Electrical Fundamental

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Electrical Fundamental

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Review of Electrical

Fundamentals

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Electric Current

Definition of Current: Current is charge in motion.

Average Current

Consider a medium with cross-section of A

m2 in which positive charges are moving with a

velocity v from left to right, as pictured in Figure

1.1. If in a period of time t, q coulombs cross

A in the indicated direction, we define the

average current I generated by the charge flow

as

q

t

(1.1)

cross section A

velocity v

current I

Figure 1.1

Notes

1. The physical dimension of current is coulomb per second (C/s).

2. The SI unit for current is the ampere (A).

3. The direction of the current I is the same as the direction of the

charge motion

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Electric Current

Instantaneous current

If the time t gets smaller and smaller,

then, in the limit t goes to zero, the ratio

q/t approaches the slope of the curve at

point t; that is,

q dq

lim

i

t 0 t

dt

dq

dt

Slope = dq/dt

time-dependent. To explicitly show the time

dependence, we sometimes write

i (t )

q(t)

t

time

t

Figure 1.2

(1.2)

Note

A dc ammeter measures the instantaneous current i, rather than the average

current I.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Electric Current

Ammeter

In circuit analysis, we use arrows to

represent ammeters measuring the

currents of interest. The location of the

arrow in the schematic circuit represents

the point where the ammeter is connected

in the physical circuit. The direction of the

arrow points from the point where the (+)

terminal of the ammeter is connected

toward the point where the (-) terminal of

the meter is connected. The direction

pointed to by the arrow is defined as the

currents reference direction.

Circuit

element

(a)

ammeter is connected to measure current

flowing through the circuit element.

i

Circuit

element

the location and relative connection of the

physical ammeter used to measure the

current flowing through the circuit element.

Figure 1.3

Electric Current

Reference direction for current (continued)

Ammeter

Notes

Circuit

element

follows the ammeter connection. If

the ammeter connection is

reversed, the direction of the arrow

must also be reversed.

(a)

change with the current, even though

the current might be reversing its flow

with time.

Circuit

element

(b)

then the direction of the arrow in the

schematic circuit follows.

Figure 1.4

Electric Current

Reference direction for current (continued)

Ammeter 1

the ammeter in any direction we choose.

There is no right or wrong way for the

meter connection. While the old analogue

ammeters only measure positive currents,

the new digital ammeters can measure

both positive and negative currents

Circuit

element

(a)

the meter has been connected in a way

that measures the positive current, and

vice versa.

same circuit current.

I1

I2

I1 = - I2

(b)

Ammeter 2

Circuit

element

magnitude reading but their signs are

opposite to one another.

Figure 1.5

Electric Current

Relationship between current and charge

We can determine the total amount of charge that passes through the

cross-section A of the medium in Figure 1.6 in the time interval - to t by

integrating current with respect to time; that is,

cross section A

q (t )

i ( ) d

(1.3)

where

q is charge up to time t (in coulombs)

t is time( in seconds)

current i

Figure 1.6

Electric Current

Relationship between current and charge

By breaking the integration into two time segments, namely, from to 0,

and from 0 to t, we can write Eq.(1.3) as

t

q(t ) i ( )d i ( )d q(0)

(1.4)

where

0

q (0)

cross section A

i ( ) d

current i

Figure 1.7

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Electric Current

Charge transferred by a constant current flow

If the current flow is constant, that is if the current i(t) = I for times

between t = 0 and t = T, then the total amount of charge transferred up to

time T is given by

T

q (T ) i ( )d 0 d Id

IT

If we write q(T) Q, then we obtain

Q IT

(1.5)

Voltage

Definition

The work w done by the electrical system in moving a charge q from a point

A to another point B is determined by the potentiaI difference (or simply,

voltage) that exists between A and B. Quantitatively, the potential difference

between A and B (indicated by the voltage vAB) is defined as

v AB

q

amount of charge moved

Thus, we say that the potential difference

between point A and point B is 1 volt if 1

joule of work is done in moving a unit charge

(+1 C) from A to B.

I =q/t

A

vAB

B

Figure 1.8

10

Voltage

Measuring voltage

In practice, we measure voltage with a voltmeter

(VM), as shown in Figure 1.9a. The meter reading

indicates the potential difference between A and B.

A schematic representation of the top circuit is

shown in Figure 1.9b. The symbol v represents

the voltmeter reading and the (+) and (-) signs

associated with the voltage v correspond to the

location of the (+) and (-) terminals of the

voltmeter in the measurement. The location of the

+/- signs defines the reference direction for the

voltage.

A

Circuit

element

Voltmeter

B

(a)

A

Circuit

element

B

(b)

Figure 1.9

11

Voltage

+/- Notation for voltage

In Figure 1.9(b) we have expressed

the potential difference across the

circuit element by marking both

ends of the circuit element with

polarity symbols: a + at one end

and a at the other end. This is

called the +/- notation for voltage

labelling.

Figure 1.10 shows the voltages across two

circuit elements marked in this manner.

v1

#1

#2

v1

#1

v2

#2

v2

(a)

(b)

Figure 1.10

12

Voltage

Arrow notation for voltage

It is sometimes convenient to use arrows

to define voltage reference directions.

Thus, in Figure 1.11, the head of the

arrow is the point of measurement and

the tail is the point of reference. In this

notation, the arrowhead represents the

location of the (+) terminal of the

measuring voltmeter and the tail

represents the (-) terminal.

v1

A

#1

v2

B

#2

-10 V

#3

5V

-15 V

+ 15 V

0V

Figure 1.11

By using the arrow notation, we can treat the voltages as vectors; hence the

rules for vector addition and vector subtraction can be applied for the

voltages.

13

Voltage

Arrow notation for voltage (continued)

Example

Referring to Figure 1.12, find vA, vB, vC,

v1, and v2.

v1

A

#1

v2

B

#2

#3

Answer

vA = + 15 V ; vB = - 10 V

vC = + 5 V ; vD = - 15 V

v1= vB vA

-10 V

5V

-15 V

+ 15 V

= (-10 V) (15 V)

= - 25 V

0V

v2 = vC vD

= ( 5 V) (- 15 V)

= 20 V

Figure 1.12

14

Voltage

Double subscript notation

We often use double subscripts to indicate the voltmeter connections. The

first subscript indicates where the (+) terminal is connected in the circuit, and

the second subscript indicates where the (-) terminal is connected.

Thus, using the double-subscript notation, the

voltages measured by voltmeters VM1 and

VM2 in Figure 1.13(a) would be written as vAB

and vCB, respectively. vAB in Figure 1.13(b) is

the potential difference measured between

points A and B, and vCB is the potential

difference measured between points C and B.

VM1

#1

#2

VM1

(a)

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

vAB

#1

#2

vCB

(b)

Figure 1.13

15

Voltage

Rule on changing the order of voltage subscripts

Changing the order of the subscripts changes the sign of the voltage

Example

What is the voltage vBA for the circuit shown in Figure 1.14?

A

Answer

vAB = + 10 V

vBA = - 10 V

Figure 1.14

16

Voltage

Rule on intermediate points for voltage subscripts

Voltages at intermediate points in a circuit add algebraically when

measured in the same direction.

Thus, in the circuit shown in Figure 1.15 we can write the voltage vAE as :

vAE = vAB + vBC + vCD + vDE

or

#1

#2

#3

#4

or

vAE = vAB + vBD + vDE

Figure 1.15

17

Voltage

Rule on intermediate points for voltage subscripts (continued)

Example

Find the voltage vAC in Figure 1.16

A

#1 vAB = 10 V

Figure 1.16

#2 vCB = -5 V

18

Voltage

Rule on intermediate points for voltage subscripts (continued)

Answer

#1 vAB = 10 V

= vAB + (-vCB)

#2 vCB = -5 V

= vAB - vCB

C

Hence,

vAC = (10 V) (- 5 V) = 15 V

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Figure 1.16

19

Let us consider now the rate at which energy is being delivered to, or by, a

circuit element by a current i(t). If the voltage across the element is v and a

small charge q is moved through the element from the positive to the

negative terminal, the energy absorbed by the element (w, say) is given by

w v q

If the time involved is t, then the rate at

which work is being done is given by the

ratio w/t. Thus, dividing both sides of the

above equation by t, we obtain

q

w v q

v

t

t

t

i = dq/dt

Figure 1.17

20

In the limit that t0, we obtain

w

q

lim v

lim

t 0 t

t 0

t

or

dw

dq

v

dt

dt

i = dq/dt

Figure 1.18

by p, we have

dw

dq

p

v vi

dt

dt

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

21

Hence, the power consumed by the element is given by the formula

p = vi

The quantities v and i are generally functions of time, which we may also

denote by v(t) and i(t). Therefore, p in the above expression is a timevarying quantity. It is sometimes called the instantaneous power

because its value is the power at the instant of time at which v and i are

measured.

To explicitly show the time dependence we sometimes write

p(t) = v(t)i(t)

22

Measuring power

One way of measuring the power consumed by a

circuit element is diagrammed in Figure 1.19a. We

connect a current-sensing instrument called an

ammeter so that the current i flows through both

the element and the meter. We also connect a

voltmeter to read the voltage v across the element.

The product of the two meter readings then equals

the power providing the voltmeter is ideal so that

all of the current i measured by the ammeter

passes through the element.

Schematically, the measurement is represented by

schematic shown in Figure 1.19b

Ammeter

Voltmeter

(a)

i

(b)

Figure 1.19

23

Passive Sign Convention

We must consider reference directions when we write a power formula. The

sign in the power formula depends on the combination of the voltage and

current reference directions.

We are said to use the passive sign convention when we

draw the current arrow pointing towards the + polarity

marking of the voltage.

In the passive sign convention, power absorbed

(or consumed) by the element is computed using

power formula of the form

p vi

Figure 1.20

By using power formula of this form, we can deduce that the element is

consuming power if p is positive and is generating power if p is negative.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

24

Passive Sign Convention (continued)

On the other hand, if we want to compute the power generated (or delivered

by the element to the rest of the circuit), then we use power formula of the

form

p vi

that the element is generating power if p is negative,

and is consuming power if p is positive.

Figure 1.21

25

Active Sign Convention

We are said to use the active sign convention when we draw the current

reference direction pointing away from the + polarity marking of the voltage.

In the active sign convention, power generated (or delivered by the element to

the rest of the circuit) is computed using power formula of the form

i

p = vi

Using power formula of this form, we can deduce that the

element is generating power if p is positive and is consuming

power if p is negative.

Figure 1.22

convention, we use power formula of the form

p = - vi

Here power is generated if p is positive and is consumed if p is negative.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

26

Example

Compute the power delivered by each of the following elements.

5A

2A

1A

-4V

10 V

6V

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 1.22

27

Solution

(a) Here the 2 A current is drawn flowing the element via its + terminal;

Hence, the reference directions follow the the passive sign convention.

6V

Figure 1.22(a)

2A

If we use the passive sign conventions formula for computing the power

delivered by the element (to the rest of the circuit), we obtain

p = - vi = - (6)(2) = - 12 W

The negative power means that the element is generating power.

28

Solution

(b) Here the voltage and current reference directions follow the

active sign convention.

5A

10 V

Figure 1.22(b)

rest of the circuit, we use the power formula of the form p = vi.

Hence, power delivered by the element to the rest of the circuit

is

p = vi = (10)(5) = 50 W

Since p is positive, power IS delivered by the element to the rest of the

circuit.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

29

Solution (continued)

(c) Here the voltage and current reference directions follow the

active sign convention. Hence, to compute power delivered by the

element to the rest of the circuit we use power formula of the form

p = vi. Thus, power delivered by the element is

1A

p = vi = (-4)(1) = - 4 W

( or consuming) and not generating power.

-4V

Figure 1.22(c)

30

Energy delivered to an element from time - to time t

The incremental energy w delivered to an element between time to and t

by moving a charge q over a potential difference v (see Figure 1.23) is

given by the expression

dw vidt

The total energy delivered from time - to t is obtained

by integrating the energy over the time interval. Thus,

t

i = dq/dt

dw vid

t

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

31

Energy delivered to an element from time - to t. (continued)

Using the fact the energy delivered in the beginning of time was zero;

that is,

w( ) 0

Breaking the integration into two time segments, we can write

t

0

Writing

w(0)

32

Energy delivered to an element from time - to time t. (continued)

For the special case where p has the constant (or average) value P, that

is p(t) = P, we can write w(t) = W (say) to obtain

W PT

whose units are watt-seconds or joules.

Utility bills are commonly expressed in terms of the kilowatthour (kWh),

1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J

which equals the total energy delivered in one hour when P = 1000 W.

33

Example

The current and voltage at the terminals of the device shown in Figure

1.24a are as sketched in Figures 1.24b and 1.24c, respectively.

a. Sketch the power versus time plot;

b. Sketch the energy versus time plot

v (volts)

300

(b)

2 s

t (s)

i (A)

150

(c)

(a)

0

2 s

t (s)

(c) current waveform.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

34

Solution

functions v(t) and i(t), respectively, as follows:

v(t )

i (t )

7.5 10 t

7

0 t 2 s

otherwise

v (volts)

300

0 t 2 s

otherwise

2 s

t (s)

i (A)

150

2 s

Figure 1.24 35

t (s)

i

Solution (continued)

v

element is

p(t ) v(t )i (t )

v (volts)

p( t )

1.5 10

1.13 10

300

2 s

t (s)

7500

i (A)

3750

0 5 10 1 10 1.5 10 2 10

t

150

2 s

Figure 1.2436

t (s)

Solution (continued)

w(t ) p ( )d

0

v (volts)

300

0.015

0.0113

e( t)

2 s

t (s)

0.0075

i (A)

0.0037

0 5 10

1 10 1.5 10 2 10

t

6

150

Figure 1.25

2 s

t (s)

Figure 1.24 37

Circuit Elements

i

Resistor

A resistor is a passive circuit element

whose terminal voltage is some

function of the terminal current.

Mathematically, a resistor is a circuit

element that satisfies the equation

Circuit

element

(a)

v

a

v = f(i)

b

i

characteristics of two physical

resistors; curve a represents a linear

resistor and curve b represents a

nonlinear resistor.

(b)

Figure 1.26. (a) Reference directions,

(b) i-v characteristics

38

Circuit Elements

Linear Resistor

A linear resistor is a circuit element whose

terminal voltage is directly proportional to

the terminal current. For the reference

directions shown in Figure 1.27(a), we can

write a terminal equation of the form

(a)

i

v = iR

where R is a constant of proportionality

called the resistance of the circuit element.

This proportionality relationship is referred

to as Ohms law.

R has the dimension of volt per ampere,

or ohm ().

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Circuit

element

v

i

i

v

v

(b)

Figure 1.27. v-i characteristics of a linear

resistor.

39

Circuit Elements

Linear Resistance Symbol

The schematic symbol for a resistor is shown in Figure 1.28.

A

40

Circuit Elements

Ohms Law

There two ways of expressing Ohms law, depending on the sign convention

used.

Ohms law according to the passive sign convention

The passive sign convention is said to be used when the terminal voltage

and terminal current reference directions are as shown in Figure1.29. The

measured volt-ampere characteristic shown in Figure1.27(b) can then be

expressed in the form

v = iR

41

Circuit Elements

i

convention

Circuit

element

when the ammeter and voltmeter are

connected in the way shown in Figure 1.30(a).

The measured volt-ampere characteristic

shown in Figure 1.30(b) can be expressed as

(a)

v

v

i

v = - iR

(b)

Figure 1.30

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

42

Circuit Elements

Short Circuit

A circuit element with resistance

approaching zero is called a short

circuit. Formally, a short circuit is

defined as a circuit element across

which the voltage is zero, regardless

of the current flowing through it. Figure

1.31 depicts the circuit symbol for an

ideal short circuit and its i-v

characteristic.

For a short circuit, v = 0 for all values

of i.

i

v = 0 for all i

Figure 1.31

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

43

Circuit Elements

Open Circuit

An open circuit is defined as a circuit

element through which the current flow

is zero, regardless of the voltage

across it. Figure 1.32 depicts the

circuit symbol for an ideal open circuit

and its i-v characteristic.

i=0

v

of v.

i = 0 for all v

Figure 1.32

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

44

Circuit Elements

A

Ideal Diode

An ideal diode is a circuit element that

allows current to flow through it in one

direction only.

i

v

B

when operating in the 1st quadrant and as

an open-circuit when operating in the 3rd

quadrant.

(a)

i

v = 0 for i > 0

i = 0 for v < 0

v = 0 for i > 0

(b)

Figure 1.33. (a) Symbol and conventional

reference directions of an ideal diode; (b) i-v

characteristics of an ideal diode

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

45

Circuit Elements

Constant Voltage Source

The ideal constant voltage source is a

two-terminal element which supplies its

specified current to the circuit it is placed

independently of the value and direction of

the voltage appearing across its terminals.

v(t) = V

(a)

source and Figure 1.34b shows the i-v

characteristics.

i2

voltage source is of the form

i1

v(t) = V

terminal current and time.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

(b)

Figure 1.34

46

Circuit Elements

Constant Voltage Source (continued)

The internal resistance of the voltage source is

v

i

with a given change in current, i = i2 i1. From

Figure 1.34(a), we note that the change in voltage

associated with the change in current is zero; that

is

R

v(t) = V

v

0

0

i i 2 - i1

(a)

i

i2

i1

V

is zero.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

(b)

Figure 1.34

47

Circuit Elements

Constant Current Source

The ideal constant current source is a

two-terminal element which supplies its

specified current to the circuit it is

placed, independently of the value and

direction of the voltage appearing

across its terminals.

To complete specify an ideal constant

current source one must include the

value of the supplied current and its

reference direction, as shown in Figure

1.35.

i(t) = I

current source.

i(t) = I

where I is a constant.

48

Circuit Elements

Constant Current Source (continued)

The i-v characteristic of an ideal constant current source is a horizontal line

on the i-v plane.

i

I

v2

i(t) = I

v1

49

Circuit Elements

Constant Current Source (continued)

The internal resistance of the current

source is

i(t) = I

V v 2 - v1

I

0

(a)

i

the terminals of a current source, one

sees an open circuit.

v2

v1

(b)

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

Figure 1.37

50

Circuit Elements

Example

In the circuit of Figure 1.38, determine which element is generating

power and which element is consuming power, and how much?

2A

10 V

Figure 1.38

51

Circuit Elements

Solution

The current reference direction of the

voltage source is defined by that of the

current source, which in this case follows

the passive sign convention.

Hence, power consumed by the source is

2A

10 V

p vi (10)(2) 20 W

Since p is positive, the voltage source IS

consuming power.

Figure 1.39

52

Circuit Elements

Solution (continued)

The voltage reference direction of the

current source is defined by that of the

voltage source, which in this case follows

the active sign convention.

2A

10 V

p vi (10)(2) 20 W

Figure 1.40

generating power.

53

Waveform Components

Terms such as average value, rms value, dc component, ac component,

and harmonics are frequently used to give a quantitative description of a

voltage or current waveform and so requires a correct understanding of

their meanings. Knowledge and understanding of the basic components of

voltage and current waveforms allows proper evaluation of the performance

of a converter.

54

Waveform Components

Average Value of a Voltage or Current

Conceptually, the average value of any variable f(t) is obtained

from a plot of the variable versus time by dividing the area under

the curve by the length of the curve.

f(t)

F

Time, t

Figure 1.41

Thus. if F is the average height of the variable f(t) and A is the

area under the curve over the period T, then the time-averaged

value of f(t) is

A

F

T

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

55

Waveform Components

Average Value of a Voltage or Current (continued)

In calculus form, we can express the average value, v(av), of a

periodic voltage v(t) by the integral equation

T

v( av )

1

v( )d

T 0

v(t)

vav

Time, t

Figure 1.42

Customarily, the average value of a variable is also called its dc

value. Hence, the average value v(av) is often written as Vdc.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

56

Waveform Components

Effective Value of a Constant Voltage or Current

In analyzing circuits we sometimes encounter circuits containing both dc

and ac sources. For average power calculations we need to know how to

find the effective values of the voltages and currents of these dc and ac

sources.

Effective value of a dc voltage

Consider a constant dc voltage of value V, as shown in Figure 1.43.

Mathematically, we can express the voltage as a time function in the form

v(t) = V

v(t)

V

0

Figure 1.43

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

57

Waveform Components

Effective value of a dc voltage (continued)

The instantaneous power delivered by voltage v(t) to a resistor R is given

by Ohms law as

2

p (t )

v(t )

R

integrating p(t) from time t = 0 to time t = T and dividing the result by T, that

is

1

1 v(t )

P p (t )dt

dt

T 0

T 0 R

T

V2 T V2

1 V2

t 0

P dt

T 0 R

RT

R

T

58

Waveform Components

Effective value of a dc voltage (continued)

Furthermore, if Veff is the effective value of the voltage v(t) = V, then,

by definition, we also have

Veff2

R

P

or

Veff2

R

V2

R

Veff V

This results shows that the effective value of a dc voltage is given by the

modulus of its dc value.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

59

Waveform Components

Effective value of a sinusoidal voltage

Consider a sinusoidal voltage source v(t) of amplitude Vm and angular

frequency . If, for simplicity, we assume a zero phase angle for v(t), then

we can express v(t) mathematically as the function

v(t) = Vm sin t

v(t)

Vm

t

Vm

Figure 1.44

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

60

Waveform Components

Effective value of a sinusoidal voltage (continued)

The average power P absorbed by R over the period T is given by the

expression

1

1 v(t )

1 V sin t

P p(t )dt

dt m

dt

T 0

T 0 R

T 0

R

T

Vm2

RT

Hence,

1 cos 2t dt

2

Vm2

2 RT

sin 2t

t 2

0

Vm2

P

2R

If Veff is the effective value of the sinusoidal voltage v(t), then, by definition of

effective voltage, we can write the average power P as

P

Veff2

R

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

61

Waveform Components

Effective value of a sinusoidal voltage (continued)

Hence, for a sinusoidal voltage v(t) = Vmsint, its effective value is related

to its amplitude Vm via the relation

Veff

Vm

2

over a complete cycle is not affected by the initial phase angle of the

waveform or by its frequency, but only by its amplitude. Hence, the above

result applies to any sinusoidal or cosinusoidal waveform of any frequency

and phase angle.

62

Waveform Components

Effective value of a voltage due to a number of voltage sources

Consider the circuit shown in Figure 1.45. For generality, assume that the

amplitudes and frequencies of the sources are different from one another.

vn(t)

v3(t)

v2(t)

v1(t)

i(t)

vR(t)

Figure 1.45

If Vieff is the effective value of the ith voltage source and Veff the effective

value of the resultant voltage across R, then superposition principle gives

2

Veff V12eff V22eff V32eff Vneff

63

Waveform Components

Effective value of a sinusoidal voltage (continued)

We note that unlike instantaneous voltages, effective voltages do not add

up algebraically but as sum of squares.

Exercise

Calculate the average power dissipated in the 20 resistor in the following

circuit.

20

vS(t) = 10sin(1000t)

5V

Figure 1.46

64

Waveform Components

Effective value of current due to a number of current sources

Consider the case where a total of n currents are flowing through a

resistor, as shown in Figure 1.47. If Iieff is the effective value of the

ith current source and Ieff the effective value of current flowing

through R, then superposition principle gives

I eff

I I I

2

1eff

2 eff

3eff

...... I neff

Figure 1.47

We note that effective currents do not add up algebraically but as sum of

squares.

Dr. ZAH, UTHM

65

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