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PROJECT PLANNING & SCHEDULING

PROCEDURE
Primavera P6 planning & scheduling

00
Rev.

27.11.2014
Date

Issued for approval


Description of changes

Cristian Lukacs
Prepared

Checked

Approved

Table of Contents
1.

SCOPE .............................................................................................................................................. 2

2.

PURPOSE.......................................................................................................................................... 2

3.

RESPONSIBILITIES ............................................................................................................................ 2
3.1 PROJECT MANAGERS/DEPUTY PROJECT MANAGERS ............................................... 2
3.2 DISCIPLINE LEADERS ............................................................................................................ 2
3.3 SITE MANAGER/CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR............................................................ 2
3.4 PROJECT PLANNER ................................................................................................................ 2

4.

SCHEDULE STRUCTURE .................................................................................................................... 2


4.1 Level 1 Schedule (WBS Level 1) ............................................................................................. 3
4.2 Level 2 Schedule (WBS Level 2) ............................................................................................. 3
4.3 Level 3 Schedule (WBS Level 3) ............................................................................................. 3
4.4 Level 4 Schedule (WBS Level 4) ............................................................................................. 4
4.5 Level 5 Schedule (WBS Level 5) ............................................................................................. 4

5.

STEPS INVOLVED IN CREATING A PROJECT SCHEDULE ................................................................... 4


5.1 Creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) ................................................................... 4
5.1.1 Decomposition..................................................................................................................... 5
5.1.2 Expert Judgment ................................................................................................................. 5
5.2 Setting up calendars .................................................................................................................. 5
5.3 Defining activities ....................................................................................................................... 5
5.4 Relationship between activities ................................................................................................ 6
5.5 Determining activity duration .................................................................................................... 6
5.6 Assigning resources .................................................................................................................. 6
5.7 Cost loading ................................................................................................................................ 7
5.8 Establish a Baseline/Contract Schedule ................................................................................ 7
5.9 Updating the schedule............................................................................................................... 7

6.

PROGRESS MEASUREMENT ............................................................................................................. 8

1.

SCOPE
This procedure covers overall planning and scheduling for projects in Primavera P6

software.

2.

PURPOSE
The purpose of this procedure is to implement an effective and comprehensive

project planning and schedule.

3.

RESPONSABILITIES
Under the direction of the Project Manager, the tasks related to planning, scheduling

and schedule updating are done by the Project Planner with input from Lead Discipline
Engineers and Site Representatives.
3.1 PROJECT MANAGERS/DEPUTY PROJECT MANAGERS
Project Managers evaluate and approve the selected measurement tools. Also they
ensure that the deliverables and milestones are adequate to measure engineering,
procurement, fabrication, construction, pre-commissioning and commissioning progress.

3.2 DISCIPLINE LEADERS


Discipline leaders define deliverable packages and milestones to be tracked and
reported. Additionally, assign man-hour budgets for each package to match the estimate.
Finally, the Discipline Leader is responsible for giving input for updating the percentage
complete progress.

3.3 SITE MANAGER/CONSTRUCTION SUPERVISOR


The Site Manager agrees on a progress measurement system and assures regular
input. Site manager is communicating change details that may affect time schedule.

3.4 PROJECT PLANNER


Ensures that:
- Discipline leader consistently report progress in a timely manner;
- Performance indices are properly calculated and reported each period;
- Schedulers utilize reported schedule performance data in forecasts for remaining work;
- Integrates construction progress into total progress measurement system.

4.

SCHEDULE STRUCTURE
The schedules will be developed in compliance with milestones and data defined in

the Scope of Works and Contract. Project scheduling activities are implemented on a
hierarchical basis of levels, defined as follows:

4.1 Level 1 Schedule (WBS Level 1)


The Level 1 Schedule provides an overview of the Project main steps and
interfaces. It is intended to provide a general synthesis of the project scope
organization to the top management level and to show all the main contract phases.
(Project Master Plan)
This Schedule of the main activities covers all the phases of the Project execution
and shows all the main contract phase milestones.
The level 1 Schedule results from a thorough analysis of the duration of each activity
and of the identification of the logics between the various activities. This schedule is a roll-up
of the level 2 schedule.

4.2 Level 2 Schedule (WBS Level 2)


The main purpose of the level 2 Schedule is to set up an overall monthly
project status, used by the Project Management to take appropriate decisions.
(Management Control Schedule)
It is made up of a work breakdown structure for each main area of the project:

Engineering

Procurement

Fabrication

Construction

Pre-commissioning and commissioning

These schedules cover all project phases by group of activities in each discipline.
They identify the main milestones necessary to reach the contractual objectives, the
main interfaces between the groups of tasks in each discipline, the duration of each main
step of the activity
The level 2 schedule, which is a synthesis of the level 3 schedule, is intended to
provide overall control of the job, defining milestone dates for engineering, procurement,
fabrication, transportation, installation/construction, pre-commissioning and commissioning
activities, and showing the major restraints and relationships between them.

4.3 Level 3 Schedule (WBS Level 3)


This schedule is the project summary schedule and covers all phases of the project
scope, engineering, procurement, fabrication, transportation, installation/construction, precommissioning and commissioning by group of activities and units and identifies:

- All the project milestones (the schedule milestones, and the common milestones of the
entire project) which will be linked with the activities required to meet them;
- The interfaces between engineering disciplines;
- The equipment and material deliveries;
- The priorities in the issue of construction drawings and the delivery of equipment/materials
taking into account the fabrication and erection sequences;
- The priorities in the issue of construction drawings and the delivery of equipment/materials
taking into account the fabrication sequences;
- The transportation, installation/construction, pre-commissioning and commissioning
activities.

4.4 Level 4 Schedule (WBS Level 4)


Is a more detailed schedule of the level 3 activities and describes more accurately, in
smaller steps and shorter durations each activity in the level 3 WBS.

4.5 Level 5 Schedule (WBS Level 5)


Level 5 schedule is a very detailed work task schedule broken down by
categories like phase, discipline and work area. It is the lowest level of schedule. The
task list and work sequence is usually developed by the task supervisor or engineer
and incorporated into level 4 schedule to monitor day to day work. (E.g. Drawings &
Docs Register, Fabricated Items, Installed/Constructed Items, etc.)

5.

STEPS INVOLVED IN CREATING A PROJECT SCHEDULE

5.1 Creating the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)


The work breakdown structure, WBS, is a hierarchy of work that must be
accomplished to complete a project. Each project has its own WBS hierarchy. The project is
the highest level of the WBS while an individual activity required to create a product or
service is the lowest level.
Creating a WBS is the process of subdividing project deliverables and project work
into smaller, more manageable components. The key benefit of this process is that it
provides a structured vision of what has to be delivered. This is done by the project planner
with input from the discipline leaders and project manager.
The WBS structure will be created at a level of detail requested by the beneficiary of
the project.
The WBS may be created by the use of two methods:

5.1.1 Decomposition
Decomposition is a technique used for dividing and subdividing the project scope and
project deliverables into smaller, more manageable parts. The work package is the work
defined at the lowest level of the WBS for which cost and duration can be estimated and
managed. The level of decomposition is often guided by the degree of control needed to
effectively manage the project. The level of detail for work packages will vary with the size
and complexity of the project and as requested by the beneficiary. Decomposition of the total
project work into work packages generally involves the following activities:
Identifying and analyzing the deliverables and related work;
Structuring and organizing the WBS;
Decomposing the upper WBS levels into lower-level detailed components;
Developing and assigning identification codes to the WBS components;
Verifying that the degree of decomposition of the deliverables is appropriate.
5.1.2 Expert Judgment
Expert judgment is often used to analyze the information needed to decompose the
project deliverables down into smaller component parts in order to create an effective WBS.
Such judgment and expertise is applied to technical details of the projects scope and
used to reconcile differences in opinion on how to best break down the overall scope of the
project. This level of expertise is provided by discipline leaders and site supervisors with
relevant training, knowledge and experience with similar projects.
Expert judgment can also come in the form of predefined templates that provide
guidance on how to effectively break down common deliverables. Such templates may be
industry or discipline specific or may come from experience gained in similar projects. The
project manager, in collaboration with the project team, then determines the final
decomposition of the project scope into the work packages that will be used to effectively
manage the work of the project.

5.2 Setting up calendars


Calendars are developed and agreed with the beneficiary for the different phases of
the project. The calendars shall recognize the different working days and conditions for the
location/phase where the WORK is to be executed.

5.3 Defining activities


Activities are the fundamental work elements of a project and form the lowest level of
a WBS and are the smallest subdivision of a project. An activity has characteristics like

activity ID, name, start and finish dates, constraints, expenses, predecessor and successor
relationships, resources, etc.
The activities are defined by the project planner with input from the discipline leaders
and project manager.

5.4 Relationship between activities


To form a network resulting in a timeframe for the realization of the project, the
activities are connected to each other, which are done by assigning preceding and
succeeding activities with significant relationship between the activities. Activities can be
linked in:

Finish to start (FS) relationship (when one activity ends the other begins);

Finish to finish (FF) relationship (when one activity ends the other can also end);

Start to start (SS) relationship (when one activity starts the other can also start);

Start to finish (SF) relationship (when one activity starts the other can end).

5.5 Determining activity duration


When planning the work, the duration of the activity is attributed to each activity
based on man hours required to perform the activity. The durations are entered by the
project planner based on lessons learned and earned experience from the discipline leaders
and project manager.

5.6 Assigning resources


The next step is to assign resources to each activity. The resources can be of three
types, depending on the activity:

Labor

Non-labor

Material

Labor type resources are, as the name indicates the resources that come under time-based
usage. (E.g. mechanic, electrician, tin man, site engineer, etc.)
Non-labor resources are resources that can be placed under time-based usage like
equipment and machinery (E.g. crane, pump, backhoe, etc.)
Material resources unlike the above two are resources which are consumables in the
project. As the name shows, we can assign our material resources under this category. (E.g.

concrete, rebar, cables, etc.). This type of resource doesnt fall under time-based usage, but
must assign units of measure to them (E.g. cubic meters, linear meters, square meters, etc.)

5.7 Cost loading


Cost loading is the activity of assigning each activity a cost, similar to resource
assigning. This helps in analyzing the cash expenditure over the period of time and thus
helps in preparing project cash flow.

5.8 Establish a Baseline/Contract Schedule


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The primary outcome of the schedule development process is an as-planned

schedule model that becomes the schedule control baseline for project control. The term,
Baseline typically refers to the accepted as-planned schedule. Primavera defines a baseline
as a snapshot of the project plan against which the projects cost, schedule and actual
performance can be measured, in other words, a complete copy of the original schedule
which provides a target against which a projects performance is tracked.
More than one baseline can be set depending on what it is needed for:
- Initial planning baseline;
- What-if project plan baseline;
- Mid-project status baseline.

5.9 Updating the schedule


After the schedule is created and a baseline is accepted by the beneficiary, updating
is needed so that progress can be followed.
If the project is not progressing as planned many activities are starting at later dates
than those planned, actual resource use is exceeding planned use and then update is done
so as to offer an exact view of the state of works.
For this to be achieved, input is requested by the planner from the discipline leaders
and site supervisor (depending on the state of works) and the schedule is updated
accordingly, the deviation from the baseline being visible within the schedule.
In accordance with the contractual requirements, the following documents can be
included in the Project Monthly Report:

Gant chart schedule showing the progress established on the basis of reference

schedule;

Critical path schedule, with the status of the actual progress and anticipated critical

activities;

Progress "S" curves;

List of activities to be completed or to be initiated in the succeeding reference period.

6.

PROGRESS MEASUREMENT
The progress measurement procedure is divided as follows:

Project overall progress measurement procedure (Appendix 1);


Engineering progress measurement procedure (Appendix 2);
Procurement progress measurement procedure (Appendix 3);
Fabrication progress measurement procedure (Appendix 4);
Construction progress measurement procedure (Appendix 5).