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1) In what different circumstances and manners a news is encountered?

A news is recording and communication of a happening which is different from regular and even
flow of life. A news is encountered in case of events like experimental performance ex.
Launching of a satellite, sting operation etc, events which are entirely accidental, unusual.
Events which are culmination of certain pursuits, events which are planned manifestation of
certain existing affairs.

2) Briefly write on Science Reporting down the ages and in modern times?
The tradition of Science Reporting is very old in India. The topics of medicine,
astronomy, mathematics, metallurgy, agriculture, botany, meteorology etc have
been the subject matter of reporting in many of ancient books of India though it had
a different colour in ancient times.
In recent past, after the advent of western thought, also there have been noteworthy
efforts in field of Science Reporting. In modern times, there has been a considerable
amount of scientific reporting. It has had a significant impact upon awareness and
interest among masses of all age groups and various walks of life.
The sphere of science reporting is growing and diversifying in proportion to the
advancement in science in our country. It covers topics from origins and evolution of
the universe to space, energy, bio technology, nuclear science, laser, medicine and
health, agriculture, engineering, oceanology, innovative technologies and so on

3) Note on channels, modes, challenges and scope of science reporting.

Channels : In modern times there are numerous channels of news collection. For
the most part media establishments, print and electronic, non government and
government sponsored, local, regional, national, international have their own
network of reporters spread up to remote corners. One also finds news bureaus,
agencies and syndicates who sell the News.

Modes : There have been various modes of Science Reporting :

Field Reporting Hunting down the a news at the place of occurrence.
Desk Reporting : Accessing information from R & D establishments, libraries, museums,
science centres, University departments etc.
Seminars and conferences are also another good source news reporting.
Collecting news from one language to translate the same in the required language.
Challenges : There are also some challenges to face. Fidelity and reliability must be maintained.
The science journalist should shun exaggeration, suppression, misrepresentation,
sensationalism, and dramatization. Verification of facts, statistics and data should be done

assiduously. Whatever is purveyed should be strictly authentic and authoritative. A contrary
conduct amounts to betrayal of his profession.
Scope of science reporting: An alert and imaginative science journalist has a lot of scope
in exploring and presenting the events of scientific nature affecting day to day life. There
are topics from origins and evolution of the universe to space, energy, bio technology,
nuclear science, laser, medicine and health, agriculture, engineering, oceanology, innovative
technologies and so on endlessly. Even from an apparently irrelevant event of hunger strike,
a reporter can produce an article on physiological effects of starvation. His inventiveness
can make him see science in a lot of events from regular life. The territory of science news
has become very pervasive since today science has access to all the areas of life.

4) How is popular science writing different from academic science writing?

Academic Science Writing is generally followed by original scientific research output. It is the
presentation of original research findings.
It has got fixed format in the following order : Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results and
Discussion, Summery guidelines.
Popular Science Writing is an exposition of a scientific idea or topic to the common people in a
lucid and intelligible manner. It doesnt have any fixed format of writing but there are certain
conventions used like giving a catching caption or composing an arresting introduction so that a
common reader finds it motivating to read the full article.

5) What are causes for and effects of poor showing of science news?
When science news is presented to the people as dull and drab content in a language not
intelligible to them, then it has its poor effect on the public. As a result the people lose interest
in science news and show no inclinations to know it further.
6) Briefly describe the two main components of professional skills.
Two main components of professional skills :
1) Reporting : A News reporters doesnt only has to collect the field inputs but also needs to
have a skill to process them and present them in the newspaper. The news is presented
before the readers in a proper format and language, sometimes accompanied by
appropriate notes. The news also carries a catchy caption. To present the matter in readable
form, it is necessary to select, trim and organize it in a manner that it may be free from
ambiguities, repetitions, verbosities, contradictions and so on. Reporting encompasses all
these skills.
2) Editing : Editing plays a crucial role in the production of a good news paper. A news paper
establishment cannot ignore the editing function since it is a key component in the chain of
the production of a finished news paper. The News Room belongs to the sub editors
working under the chief sub editor. News inputs from all sources are received here, duly

processed and the finished product is delivered to the press or the printer. Hence after
received the field reports, a vital task of editing starts before the printing of the news.

7) Write a note on the administrative department.

In medium and large type News Paper organization, one finds a well organized Administrative
Department. The basic staff, the department functions through, is as follows :
1) The Principal Publisher / Managing Director/ Publisher : He/ She is responsible for the
implementation of the policies and ensuring an effectively functional administration by
keeping the whole team in fine fettle for maximum efficiency and accuracy.
2) The General Manager : is responsible for the coordinated working of all the departments. He
looks after the Human Resource requirements, selection and recruitment, general operation
and marketing.
3) The Manager Personnel : takes care of appointments and service conditions, service
contracts control and administration of staff, payment of salaries and other entitlements,
staff welfare, retirement etc. and providing healthy working environment and workeremployer relations. He also looks after in service capacity enhancement programmes.
4) The Manager Finance and Accounts : is responsible for planning and implementing financial
out lay, controlling receipts and expenditure, creating and maintaining regular and updated
financial records, application of companys finances in appropriate and designated heads
and ensuring economic profitability and viability, and timely fulfillment of legal obligations.
8) What is understood by the word news?
The word news can be explained as an acronym, each letter of the same respectively stands for
North, East, West and South. It also reflects the all pervasive nature of NEWS.
9) What are the essentials of Reporting and writing a Reportage?
Reporting : Ordinary reporting can be made by describing 5 Ws (What, When, Why, Where,
Who) and 1 H (How). Reporters develop an eye and a nose for the news. They cultivate the
faculty to spot the news. A story is created and delivered to the News Room for editing.
Science reporting has some additional features like awareness in use of language, capturing its
seriousness, yet make it interesting and comprehensible.
Reportage : When you give your report a creative touch, it is called reportage. Reportage is
focused on happening and revolves around the news only. Reportage deal with Scientific
manifestations, Industrial exhibitions, Seminars, Release of scientific or technical books. There is
no fixed formula for Reportage. It is left to the imagination and creativity of the writer. At the
end it must be balanced, interesting and absorbing.


10) Bring out the different between Report, Reportage and Feature.
Report in general is straight
forward, terse , trim-expressed
in minimum words.

Reportage has got a creative
touch with the imagination
and creativity of the writer. It
is focused on happening and
revolves around the news

Feature is a little dramatized
in nature and there is a
projection of all aspects of the
happening. It is wider in
coverage, interpretative,
explanatory and extensive.

11) What principles of translations should be followed by a science journalist?

The following principles of translations should be followed by a science journalist :
1) The authenticity of facts in the original work should be preserved. The translation has to
follow closely the original text and the use of liberal translation cannot be allowed.
2) The linguistic equivalents of technical terms have to be taken from standard dictionaries.
3) The original text can be edited discretely for the different type of readership.
4) Besides the command of the language , the translator should have in depth understanding
of the science subject dealt with.
5) In case of translation of Headings or Sub headings, it is always better to recast them.
12) Write a note on small, medium and large news papers.
The Registrar of News Papers or Press Information Department has categorized news papers
into three categories depending upon various parameters. The complexities of the organization
and management and problems increase proportionately to the size of the news paper. These
categories are :
1) Small : The papers are one man show type and have hardly any organization. The size of
production and circulation is minimum.
2) Medium : Production, Circulation and Capital is much more than the Small Category News
Paper. The organization is well knit and coordinated with specialized workers, run on
professionalized lines, observance of the approved canons of management and relevant
rules, regulations and laws. The organization is divided into the following departments :
Administrative, Editorial, Production and Printing, Commercial and Advertisement, Sales and
3) Large : In this category of the News Paper, the factors mentioned in Medium Paper operate
on even larger scale.


13) What are main aspects of organization of news paper?

The Main Divisions of News Paper Organization are as follows :
1. Administrative : To maintain the functional capacities, the organisation has a basic staff like The
Principal Publisher, The General Manager, The Personnel Manager, The Manager of Finance
and Accounts.
2. Editorial : The editorial staff is the very blood of the Paper. The editorial team comprises of The
Editor, The Joint Editor, The Assistant Editors, The News Editor, The Special Correspondent, Sub
Editors, Reporters and Proof Readers.
3. Advertisement : It is the most important and substantial source of income. There are different
categories of advertisements like Classified advertisements, notices, contract advertisements,
display advertisements etc.
4. Circulation : Here the organisation has an efficient system of distribution of news papers to
ensure timely delivery.
5. Printing : This department gives a concrete shape to the News Paper. The department generally
consists of The Press Manager, The Foremen, The Binder.

14) What is understood by element of readability in context of science journalism?

A Science Journalist should make his/her content readable by simplifying matter, making it
relevant to life and it should have an element of human interest. A Journalist should remove all
mysteries around the topic and present the scientific event or fact in a simple, lucid manner. It
will make his content readable to the people.
15) Write a note describing the full chain of News paper production.
The collection and compilation of News is done by the reporter. The news is pass on to the
news room where editorial staff takes the control of further processing and refinement of the
In the afternoon all the field reporters file their stories, either directly to the concerned sub
editor or through the chief sub editor, who in turn directs the report to the sub editor of the
concerned slot. The stories are almost in the proper format, because the reporters and sub
editors enjoy equal skills. In fact they some times can replace each other. The inputs are put in a
tray by the side of the chief, who takes them out one by one and distributes them to the
concerned sub. The redundant or rejected matter is put on a spike. The sub drafts the news or
writes the copy and returns it to the chief.
The News Room belongs to sub editors working under their leader, the chief sub editor. News
inputs from all sources are received here, duly processed, and the finished product is delivered
to the press or the printer, through another senior sub editor, known as the stone editor. A
number of desk sub editors assist the chief sub, for testing or revising. Customarily the

whole team of sub editors sits around a semi circular table in their appointed slots,
where as the chief sub, also known as the chief slots man, sits at the head.
The Copies refined and written finally are handed over to the stone sub or the chief
sub editor make up for printing.
As the copies are delivered to the printing department, the compositors set the
matter in type according to the instructions noted on the copy and take out the first
impressions or the galley proof. The proof readers and their assistants (copy
holders) compare it with the subs copies and make necessary corrections. The
corrected copies are sent back to the news room, where they are checked and
corrected by the authors and finally by the chief sub. The corrections and changes
are duly incorporated in the printing section.
In these days of computers, there is an option to adopt paperless procedures. The
sub editors can type out the copy on the word processor, and the chief sub can
check it on the monitor. But still majority practice is to carry out this exercise in the
form of hard copies. All changes and corrections are recorded on the pae4r based
copies. People find it more helpful to have the changes and corrections on paper.
By this time he has before him the lay out plan of the pages. This is done in tandem
with the stone sub or the makeup chief sub. Selection of headings, sub headings,
side headings is also an important part of news presentation. The editor also has to
look after the placement of the news and the layout of the page and adjustment of
photographs and advertisements.
Printing Section gives a concrete shape of a marketable commodity. A representative
of this section is also involved with the editor in designing the lay out, making the
dummy, and finalizing the get up before it goes on production line. Various processes
of printing range from the letter press on treadle or cylinder or rotary, mono type or
lino type composition, off set or photo setting. To day computerized composing and
electronic reproduction is the common method. The printing mode also influences the
quality of the product, and efficiency of production.

The production of a news paper is a very complicated affair. It needs finely

coordinated functioning of a number of departments, like, Editorial including the
Reporting, Advertisement, Printing, Distribution or circulation, Marketing, Financial
control and staff management. One important task is the recruitment and training of
staff. Market research, market promotion etc. are also necessary and important
aspects. Some times this work is assigned to specialized agencies. Last but not the
least, is the coordination with the management or proprietors.

16) What is the role of the administrative department? Should it have an overriding control on all
other departments?
The administrative department deals with the functional aspect of the organization. It controls,
coordinates towards using the whole workforce for the maximum efficiency and accuracy. It also

includes human resource management and finance management. It should have an overriding
control on all other departments.
17) Who are journalists and who are non journalist workers?
The people who are part of the Editorial Staff are called Journalist. The Editorial Staff includes
the editor, the joint editor, the assistant editors, the news editors, the special correspondents,
sub editors, reporters, proof readers. The rest of the staff is considered as non journalist

18) Make a tour of Newspaper establishment and write a note on it.

19) Define translation.
Translation means to convey the message from the original language to any other language in
oral or written form.
20) Importance of editorials and their writings.
The editorial is the soul and voice of the paper. It is the projection of the individuality of the
paper. It is in the nature of deep reflection of crucial contemporary issues and provides insights
into certain weighty matters before the nation and the world and a vision for the future shape
of things. The tone and temper of editorials in varying degree reflect the policy attitudes of the
management of the organization. The editorials are expected to manifest the qualities of
Effectiveness, Contemporary relevance, Objectivity, Credibility, Precision and Terseness. The
editorials written within these parameters serve the society and nation in true sense and they
will also uphold the reputation of the paper.
21) What is the role of management in journalism?
The management takes care of the functional aspect of the News Paper Organization. The
management is responsible for the implementation of the news paper policies and ensuring an
effectively functional administration by keeping the whole team in fine fettle for maximum
efficiency and accuracy. It does coordination for working of all the departments looking after
Human Resource requirements, selection and recruitment, general operation and marketing.
The management is also responsible for planning and implementing financial out lay, controlling
receipts and expenditure, creating and maintaining regular and updated financial records,
ensuring economic profitability and viability as well as timely fulfillment of legal obligations.
22) What is copy writing?
Copy writing is a specialized art and is performed by the Chief Editor. It consists of checking the
contents of news from all aspects. The Chief Editor goes over the news critically. He examines
the contents and the facts and sometimes verifies them to correct. He checks the matter from

precision and clarity to legal concerns and decency. The editor ensures that the matter is
properly introduced, logically developed and concluded.
23) What is understood by the terms make up and lay out?
Make up is the arrangement of the matter on the page as per the layout. Layout is the map of
each page for the day.
24) What is the object of page make up? what are the elements of lay out?
There are following objects of page make up :

1. Innovative presentations to make the paper more attractive.

2. Determine appropriate placement and column size according to the relative

3. Instill and develop liveliness in the page to make its personality appealing to the

Systematically arrange the news pieces so as to facilitate reader in locating the
desired items.
Encourage wholesome competition among the contemporary papers.

The Layout is the art of arranging on different pages news, captions, pictures,
advertisements, features. Lead write-ups, cartoons i.e. all the materials to be published. It
gives the page such looks which charm the heart and mind of the reader. In Journalism
page layout occupies the same position as the art of architect in building construction. Page
Layout gives variety to the looks of the page and makes it attractive. Proper arrangement
of matter helps the reader in locating matter of his choice.

25) Write a note on elements of lay out and different practices of lay out.

The following things should be kept in mind while making page lay out :
1) Balance : It refers to even distribution of matter on a page which gives

it a distinguished,
appealing and credible look.
2) Contrast : Focusing attention on a particular thing by making it stand out.
3) Focal Point : It is the spot where the attention of the readers is habitually led in the very
4) Movement of sight : This is the process of eyes naturally taking a certain line of
movement in scanning through a page. This is psychologically related to the lay out
design of the page.
Harmony - All the factors described above, i.e., balance, contrast, focus etc and
certain elements of design, when coordinated aesthetically create a holistic
impression of visual appeal.

There are different practices of lay out as mentioned below :

1. Circus lay out - This refers to a bold experiment wherein all the conventional
norms of lay out are thrown to winds. Such rebellious experiments do create an
impact but in the hands of exceptionally talented editors only. It takes resort to
contrasting and clashing composition with heavy black face types. There is no set
rule for such original effects.
2. Broken page make up - In this method page is not treated as a harmonious
whole, but almost all the news items claim equal attention. It has no distinct focus.
Every piece of news seems to be screaming for attention. Its aim is to startle the
reader. Papers putting up a sensational stance generally rely on it.
3. Tabloid lay out - These are smaller in size and cater to local news or rather
gossip. Its coverage is mostly the local social circuit. It has a different code of ethics.
The front and the last page publish the main news. It is easily susceptible to yellow
4. Modernistic lay out - A revolt against traditions, conventions and orthodoxy is
the driving force of the modern life style. This spirit has started influencing the news
paper make up also. The established practices and principles are disdainfully
rejected. Even the banner or the mast head or the name plate of the paper is evicted
from the head of the front page. Editorials and lead articles have become migratory
from one page to another and fro the customary column to other places. Time dead
lines and fast moving life are given as an excuse. But in fact it is a reflection of the
rebellion against all the respected norms. Of course use of innovative type faces,
sleek formatting, trim make up etc are plus point. Some times such a product has
the charm of novelty. But the arbitrariness of the editor is the final guide.

26) How is the placement of news dealt with?

The following guidelines are followed in placement of news :

1. The most important news of the day should be given the first place.
2. The type size used for heading should be according to the importance of the news.
3. Placement of different headings on a page should show some coordination and

4. Types used for heading and the news body should show a difference.
5. In a lengthy news item sub headings be provided on two sticks in order to retain

6. A boxed news item should not be adjacent to a photograph or an advertisement.

7. In case there are no pictures on the page, one or two boxed news items break the

8. According to the principles of looking, the left hand upper part of a page is
important, therefore, important news should be placed there.

9. In case of a broken news piece, the residual matter should always be taken to any
subsequent or following pages or column. It is absurd to place the residual on any
earlier page.


10. The pictorial and the textual should be seen as complementing each other. The

pictures are not only decorative, but illustrative and an effective medium to display
the reality eloquently. The looks of a page can be enhanced by exercising discretion
in choice of picture, its size, its placement and the degree of prominence given to it.

27) Explain the contribution of science journalism in spreading scientific awareness and temper.
Science Journalism is a vital tool in spreading scientific awareness and temper among the
people. Science Journalism gives objectively analyzed representation of the observed life,
phenomena or the world. Though its main purpose is represent information, it has to appeal to
the taste of and match the intelligence of a layman. This way Science Journalism will instill the
Scientific Temper in the common people. An alert and imaginative Science Journalist can always
impart scientific meaning to even the ordinary everyday life activities. At this point the Journalist
can converse with the people at large and successfully spread scientific awareness among them.
28) In case of science journalists or science popular writers, what is the part played by natural
talent and by professional training?
In Science Journalism, the liking for Science Topics is necessary. Natural talent do play a role
here but with professional training the art of Science Reporting can be achieved by hard work,
studies, contemplation , analysis, logical arrangement and expression of the matter on the part
of the Journalist. The Journalist needs to understand the scientific topic himself and then
express the same in the language intelligible and interesting to the common people.

29) Write a note on principles and process of translation.

Principles of Translation : A deep understanding of the subject to be translated is an
indispensable prerequisite for the process of translation. The subtlety of the translation process
requires a critical grasp of the subject and its absorption so that the translation may amount to
recreation and reproduction.
The translator need have a deep and empathetic comprehension of the original text.
He should absorb it before transforming it into another language. But ultimately
there should be accuracy of facts, and clarity of expression. The language should be
simple, intelligible, and suitable for the level of the target readership.

The translator should have the aptitude to go behind the words and understand the subject.
Word to word translation will produce something distasteful to the reader. In translation, the
larger sentences can be broken into smaller ones ensuring there is no vagueness.
Words, technical terms, formulae, symbols, concepts, definitions in internationally accepted
form should be retained

30) Explain the problems and difficulties of scientific translation.
The main problem faced/confronted in translation is that of appropriate
transformation of the style of original writing. The task of the translator is not only to
fully comprehend the intentions of the original author, but also to capture and
transform the stylistic attributes/peculiarities. For a competent translation one has to
have the aptitude to grasp the stylistic qualities of the original writer. The translator
should fully absorb the stylistic peculiarities of the original before embarking upon
the job.
The language of science is in itself difficult. This is not because it uses difficult words,
but because the translator is committed to use the selected terminologies with
exactitude. This can be illustrated by following examples. The common reader is
hardly aware of the distinction between speed and velocity, or between revolution
and rotation. Such distinctions come into play in the use of the same word in
context of different sciences. For example, the word frequency has a different
meaning in physics and a different meaning in statistics. This specificity in
connotation of words makes the task very difficult.
Notwithstanding differences between liberal and popular translation on the one hand
and the main translation on the other, the difficulty in the use of technical words
remains same. In a liberal translation, the translator understands the facts in the
light of his interpretation of the original text. But in case of main translation the
obscurity of the language poses the main difficulty. Even if the English may suffer
from long involved sentences and difficult technical vocabulary, but it does have the
capacity to convey much in a few words.

31) Discuss the future scope and possibilities of scientific translation.

Though the original writing is rated higher than a translation, but the volume of new
knowledge is increasing at such a fast pace that producing original books on them is
difficult. Hence, the need for translation.
Presently there are several institutions which are engaged in the translation of
English literature on science. The prominent among them are the Central Directorate
of Hindi, Granth Academies of Hindi speaking states, CSIR, IARC and several
Agriculture or Technical universities. Besides certain private publishing houses are
also engaged in such work with the support of Central Hindi Directorate under its
assistance scheme. The directorate of Information and publications has brought out a
list of Hindi standard equivalents as prepared by CSIR. This Directorate undertakes
translation work on payment basis for the CSIR. A similar list of terminologies has
been prepared by the IARC. Almost all research organizations have established Hindi
departments, where they have appointed Hindi officers and translators. A central
bureau of translation has been established under the official (national) language
department. In order to promoting use of Hindi, has been established a Central

Secretariat Hindi Board and its branches.

32) Comment on the standard practice and innovative efforts in News Papers.
There are two styles or modes of functioning in News Papers. One is the standard
practice i.e., the conventional style or the orthodox mode. Other is the innovative
or the experimental mode.
The standard practice appears during the early or formative stages of journalism.
Certain conventional practices were evolved particularly by the English Press. These
had been followed by successive generations of the news papers, even the
vernacular press.
Of late, the craze for innovation, for experimenting, for rebelling against
conventions has invaded the press. It seems to have no other rationale. It is a
matter of serious market research and survey as to how far this has left the news
room as well as the reader inconvenienced.