during silent period (see description about DTX in Chapter 2).

II. Format
Whether the network allows uplink to use discontinuous transmit (DTX) is set by
equipment room operators. DTX ranges from 0 to 2, with the following meanings:

0: MS can use DTXU.

1: MS must use DTXU.

2: MS cannot use DTXU.

III. Configuration and Influence


Using uplink DTX affects call quality, but it is helpful in the following aspects:

Lower interference to radio channels.


Due to this, the average call quality of network is improved.

Cut power consumption by MS

For the previous advantages, DTX is recommended to use.

7.4.4 Discontinuous Transmit of Downlink


I. Defintion
Discontinuous transmit of downlink (DTXD) means the network does not transmit
signals during silent period.

II. Definition
DTXD is in string, and the range is YES and NO. The meanings are as follows:

2006-07-10

YES: Downlink uses DTX.

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 28 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

NO: Downlink does not use DTX.

III. Configuration and Influence


Using downlink DTX affects call quality in a limit scale, but it is helpful in the following
aspects:

Lower interference to radio channels.


Due to this, the average call quality of network is improved.

Reduce load of base station CPU

Therefore, if possible, you use DTX.

IV. Precautions
According to GSM regulations, downlink DTX is optional. If the base station
equipment supports DTXD, then use it. However, you must ensure that voice
transcoder is available to support DTXD.

7.4.5 Call Resetup Allowed


I. Definition
When coverage voids cause radio link failure, consequently call drop, the MS starts to
resetup the call for recovery. Whether resetting up the call is allowed depends on the
parameter call resetup allowed (RE).

II. Format
The values of call resetup allowed are 1 and 0, with meanings as follows:

1: Call resetup is allowed in the cell.

0: Call resetup is forbidden in the cell.

III. Configuration and Influence


When a connected MS passes coverage voids, call drop occurs easily. If call resetup
is allowed, the average call drop rate (CDR) is lowered. However, call resetup takes
longer time, and most users disconnects before completion of call resetup. Therefore
call resetup is difficult to achieve, and even wastes abundant radio resources. In a
word, call resetup is disabled.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 29 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.4.6 Emergency Call Allowed


I. Definition
The following MSs cannot enjoy various services:

MS without SIM

MS with ACC as one of C0 to C9 and with cell_bar_access

The parameter emergency call allowed (EC) determines whether the MS is allowed
for emergency calls, such as police emergency call.

II. Format
EC consists of 1 bit. For the MS with ACC of C0 to C9 or without SIM, the EC is NO,
meaning emergency call forbidden. YES means emergency call allowed. For the MS
with ACC of C11 to C15, when both the access control bit and EC are configured to
forbidden, it is forbidden for emergency calls.

III. Configuration and Influence


According to the GSM regulations, the emergency number is 112, different from that
in China. The Chinese emergency call cannot function as prescribed in GSM
regulations. For international roaming users, set 112 to answerphone to inform users
of various special service numbers. Therefore, setting emergency call must be
allowed through configuring radio parameters, namely, configure EC to 1.

7.4.7 Early Classmark Sending Control


I. Definition
In a GSM network, the MS classmark marks the following aspects:

Service capacity

Supported frequency band

Power capacity

Encryption capacity

Classmark consists of classmark1, classmark2, and classmark3. A GSM MS. In a


GSM network, the MS reports Classmark1 or Classmark2 information immediately
after ESTIND<CM SERV REQ> (corresponding to L2-SABM at Um interface) is
allocated. Classmark3 (CM3) information includes power information of various
frequency band of multi-frequency MS.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 30 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

During handover between different bands, the power class must be correctly
described. When the GSM system pages and transmits BA2 in different bands, it
must know the CM3 message. In GSM regulation Phase2plus, early classmark
sending control (ECSC) is added. ECSC means that by SI the system informs MS of
reporting Classmark3 after link setup. This avoids querying process by network.

II. Format
The values of ECSC are Y and N, with the following meanings:

Y: The MS reports Classmark3 to the network immediately after link setup.

N: The MS is forbidden to report its Classmark3 to network initiatively.

III. Configuration and Influence


The major information of Classmark3 is for dualband network, so do as follows:

Configure ECSC to N in single frequency GSM application areas.

Configure ECSC to Y in dualband GSM application areas.

IV. Precautions
In a dualband network, configure the parameter of all cell to the same value.
Configuring the parameter to different values in one or more cells is forbidden;
otherwise, the network quality declines.

7.5 Frequency Hopping Parameters


7.5.1 Frequency Hopping Sequence Number
I. Definition
In a GSM network, the cell allocation (CA) means the set of carriers used by each
cell, recorded as {R0, R1, , Rn - 1}. Wherein, Ri indicates the absolute channel
number. For each communication process, the set of carriers used by base station
and MS is mobile allocation (MA), recorded as {M0, M1, , Mn - 1}. Wherein, Mi
indicates the absolute channel number. Obviously MA is a subset of CA.
During a communication process, the air interface uses a carrier number, one
element of MA. The variable mobile allocation index (MAI) determines an exact
element of MA. According to the frequency hopping algorithm in GSM regulation
05.02, the MAI is the TDMA frame number (RN) or reduced frame number (RFN),
frequency hopping sequence number (HSN), and mobile allocation index offset
(MAIO).
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 31 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

Wherein, the HSN determines two aspects:

Track of frequency points during frequency hopping

The asynchronous neighbor cells using the same MA can avoid continuous
frequency collision during frequency hopping by using different HSNs.

II. Format
HSN is in decimal, ranging from 0 to 63, wherein:

0: cyclic frequency hopping

163: pseudo frequency hopping

III. Configuration and Influence


You can choose any HSN in cells using frequency hopping, but you must ensure that
the cells using same frequency group must use different HSN. The following
paragraph is an exception:
In an 1X1 network, three cells under a base station use the same frequency group,
but they are synchronous cells because of same FN. Therefore the three cells use the
same HSN. You must plan MAIO properly to avoid frequency collision of the three
cells under the same base station.

7.5.2 Mobile Allocation


I. Definition
The mobile allocation (MA) in the GSM network indicates a frequency set for
frequency hopping. Namely, when the MA of a cell is fixed, the communication
frequency points of the cell performs transient in the set by MA according to rules.
The parameter MA determines all the elements in MA.

II. Format
MA is a set, with all GSM frequency points as its element, namely:

For GSM900 networks: 1124 and 9751023.

For GSM1800 networks: 512885

III. Configuration and Influence


MA is configured according to network designing requirements.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 32 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

IV. Precautions
Chinese GSM networks do not cover all available frequency bands of GSM system,
so configure MA in available frequency bands.
The number of elements in each MA set cannot exceed 63.
The MA cannot include BCCH carriers.
The number of MA must not be multiples of 13 if all the following conditions are met:

Using DTX

HSN = 0 (cyclic frequency hopping)

You must avoid SACCH to appear usually at the same frequency point.

7.5.3 Mobile Allocation Index Offset


I. Definition
During communication, the air interface uses a carrier frequency, one element of MA
set. MIO determines an exact element of MA set. According to the frequency hopping
algorithm in GSM regulation 05.02, the MAI is the TDMA frame number (RN) or
reduced frame number (RFN), frequency hopping sequence number (HSN), and
mobile allocation index offset (MAIO). MAIO is an initial offset of MAI, and it aims to
avoid multiple channels to use the same frequency carrier in the same time.

II. Format
MAIO ranges from 0 to 63.

III. Configuration and Influence


MAIO is configured by equipment room operators.

IV. Precautions
The different cells using same group of MA must use consistent MAIO.
Using different MAIOs enables different sectors in the same location to use the same
frequency group (MA) without frequency collision.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 33 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.6 Distance Control Parameters


7.6.1 Call Clearing
I. Definition
Call clearing (CallClearing) means that the maximum allowed distance threshold is
cleared between MS and base station in talk.

II. Format
CallClearing ranges from 0 to 63, with unit of TA.

III. Configuration and Influence


Configure CallClearing according to actual coverage range of a cell. Proper
configuration of CallClearing helps check whether the handover threshold of the cell
is properly defined, especially for urban cells.
If the call is frequently cleared after CallClearing threshold is defined according to cell
radium, probably the handover threshold is improperly configured. This is due to that
the MS cannot hand over to the best server cell after exceeding designed coverage
range.
Define

CallClearing

according

to

msRangeMax,

namely,

CallClearing

>

msRangeMax.
In actual network operation, call clearing is unusually performed, because radio link
fails due to over poor coverage before call clearing. Defining CallClearing aims to
restrict the distance between MS and base station and to avoid MSs in allowed
coverage range to interfere other MSs, especially in areas with complex landform.
The cell coverage range is irregular, so island effect might occur. For this
phenomenon, define CallClearing to clear calls in island areas.

7.6.2 TA Handover Threshold (MSRANGEMAX)


I. Defintion
When

the

distance

between

MS

and

base

station

reaches or exceeds

MSRANGEMAX, distance handover is triggered.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 34 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

II. Format
MSRANGEMAX ranges from 0 to 63, with unit of TA. The reference is 63.

III. Configuration and Influence


MSRANGEMAX must be smaller than CallClearing, and otherwise the handover
function will be actually unavailable. While configuring MSRANGEMAX, you must
adjust the threshold of other types of handover; otherwise ping-pong handover
occurs. one occasion might be as follows:
The distance between MS and the serving cell exceeds the threshold, but the signals
of target cell are weaker than that of original cell. Consequently the PowerBudget
handover is triggered immediately after distance handover is triggered.

7.6.3 TA Restriction (MS_BS_DIST_USED)


I. Definition
The maximum allowed access distance between base station and MS. If the distance
between an MS and base station exceeds the maximum allowed access distance, the
MS is forbidden to access cells.

II. Format
The range is 0 to 63, with unit of TA. The reference is 63.

III. Configuration and Influence


For its configuration, refer to the method for configuring CallClearing. Adjust the
parameter to enable it consistent with the geographic coverage range of the cell. Set
a proper threshold to filter pseudo RACH requests to avoid unnecessary assigning
SDCCH.
According to tests, for mountain-mounted base stations, the coverage and
interference is difficult to control. If you define the maximum allowed access distance
to 63, the RACH misjudgment increases (the system demodulates interference to
RACH bursts by mistake). Therefore the radio performance and traffic measurement
indexes of the cell are affected.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 35 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.7 Radio Link Failure Process and Parameters


The radio link failure is detected from uplink and downlink. The MS completes
downlink detection, while the base station completes uplink detection.

7.7.1 Radio Link Failure Counter (RLC or Radio Link Timeout)


I. Definition
The MS originates call resetup or disconnects by force if all the following conditions
are met:

The voice or data quality is too poor to be received.

Power control and handover cannot help to improve the quality.

A disconnection by force actually brings about a call drop, so the MS considers it a


radio link failure that the voice or data service is actually too poor to be received.
GSM regulations provide solutions to the previous problems as follows:
Set a counter S in the MS. The initial value of S is provided at the beginning of talk,
and it is the value of the parameter radio link failure counter. S changes as follows:

S decreases by 1 if the MS fails in decoding a correct SACCH message when


the MS should receive the SACCH message.

S increases by 2 if the MS succeed in decoding a correct SACCH message.

S cannot exceed the value for radio link failure counter. When S equals to 0, the MS
originates call resetup or disconnects by force, as shown in Figure 1.1.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 36 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

Figure 1.1 Counter S process

II. Format
The step from 4 to 64 is 4, with unit of SACCH period as follows:

For TCH, the SACCH period is 480ms.

For SDCCH, the SACCH period is 470ms.

III. Configuration and Influence


The value of the parameter radio link failure counter affects CDR and utilization of
radio resources, as shown in Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Application of radio link failure counter


Assume that cell A is a neighbor cell to cell B and the bordering coverage is poor.
When an MS moves from P to Q while in talk,

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 37 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

If the radio link failure counter is over small, call drop occurs before cross-cell
handover.

If the radio link failure counter is over great, the network releases related
resources until radio link expires, though the voice quality is too poor when MS
camps on cell B near P. Therefore, the utilization of radio resources declines.

Proper configuration of radio link failure counter is important, and is related to the
actual situations. To configure radio link failure counter, refer to the following rules:

Configure it to between 52 and 64 in areas with over low traffic.

Configure it to between 36 and 48 in areas with low traffic and great coverage
radium

Configure it to between 20 and 32 in areas with heavy traffic.

IV. Precautions
Configure radioLinkTimeout to smaller than T3109. This contributes to success of call
resetup and avoids the following situation effectively:
Before the MS releases radio resources due to expiration, the network side completes
releasing channels resources and reallocates resources to other MSs. Therefore two
MSs might use the same slot and this causes interferences even call drop.

7.7.2 SACCH Multiframe (RLTO_BS)


I. Definition
Refer to the description of radio link failure counter. A counter is set accordingly to
radio link at base station side for managing radio link failures. The solutions vary due
to different equipment providers, but a general method is as follows:
Set a counter S in the base station. The initial value of S is provided at the beginning
of talk, and it is the value of the parameter radio link failure expiration. S changes as
follows:

S decreases by 1 if the MS fails in decoding a correct SACCH message when


the MS should receive the SACCH message.

S increases by 2 if the MS succeed in decoding a correct SACCH message.

S cannot exceed the value for radio link expiration of base station. When S equals to
0, the MS originates call resetup or disconnects by force, as shown in 7.7.1 IFigure
1.1.

II. Format
RLT0_BS ranges from 4 to 64.
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 38 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


Proper configuration of radio link expiration of base station affects CDR and utilization
of radio resources. It is related to the actual situations. To configure radio link failure
counter, refer to the following rules:

Configure it to between 52 and 64 in areas with over low traffic.

Configure it to between 36 and 48 in areas with low traffic and great coverage
radium

Configure it to between 20 and 32 in areas with heavy traffic.

Configure it to a greater value in areas with apparent voids or where call drop
occurs frequently while the MS moves.

IV. Precautions
RLT0_BS and RLC must be consistent.

7.8 Handover and Related Parameters


7.8.1 PBGT Handover Threshold (HoMargin)
I. Definition
The PBGT handover threshold is power handover tolerance (handover in serving
areas). When the signal level of neighbor cell is hoMargin (dB) higher than that of the
serving cell, handover occurs. Complex radio propagation conditions cause
fluctuation of signal level. Using handover tolerance avoids frequent handover at
bordering areas. The PBGT handover threshold is similar to HO_MARGIN (GSM
05.08).

II. Format
The PBGT handover threshold ranges from 0 to 127, corresponding to 64 dB to +63
dB. The reference value for suburban areas is 68. The reference value for urban
areas is 70 to 72.

III. Configuration and Influence


The PBGT handover threshold aims to adjust handover difficulty properly, and to
avoid ping-pong handover. If it is configured over great, the handover is delayed and
handover is less efficient. When it is smaller than 64, the MS hands over from the
serving cell to the neighbor cell with lower level.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 39 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.8.2 Minimum Downlink Power of Handover Candidate Cells (rxLevMinCell)


I. Definition
It is the minimum allowed access level for a cell to be a neighbor cell. When the cell
level measured by MS is greater than the threshold, the BSS list the cell into
candidate cell list for handover judgment.

II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.

III. Configuration and Influence


It is helpful in the following two aspects:

It guarantees communication quality.


For a common single layer network structure, the value ranges from 90 dBm to
80 dBm.

It helps allocate traffic between cells averagely.


Especially in multi-layer network structure, to maintain MS in a network layer, you
can increase the level of the cell of the network layer (such as 70 dBm), and
also decrease that in other cells.

IV. Precautions
You cannot configure rxLevMinCell over great (over 65 dBm) or over small (lower
than 95 dBm), and otherwise communication quality is affected.

7.8.3 Handover Threshold at Uplink Edge


I. Definition
If the uplink received level keeps being smaller than the handover threshold at uplink
edge for a period, edge handover can be performed.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 63, corresponding to 110 dBm to 47 dBm. The recommended
values are as follows:

2006-07-10

Configure it to 25 in urban areas without PBGT handover.

Configure it to 20 in single site of suburban areas.

Configure it to 20 in urban areas with PBGT handover


Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 40 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


When PBGT handover is enabled, the corresponding edge handover threshold can
be lowered. When PBGT handover is disabled, and the edge handover threshold is
over low, an artificial cross-cell non-handover occurs. Therefore call drop occurs or
intra-frequency and side interference occur due to cross-cell talk.

7.8.4 Handover Threshold at Downlink Edge


I. Definition
If the downlink received level keeps being smaller than the handover threshold at
downlink edge for a period, edge handover can be performed.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 63, corresponding to 110 dBm to 47 dBm. The recommended
values are as follows:

Configure it to 30 in urban areas without PBGT handover.

Configure it to 25 in single site of suburban areas.

Configure it to 25 in urban areas with PBGT handover

III. Configuration and Influence


When PBGT handover is enabled, the corresponding edge handover threshold can
be lowered. When PBGT handover is disabled, and the edge handover threshold is
over low, an artificial cross-cell non-handover occurs. Therefore call drop occurs or
intra-frequency and side interference occur due to cross-cell talk.

7.8.5 Downlink Quality Restriction of Emergency Handover


I. Definition
If the downlink received quality is lower than the threshold of downlink quality
restriction of emergency handover, the quality difference emergency handover
occurs.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 70, corresponding to RQ (QoS 0 to 7) x 10.
The recommended value is 50.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 41 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


When frequency hopping is enabled, the voice quality is better with the same RQ, you
can configure it to 60 or 70. When emergency handover occurs, the intracell
handover occurs first. If there are no other candidate cells, and the intracell handover
is enabled, the intracell handover occurs.

7.8.6 Uplink Quality Restriction of Emergency Handover


I. Definition
If the uplink received quality is lower than it, quality difference emergency handover is
triggered.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 70, corresponding to RQ (QoS 0 to 7) x 10.
The recommended value is 50.

III. Configuration and Influence


When frequency hopping is enabled, the voice quality is better with the same RQ, you
can configure it to 60 or 70. When emergency handover occurs, the intracell
handover occurs first. If there are no other candidate cells, and the intracell handover
is enabled, the intracell handover occurs.

7.8.7 Uplink Quality Threshold of Interference Handover


I. Definition
It is the uplink received quality threshold of the serving cell that triggers interference
handover. The interference handover is triggered if all the following conditions are
met:

The uplink received level is higher than the uplink received power threshold of
interference handover.

The uplink received quality is lower than the uplink quality threshold of
interference handover.

When handover switch is enabled, the interference handover occurs within the cell by
preference.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 42 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 70, corresponding to RQ (QoS 0 to 7) x 10.
The recommended value is 50.

III. Configuration and Influence


When frequency hopping is enabled, the voice quality is better with the same RQ, you
can configure it to 60 or 70. When interference handover is triggered, select the
candidates according to the sorted result. If the serving cell ranks first and its intracell
handover is enabled, the MS selects the serving cell; otherwise it selects the second
candidate cell.

7.8.8 Downlink Quality Threshold of Interference Handover


I. Definition
It is the downlink received quality threshold of the serving cell that triggers
interference handover. The interference handover is triggered if all the following
conditions are met:

The downlink received level is higher than the downlink received power threshold
of interference handover.

The downlink received quality is lower than the downlink quality threshold of
interference handover.

When handover switch is enabled, the interference handover occurs within the cell by
preference.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 70, corresponding to RQ (QoS 0 to 7) x 10.
The recommended value is 50.

III. Configuration and Influence


When frequency hopping is enabled, the voice quality is better with the same RQ, you
can configure it to 60 or 70. When interference handover is triggered, select the
candidates according to the sorted result. If the serving cell ranks first and its intracell
handover is enabled, the MS selects the serving cell; otherwise it selects the second
candidate cell.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 43 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

IV. Precautions
The interference handover quality must be better than emergency handover quality.

7.8.9 Uplink Received Power Threshold of Interference Handover


I. Definition
If interference handover occurs due to uplink quality, the serving cell must reach the
minimum uplink received power threshold. If this is met, the system judges that uplink
is interfered, so interference handover is triggered.
The interference handover is triggered if all the following conditions are met:

The uplink received level is higher than the uplink received power threshold of
interference handover.

The uplink received quality is lower than the uplink quality threshold of
interference handover.

When handover switch is enabled, the interference handover occurs within the cell by
preference.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 63, corresponding to 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
The recommended value is 25.

III. Configurationa and Influence


When interference handover is triggered, select the candidates according to the
sorted result. If the serving cell ranks first and its intracell handover is enabled, the
MS selects the serving cell; otherwise it selects the second candidate cell.

7.8.10 Downlink Received Power Threshold of Interference Handover


I. Definition
If interference handover occurs due to uplink quality, the serving cell must reach the
minimum downlink received power threshold. If this is met, the system judges that
downlink is interfered, so interference handover is triggered.
The interference handover is triggered if all the following conditions are met:

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 44 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

The downlink received level is higher than the downlink received power threshold
of interference handover.

The downlink received quality is lower than the downlink quality threshold of
interference handover.

When handover switch is enabled, the interference handover occurs within the cell by
preference.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 63, corresponding to 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
The recommended value is 30.

III. Configurationa and Influence


When interference handover is triggered, select the candidates according to the
sorted result. If the serving cell ranks first and its intracell handover is enabled, the
MS selects the serving cell; otherwise it selects the second candidate cell.

7.8.11 Maximum Repeated Times of Physical Messages (NY1)


I. Definition
In asynchronous handover process of GSM system, when the MS receives handover
messages of the network, it sends handover access messages on the target channel.
After the network receives the message, it does as follows:
1)

Calculate related RF features.

2)

Send physical messages (it the channel messages are encrypted, start
encryption and decryption algorithm) in unit data to MSs.

3)

Start timer T3105.

If the network does not receive correct layer 2 frames sent by MS until expiration of
T3105, the network will resend the physical message and restart T3105. The
maximum times for resending physical messages is determined by the parameter
maximum repeated times of physical messages (NY1)

II. Format
NY1 ranges from 0 to 254.
The recommended value is 20.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 45 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


When the network receives the handover access messages sent by MS, the physical
channel (PCH) needs to be synchronous. If the communication quality on channels is
guaranteed, the MS can receive physical messages correctly and send layer 2 frames
to the network.
If the physical messages are sent multiple times, and the network cannot receive
layer 2 frames sent by MS, the PCH is too poor to communicate normally. Though link
is setup after multiple trials, the communication quality is not guaranteed. This lowers
the utilization of radio resources. Therefore configure NY1 to a smaller value.

IV. Precautions
Configuring NY1 is affected by T3105. If T3105 is configured to a short value, then
the NY1 needs to be increased accordingly.
If a handover trial fails before the original cell receives the HANDOVER FAILURE
message, and the T3105 of the target cell expires for Ny times, the target BTS sends
a CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message to the target BSC. Though the MS
might return to the original channel, the traffic measurement counters from multiple
vendors will take statistics of connection failure.
To avoid the previous phenomenon, configure T3105 as follows:
Ny * T3105 > T3124 + delta (delta: the time between expiration of T3124 and
receiving HANDOVER FAILURE message by original BTS)

7.8.12 Multiband Indicator (multiband_reporting)


I. Definition
In a single band GSM network, when the MS send measurement reports of neighbor
cells to the network, it needs to report the content of the six neighbor cells with
strongest signals.
In a multiband network, operators wish that MS uses a band by preference in crosscell handover. Therefore the MS sends measurement reports according to signal
strength and signal band. The parameter multiband indicator indicates MS to report
content of multiband neighbor cells.

II. Format
The multiband indicator ranges from 0 to 3, with meanings as follows:
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 46 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

0: According to signal strength of neighbor cells, the MS must report six allowed
measurement reports of neighbor cells with strongest signals and known NCC,
with the neighbor cells in whatever band.

1: The MS must report the allowed measurement report of a neighbor cell with
known NCC and with strongest signals at each band expect for the band used by
the serving cell. The MS must also report the neighbor cells of the band used by
the serving cell in rest locations. If there are other rest locations, the MS must
report conditions of other neighbor cells in any band.

2: The MS must report the allowed measurement report of two neighbor cells
with known NCC and with strongest signals at each band expect for the band
used by the serving cell. The MS must also report the neighbor cells of the band
used by the serving cell in rest locations. If there are other rest locations, the MS
must report conditions of other neighbor cells in any band.

3: The MS must report the allowed measurement report of three neighbor cells
with known NCC and with strongest signals at each band expect for the band
used by the serving cell. The MS must also report the neighbor cells of the band
used by the serving cell in rest locations. If there are other rest locations, the MS
must report conditions of other neighbor cells in any band.

III. Configuration and Influence


In multiband networks, it is related to traffic of each band. For configuration, refer to
the following rules:

If the traffic of each band is approximately equal, and operators do not select a
band intentionally, you can configure the multiband indicator to 0

If the traffic of each band is obviously different, and operators want MS to select
a band by preference, you can configure the multiband indicator to 3.

For situations between the previous two, configure multiband indicator to 1 or 2.

7.8.13 Permitted Network Color Code (ncc permitted)


I. Definition
During a talk, the MS must report the measured signals of neighbor cells to the base
station, but each report includes only six neighbor cells. Therefore the MS is
configured to report the potential handover target neighbor cells, instead of reporting
unselectively and according to signal level.
To enable previous functions, restrict MS to measure the cells with the fixed network
color code (NCC). The NNC allowed by parameters list the NCCs of the cells to be
measured by MS. The MS compares the measured NCC of neighbor cells and NCCs

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 47 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

set allowed by parameters. If the measured NCC is in the set, the MS reports the
NCC to the base station; otherwise, the MS discard the measurement report.

II. Format
The parameter ncc permitted is a bit mapping value, consisting of 8 bits. The most
significant bit is bit 7 while the least significant bit is bit 0. Each bit corresponds to an
NCC code 0 to 7 (see GSM regulations 03.03 and 04.08).
If the bit N is 0 (N ranges from 0 to 7), the MS needs not to measure the level of the
cell with NCC of N. Namely, it only measures the signal quality and level of the cells
corresponding to bit number of 1 in NCC and ncc permitted configuration.

III. Configuration and Influence


Each area is allocated with one or more NCCs. In the parameter ncc permitted of the
cell, the local NCC is absolutely and only included. If excluded, abnormal handover
and call drop occur. For normal roaming between areas, the NCC of neighbor areas
must be included in the edge cells of an area.

IV. Precautions
Improper configuration of the parameter causes normal handover and even call drop.
The parameter only affects behaviors of MS.

7.9 Power Control and Related Parameters


7.9.1 Maximum Transmit Power of MS (MSTXPWRMX)
I. Definition
The transmit power of MS in communication is controlled by BTS. According to the
uplink signal strength and quality, power budget result, the BTS controls MS to
increase or decrease its transmit power.

Note:

In any situation, power control is prior to related handover for BSS. Only when the
BSS fails to improve uplink signal strength and voice quality to the prescribed level, it
starts handover.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 48 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

To reduce interference between neighbor cells, the power control of MS is restricted.


Namely, the BTS controls MS to transmit power within the threshold.
MSTXPWRMX is the maximum transmit power of MS controlled by BTS.

II. Format
MSTXPWRMX ranges from 0 to 31.
The dBm values corresponding to GSM900 and GSM1800 cells are different:

The 32 maximum transmit power control classes for GSM900 are {39, 39, 39, 37,
35, 33, 31, 29, 27, 25, 23, 21, 19, 17, 15, 13, 11, 9, 7, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5,
5, 5}

The 32 maximum transmit power control classes for GSM900 are {30, 28, 26, 24,
22, 20, 18, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 36, 34,
32}

III. Configuration and Influence


Configuring MSTXPWRMX helps control interferences between neighbor cells,
because:

If MSTXPWRMX is over great, the interference between neighbor cells


increases.

If MSTXPWRMX is over small, the voice quality declines and improper handover
might occur.

7.9.2 Received Level Threshold of Downlink Power Increment (LDR)


I. Definition
When the downlink received level of the serving cell is smaller than a threshold, the
network must start power control to increase the transmit power of base station and to
guarantee communication quality of MS.
The received level threshold of downlink power increment defines the downlink
received level threshold. When the downlink level received by MS is smaller than it,
the base station starts power control to increase its transmit power.
The parameter N1 means that at lease N1 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 49 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

The parameter P1 means the level of at least P1 sampling points in N1 sampling


points is smaller than the threshold prescribed by received level threshold of downlink
power increment.

II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
N1 ranges from 1 to 32.
P1 ranges from 1 to 32.

III. Configuration and Influence


The received level is between 60 dBm and 80 dBm in a GSM network, so configure
received level threshold of downlink power increment to 85 dBm.
N1 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N1 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P1 to about 2/3 of N1.

7.9.3 Received Level Threshold of Uplink Power Increment (LUR)


I. Definition
When the uplink received level of the serving cell is smaller than a threshold, the
network must start power control to increase the transmit power of MS and to
guarantee communication quality of MS.
The received level threshold of uplink power increment defines the uplink received
level threshold. When the uplink level received by MS is smaller than it, the base
station starts power control to increase MS transmit power.
The parameter N1 means that at lease N1 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P1 means the level of at least P1 sampling points in N1 sampling
points is smaller than the threshold prescribed by received level threshold of uplink
power increment.

II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
N1 ranges from 1 to 32.
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 50 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

P1 ranges from 1 to 32.

III. Configuration and Influence


The received level is between 60 dBm and 80 dBm in a GSM network, so configure
received level threshold of uplink power increment to 85 dBm.
N1 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N1 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P1 to about 2/3 of N1.

7.9.4 Received Quality Threshold of Downlink Power Increment (LDR)


I. Definition
When the downlink received quality of the serving cell is smaller than a threshold, the
network must start power control to increase the transmit power of base station and to
guarantee communication quality.
The received quality threshold of downlink power increment defines the downlink
received level threshold. When the downlink quality received by MS is smaller than it,
the base station starts power control to increase its transmit power.
The parameter N3 means that at lease N3 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P3 means the quality of at least P3 sampling points in N3 sampling
points is smaller than the threshold prescribed by received quality threshold of
downlink power increment.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 7, the voice quality grade.
N3 ranges from 1 to 32.
P3 ranges from 1 to 32.

III. Configuration and Influence


The received quality is 0 to 2 of quality grade in a GSM network, so configure
received quality threshold of downlink power increment to 85 dBm.
N3 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N3 to between 3 and 5.
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 51 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

Configure P3 to about 2/3 of N3.

7.9.5 Received Quality Threshold of Uplink Power Increment (LUR)


I. Definition
When the uplink received quality of the serving cell is smaller than a threshold, the
network must start power control to increase the transmit power of MS and to
guarantee communication quality.
The received quality threshold of uplink power increment defines the uplink received
quality threshold. When the uplink quality received by MS is smaller than it, the base
station starts power control to increase transmit power of MS.
The parameter N3 means that at lease N3 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P3 means the quality of at least P3 sampling points in N3 sampling
points is smaller than the threshold prescribed by received quality threshold of uplink
power increment.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 7, the voice quality grade.
N3 ranges from 1 to 32.
P3 ranges from 1 to 32.

III. Configuration and Influence


The received quality is 0 to 2 of quality grade in a GSM network, so configure
received quality threshold of uplink power increment to 3.
N3 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N3 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P3 to about 2/3 of N3.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 52 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

7.9.6 Received Level Threshold of Downlink Power Decrement (UDR)


I. Definition
When the downlink received level of the serving cell is greater than a threshold, the
network must start power control to decrease the transmit power of base station and
to decrease interference to radio channels.
The received level threshold of downlink power decrement defines the downlink
received level threshold. When the downlink level received by MS is greater than it,
the base station starts power control to decrease its transmit power.
The parameter N2 means that at lease N2 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P2 means the level of at least P2 sampling points in N2 sampling
points is greater than the threshold prescribed by received level threshold of downlink
power decrement.

II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
N1 ranges from 1 to 32.
P1 ranges from 1 to 32.

III. Configuration and Influence


The received level is between 60 dBm and 80 dBm in a GSM network, so configure
received level threshold of downlink power decrement to 85 dBm.
N2 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N2 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P2 to about 2/3 of N2.

7.9.7 Received Level Threshold of Uplink Power Decrement (UUR)


I. Definition
When the uplink received level of the serving cell is greater than a threshold, the
network must start power control to decrease the transmit power of MS and to
decrease interference to radio channels.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 53 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

The received level threshold of uplink power decrement defines the uplink received
level threshold. When the uplink level received by MS is greater than it, the base
station starts power control to decrease transmit power of MS.
The parameter N2 means that at lease N2 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P2 means the level of at least P2 sampling points in N2 sampling
points is greater than the threshold prescribed by received level threshold of uplink
power decrement.

II. Format
It ranges from 110 dBm to 47 dBm.
N2 ranges from 1 to 32.
P2 ranges from 1 to 32.

III. Configuration and Influence


The received level is between 60 dBm and 80 dBm in a GSM network, so configure
received level threshold of uplink power decrement to 60 dBm.
N2 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N2 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P2 to about 2/3 of N2.

7.9.8 Received Quality Threshold of Downlink Power Decrement (UDR)


I. Definition
When the downlink received quality of the serving cell is greater than a threshold, the
network must start power control to decrease the transmit power of base station and
to decrease space interference.
The received quality threshold of downlink power decrement defines the downlink
received quality threshold. When the downlink quality received by MS is greater than
it, the base station starts power control to decrease transmit power of MS.
The parameter N4 means that at lease N4 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 54 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

The parameter P4 means the quality of at least P4 sampling points in N2 sampling


points is greater than the threshold prescribed by received quality threshold of
downlink power decrement.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 7, the voice quality grade.
N4 ranges from 1 to 32.
P4 ranges from 1 to 32.

III. Configuration and Influence


The received quality is 0 to 2 of quality grade in a GSM network, so configure
received quality threshold of downlink power decrement to 0.
N4 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N4 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P4 to about 2/3 of N4.

7.9.9 Received Quality Threshold of Uplink Power Decrement (UUR)


I. Definition
When the uplink received quality of the serving cell is greater than a threshold, the
network must start power control to decrease the transmit power of MS and to
decrease space interference.
The received quality threshold of uplink power decrement defines the uplink received
quality threshold. When the uplink quality received by MS is greater than it, the base
station starts power control to decrease transmit power of MS.
The parameter N4 means that at lease N4 sampling points must be measured before
starting handover algorithm.
The parameter P4 means the quality of at least P4 sampling points in N4 sampling
points is greater than the threshold prescribed by received quality threshold of uplink
power decrement.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 7, the voice quality grade.
N4 ranges from 1 to 32.
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 55 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

P4 ranges from 1 to 32.

III. Configuration and Influence


The received quality is 0 to 2 of quality grade in a GSM network, so configure
received quality threshold of uplink power decrement to 0.
N4 is related to propagation quality of radio channels within cell coverage range. To
reduce influence by attenuation, configure N4 to between 3 and 5.
Configure P4 to about 2/3 of N4.

7.9.10 Power Control Interval (INT)


I. Definition
It takes a period from beginning of power control to detection of effect of power
control. Therefore an interval must exist between continuous two power controls;
otherwise the system becomes unstable and even call drop occurs.
The parameter power control interval (INT) configures the minimum interval between
two continuous times of power control.

II. Format
It ranges from 0 to 31s.

III. Configuration and Influence


According to frame structure of GSM network, configure INT to about 3s.

IV. Precautions
INT cannot be smaller than 1s, and otherwise the system becomes unstable.

7.9.11 Power Increment Step (INC)


I. Definition
The INC indicates the power increment of MS or base station in power control.

II. Format
The range of INC is 2 dB, 4 dB, or 6 dB.
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 56 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


The recommended value is 4 dB.

7.9.12 Power Decrement Step (RED)


I. Definition
The RED indicates the power decrement of MS or base station in power control.

II. Format
The range of RED is 2 dB or 4 dB.

III. Configuration and Influence


The recommended value of RED is 2 dB.

7.10 Systematic Important Timers


7.10.1 T3101
I. Definition
T3101 is the BSC timer controlling time of immediate assignment process.

II. Format
T3101 ranges from 0 to 255s. The recommended value is 3s.

III. Configuration and Influence


In an immediate assignment process, the BSC requires BTS to provide SDCCH to set
up signaling channel. When the BSC sends a channel activation message, T3101
starts timing. When the BSC receives the setup instruction sent by BTS, T3101 stops
timing. When T3101 expires, the system releases corresponding SDCCH resources.
Proper configuration of T3101 reduces congestion due to dual assignment SDCCH
effectively.
The greater the T3101 is, the longer the inefficient time for using signaling resources
is. For example, if the extended transmission delay is improperly configured (usually

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 57 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

the sum of T and S is over small), the MS fails in responding to the network side, so
the MS resends the random access request message.
Therefore, the network side will assign SDCCH (the network cannot distinguish the
repeated sending access request from the first send). For better use of signaling
resources, especially in activating queue function, you must configure T3101 to a
smaller value. The minimum interval for sending channel activation message and
receiving setup indicator is 600ms. For non-overload BSS, the maximum interval is
1.8s.

7.10.2 T3103
I. Definition
In inter- and intra-BSS handover, the BSC determines the time for keeping TCH both
in handover-originated cell and target cell. When the time receives handover
completion (intra-BSC) or clearing (inter-BSC) message, T3103 stops.

II. Format
T3103 ranges from 0 to 255s. The recommended value is 5s.

III. Configuration and Influence


The following paragraph is an example of inter-BSS handover.
When T3103 receives the handover command, it is reset and starts timing. When it
receives clearing command, it is reset. This means that T3103 reserves two channels
when it is timing, one channel for source BSC, and one channel for target BSC. If it is
over long, two channels are occupied for a long time and resources might be wasted.
According to the tests, if the NSS timer is properly configured, the handover process
occurs within 5s. Therefore, the recommended value is 5s.

7.10.3 T3105
I. Definition
See the protocol 0408 and 0858. When sending physical information, the network
starts T3105. If the timer expires before receiving any correct frames from MS, the
network resends physical information and restarts the T3105. The maximum repeated
times is Ny1.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 58 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

II. Format
T3105 ranges from 0 to 255, with unit of 10ms.

III. Configuration and Influence


The physical information is sent on FACCH. The time for sending four TDMA in a time
on FACCH is about 18ms. If the next physical information is just sent 18ms after the
first one, probably the first physical information is still being sent. The minimum time
for sending physical information continuously and most quickly is 20ms.

IV. Precautions
T3105 is related to the timer NY1. If T3105 is small, configure NY1 to a greater value.
If a handover trial fails and the T3105 of the target cell expires for Ny times before the
original cell receives the HANDOVER FAILURE message, the target BTS sends the
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION message to the target BSC.
The counter of target BSC is renewed though MS might return to the original channel.
To avoid this, the T3105 must meet the following foulard:
Ny * T3105 > T3124 + delta
Wherein, delta is the time between expiration of T3124 and receiving HANDOVER
FAILURE message by original BSC.

7.10.4 T3107
I. Definition
T3107 is a BSC timer, restricting the time for executing TCH assignment instruction. It
caters for TCH assignment of intracell handover and channel assignment of calling.

II. Format
T3107 ranges form 0s to 255s. The recommended values are as follows:

10s when channel resources are enough.

5s when channel resources are limited.

III. Configuration and Influence


T3107 starts after the BSC sends the ASS_CMD message to BTS. It stops after the
BSC receives the ASS_CMP or ASS_FAIL message sent by BTS. If T3107 expires,
the system judges that the MS disconnects to the network, so the occupied resource
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 59 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

is released to other MSs. According to the measured statistics result of network, the
channel assignment is complete within 2s. If the BSC does not receive ASS_CMP
message after 2s, the assignment command fails.
If the radio link is bad and some information must be resent, the process might be
prolonged to 5s. To avoid premature disconnection, configure T3107 to 10s. In this
way, the MS can reuse the original channel when handover or assignment fails.
Therefore the call drop due to intracell handover decreases or the system service
quality of re-assignment is improved (if the system supports re-assignment function).
However, the channel resource might be wasted for several seconds. When the
network capacity is limited, you must save the resource as possible.

7.10.5 T3109
I. Definition
The BSC restricts the releasing resource of SACCH by T3109.

II. Format
T3109 ranges from 3s to 34s. The recommended T3109 is as follows:
T3109 = a + RdioLinktimeOut x 0.480s, a = 1s or 2s.

III. Configuration and Influence


T3109 measures the time for channel releasing indicator after sending MS clearing
instructions. It starts after the BSC sends DEACT_SACCH message to BTS. It stops
after the BSC receives the REL_INC message sent by BTS. When T3109 expires, the
BSC sends the CLEAR REQUEST message to MSC.

IV. Precautions
The sum of T3111 and T3109 must be greater than RadioLinkTimeOut. If T3109 is
over

small,

the

corresponding

radio

resources

are

re-allocated

before

RadioLinkTimeOut is due (radio link is not released).

7.10.6 T3111
I. Definition
T3111 is a connection release delay timer, used in deactivation of delayed channel
after disconnection of major signaling link. T3111 aims to spare some time for
2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 60 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

repeated disconnections. When BSC receives the REL_IND message sent by BTS,
T3111 starts. For time protection, T3111 stops until expiration and the BSC sends the
RF_CHAN_REL message to BTS.

II. Format
T3111 ranges from 0s to 5s.
The recommended value is 2s.

III. Configuration and Influence


After the disconnection of major signaling link, T3111 delays the release of channels.
It allows the base station to retransmit the instruction for releasing radio channels to
MS within delayed time. After the base station sends a release request massage, the
radio resources remain for T3111 time.
If the system capacity is small, configure T3111 as short as possible. The minimum
value of T3111 is 2s, over five multiples of the time for resending MS the instruction
for releasing radio channel resources. A greater T3111 might be of no help, but affects
congestion of SDCCH and TCH easily.

7.10.7 Parameter T3212


I. Definition
In a GSM network, the causes to location updating are as follows:

The MS attach.

The MS detects that its location area changes.

The network forces MS to update location periodically.


The network controls how frequent the MS updates location, and the period for
location updating is determined by the parameter T3212.

II. Format
T3212 ranges from 0 to 255, with unit of 6 minutes (1/10 hour). If T3212 = 1, it means
that T3212 is 6 minutes. If T3212 = 255, it means that T3212 is 25 hours and 30
minutes. If T3212 = 0, it means that MS is not required for periodical location updating
in the cell. The recommended T3212 is 240.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 61 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


As an important means, the periodical location updating enables network to connect
to MSs closely. Therefore, the short the period is, the overall service performance of
the network is. Anyhow frequent periodical location updating brings two negative
aspects:

The signaling flow of the network increases sharply and the utilization of radio
resource declines. When the period is over long, the processing capability of
network elements (NE, including MSC, BSC, and BTS) is directly affected.

The MS must transmit signals with greater power, so the average standby time is
shortened sharply.

Therefore, configure T3212 according to resource utilization in various aspects of


network.
T3212 is configured by equipment room operators. Its value depends on the flow and
processing capability of each NE. Configure T3212 as follows:

Configure T3212 to a greater value (such as 16 hours, 20 hours, or even 25


hours) in areas with heavy traffic and signaling flow.

Configure T3212 to a smaller value (such as 3 hours or 6 hours) in areas with


low traffic and signaling flow.

Configure T3212 to 0 in areas with traffic overrunning the system capacity.

To configure T3212 properly, you must permanently measure the processing


capability and flow of each UE in the running network, such as:

The processing capability of MSC and BSC

A interface, Abis interface, and Um interface

The capability of HLR and VLR

If any of the previously listed NEs is overloaded, you can consider increasing T3212.

IV. Precautions
T3212 cannot be over small. Otherwise, the signaling flow at each interface increases
sharply and the MS (especially handset) consumes increasing power. If the T3212 is
smaller than 30 minutes (excluding 0), the network will be fiercely impacted.
Configuring T3212 of different cells in the same location area to the same value is
recommended. In addition, the T3212 must be consistent with related parameters of
switching side (smaller than the implicit detach timer at switching side).
If the T3212 of different cells in the same location area is the same, in the cell
reselection, the MS continues to time according the T3212 of the original cell. If the

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 62 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

T3212 of the original and target cell in the same location area is different, the MS
uses the T3212 of the original cell modulo that of the serving cell.
According to the actual tests of MS in the network, if the T3212 in the same location
area is different, after the MS performs modulo algorithm based on behaviors of some
users, the MS might power on normally. However, the MS fails in originating location
updating, so the network identifies it as implicit detach. Now the MS powers on
normally, but a user has powered off prompt appears when it is called.

7.10.8 T3122
I. Definition
T3122 defines the period that the MS must wait for before the second trial calling if
the first trial calling fails. It aims to avoid congestion of SDCCH due to repeated trial
calling by MS and to relieve system load.

II. Format
T3122 ranges from 0s to 255s. The recommended value is 10s.

III. Configuration and Influence


The value of T3122 is included in the immediate assignment reject message. After the
MS receives the immediate assignment reject message (no channels for signaling, A
interface failure, overload of central processing unit, namely, CPU), it can send new
trial calling request after T3122. T3122 aims to relieve radio signaling and voice
channel resources.
T3122 also help avoid systematic overload. When the CPU is overloaded, the system
multiplies T3122 by a factor (determined by processorLoadSupconf) to increase
T3122 through overload control. In peak load time, you can manage network access
by increasing T3122. Namely, you can increase the interval between two continuous
trial callings to relieve network load.

7.10.9 T3124
I. Definition
T3124 is used in occupation process in asynchronous handover. It is the time for MS
to receive the physical information send by network side.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 63 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

II. Format
Configure it to 675ms when the channel type of assigned channel for HANDOVER
COMMAND message is SDCCH (+ SACCH). Configure it to 320ms in other
situations.

III. Configuration and Influence


When the MS sends the HANDOVER ACCESS message on the primary DCCH,
T3124 starts. When the MS receives a PHYSICAL INFORMATION message, the MS
stops T3124, stops sending access burst, activates the PCH in sending and receiving
mode, and connects to the channel if necessary.
If the assigned channel is a SDCCH (+ SACCH), you must enable MS to receive a
correct PHYSICAL INFORMATION message sent by network side in any block. If
T3124 expires (only in asynchronization) or the low layer link fails in the new channel
before sending the HANDOVER COMPLETE message, the MS proceeds as follows:
1)

Deactivate the new channel

2)

Restart the original channel

3)

Reconnect to TCH

4)

Trigger to setup primary signaling link

Then the MS sends the HANDOVER FAILURE message on the primary signaling link
and return normal operation before trial handover. The parameters for returning the
original channel are those before response to the HANDOVER COMMAND message
(such as in encryption mode).

7.10.10 T11
I. Definition
T11 is an assignment request queue timer.

II. Format
T11 is determined by equipment room operators. It indicates the maximum queuing
delay for assignment request.

III. Configuration and Influence


When the BSC is sending the ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message, no TCHs are
available. The ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message must be put to a queue and the

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 64 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

BSC sends the QUEUING INDICATION message to MSC. Meanwhile, T11 starts
timing.
When the BSC sends the ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE message (TCH is successfully
assigned) or the ASSIGNMENT FAILURE message (TCH is not assigned) to MSC,
T11 stops timing.
If T11 expires, the corresponding ASSIGNMENT REQUEST message is removed
from queue and the BSC sends a CLEAR REQUEST message with the cause of no
radio resource available to MSC to clear calling. Assignment queuing helps reduce
service rejection times due to congestion, so enabling it is recommended in a
network. Anyhow, T11 cannot be over great and it must be configured according to
customer habits.

7.10.11 T200
I. Definition
T200 is important (both the MS and base station have T200) at Um interface in data
link layer LAPDm. LAPDm has different channels, such as SDCCH, FACCH, and
SACCH, and the transmission rate of different channel is different, so T 200 must be
configured with different values. The type of the channels corresponding to T200 is
the value of the T200.

II. Format
Different channels corresponds different values of T200. According to the protocol,
when SAPI = 0 and SAPI = 3, the T200 of corresponding data link is dependently
implemented, depending on delay of synchronous processing mechanism and
process in layer 1 and layer 2.
Table 1.1 Value range and default of each type of T200
T200

Minimum

Maximu

Default

2006-07-10

T200_SDCCH_SAPI0

50

100

60; /* = 60 * 5 ms */

T200_FACCH_Full_Rate

40

100

50; /* = 50 * 5 ms */

T200_FACCH_Half_Rate

40

100

50; /* = 50 * 5 ms */

T200_SACCH_TCH SAPI0

120

200

150; /* = 150 * 10 ms */

T200_SACCH_TCH SAPI3

120

200

150; /* = 150 * 10 ms */

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 65 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

T200_SACCH_SDCCH

50

100

60; /* = 60 * 10 ms */

T200_SDCCH_SAPI3

50

100

60; /* = 60 * 5 ms */

III. Configuration and Influence


T200 avoids deadlock in sending data in data link layer. The data link layer changes
the physical link in which error occurs easily to data link with no errors. At the two
ends of the data link communication system, a confirm-to-resend mechanism is used.
Namely, receiving a message by the receiver must be confirmed by the sender.
If it is unknown that the message is lost, both two ends wait for messages, so the
system confronts a deadlock. Therefore, T200 is used by the sender. When T200
expires, the sender judges that the receiver fails in receiving the message, so it
resends the message.
When the sender needs to confirm whether the receiver has received the message,
T200 starts. When the sender receives the response from the receiver, T200 stops.
When T200 expires, the resending mechanism starts. If the sender receives no
response from the receiver after multiple resendings, it sends ERROR INDICATION
(T200 expiration) to layer 3.

IV. Precautions
T200 must be properly configured to ensure a predictable behavior at Um interface.
The rules for configuring T200 include:

The potentially-existing lost frames in radio link must be detected as possible.

Necessary retransmission of frames must start at the earliest possible moment.

If the response is delayed due to UE failure, the T200 cannot expire before
receiving and processing the next frame from the opposite end.

If T200 expires and no other frames are sent by preference, the related frames
must be resent in the message block.

T 200 starts immediately after next PH-READY-TO-SEND.

7.10.12 N200
I. Definition
N200 is the resending times after expiration of T200.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 66 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

II. Format
To configure N200, follow rules below:
1)

When SAPI = 0 or 3, N200 depends on the state and the channel used.
When multiframe operation is set up, it ensures a common time value for layer 2
link failure in all channels. For layer 2 link establishment and release, configure
N200 to 5.

2)

3)

In timer recovery state, configure N200 as below:

5 (SACCH)

23 (SDCCH)

34 (FACCH of full rate)

29 (FACCH of half rate)

When SAPI is unequal to 0 or 3, configure N200 to 5, as shown in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1 Situations of SAPI unequal to 0 or 3


SAPI

Channel

Valid response

Minimum

Maximum resending

delay

resending

delay

delay
0

SDCCH

Tresp

Trmin

Trmax Note 3

MS: 11

51

51

BSS: 32
0

FACCH/Full rate

26

39

FACCH/Half rate

10

34

44

SDCCH

MS: 11

51

51

312

416 Note 2

Note 1

BSS: 32
3

SACCH(with TCH)

25/129

Note
2

The TDMA frame is the measurement unit of values in this table, equal to
120/26ms (approximately 4.615ms)
Note 1: It caters for the process without SAPI 0 transmission. Otherwise, it does not
have a upper limit due to the priority of SAPI 0 transmission.
Note 2: You can configure it to a greater value only when PCH is unavailable due to
SAPI frame transmission if SAPI = 3.
Note 3: It caters only for sending monitoring frames that are available and without F
equal to 1.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 67 of 72

Chapter 7 GSM Parameter Configuration and Adjustment

Internal Open

III. Configuration and Influence


If the BSC fails in receiving lay 2 response message after multiple resending, it sends
the ERROR INDICATION message (T200 expires) to layer 3. The BSC takes
statistics of ERROR INDICATION message by corresponding traffic measurement
counter. When T200 or N200 is configured to an over small value, call drop occurs
probably due to ERROR INDICATION.

2006-07-10

Huawei Confidential No Spreading Without Permission.

Page 68 of 72