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Topic 1

Review of Electrical
Fundamentals
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Electric Current
Definition of Current: Current is charge in motion.
Average Current
Consider a medium with cross-section of A
m2 in which positive charges are moving with a
velocity v from left to right, as pictured in Figure
1.1. If in a period of time t, q coulombs cross
A in the indicated direction, we define the
average current I generated by the charge flow
as

q
t

(1.1)

cross section A

velocity v
current I

Figure 1.1

Notes
1. The physical dimension of current is coulomb per second (C/s).
2. The SI unit for current is the ampere (A).
3. The direction of the current I is the same as the direction of the
charge motion
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Electric Current
Instantaneous current
If the time t gets smaller and smaller,
then, in the limit t goes to zero, the ratio
q/t approaches the slope of the curve at
point t; that is,

q dq
lim

i
t 0 t
dt

dq
dt

Slope = dq/dt

i is called the instantaneous current and is


time-dependent. To explicitly show the time
dependence, we sometimes write

i (t )

q(t)

t
time
t

Figure 1.2

(1.2)

Note
A dc ammeter measures the instantaneous current i, rather than the average
current I.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Electric Current
Ammeter

Reference direction for current


In circuit analysis, we use arrows to
represent ammeters measuring the
currents of interest. The location of the
arrow in the schematic circuit represents
the point where the ammeter is connected
in the physical circuit. The direction of the
arrow points from the point where the (+)
terminal of the ammeter is connected
toward the point where the (-) terminal of
the meter is connected. The direction
pointed to by the arrow is defined as the
currents reference direction.

Circuit
element

(a)

Physical circuit showing how the


ammeter is connected to measure current
flowing through the circuit element.
i

Circuit
element

(b) The arrow in the schematic circuit represents


the location and relative connection of the
physical ammeter used to measure the
current flowing through the circuit element.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Figure 1.3

Electric Current
Reference direction for current (continued)
Ammeter

Notes

Circuit
element

1. The reference direction of a current


follows the ammeter connection. If
the ammeter connection is
reversed, the direction of the arrow
must also be reversed.

(a)

The ammeter connection is now reversed.

2. The direction of the arrow does not


change with the current, even though
the current might be reversing its flow
with time.

Circuit
element

(b)

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

When the ammeter connection is reversed,


then the direction of the arrow in the
schematic circuit follows.

Figure 1.4

Electric Current
Reference direction for current (continued)
Ammeter 1

To measure current, we can connect


the ammeter in any direction we choose.
There is no right or wrong way for the
meter connection. While the old analogue
ammeters only measure positive currents,
the new digital ammeters can measure
both positive and negative currents

Circuit
element

(a)

Positive ammeter reading only means that


the meter has been connected in a way
that measures the positive current, and
vice versa.

Two ammeters are used to measure the


same circuit current.
I1
I2

I1 = - I2

(b)

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Ammeter 2

Circuit
element

The two ammeters give the same


magnitude reading but their signs are
opposite to one another.

Figure 1.5

Electric Current
Relationship between current and charge
We can determine the total amount of charge that passes through the
cross-section A of the medium in Figure 1.6 in the time interval - to t by
integrating current with respect to time; that is,
cross section A

q (t )

i ( ) d

(1.3)

where

i is instantaneous current (in amperes)


q is charge up to time t (in coulombs)
t is time( in seconds)

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

current i

Figure 1.6

Electric Current
Relationship between current and charge
By breaking the integration into two time segments, namely, from to 0,
and from 0 to t, we can write Eq.(1.3) as
t

q(t ) i ( )d i ( )d q(0)

(1.4)

where
0

q (0)

cross section A

i ( ) d

current i

Figure 1.7
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Electric Current
Charge transferred by a constant current flow
If the current flow is constant, that is if the current i(t) = I for times
between t = 0 and t = T, then the total amount of charge transferred up to
time T is given by
T

q (T ) i ( )d 0 d Id

IT
If we write q(T) Q, then we obtain

Q IT

(1.5)

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Definition
The work w done by the electrical system in moving a charge q from a point
A to another point B is determined by the potentiaI difference (or simply,
voltage) that exists between A and B. Quantitatively, the potential difference
between A and B (indicated by the voltage vAB) is defined as

v AB

work done in moving charge q from A to B w

q
amount of charge moved

The SI unit for potential difference is the volt.


Thus, we say that the potential difference
between point A and point B is 1 volt if 1
joule of work is done in moving a unit charge
(+1 C) from A to B.

I =q/t

A
vAB

B
Figure 1.8

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

10

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Measuring voltage
In practice, we measure voltage with a voltmeter
(VM), as shown in Figure 1.9a. The meter reading
indicates the potential difference between A and B.
A schematic representation of the top circuit is
shown in Figure 1.9b. The symbol v represents
the voltmeter reading and the (+) and (-) signs
associated with the voltage v correspond to the
location of the (+) and (-) terminals of the
voltmeter in the measurement. The location of the
+/- signs defines the reference direction for the
voltage.

A
Circuit
element

Voltmeter

B
(a)
A
Circuit
element

B
(b)

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Figure 1.9

11

Potential Difference and


Voltage
+/- Notation for voltage
In Figure 1.9(b) we have expressed
the potential difference across the
circuit element by marking both
ends of the circuit element with
polarity symbols: a + at one end
and a at the other end. This is
called the +/- notation for voltage
labelling.
Figure 1.10 shows the voltages across two
circuit elements marked in this manner.

v1

#1

#2

v1

#1

v2

#2

v2

(a)

(b)
Figure 1.10

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

12

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Arrow notation for voltage
It is sometimes convenient to use arrows
to define voltage reference directions.
Thus, in Figure 1.11, the head of the
arrow is the point of measurement and
the tail is the point of reference. In this
notation, the arrowhead represents the
location of the (+) terminal of the
measuring voltmeter and the tail
represents the (-) terminal.

v1
A

#1

v2
B

#2
-10 V

#3

5V
-15 V

+ 15 V

0V

Figure 1.11

By using the arrow notation, we can treat the voltages as vectors; hence the
rules for vector addition and vector subtraction can be applied for the
voltages.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

13

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Arrow notation for voltage (continued)
Example
Referring to Figure 1.12, find vA, vB, vC,
v1, and v2.
v1
A

#1

v2
B

#2

#3

Answer
vA = + 15 V ; vB = - 10 V
vC = + 5 V ; vD = - 15 V
v1= vB vA

-10 V

5V
-15 V

+ 15 V

= (-10 V) (15 V)
= - 25 V

0V

v2 = vC vD
= ( 5 V) (- 15 V)
= 20 V

Figure 1.12

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

14

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Double subscript notation
We often use double subscripts to indicate the voltmeter connections. The
first subscript indicates where the (+) terminal is connected in the circuit, and
the second subscript indicates where the (-) terminal is connected.
Thus, using the double-subscript notation, the
voltages measured by voltmeters VM1 and
VM2 in Figure 1.13(a) would be written as vAB
and vCB, respectively. vAB in Figure 1.13(b) is
the potential difference measured between
points A and B, and vCB is the potential
difference measured between points C and B.

VM1

#1

#2

VM1

(a)
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

vAB

#1

#2

vCB

(b)
Figure 1.13

15

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Rule on changing the order of voltage subscripts
Changing the order of the subscripts changes the sign of the voltage
Example
What is the voltage vBA for the circuit shown in Figure 1.14?
A

Answer

vAB = + 10 V

vBA = - 10 V

Figure 1.14

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

16

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Rule on intermediate points for voltage subscripts
Voltages at intermediate points in a circuit add algebraically when
measured in the same direction.
Thus, in the circuit shown in Figure 1.15 we can write the voltage vAE as :
vAE = vAB + vBC + vCD + vDE
or

vAE = vAC + vCD + vDE

#1

#2

#3

#4

or
vAE = vAB + vBD + vDE

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Figure 1.15

17

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Rule on intermediate points for voltage subscripts (continued)
Example
Find the voltage vAC in Figure 1.16
A

#1 vAB = 10 V

Figure 1.16

#2 vCB = -5 V

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

18

Potential Difference and


Voltage
Rule on intermediate points for voltage subscripts (continued)

Answer

With reference to Figure 16, we can write


#1 vAB = 10 V

vAC = vAB + vBC

= vAB + (-vCB)
#2 vCB = -5 V

= vAB - vCB
C

Hence,
vAC = (10 V) (- 5 V) = 15 V
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Figure 1.16
19

Power and Energy


Let us consider now the rate at which energy is being delivered to, or by, a
circuit element by a current i(t). If the voltage across the element is v and a
small charge q is moved through the element from the positive to the
negative terminal, the energy absorbed by the element (w, say) is given by

w v q
If the time involved is t, then the rate at
which work is being done is given by the
ratio w/t. Thus, dividing both sides of the
above equation by t, we obtain

q
w v q

v
t
t
t

i = dq/dt

Figure 1.17

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

20

Power and Energy


In the limit that t0, we obtain

w
q
lim v
lim

t 0 t
t 0
t
or

dw
dq
v
dt
dt

i = dq/dt

Figure 1.18

Since, by definition, the rate at which energy is expended is power, denoted


by p, we have

dw
dq
p
v vi
dt
dt
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

21

Power and Energy


Hence, the power consumed by the element is given by the formula
p = vi
The quantities v and i are generally functions of time, which we may also
denote by v(t) and i(t). Therefore, p in the above expression is a timevarying quantity. It is sometimes called the instantaneous power
because its value is the power at the instant of time at which v and i are
measured.
To explicitly show the time dependence we sometimes write
p(t) = v(t)i(t)

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

22

Power and Energy


Measuring power
One way of measuring the power consumed by a
circuit element is diagrammed in Figure 1.19a. We
connect a current-sensing instrument called an
ammeter so that the current i flows through both
the element and the meter. We also connect a
voltmeter to read the voltage v across the element.
The product of the two meter readings then equals
the power providing the voltmeter is ideal so that
all of the current i measured by the ammeter
passes through the element.
Schematically, the measurement is represented by
schematic shown in Figure 1.19b

Ammeter

Voltmeter

(a)
i

(b)
Figure 1.19

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

23

Power and Energy


Passive Sign Convention
We must consider reference directions when we write a power formula. The
sign in the power formula depends on the combination of the voltage and
current reference directions.
We are said to use the passive sign convention when we
draw the current arrow pointing towards the + polarity
marking of the voltage.
In the passive sign convention, power absorbed
(or consumed) by the element is computed using
power formula of the form

p vi

Figure 1.20

By using power formula of this form, we can deduce that the element is
consuming power if p is positive and is generating power if p is negative.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

24

Power and Energy


Passive Sign Convention (continued)
On the other hand, if we want to compute the power generated (or delivered
by the element to the rest of the circuit), then we use power formula of the
form

p vi

By using power formula of this form, we can deduce


that the element is generating power if p is negative,
and is consuming power if p is positive.

Figure 1.21

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

25

Power and Energy


Active Sign Convention
We are said to use the active sign convention when we draw the current
reference direction pointing away from the + polarity marking of the voltage.
In the active sign convention, power generated (or delivered by the element to
the rest of the circuit) is computed using power formula of the form
i

p = vi
Using power formula of this form, we can deduce that the
element is generating power if p is positive and is consuming
power if p is negative.

Figure 1.22

To compute power consumed by the element in the active sign


convention, we use power formula of the form
p = - vi
Here power is generated if p is positive and is consumed if p is negative.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

26

Power and Energy


Example
Compute the power delivered by each of the following elements.
5A

2A

1A

-4V

10 V
6V
(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 1.22

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

27

Power and Energy


Solution
(a) Here the 2 A current is drawn flowing the element via its + terminal;
Hence, the reference directions follow the the passive sign convention.
6V

Figure 1.22(a)

2A

If we use the passive sign conventions formula for computing the power
delivered by the element (to the rest of the circuit), we obtain
p = - vi = - (6)(2) = - 12 W
The negative power means that the element is generating power.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

28

Power and Energy


Solution
(b) Here the voltage and current reference directions follow the
active sign convention.
5A

10 V

Figure 1.22(b)

Hence, to calculate the power delivered by the element to the


rest of the circuit, we use the power formula of the form p = vi.
Hence, power delivered by the element to the rest of the circuit
is
p = vi = (10)(5) = 50 W
Since p is positive, power IS delivered by the element to the rest of the
circuit.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

29

Power and Energy


Solution (continued)
(c) Here the voltage and current reference directions follow the
active sign convention. Hence, to compute power delivered by the
element to the rest of the circuit we use power formula of the form
p = vi. Thus, power delivered by the element is

1A

p = vi = (-4)(1) = - 4 W

Since p is negative, the element is actually absorbing


( or consuming) and not generating power.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

-4V

Figure 1.22(c)

30

Energy Delivered to an Element


Energy delivered to an element from time - to time t
The incremental energy w delivered to an element between time to and t
by moving a charge q over a potential difference v (see Figure 1.23) is
given by the expression

dw vidt
The total energy delivered from time - to t is obtained
by integrating the energy over the time interval. Thus,
t

i = dq/dt

dw vid

Figure 1.23 Reference directions

We have, upon integrating both sides between - and t,


t

w(t ) w() vid vid vid


Dr. ZAH, UTHM

31

Energy Delivered to an Element


Energy delivered to an element from time - to t. (continued)
Using the fact the energy delivered in the beginning of time was zero;
that is,

w( ) 0
Breaking the integration into two time segments, we can write
t

vid vid vid


0

Writing

w(0)

vid , we finally obtain the required result:

w(t ) w(0) vid w(0) pd

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

32

Energy Delivered to an Element


Energy delivered to an element from time - to time t. (continued)
For the special case where p has the constant (or average) value P, that
is p(t) = P, we can write w(t) = W (say) to obtain

W PT
whose units are watt-seconds or joules.
Utility bills are commonly expressed in terms of the kilowatthour (kWh),
1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J
which equals the total energy delivered in one hour when P = 1000 W.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

33

Energy Delivered to an Element


Example
The current and voltage at the terminals of the device shown in Figure
1.24a are as sketched in Figures 1.24b and 1.24c, respectively.
a. Sketch the power versus time plot;
b. Sketch the energy versus time plot

v (volts)
300

(b)

2 s

t (s)

i (A)

150

(c)

(a)
0

2 s

t (s)

Figure 1.24 (a) Reference directions, (b) voltage waveform,


(c) current waveform.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

34

Energy Delivered to an Element


Solution

The voltage and current be expressed as piecewise


functions v(t) and i(t), respectively, as follows:

v(t )

1.5 108 t 300

i (t )

7.5 10 t
7

0 t 2 s
otherwise

v (volts)
300

0 t 2 s
otherwise

2 s

t (s)

i (A)
150

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

2 s

Figure 1.24 35

t (s)

Energy Delivered to an Element


i

Solution (continued)
v

a. The instantaneous power absorbed by the


element is

p(t ) v(t )i (t )

v (volts)

Hence, the power versus time plot is:

p( t )

1.5 10

1.13 10

300

2 s

t (s)

7500

i (A)

3750

0 5 10 1 10 1.5 10 2 10
t

150

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

2 s

Figure 1.2436

t (s)

Energy Delivered to an Element


Solution (continued)

b. The total energy absorbed up to time t = 2s is

w(t ) p ( )d
0

v (volts)

Hence, the energy versus time plot is:

300

0.015

0.0113
e( t)

2 s

t (s)

0.0075

i (A)

0.0037

0 5 10

1 10 1.5 10 2 10
t
6

150

Figure 1.25

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

2 s

t (s)

Figure 1.24 37

Circuit Elements
i

Resistor
A resistor is a passive circuit element
whose terminal voltage is some
function of the terminal current.
Mathematically, a resistor is a circuit
element that satisfies the equation

Circuit
element

(a)
v
a

v = f(i)

b
i

Figure 1.26 shows the volt-ampere


characteristics of two physical
resistors; curve a represents a linear
resistor and curve b represents a
nonlinear resistor.

(b)
Figure 1.26. (a) Reference directions,
(b) i-v characteristics

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

38

Circuit Elements
Linear Resistor
A linear resistor is a circuit element whose
terminal voltage is directly proportional to
the terminal current. For the reference
directions shown in Figure 1.27(a), we can
write a terminal equation of the form

(a)
i

v = iR
where R is a constant of proportionality
called the resistance of the circuit element.
This proportionality relationship is referred
to as Ohms law.
R has the dimension of volt per ampere,
or ohm ().
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Circuit
element

v
i

i
v
v

(b)
Figure 1.27. v-i characteristics of a linear
resistor.
39

Circuit Elements
Linear Resistance Symbol
The schematic symbol for a resistor is shown in Figure 1.28.
A

Figure 1.28. Resistance symbol.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

40

Circuit Elements
Ohms Law
There two ways of expressing Ohms law, depending on the sign convention
used.
Ohms law according to the passive sign convention
The passive sign convention is said to be used when the terminal voltage
and terminal current reference directions are as shown in Figure1.29. The
measured volt-ampere characteristic shown in Figure1.27(b) can then be
expressed in the form
v = iR

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

41

Circuit Elements
i

Ohms law according to the active sign


convention

Circuit
element

The active sign convention is said to be used


when the ammeter and voltmeter are
connected in the way shown in Figure 1.30(a).
The measured volt-ampere characteristic
shown in Figure 1.30(b) can be expressed as

(a)
v

v
i

v = - iR

(b)
Figure 1.30
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

42

Circuit Elements
Short Circuit
A circuit element with resistance
approaching zero is called a short
circuit. Formally, a short circuit is
defined as a circuit element across
which the voltage is zero, regardless
of the current flowing through it. Figure
1.31 depicts the circuit symbol for an
ideal short circuit and its i-v
characteristic.
For a short circuit, v = 0 for all values
of i.

i
v = 0 for all i

Figure 1.31
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

43

Circuit Elements
Open Circuit
An open circuit is defined as a circuit
element through which the current flow
is zero, regardless of the voltage
across it. Figure 1.32 depicts the
circuit symbol for an ideal open circuit
and its i-v characteristic.

i=0
v

For an open circuit, i = 0 for all values


of v.

i = 0 for all v

Figure 1.32
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

44

Circuit Elements
A

Ideal Diode
An ideal diode is a circuit element that
allows current to flow through it in one
direction only.

i
v
B

An ideal diode behaves as a short-circuit


when operating in the 1st quadrant and as
an open-circuit when operating in the 3rd
quadrant.

(a)
i
v = 0 for i > 0
i = 0 for v < 0

For an ideal diode, i = 0 for v < 0


v = 0 for i > 0

(b)
Figure 1.33. (a) Symbol and conventional
reference directions of an ideal diode; (b) i-v
characteristics of an ideal diode
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

45

Circuit Elements
Constant Voltage Source
The ideal constant voltage source is a
two-terminal element which supplies its
specified current to the circuit it is placed
independently of the value and direction of
the voltage appearing across its terminals.

v(t) = V

(a)

Figure 1.34a shows the symbol of a voltage


source and Figure 1.34b shows the i-v
characteristics.

i2

The constitutive equation of a constant


voltage source is of the form

i1

v(t) = V

where V is a constant, independent of


terminal current and time.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

(b)
Figure 1.34

46

Circuit Elements
Constant Voltage Source (continued)
The internal resistance of the voltage source is

v
i

where v denotes the change in source voltage


with a given change in current, i = i2 i1. From
Figure 1.34(a), we note that the change in voltage
associated with the change in current is zero; that
is
R

v(t) = V

v
0

0
i i 2 - i1

(a)
i
i2

i1
V

Hence, the internal resistance of voltage source


is zero.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

(b)
Figure 1.34

47

Circuit Elements
Constant Current Source
The ideal constant current source is a
two-terminal element which supplies its
specified current to the circuit it is
placed, independently of the value and
direction of the voltage appearing
across its terminals.
To complete specify an ideal constant
current source one must include the
value of the supplied current and its
reference direction, as shown in Figure
1.35.

i(t) = I

Figure 1.35. Symbol of a constant


current source.

The constitutive equation of a constant current source is of the form


i(t) = I
where I is a constant.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

48

Circuit Elements
Constant Current Source (continued)
The i-v characteristic of an ideal constant current source is a horizontal line
on the i-v plane.
i
I

v2

i(t) = I

v1

Figure 1.36. i-v characteristics of a current source.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

49

Circuit Elements
Constant Current Source (continued)
The internal resistance of the current
source is

i(t) = I

V v 2 - v1

I
0

(a)
i

Accordingly, when one looks into


the terminals of a current source, one
sees an open circuit.

v2

v1

(b)
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Figure 1.37

50

Circuit Elements
Example
In the circuit of Figure 1.38, determine which element is generating
power and which element is consuming power, and how much?

2A

10 V

Figure 1.38

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

51

Circuit Elements
Solution
The current reference direction of the
voltage source is defined by that of the
current source, which in this case follows
the passive sign convention.
Hence, power consumed by the source is

2A

10 V

p vi (10)(2) 20 W
Since p is positive, the voltage source IS
consuming power.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Figure 1.39

52

Circuit Elements
Solution (continued)
The voltage reference direction of the
current source is defined by that of the
voltage source, which in this case follows
the active sign convention.

2A

10 V

Hence, power generated by the source is

p vi (10)(2) 20 W

Figure 1.40

Since p is positive, the current source IS


generating power.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

53

Waveform Components
Terms such as average value, rms value, dc component, ac component,
and harmonics are frequently used to give a quantitative description of a
voltage or current waveform and so requires a correct understanding of
their meanings. Knowledge and understanding of the basic components of
voltage and current waveforms allows proper evaluation of the performance
of a converter.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

54

Waveform Components
Average Value of a Voltage or Current
Conceptually, the average value of any variable f(t) is obtained
from a plot of the variable versus time by dividing the area under
the curve by the length of the curve.
f(t)

F
Time, t

Figure 1.41
Thus. if F is the average height of the variable f(t) and A is the
area under the curve over the period T, then the time-averaged
value of f(t) is
A
F
T
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

55

Waveform Components
Average Value of a Voltage or Current (continued)
In calculus form, we can express the average value, v(av), of a
periodic voltage v(t) by the integral equation
T

v( av )

1
v( )d
T 0

v(t)

vav
Time, t

Figure 1.42
Customarily, the average value of a variable is also called its dc
value. Hence, the average value v(av) is often written as Vdc.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

56

Waveform Components
Effective Value of a Constant Voltage or Current
In analyzing circuits we sometimes encounter circuits containing both dc
and ac sources. For average power calculations we need to know how to
find the effective values of the voltages and currents of these dc and ac
sources.
Effective value of a dc voltage
Consider a constant dc voltage of value V, as shown in Figure 1.43.
Mathematically, we can express the voltage as a time function in the form
v(t) = V

v(t)

for all values of t.

V
0

Figure 1.43
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

57

Waveform Components
Effective value of a dc voltage (continued)
The instantaneous power delivered by voltage v(t) to a resistor R is given
by Ohms law as
2

p (t )

v(t )
R

The average power P absorbed by R over the period T is obtained by


integrating p(t) from time t = 0 to time t = T and dividing the result by T, that
is

1
1 v(t )
P p (t )dt
dt
T 0
T 0 R
T

Substituting v(t) = V into the above expression, we obtain


V2 T V2
1 V2
t 0
P dt
T 0 R
RT
R
T

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

58

Waveform Components
Effective value of a dc voltage (continued)
Furthermore, if Veff is the effective value of the voltage v(t) = V, then,
by definition, we also have

Veff2
R

Equating Eqns () and (), leads us to the expression

P
or

Veff2
R

V2
R

Veff V

This results shows that the effective value of a dc voltage is given by the
modulus of its dc value.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

59

Waveform Components
Effective value of a sinusoidal voltage
Consider a sinusoidal voltage source v(t) of amplitude Vm and angular
frequency . If, for simplicity, we assume a zero phase angle for v(t), then
we can express v(t) mathematically as the function
v(t) = Vm sin t
v(t)

Vm
t
Vm

Figure 1.44
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

60

Waveform Components
Effective value of a sinusoidal voltage (continued)
The average power P absorbed by R over the period T is given by the
expression
1
1 v(t )
1 V sin t
P p(t )dt
dt m
dt
T 0
T 0 R
T 0
R
T

Vm2

RT

Hence,

1 cos 2t dt
2

Vm2

2 RT

sin 2t
t 2
0

Vm2
P
2R

If Veff is the effective value of the sinusoidal voltage v(t), then, by definition of
effective voltage, we can write the average power P as
P

Veff2
R
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

61

Waveform Components
Effective value of a sinusoidal voltage (continued)
Hence, for a sinusoidal voltage v(t) = Vmsint, its effective value is related
to its amplitude Vm via the relation

Veff

Vm
2

We note that the effective value of a sinusoidal or a cosinusoidal waveform


over a complete cycle is not affected by the initial phase angle of the
waveform or by its frequency, but only by its amplitude. Hence, the above
result applies to any sinusoidal or cosinusoidal waveform of any frequency
and phase angle.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

62

Waveform Components
Effective value of a voltage due to a number of voltage sources
Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1.45. For generality, assume that the
amplitudes and frequencies of the sources are different from one another.
vn(t)

v3(t)

v2(t)

v1(t)

i(t)

vR(t)

Figure 1.45
If Vieff is the effective value of the ith voltage source and Veff the effective
value of the resultant voltage across R, then superposition principle gives
2
Veff V12eff V22eff V32eff Vneff

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

63

Waveform Components
Effective value of a sinusoidal voltage (continued)
We note that unlike instantaneous voltages, effective voltages do not add
up algebraically but as sum of squares.
Exercise
Calculate the average power dissipated in the 20 resistor in the following
circuit.
20

vS(t) = 10sin(1000t)

5V

Figure 1.46

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

64

Waveform Components
Effective value of current due to a number of current sources
Consider the case where a total of n currents are flowing through a
resistor, as shown in Figure 1.47. If Iieff is the effective value of the
ith current source and Ieff the effective value of current flowing
through R, then superposition principle gives

I eff

I I I
2

1eff

2 eff

3eff

...... I neff

i(t) = i1(t) + i2(t) + i3(t) + + i(n(t)

Figure 1.47
We note that effective currents do not add up algebraically but as sum of
squares.
Dr. ZAH, UTHM

65