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Appendix A

Primate and Human Comparative Anatomy


Axial Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton
Occipital

Bones of the Skull


and Spinal Column
(in pink)

Parietal
Bones of the Appendages
(in brown)

Temporal

Skull

Clavicle
Scapula
Sternum

Humerus

Ribs

Vertebral Column
(backbone)
Vertebrae

Radius
Ulna
Ilium
Carpals
Metacarpals
Phalanges
Pubis

Ischium

Femur

Patella
Fibula
Tibia
Tarsals
Metatarsals
Front

FIGURE A.1

422

The axial (in pink) and appendicular (in brown) skeletons.

Rear

Phalanges

APPENDIX A

Homo

More inferior position


of foramen magnum

Gorilla
Cervical
Scapula vertebra
Thoracic
vertebra

S - shaped
spinal curvature

Ribs

Lumbar
vertebra
Sacrum

Ischium

Relatively
shorter arms

Humerus

Ilium
Pubis

Femur

Ulna

Radius
Fibula

Relatively
longer legs

Tibia
Carpals

Tarsals

More
compact feet

Metacarpals
Phalanges
Metatarsals

Phalanges

Monkey
Vertebrae

Lumbar Thoracic Cervical


Sacrum Ilium
Occipital
Parietal
Ischium
Frontal
Pubis
Maxilla
Ribs
Femur
Scapula
Mandible
Humerus
Fibula
Radius
Tibia
Ulna
Tarsals
Carpals
Metatarsa
Metacarpals
Phalanges
FIGURE A.2

Shorter
iliac blade

Comparisons of Gorilla, Homo, and Proconsul skeletons.

Phalanges

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APPENDIX A
Human Skull
Frontal
Sphenoid

Parietal

Ethmoid
Lacrimal
Nasal

Zygomatic

Temporal

Palatine

Occipital

Vomer
Sphenoid

External
auditory
meatus

Zygomatic
Maxilla

Maxilla

Foramen
magnum

Mandible

Occipital

(a) The major bones of the skull and face

(b) Lower surface of skull

Frontal
Frontal
Nasal
Parietal

Zygomatic

Occipital

Maxilla
Mandible

Sphenoid

(d) Front view of skull showing facial bones

(c) Top view of skull

Incisors (8)
Canines (4)
Premolars (8)
Molars (12)

Upper jaw

Lower jaw
(e) Upper and lower jaws

FIGURE A.3

(a, b, c) The major bones of the skull and face, (d) facial bones and, (e) dentition.

APPENDIX A
The Vertebral Column

Cervical #1, the atlas

Cervical #2, the axis

Cervical #5 of 7

Thoracic #9 of 12

Lumbar #3 of 5

Sacrum #1#5, fused

Cocxyx, first segment

FIGURE A.4 The vertebral column. The human vertebral column consists of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar,
5 fused sacral, and 4 or 5 diminutive coccygeal vertebrae.

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APPENDIX A
Left Foot and Ankle Bones, Superior View

Left Hand and Wrist Bones, Dorsal View

Distal phalanx
Distal phalanx

Intermediate phalanx

Proximal phalanx

Intermediate phalanx

Proximal phalanx
Medial

Lateral

1st Metatarsal
5th Metatarsal
Lateral

Medial
1st Cuneiform
2nd Cuneiform
3rd Cuneiform
Navicular

Cuboid
5th Metacarpal
1st Metacarpal
Hamate
Triquetral
Pisiform
Lunate

Trapezoid
Trapezium
Scaphoid

Talus

Calcaneus

Capitate
(a)
FIGURE A.5

(a) Left hand and wrist bones and (b) left foot and ankle bones.

(b)