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MANUAL

Notes on broaching

Oswald Forst GmbH & Co. KG, 42659 Solingen


Schtzenstrae 160, Telefon 0212 /409-130
Fax 0212 /409-180
Internet: http://www.forst-online.de
E-mail: sales@forst-online.de
We reserve the right to make changes without notice.
We retain all rights and copyright, especially to the translated version. Reproduction and
mechanical or photographic reproduction of any kind is prohibited, whether in full or in part.
Copyright 2000 by Oswald Forst GmbH & Co. KG, Solingen.

Foreword
Oswald Forst first published a manual on broaching in 1932 under the title Broaching,
a Guide for the Works Manager and the Designer.
The first Forst Handbook appeared thirty years later, in 1962, and provided
comprehensive information about the state of broaching technology. This book was
completely revised and reprinted in 1970.
The Forst Handbook is regarded as a standard work and text book in technical circles.
The comprehensive developments that have taken place since 1970 have caused us to
undertake a revision of our book and to issue it in a new form as the Forst Manual.
The new form simplifies our desire to update this book at specific intervals to the state
of the art.

Solingen, January 2000

Revised by:
H. Holstein in collaboration with R. Melcher, F. Stamm and D. Voigt

Preface to broaching
This book has been written by an expert for experts. It has arisen out of the desire to
provide more details about the broaching process for larger sectors of the metal-working
industry, to list the prerequisites for carrying out this process economically, and to give
the works manager a means to explain failures and to deal with difficulties as a result of
communicating our experience, and, last but not least, to give an incentive to the
designer to design machine elements by using low cost and high-performance
broaching processes. The expert will recognise that the contents of this book are the
results of many years of experience. If this book contributes to making metal-working
more economic to a significant extent, something that is so eagerly sought-after
because it is so essential, then it will have attained its goal.
The author would be very grateful for all ideas to further expand this process and to
increase the number of applications.

O. Forst
Solingen, July 1932

Foreword to the 1st edition of the Forst Handbook


The present Forst Handbook was written as a result of a wish that was often expressed
among customers due to the importance of broaching. This covers both the technical
and the economic side of broaching, and gives a summarised view of the range of
products produced by our company. The Forst Handbook is intended to provide help in
solving the manifold problems encountered by the planning engineer and by the
process engineer in production. In addition, it should also provide information to all
interested parties concerning the manifold applications of the broaching process.
The Theory of the Broaching Process section is largely based on the results of
research from the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Industrial Administration at the
Technical University of Aachen. We wish to express our thanks to Professor
Dr. H. Opitz and Dr. H. Rohde, who wrote his dissertation about broaching, for providing
documents to us. We would also like to thank Dr. K. Schnert, Bielstein and Mr.
W. Wei, Cologne, for their help in the section on the feasibility of broaching various
types of materials.

Solingen, January 1962

Foreword to the 2nd edition of the Forst Handbook


Since the first edition of our Forst Handbook appeared in 1962, there have been
dramatic developments in the area of broaching technology as a whole, which has been
primarily marked by so-called High Speed Broaching, i.e., the broaching of steel with
cutting speeds of more than 20 m/min., and the rapid automation of the process. The
development of a new generation of broaching machines in connection with ever better
devices, especially for the automatic handling of work pieces, has not only meant
greatly increased economy for the broaching process, but also a considerable
improvement in precision when using broaching in connection with more refined
production methods in the production of tools and equipment.
All this impelled us to completely revise and expand the first edition of our handbook so
as to bring our customers up to date within this second edition on the state of the art of
broaching technology and the standardisation that has been carried out in this area.
In addition to almost ten years of experience at our company in the area of high speed
broaching, gained as a result of comprehensive in-house research, this knowledge of
metal processing technology is primarily based on the results of research carried out by
the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Industrial Administration at the Technical
University of Aachen. We therefore wish to express our thanks to Professor Dr. H.
Opitz and Professor Dr. W. Knig, and also to Dr. M. Schtte, who wrote a dissertation
on Broaching at Higher Cutting Speeds and who also helped us greatly on the Theory
of the Broaching Process section.

Solingen, September 1970

Oswald Forst in Solingen, known for decades as a leading manufacturer of broaching


machines, broaching tools and broach sharpening machines, has always given new
incentives to broaching technology.
A quick look at the history of the company:
The company was established in 1909 by Oswald Forst, who registered his company in
1914. After initial tests with a wide range of products, Forst concentrated on broaching
machines from 1918 on the advice of machine trading company Alfred H. Schtte that
operated worldwide, whereby Schtte undertook the sales and marketing.
Initially, horizontal mechanically-driven broaching machines were produced. In addition,
and as a result of technical developments, Forst began the use of hydraulically-driven
units using oil from 1928 on. Initially, these were horizontal machines, and later vertical
machines in single- and twin-cylinder form. A separate plant was set up in 1940 for the
production of drive units, the Energators, known for short as ENOR drive units.
The main plant in Solingen was destroyed in a bombing raid in 1944. It was only
possible to rebuild it after the currency reform in 1948, which took into account future
developments by making use of opportunities to expand. Additional production facilities
were established through the associate company Forst Broach being set up in 1957 in
the UK, and also through Dagger Forst in India, our joint venture partners since 1965.
How have matters developed subsequently?
The introduction of the high-speed broaching process in the 1960s led to a
breakthrough in the broaching process for mass production. Automatic broach
sharpening machines, which have been built since 1970, brought about a considerable
improvement in tool life.
The first helical broaching machine to broach helically-toothed inner gearwheels for
automatic gearboxes in cars was supplied by Forst in 1973. This complex technology
was systematically developed in order to successfully keep pace with the constantly
increasing requirements of users. The market leadership in Europe that was attained
could even be expanded up to the present day.

In the mid-1980s Forst tackled the problem of hard broaching, i.e., the finish-broaching
of hardened work pieces to deal with distortions by hardening. After carrying out
research at the Laboratory for Machine Tools and Industrial Administration at the
Technical University of Aachen and comprehensive tests within the company, hard
broaching was successfully introduced into mass production at the end of the decade.
Forst, which has been fully owned by Alfred H. Schtte since 1975, views itself today as
a high technology company with the ability to provide complete and unified solutions to
all broaching tasks. The range of products covers:
Vertical and horizontal internal and external broaching machines
Broaches for practically all areas of application
CNC-controlled broach sharpening machines

Forst tackles the challenges of the market and of modern technology.


Forst is working with commitment on interesting projects for the future.
FORST HAS THE COMPETENCE IN THE VARIOUS AREAS
OF BROACHING FOR THE BENEFIT OF CUSTOMERS.

Table of contents
Prefaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
The History of the company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Table of contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
1.

The basics of broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

1.1.

Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

1.2.

Results that can be attained . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11


1 Surface quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
2 Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11
3 Tool life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
4 Economic factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

2.

Theory of broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15

2.1.

Basic features and parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15


1 Surface quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
2 Tool wear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
3 Forces when broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
4 Chip formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

2.2.

Factors affecting broaching results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28


1 Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28
2 Work pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33
3 Machines and devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43

3.

Broaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

3.1.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

3.2.

Design of broaches and systematic classification of commonly used cutting schematics .45
1 Single stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
2 Group stepping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
3 Back taper on broaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
4 Internal broaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
5 Forst full form monoblock broach for the broaching of gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
6 External broaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

3.3.

Cutting materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

4.1.

Calculation of broaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60


1 Basic design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
2 Cutting schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
3 Tooth geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
8

4 Rise per tooth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63


5 Chip space size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
6 Selection of the chip space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
7 Cutting forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
8 Calculation of tensile stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
5.

Instructions for broaching operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

5.1.

Broaching machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

5.2.

Cooling and lubrication when broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71


1 Basic principles of cooling and lubrication when broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
2 Water-miscible metalworking fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
3 Broaching oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
4 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

5.3.

Care and maintenance of broaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75


1 Storing broaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
2 Determining the end of the tool life

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

3 Maintenance of broaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76


4 Machines that can be used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
5.4.

Defects when broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84


1 Defects due to the work piece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
2 Defects due to the tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
3 Defects due to the machine and devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .88
4 Defects due to the metalworking fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
5 Problems in broaching; searching for the causes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90

6.

Hard broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

6.1.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

6.2.

Main areas of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96


1 Bearing area fraction of surface and quality of the jointed connection, e.g.,
gears with shafts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96
2 Automatic joining in assembly lines for transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97
3 Internal hard broaching as a basis for the hard machining of gear teeth . . . . . . . . .97
4 Precision in sliding gear such as synchro sleeves for transmissions . . . . . . . . . . . .98

6.3.

Tools for hard broaching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99

6.4.

Economic aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99

6.5.

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

7.

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101

7.1.

Symbols and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101

1.

The basics of broaching

1.1.

Definition

Broaching is a shaping process that makes


use of cutting. Broaches have a number of
teeth placed one after another, which have
a specific rise with respect to the previous
teeth. In the case of the generally linear
relative motion of the tool with respect to
the work piece, the material of the work
piece is removed by the teeth coming into
contact one after another. The thickness of
the chip depends on the rise per tooth. In
the case of helical broaching, the linear
movement is overlaid by a rotary
movement around the longitudinal axis of
the broach.
Progress in the work during broaching and
the shape and dimensions of the broaching
depend on the design of the broaches and
the equipment used. A feed motion, such
as is found in turning, milling, or shaping,
etc., is not necessary. Either the work piece
or the tool can be moved. The machining
direction is generally horizontal or vertical.
Depending on whether broaching is to be
done from a hole or from an external
shape, a distinction is made between
internal and external broaching. In the case
of internal broaching, a broach is pulled or
pushed through a hole to produce the
predetermined profile. In the case of
external broaching, the broach is passed
along work pieces fixed to suitable devices.
A special instance for external broaching is
pot broaching. In this case, work pieces are
broached around their circumference while
they are being pushed through a tubular
tool holder with broaches arranged around
the inner side. Internal broaching can be
used instead of internal turning, internal
grinding, reaming, drilling, shaping, etc.,
and external broaching instead of milling,
shaping, grinding and similar machining
methods.

1.2.

Results that can be attained

1.

1.2.1 Surface quality


As is described in more detail in section 2.
Theory of broaching, the surface quality
of broached parts depends on a number
of different factors. The material to be
broached and its micro structure, the
cutting speed, the metalworking fluid used,
and the state and design of the broach
greatly affect the surface quality.
When broaching steel, normally roughness
values (Rz) of 6 to 25 m can be maintained
within long term operation if, as is normal in
back taper broaching, the surfaces are
produced by the flank of the tools. Reduced
surface roughness is possible on a case by
case basis by taking special care, such as
by finishing with the main cutting edges of
the teeth. In any case, it is possible to
achieve substantially better surface quality
when broaching light metals and various
bronze alloys than is the case when
broaching steel.
The roughness increases as the tools get
blunter. The roughness thus also
determines the end of the tool life and thus
the time to change the tool.

1.2.2 Tolerances
As is also the case with other chipremoving machining processes, the tightest
production tolerances can only be attained
in broaching by making a corresponding
effort in long-term operation. The primary
factor that affects the precision of
broaching, in addition to the production
tolerances of the tools and tool holders and
also the overall machine unit, is the shape
and the material of the work pieces.
Dimensional deviations are increased by
wear. Due to increasing wear of the cutting
edges and the higher passive forces
resulting from this the elasticity of shape
will lead to dimensional deviations.

< Fig. 1 / Page 10

11

1.

The basics of broaching

Higher strength of materials and unfavourable micro structures promote wear


of the back off faces (clearance faces),
which shifts the cutting edge and produces
increased passive forces. In the case of
internal broaching, this has less effect with
regard to profile dimensions in the area of
the normal splines and serrations. In the
case of external broaching, any positional
changes of the tool to the work piece affect
the results of the broaching. Thus
adjustable wedge strips in the tool slide
and also play-free guide systems are
advantageous (see section 5.4. Defects
when broaching).
Internal broaching
Given the prerequisite that the work pieces
are sufficiently stiff and that the material is
suitable for broaching, it is normally
possible to obtain ISO dimensional quality 8,
and with an increased amount of finishing it
is also possible to obtain quality 7.
When broaching splines and serrations, it
is generally possible to obtain DIN 5480
quality 8, whereby the quality can be
regarded as the limiting profile between the
greatest individual dimension and the
smallest plug gauge profile. Quality level 7
is only possible here with increased effort.
Overall qualities of class 8 as per DIN 39603962 can be obtained when broaching ring
gears, depending on the profile itself and
the shape of the workpiece, whereby the
qualities of individual items can be
substantially better (e.g. pitch errors).
Since it is hardly possible to prevent
internal broaches from drifting during the
broaching process, it is possible to have
small profile deviations. Parts that require
very precise runout must be clamped in the
broached profile after the broaching
operation and then finish-machining must
be done. It is possible to take work pieces
into which a toothed profile has to be
broached for finish-machining in terms of

the internal diameter as well if the broaches


have an alternate finishing cutting section,
i.e., the profile teeth and the teeth for
broaching of the internal diameter alternate
with each other and thus a concentric
internal diameter for the profile can be
produced.

1.

External broaching
The production precision for external
broaching depends on a larger number of
influences that can affect it when compared
to internal broaching. The machine and
clamping devices also affect the results, in
addition to the tool tolerances and the
insertion accuracy of the tools in the tool
holders. Apart from constant errors caused
by production tolerances, there is also
a tolerance variation range. This variation
range depends above all on the play in the
moving parts that affect the results of the
broaching and also the stiffness of the
overall setup and the work pieces.
It is necessary to distinguish in external
broaching between the shape tolerances of
the broached profiles, the pitch tolerances
if multiple profiles are broached into a work
piece, and the positional tolerances of the
profiles with respect to the reference faces
of the work pieces. The shape tolerances
are dependent on the machine, tools,
fixtures and also on the work pieces, the
positional tolerances generally depend on
the work pieces. The accuracy of the
unmachined part and the clamping options
also affect these positional tolerances.
Under normal conditions, it is possible to
comply with ISO qualities 7 to 9 in long
term operation; tighter pitch tolerances than
0.03 to 0.05 mm should not be called for;
the positional tolerance is between 0.03 mm
and 0.2 mm, depending on the properties
of the work piece.

12

1.

The basics of broaching

1.2.3 Tool life


Under normal conditions, i.e., flawless tools,
materials that are easy to cut and suitable
metalworking fluid, it is possible to achieve
a total length of cuts of 80 to 250 m before
the tool has to be sharpened.
The life of the tool depends on a wide
variety of factors. The individual parameters
affecting this are discussed in detail in
sections 5.4. Defects when broaching, 2.
Theory of broaching and 5.2. Cooling and
lubrication when broaching. In addition to
determining when the tool life has come to
an end, it is also advisable to read section
5.3. Care and maintenance of broaches.

1.2.4 Economic factors


The basic factors for economical production
are:
- increasing the quality of the products,
reducing scrap and thus increasing
process reliability,
- reducing production times, thus increasing
capacity, and consequently
- reducing costs related to the product,

Due to the relatively low wear of the tool,


the process is good for high volume
production, which is generally the
prerequisite for economical operation for
the process of broaching.

1.

Compliance with dimensions for broached


work pieces cannot be affected much by
the operating personnel for the machines
that have been set up, and likewise there is
relatively little effect on the amount of
scrap. It is only necessary to reckon with a
number of wasted work pieces during test
broaching on machines that have just been
set up. This presupposes that the work
pieces meet the requirements of the
broaching process in terms of the design
and technical properties.
The cutting capacity for broaching is
significantly higher even with low cutting
speeds than with comparable processes,
since the chip volume per tooth coming into
contact is large and at the same time many
teeth are engaged. Roughing and finishing
operations are generally done in one
operation, if multiple broaching operations
are not required due to the very high
volume of chips produced.
Normally, subsequent finishing operations
are not needed.

- and relieving human beings of mental and


physical stress.
The quality of the products depends in the
first instance on complying with the
dimensional requirements and the surface
quality.
The use of high-quality broaching
machines, broaches and fixtures for
internal and external machining ensure
compliance with dimensions within tight
tolerances and with high surface quality.

13

2.

Theory of broaching

2.1.

Basic features and parameters

Broaching tools have a number of teeth


arranged after each other (cutting edges),
by which the rise per tooth determines the
chip load h (depth of cut). The face angle
and the clearance angle depend on the
type of material to be broached, the
clearance angle also depends on whether
the broach tooth is in the roughing and the
finishing section or in the reserve section of
the tool. The width of the land bf differs for
the reserve section or the other cutting
sections and also for the various kinds of
materials to be broached. The lands are
parallel to the axes in the reserve section,
and in the roughing and finishing section
they are arranged in ascending order by
the amount of the land angle on the back
off face (negative angle) to the end of the
tool (Fig. 3).

b
c
e
bf
bf
h
t
r

width of cut
depth of chip space
thickness of tooth
width of land on the flank
width of land on the face
rise per tooth
pitch
radius of cutting face
clearance angle
land angle on clearance (back off) face
face angle
land angle on the face
inclination angle

2.

Detail y

Fig. 3

< Fig. 2a / Page 14

15

2.

Theory of broaching

2.1.1 Surface quality

Fig. 4

23:1

Micro-section photograph of a chip root under the


following broaching conditions: C 45, S 6-5-2, = 2,
= 15, = 0, v = 6 m/min, h = 0,1 mm, dry cutting,
w = 260 mm

direction of broaching

Point of entry

Fig. 5
Broached surface with scale formation, material:
C 45 soft annealed, v = 5 m/min, h = 0,04 mm,
dry cutting

When broaching tough materials (steel,


heavy metal alloys), strain hardened and
brittle layers of the material are deposited
on the cutting face before the cutting edge.
These wedge-shaped build up edges
prevent the contact of the cutting edge with
the work piece and in practical terms take
over this function themselves (Fig. 4).
These built-up edges are subject to
fluctuations. They increase in a periodic
rhythm and parts migrate about the
underside of the chip and also between the
clearance face and the cut surface,
whereby the latter increase the wear of the
clearance faces. The particles that are
pushed into the surface of the work piece
thus lend it a scaly appearance (Fig. 5) and
make the surface quality worse. The run-in
surfaces of all broached parts are free of
built-up edge particles. The upper layers
only break off once the built-up edge has
reached a specific height. The distribution
of the scales is somewhat regular across
the other parts of the broached surface.

2.

The roughness of the machined surface


can be reduced to a certain extent by
increasing the cutting speed, depending on
the material or the previous treatment of
the material. To what extent this increased
speed can affect the surface quality is
shown in Fig. 6 by the example of C 45
steel. This steel was subjected to various
forms of heat treatment. The illustration
shows the roughness when broaching soft
annealed samples according to the cutting
speed. In addition to the specific cutting
speeds, polished cross-sections were
taken through the point where the chip is
produced and polished cross-sections were
taken across the broached surface. The
fact that the roughness values decrease
rapidly with the broaching speed after
reaching a maximum at approx. 10 m/min
is of a special value in practice, since it was
only possible previously to use very low
cutting speeds and constantly a great deal
of time is required in broaching soft
annealed work pieces with regard to the
surface quality.

16

2.

Theory of broaching

2.

Roughness value

Material: C45 G
Cutting material: high-speed steel M 34
= 2, = 15, = 0, h = 0.04 mm,
Coolant: cutting oil
t = 12.5 mm

Cutting speed

Fig. 6
Effect of cutting speed on surface quality when broaching C45 steel, soft annealed

As can be seen from the polished crosssections through the point where the chip is
created, there are build up edges of
relatively pointed and unstable shape to be
observed in the area of cutting speeds
between 5 and 15 m/min, and these
protrude well above the cutting edge.
Within this area there likewise appear
larger scales on the cutting surface which
can be allocated to the maximum
roughness values. At higher speeds, the
build up edges take on a flat and extended
appearance which only protrudes a little
above the cutting edge. The built-up edge
particles which have migrated with the cut
surface are still only relatively small so that
the roughness values are correspondingly
reduced.

Not all materials show an improved surface


quality with increasing cutting speed. The
roughness values were not significantly
less, for example, in the case of materials
with a ferritic-pearlitic grain structure when
using speeds over 10 m/min. Figs. 7a and
7b show a number of diagrams on the
attainable surface quality according to the
cutting speed for a series of different
materials and grain structures.

17

2.

Theory of broaching

Material: 9 S Mn 28

2.

Roughness value

Material: 100 Cr6 soft annealed

Material: grey cast iron

Cutting speed v (m/min)


Cutting material: high-speed steel S 2 - 9 - 2 - 8
= 2, = 15, = 0, h = 0.04 mm, t = 12.5 mm
Coolant: cutting oil

Fig. 7a
Attainable surface quality when broaching various types of material

The good surfaces which could be


observed when broaching free cutting steel
are notable. This is due to a large extent to
the higher sulphur content, since it is
normally necessary to reckon with poorer
surfaces for steel with comparably low
carbon contents.
In addition, Fig. 7a shows that the
roughness is reduced by about half in the
case of grey cast iron of a higher strength.

The reason for this is the significantly finer


distribution of graphite plates and the fine
strip-like formation of pearlite plates.
High alloy steels such as X20CrMo13
behave somewhat like a hardened and
tempered steel in terms of surface quality,
i.e., it is possible to achieve similar or lower
roughness values in the area of higher
broaching speeds.

18

2.

Theory of broaching

Material: C45 N

2.

Roughness value

Material: C45 soft annealed

Material: C45 V

Cutting speed v (m/min)


Cutting material: high-speed steel S 2 - 9 - 2 - 8
= 2, = 15, = 0, h = 0.04 mm, t = 12.5 mm
Coolant: cutting oil

Fig. 7b
Effect of various microstruktures on surface quality when broaching

What is interesting is the way that chip


compression depends on the cutting
speed. The chip is subjected to the
minimum amount of compression at the
maximum roughness value and vice versa.
A significant factor that influences the
surface quality of a broached surface is the
rise per tooth of the tool. The rise per tooth
to be selected depends greatly on the
material to be machined and the profile of
the surface to be broached. It is possible to

achieve good surface quality over the entire


cutting speed range, as is shown in Fig. 8
by making a suitable selection of the rise
per tooth in the finishing section of the
broach. The chip load (depth of cut)
however must not be reduced too much, i.e.
to significantly below 0.01 mm, since the
teeth no longer cut but only press and thus
wear more quickly. The broaching results
concerning dimensional accuracy and
surface quality can be negatively affected.

19

Average roughness value

Theory of broaching

Roughness value

2.

Cutting speed v (m/min)

2.

Total length of cuts w

Material: C45 V
Cutting material: high-speed steel S 2 - 9 - 2 - 8
= 2, = 15, = 0, t = 12.5 mm
Coolant: cutting oil

Fig. 8

Fig. 9

Surface quality when broaching with various tooth


rise values (chip load)

Relationship between total length of cuts and surface


quality for various cutting speeds

Broaching tools are used in many cases up


to a width of wearmark of approx.
B = 0.4 mm. It is therefore the influence of
the total length of cuts on the surface
quality that is of great interest, since the
wear of the tool that increases with the total
length of cuts affects the surface quality of
the work pieces. As can be seen from the
diagram of Fig. 9, the roughness values
increase more strongly at the start and then
change to a flatter curve. Approximately
similar roughness values can be found for
the material being investigated at all cutting
speeds after a total length of cuts of 150 m.
After a specifically longer total length of
cuts (not shown here), the wear starts to
increase progressively and the roughness
likewise. The significant factor of the

surface quality is therefore the raggedness


of the cutting edge produced by wear and
the formation of a built-up edge.
Similar results were found when broaching
grey cast iron. The surface quality was
slightly better at a cutting speed of
30 m/min, viewed over the total length of
cuts, compared to 10 m/min.

20

2.

Theory of broaching
The upper limit of the area of application
when using tool steel and high-speed steel
is determined by the rapid reduction of high
temperature strength by a loss of hardness
of the martensitic grain structure. Since this
temperature limit can be reached by
increasing cutting speed, it is important to
know how high the temperatures are that
occur for various working conditions in the
area of the tool cutting edge.

2.1.2 Tool wear


Wear is produced during broaching by the
friction between the clearance faces of the
tool teeth and the work piece and also
between the cutting face and the chip that
is curling, favoured by the cutting
temperature and the high specific face
pressures. At the same time the cutting
edges are rounded off. The wear that
increases with the number of broached
work pieces reduces the surface quality
and the ability of the work piece to maintain
dimensions and the pulling force increases.
The displacement of the cutting edge as a
result of wear causes a deviation in
dimensions. The rounding-off radii of the
cutting edges are around 3 to 8 m in the
case of sharp tools and from 20 to 50 m in
the case of blunt tools. What is primarily
interesting is the tool wear when broaching
at higher cutting speeds.

Cutting temperature t

Cutting temperature t

Fig. 10 shows the effect of the cutting


speed, the rise per tooth and metalworking
fluid on the cutting temperature. The
temperatures were determined with the aid
of the one chissel process, which supplies
a medium temperature value for the entire
area of the contact zone.

Dry
Oil
Emulsion 1:5

Dry cutting

Cutting speed v (m/min)

2.

Rise per tooth h = 0.04 mm

Cutting speed v (m/min)

Material: C45 V
Cutting material: high-speed steel S 2 - 9 - 2 - 8
= 2, = 15, = 0, t = 12.5 mm
Fig. 10
Cutting temperatures when broaching steel

21

2.

Theory of broaching

As can be seen from the left-hand diagram


(Fig. 10), temperatures of 500C to 600C
were reached over a range of 20-30m/min
for a rise per tooth of 0.08 mm. These
conditions must therefore be regarded as
the upper limit of the area of application of
high-speed steel tools; it is however
possible to achieve a reduction in
temperatures by using metalworking fluid,
as can be seen from the right-hand diagram.
When making broaching tests on C 45V
material with broaches made of high-speed
steel S 2-9-2-8 it was possible to determine
that there were different values of wear of
the cutting edge on the clearance faces
of the teeth after a total length of cuts of
200 m, depending on the cutting speed.
When illustrating the wear of the cutting
edge B for a cutting speed v, this showed a
distinct minimum wear between
v=20 m/min and v=30 m/min. This means
an increase in life of the tool when
broaching at approx. 25 m/min (the usual
cutting speed for high-speed broaching is
approx. 24 m/min) compared to low-speed
broaching. This increase in tool life is only
possible however if the rise per tooth does
not exceed a specific value due to the
associated increase in temperature at the
tool cutting edge. The maximum admissible
rise of the teeth for high-speed broaching is
further dependent on the length of cut,
since the cutting temperatures increase
with an increasing length of contact of the
tool teeth.

On the basis of several series of tests, the


best results were attained with cemented
carbide K 20. As can be seen from the
juxtaposition of the wear curves of hard
metal and high-speed steel tools (Fig. 11),
the clearance face wear is significantly
lower with cemented carbide. The
scalloped knock-outs that occur on the
cutting edge of the tool can be attributed to
the lower toughness of the cemented
carbide compared to high-speed steel and
the interrupted cutting. The development of
extremely fine grain (< 1 m) and ultra-fine
grain (< 0.5 m) grades with their improved
mechanical properties also make cemented
carbides interesting for the cutting of steel.

2.

Chipping of the cutting edge was not


observed when broaching grey cast iron
with cemented carbide, so here it is
possible to recommend the use of
cemented carbide tools for the external
broaching of flat surfaces without any
reservations.

With the development of broaching using


high cutting speeds and the resulting
higher contact zone temperatures, it is
necessary to test with the individual work
operations to see to what extent cemented
carbide tools can be used for broaching.
Broaches with cemented carbides have
been used with success for the external
broaching of cast iron.

22

2.

Theory of broaching

High-speed steel S 2-9-2-8


= 2, = 15, = 0

wear of the cutting edge B

Cemented carbide K20


(single-tooth tool)

= 5, = 10, = 15

2.

Broaching path w
Material: C45 N
Cutting speed v = 50 m/min
Rise per tooth h = 0.06 mm
Coolant: cutting oil

Fig. 11
Comparison of clearance face wear when broaching with tools made of cemented carbide and high-speed steel

23

2.

Theory of broaching

2.1.3 Forces when broaching


During the machining process, the
machine, the tool and the work piece are
subjected to the forces required to remove
the chips. In the case of broaching, the
cutting force must be taken on the one
hand by the broaching tool and the drive
unit, and on the other hand by the machine
frame and the clamping table. The back
force represents a significant parameter in
the design of the work piece clamping
device in the case of external broaching.

The resulting force (the total force exerted


by a cutting tooth) which acts on a broach
tooth without an inclination angle during
cutting, can be divided into two
components. In the movement direction
there is the cutting force F c , which is
applied by the pulling force of the machine,
and in addition the back force Fp which is
applied vertically (Fig. 12). This is taken up
by the work piece during internal
broaching, the tool is supported all around
by the walls of the work piece. In the case
of external broaching the work piece and
the tools are supported by the fixture and
the machine.

Fp
Fn
Fc
Ft
Chip

bK
h
hch

Work piece

2.

Resultant force
- total force exerted by
the tool
Back force
Perpendicular force on
the face
Cutting force
Tangential force on the
face
Width of contact zone
Rise per tooth
Thickness of chip
Shear angle
Angle of friction on the
face
Face angle
Clearance angle

Cutting wedge

Fig. 12
Geometrical components of the total force (resultant force) exerted by the tooth during orthogonal cutting

24

2.

Theory of broaching

Cutting force Fc

Ck 45; S 6 - 5 - 2 ; = 2, = 10, t = 12 mm,


v = 6 m/min, square: 18.88 mm; emulsion

2.
Broaching tensile force FM

Broaches

length of the cut l

Broaching stroke

Fig. 13

Fig. 14

Theoretical course of the cutting force over the


length of the cut for various inclination angles
(as per Schatz)

Pulling force diagram when broaching work pieces of


various lengths

The actual pulling force of the broaching


machine varies periodically during the
broaching stroke, since a specific number
of cutting edges come in and out of contact
one after another. The variations in the
required force depend on the cutting cross
section and the specific cutting force and
also on the pitch, i.e., the distance of the
teeth from each other, and the broaching
length. The pulling force can be made more
even by arranging the teeth at an
inclination angle (Fig. 13). At the same
time, additional side forces also occur
which act on the tool and the work piece.
An increase in pulling force during
machining can provide conclusions on the
bluntness of the tools.

As is known from other cutting processes,


an increase of the cutting speed has an
effect on the amount of the cutting force
components (Fig. 15).
There is a sequence concerning the
absolute amount of the forces for the
various heat treatment states, which can be
explained less by the strength of the
materials than by the process of the
formation of the chip. A soft annealed steel
may have the lowest strength, but it is
subjected to the maximum chip compression
and forms the largest contact zone bk (see
Fig. 15) between the tool and the chip and
for this reason it shows the highest cutting
force components.

25

2.

Theory of broaching

Cutting force Fc

Back force Fp
Material: C45 soft annealed
C45 V
C45 N
Rise per tooth h = 0.04 mm

Resultant force components

Resultant force components

Cutting force Fc

Material: C45 V
Back force Fp

2.

Rise per tooth h

Cutting speed v
Cutting material: high-speed steel S 2 - 9 - 2 - 8
= 2, = 15, = 0, t = 12.5 mm
Width of cut b = 10 mm
Coolant: cutting oil

Fig. 15
Resultant force components when broaching steel

2.1.4 Chip formation


With improvements in the grades of highspeed steel, the use of cemented carbide
tools and increases in broaching speed, it
has also become more difficult to control
and monitor the curling of the chips at
higher speeds.
The chips produced in broaching can
cause damage to the tool or the work piece
and thus affect the work process under
certain circumstances, for example, as they
jam in the chip space and cannot be
flushed out by the metalworking fluid. The
chip shape is significantly determined,
among other things, by the strength of the
material being broached and its micro
structure. In general, it is necessary to
reckon with more strongly curled chips as
the strength increases.

Fig. 16 shows a number of photographs


which illustrate the formation of the chip
during the broaching process. The spirals
produced in the broaching of normalized
and hardened and tempered steels may
indeed increase with increasing cutting
speed, but the chip shape itself can be
regarded as good up to 50 m/min. On the
other hand, the soft annealed material once
again shows an extended chip which tends
to jamming, especially at higher speeds.
It is necessary to pay special attention to
the design of the tooth space when
broaching soft annealed steels, which
frequently tend to produce chips of this
shape. In the case of external broaches,
the shape of the chip can be especially
favourably influenced by grinding a chip
breaker, for example. In other cases in
which this particular measure is not
feasible, it is necessary to provide a means
of help by grinding larger face angles and
increasing the chip space and thus the
tooth pitch.

26

2.

Theory of broaching

Material: C45
soft annealed

Material: C45 N

Material: C45 V

v = 5 m/min

2.

5 mm

v = 30 m/min

5 mm
v = 50 m/min

Cutting material:
high-speed steel S 2-9-2-8; Dry cutting

= 2, = 15, = 0;
h = 0.1 mm; t = 12.5 mm

Fig. 16
Chip formation when broaching steel

27

2.

Theory of broaching

2.2.

Factors affecting broaching


results

Criterias to evaluate the results of


broaching are:
- the surface quality of the work pieces,
- the shape and dimensional accuracy of
the work pieces,

2.

- the edge durability,


- the amount of power required,
- the formation of chips.

2.2.1 Tools
The cutting geometry influences the results
of the broaching to a significant extent. In
general, the roughness of the broached
surfaces is less with an increase in the face
angle (Fig. 17). Nonetheless, the amount of
the face angle has limits depending on the
material to be processed, on the one hand
due to the stability of the tooth and on the
other hand due to the life of the tool. In
high-speed broaching an increase on the
face angle by 3 to 5 with respect to the
normal values for low cutting speeds has
proved to be advantageous.

28

Theory of broaching

Material: C45 V
Tool: high-speed steel
S 12-1-4-5, S 6-5-2
Cutting conditions: v = 6 m/min
Dry cutting:
h = 0.05 mm
Plunge-cutting
Single-tooth broaching
External broaching

Roughness value Rt

2.

Face angle

2.

Fig. 17
Comparison of roughness value ranges in relation to the cutting geometry in plunge-cutting, single-tooth broaching
and external broaching

The clearance angle and the inclination


angle have hardly any influence at all on
the surface quality, but on the other hand
the rounding radius of the cutting edge is of
considerable significance, since the
roughness value of the broached surfaces
becomes greater as bluntness increases
(Fig. 18).

Single-tooth broaching

Roughness value Rt

Dry cutting

Fig. 19 shows how the roughness is a


function of the total length of cuts and thus
is associated with increasing wear when
broaching 16MnCr5 steel.

Rounding radius

Fig. 18

Roughness valueRt

Roughness value Rt in relation to the cutting edge rounding radius for C45 steel

Total length of cuts w

Fig. 19
Roughness in relation to the total length of cuts for the external broaching of 16MnCr5 steel (regression line)

29

2.

Theory of broaching

If one takes into consideration that there


can be, for example, a rise per tooth of 10
to 20 m in the finishing section of
broaches, then it can be seen that the
cutting edge rounding radius and rise per
tooth are of the same order of magnitude.
There is a significant reduction of the face
angle due to wear of the cutting face, which
leads to a reduction of work piece surface

quality. The effect of the rounding-off of the


cutting edge is also greater in the finishing
section of broaches due to the smaller rise
per tooth compared to the roughing section.
Fig. 20 shows the way that the roughness
depends on the rise per tooth and the
rounding-off of the cutting edge.

2.

Roughness value Rt

Tool: S 6-5-2, = 2, = 15
Material: C45 V, Cutting speed v = 6 m/min

Rise per tooth

Fig. 20
Roughness value Rt in relation to the rise per tooth and rounding radius of the cutting edge

450

450

N/mm

h = 0,1 mm

N/mm

Dry cutting

0,08
300

300
0,05

h = 0,1 mm
0,08
0,05

Cutting force

0,02
150

Back force

150

0,02

Face angle

Face angle

Fig. 21a

Fig. 21b

Cutting and back forces in relation to the face angle in single-tooth broaching

30

2.

Theory of broaching

The clearance angle and the angle of


inclination have practically no effect at all
on the formation of built-up edges. The
number of scales increases with an
increase in the face angle, and decreases
approximately linear with an increase in the
cutting edge radius. The roughness
becomes less as the number of scales per
length unit increases.

High-speed steels alloyed with cobalt have


been used with good results, primarily
when broaching at increased cutting
speeds. The increased tool life that has
often been observed is due to the higher
resistance to tempering and the higher
resistance to wear of these tools at higher
cutting temperatures when compared to
cobalt-free steels.

While the clearance angle has no effect on


the cutting force, this is reduced by about 1
to 1.5% per degree of increase in face
angle. The back force is reduced by an
average of around 2% per degree of
increase in face angle. It thus shifts the
ratio of the cutting force to the back force
(Fig. 21). An increase in cutting force is
likewise linked with the increase in the
bluntness of the cutting edge. If the tool life
is not to be considered as having come to
an end due to the work piece surface
quality having become too bad or because
tolerances have been exceeded, and thus
subsequent sharpening is required, the
criteria for subsequent sharpening are an
increase in pulling force by around 25 to
40%. The higher back force means it is
necessary to reckon with an elastic
expansion of the work pieces, with
reductions in dimensions when carrying out
internal broaching. The work pieces are
pressed more firmly in the case of external
broaching, which can lead to the
corresponding dimensional deviations.

Alloyed tool steels for cold working with a


chromium content of approx. 12% and a
carbon content of 2.1% are ranked below
high-speed steels in terms of the tool life
that can be reached and cannot be
recommended apart from a few exceptional
cases. Assuming that hardening has been
carried out perfectly with the corresponding
tempering treatment, a hardness of 63 to
66 RC can be aimed for with high-speed
steels.

The cutting material and the kind of heat


treatment it had received influence the
results of broaching, primarily with respect
to the tool life. On one hand this is
necessary to require a high degree of
resistance to wear, and on the other hand
the cutting edges must not crack off or
break. Hardness, resistance to wear and
the toughness of the cutting material must
also be retained with increasing cutting
temperatures, especially in the area of high
broaching speeds. For that reason,
broaching tools are generally made from
high-speed steels today.

2.

When nitriding (bath nitriding, ion-nitriding)


ready-ground broaches made of highspeed steel, it is necessary to use nitriding
depths of 0.02 to max. 0.03 mm. Greater
nitriding depths are unsuitable, since they
lead to flaking-off of the extremely brittle
iron nitride, which results in cracking-off at
the cutting edge. The hardness of a perfectly
nitrided layer is 1075 - 1150 HV0.05. It is
possible to some extent to achieve higher
tool lives here. The nitride layer has a
beneficial effect as a result of the reduction
of the frictional resistance when cutting
such material that have a tendency towards
cold welding. Adhesions of the material of
the work piece to the flanks, lands and
clearance faces of the broach teeth are
reduced. The lower coefficient of friction of
the nitride layer is also used when
broaching highly hardened and tempered
work pieces if deep broaching profiles are
to be produced.
The nitriding of broaches is, however, only
carried out in a small number of cases and
has been substituted in the meantime by
coating technology.

31

2.

Theory of broaching

If broaching problems cannot be


fundamentally resolved by a coating of the
broach, as was already done with nitriding,
then it is possible to achieve notable
increases in the tool life under specific
conditions by making use of coatings, since
coated broaches show significantly lower
coefficient of friction compared to nitrided
ones. The problems that are encountered
with coated broaches can often be
attributed to the fact that there is insufficient
stability (wall thickness) of the work pieces,
especially during internal broaching that
produces a springing-off (breathing) that
exceeds the thickness of the chip.
Previously, broaches were coated with TiN,
Ti(C, N) or Ti(Al, N) with coating thicknesses
of 1 to 4 m and had a hardness of
between 2300 and 3500 HV according to
the type of coating. The type of coating that
gives the best broaching results cannot
generally be determined in advance and
must be tested case by case if it is not
possible to fall back onto a sufficient
amount of experience. It is possible to
subsequently remove the coat (uncoating)
and to apply other ones.
Broaches that are to be subsequently
coated require additional working steps in
manufacture to ensure that the coating can
be applied properly.
It can be assumed that further coatings will
be developed in the near future in which
multiple layers of coats of hard material will
be combined with coats of soft material that
to some extent retain lubricant. This will
certainly be of interest for broaching
processes.

has shown itself to be superior to highspeed steels in respect to the higher tool
lives attained.
Satisfactory results have not been obtained
to date when broaching steel with the use
of cemented carbide broaches. While it
was possible to obtain significantly lower
wear of the clearance faces by selection of
the right grade of hard metal together with
a suitable cutting geometry with respect to
that used for high-speed steel to some
extent, on the other hand, thermo cracks
(comb cracks) were produced, and this
problem was also associated with crackingoff at the cutting edge which made the tools
unusable. These manifestations are known
to be due to the thermal and mechanical
alternating stresses on the tool cutting
edges. The lower toughness of cemented
carbide does not permit large face angles,
as will be usual for broaches made of highspeed steel, and this means that it is not
possible to meet the surface quality
requirements in the cutting of steel with the
usable cutting speeds employed. The use
of cemented carbide broaches is therefore
not to be recommended for the cutting of
steel (see 2.1.2).

2.

It is also necessary to take into


consideration that it is not possible to
manufacture and produce broaches with
cemented carbide cutting edges for all
possible cases that will be encountered for
reasons of tool design and also due to the
manufacturing possibilities. There is a
further restriction of the possibilities for
application due to the question of costeffectiveness, since the manufacture and
sharpening of such broaches is very costly.

The use of broaches with cemented


carbide cutting edges has been restricted
up until today to a number of special cases.
Thus, cemented carbide finds application in
the broaching of bearing shells for internal
combustion engines and also in the
broaching of parts made of grey cast iron in
the automotive industry. Cemented carbide

32

2.

Theory of broaching

2.2.2 Work pieces 1)


The material of the work pieces affects the
results of the broaching to a significant
extent. Since it is primarily steel that is
machined, we have most experience of this
material and for this reason we will only
discuss the broaching performance of
steels and steel-related materials.
In the production of steel, there is a
domestic and international intertwining in
order to remain competitive on an
international basis and to improve on
competitiveness. The purchasing of steel
scrap of various origins and the exchange
of ingots and blooms and remelted blocks
for the production of semi-finished products
for parts for high-volume mass production
has been a widespread practice. The
differing technical equipment in the
steelworks, especially in the areas of steel
scrap preparation, melting, hot-shaping,
heat treatment, etc., means that it is not
possible to achieve the consistency of the
semi-finished product that is so important
for high-volume mass production.
Steel materials are to a very large extent
produced by melting in metallurgical terms.
Even if the relevant type of steel shows the
same stipulated tolerances in analysis and
thus meets the requirements set, specific
tramp elements that can be brought in due
to the make-up of the different batches can
exert a significant effect on the broaching
results.
Semi-finished products are produced by
ingot casting or continuous casting.
Depending on the method of manufacture,
pieces separated off from the hot-formed
unnotched specimens or tube, and also
parts which have been forged or hotextruded or ring-rolled, are available for
broaching in the form of blanks, and always
invariably after some form of pre-treatment.
In addition, there is an increasing number
of parts which have been produced by
sintering or extrusion or cold-drawing.

Extruded or cold-drawn work pieces


generally do not have any further final heat
treatment after the last pressing or drawing
operation so as not to reduce the increase
in apparent yield point and tensile strength
produced by the cold forming. Cold-drawn
work pieces have a high residual stress
and thus produce poor results when
broached. Sintered materials have differing
levels of porosity and often include a high
portion of non-metallic inclusions which
also have a strongly adverse effect on
broaching.

2.

When taking a basis for an assessment of


the broaching properties, on the one hand
there is the surface quality that can be
obtained for the broached work piece, and
on the other hand there is the question of
the life of the broaches. Since broaching is
a finish machining process, the surface
quality that can be attained is of paramount
importance. Both factors are affected and
depending on the strength of the material,
its chemical composition, its degree of
purity and any previous treatment, i.e., heat
treatment and any hot or cold drawing; in
other words, its actual grain structure.
Very high strengths in the material as a
result of its chemical composition and the
type of heat treatment or cold hardening as
a result of cold forming increase the
broaching force and thus the amount of
wear of the broach. Signs of wear are
shown first at the corners of the profile
teeth. Increasing wear then adversely
affects the quality of the work piece
surfaces (measured as roughness) and
increases in turn the broaching force. It is
thus necessary to constantly pay attention
to the pulling force, since an increase in
this with respect to the normal value means
that inferences can be drawn both to the
state of the material and of the tool.

1)

Besides work piece the expressions component or


part are in use.

33

2.

Theory of broaching

At this point it is necessary to refer to


section 2.1.3 Forces when broaching and
Fig. 15, which illustrate the influence of the
micro-structure in the hardened and
tempered, normalized and soft annealed
states. It is not possible to make direct
inferences in terms of the broaching results
to be expected merely on the basis of the
strength of the material, it is far more
necessary to take into consideration the
chemical composition and the grain
structure.
The work pieces to be broached are
available in varying states of annealing or
tempering and hardening, depending on
the type of alloy. Which of these states
applies for the broaching process is not
determined in practice only from the point
of view of the best broaching properties,
but primarily according to the allocation of
broaching within the overall machining
process for the work pieces, and above all
through design-related criteria.
To make a rough sub-division, the following
can be taken as the prerequisites for
proper heat treatment:
The normalized state is favourable for
unalloyed case hardening and heattreatable steels and also for constructional
steels as per DIN EN 10 025 as long as the
strength of around 700 N/mm 2 (approx.
200 HB) is not exceeded and the carbon
content is not less than around 0.15%.

Fig. 22

100:1

C10, ferrite with pearlite islands


The proportion of pearlite corresponds to
the carbon content

It is also possible to obtain generally good


results when broaching at increased cutting
speeds when taking into account all the
factors. If there is primarily pearlite, the
roughness increases with an increase in
cutting speed and reaches a value that
remains practically constant above 10 to
15 m/min (the researched area was up to
v = 50 m/min). If there is primarily ferrite,
then this shows a maximum in the
roughness value over a cutting speed
range of between approx. 5 and 15 m/min.
The location and amount of the roughness
maximum are to a certain extent dependent
on the proportion of alloying elements and
also the cutting geometry and the
metalworking fluid. The roughness then
decreases with increasing cutting speed.
The formation of chips is good with
normalized grain structures and curled
chips are formed. The normalized condition
of hypoeutectoid steels is characterised by
the fact that the ferrite and pearlite are
distributed equally in the microstructure.
The crystallite should be medium-fine and
unaligned (similar to Figs. 22 and 23 for
C10 and Figs. 24 and 25 for 15CrNi6). The
illustration of the pearlite in Figs. 24 and 25
is to be regarded as normal for a nickelalloy case hardening steel, since this has a
more sorbitic character, as has been shown
in practice.

Fig. 23

2.

500:1

C10, ferrite with pearlite islands

34

2.

Theory of broaching

2.
Fig. 24

100:1

15CrNi6, ferrite, pearlite and sorbite

Fig. 26

Fig. 25

500:1

15CrNi6, ferrite, pearlite and sorbite

100:1

34Cr4, pearlite, ferrite

Figs. 26 and 27 show the normalized


structure of heat-treatable steel 34Cr4 at
100 x and 500 x magnification. Steels in
this condition are generally good for
broaching and also offer no difficulties if the
crystallite is somewhat coarser.
It should however be noted that with an
increasing proportion of ferrite (low-carbon
steels) the formation of a built-up edge is
promoted and that there can be cold
welding of particles of the material onto the
flanks and lands of the tool teeth. Scaly
surfaces and larger amounts of tearing-out
are the result. At the same time the friction
increases between the tool and the work
piece. This is shown by an increase in
pulling force under certain circumstances
and ultimately by damage to the tool. In this
case, however, coarse-grain annealing
promises an improvement in the results.

Fig. 27

500:1

34Cr4, pearlite, ferrite

However, it is very often not considered for


technical reasons and also for economic
reasons. Further improvements can also be
achieved by hardening and tempering, but
this is often likewise regarded as
uneconomic. Determining which steels and
which pre-treatment gives the best
machining properties and which ones are
economically feasible can often only be
determined by tests, if at all possible with
the original work pieces, since it is not
possible to find a formula that is valid for all
cases.
The hardened and tempered condition
provides good results in the case of steels
for hardening and tempering, since they
have achieved the most homogeneous
microstructure if the heat treatment was
carried out properly.
35

2.

Theory of broaching

There is also a clear dependency of the


surface quality on the cutting speed when
broaching hardened and tempered steels,
but in any case it is not as strongly marked
as in the case of soft annealed grain
structures (see Fig. 7).
The hardened and tempered condition
does not produce any difficulties when
broaching if the teeth encounter a
homogeneous structure (tempered
martensite). This is always the case if the
work pieces have formed fine needleshaped martensite in the hardening
process when seen over the entire polished
cross-section. This then precipitates
extremely finely spread carbide (tempering
structure) during the subsequent tempering
with an increasing tempering temperature
and represents an almost homogeneous
state of the steels. The hardened and
tempered structure of C45 can be seen in
Figs. 28 and 29. This shows tempered
martensite; the structure is free of ferrite.
Work pieces which have been produced
from precipitation hardening ferritic pearlitic
steels (so-called PHFP steels) are being
encountered to an increasing extent for
broaching. The alloying elements included
in these materials, and vanadium in
particular, are added in proportions such
that it is possible to aim for strength by
means of a controlled accelerated cooling
(BY-annealing; BY = beyond yield strength)

Fig. 28
C45, tempered martensite

100:1

with partial utilisation of the hot-forming


temperature, which match steels produced
by the classic but significantly more
expensive hardening and tempering
treatment process (hardening + high
tempering). However, the micro-structures
produced by BY-annealing differ
considerably from the structure produced
by classic hardening and tempering
processes.

2.

As has already been mentioned, the


classic hardening and tempering
structures are formed homogeneously
under the corresponding conditions. The
grain structures produced by BY annealing
consist of more than 80 % fine lamellar
islands of pearlite (sorbite), depending on
the carbon content. A further component of
the grain is ferrite, which surrounds the
pearlite like a net. Such high proportions of
pearlite (sorbite) are more difficult to broach
than structures produced by hardening and
tempering. It is scarcely possible to carry
out any cutting at all by broaching in the
case of a bainitic structure, which can be
produced under specific cooling conditions
with BY-annealing. Unfortunately, the
savings that can be achieved by BYannealing mean that it can be expected
that a higher proportion of components
treated in this way will be encountered for
broaching in the future.

Fig. 29

500:1

C45, tempered martensite

36

2.

Theory of broaching

The grain structure produced in PHFP


steels via BY-annealing to achieve higher
strengths in a more cost-effective way
resemble in terms of their amount of
pearlite normalized unalloyed steels above
approx. 0.6% carbon content. As described
below, excessively high proportions of
pearlite are less meaningful in terms of the
broaching properties, and soft annealing is
recommended instead.
The soft annealed state seems
advantageous if the carbon content
exceeds an proportion of approx. 0.6% in
the case of unalloyed steels. If the steels
have been alloyed, then there is a pressure
towards the use of soft annealing as the
alloying content increases, since both the
increasing strength of the normalized
states and also the increasing amount of
carbide and its distribution make the
broaching process technically and
economically more difficult. In terms of all
the grain structures, within soft annealing
the roughness depends most strongly on
the cutting speed (see Fig. 6). It is
therefore recommended to broach at
cutting speeds either of less than 3 m/min
or more than 20 m/min.

Fig. 30 shows the soft annealed grain


structure of C60W3 unalloyed tool steel. As
the carbon content increases, in a
normalized state strip-like (lamellar streaks)
pearlite with its very hard and brittle
cementite lamellar streaks exist in
increasing quantities, which both increases
the tensile strength and also increases the
wear of the broach. The amount of pearlite
is increased not only by the carbon content
but also by the content of metallic alloying
elements, primarily carbide-forming
elements such as chromium, molybdenum,
tungsten and vanadium. Thus soft
annealing must be recommended for
alloyed steels for carbon contents lower
than 0.6%.

2.

Assuming that flawless heat treatment has


been applied, then it is also necessary to
reckon with the fact that the ideal grain
structure is still not present in many ways
and therefore the consequence will be
differing results. On the basis of our
observations, we refer to a number of
typical instances which provide an
explanation of the difficulties and poor
results encountered when broaching.
In many cases the defect does not lie
within the broach but in deficiencies in the
grain structure and the hardness of the
material to be broached.

Fig. 30
C60W3, granular pearlite (cementite)

500:1

Poor broaching can be expected if the


grain structure is banded. In such cases it
is necessary to reckon with increased
production of built-up edges and their
consequent effects. Above all, when
broaching in the direction of the bands, this
then produces adhesions of the material on
the flanks and the lands to produce
unclean surfaces of the work piece, which
in extreme cases makes the work piece
unusable. Since the banding structure also
reduces the technical properties in the
cross-direction, work pieces with such a
grain structure should be rejected if at all
possible.

37

2.

Theory of broaching

2.
Fig. 31

10:1

15 CrNi6, dendritic structure in crosssection

Fig. 33

Fig. 32

10:1

15 CrNi6, banding structure in longitudinal


section

100:1

15 CrNi6, cross-section
Ferrite, pearlite, dendritic structure

According to the present state of


knowledge, the crystal segregations that
form during the solidifiation of the steel melt
lead to this banding of the grain structure.
This banding structure is produced by the
extension of the globulitic or dendritic
segregated crystals of the cast grain
structure during the hot forming. Fig. 31
shows the dendritic structure of a case
hardening steel (15CrNi6) in a polished
cross-section at 10 x magnification. The
same sample shows a very clear banding
structure in a longitudinal polished section
(Fig. 32).

Fig. 34

100:1

15 CrNi6, longitudinal section


Ferrite, pearlite, banding structure

banding structures in areas of differing


composition vary. Non-metallic inclusions
act as nucleations for the formation of ferrite.
In the example of C45 steel, the differing
formations of the ferrite bands in the pearlitic
matrix can be seen in Figs. 35 and 36.

The same grain structure can be seen in


Figs. 33 and 34 at 100 x magnification in a
polished cross-section and longitudinal
section.

Apart from a low crystal segregation


solidifying of the steel ingots, band-free or
low banding grain structures can be
produced by various methods of heat
treatment. The best method is diffusion
annealing, since the crystal segregation
and thus the cause of the formation of
banding structure is remedied. The type of
diffusion annealing depends on the degree
of deformation and thus on the distance of
the bands. Since this is very expensive,
this generally excludes it in practice.

When cooling down from the austenite


domain, the beginning of the transformation
and the course of the transformation in the

By applying an accelerated continuous


cooling of the steels out of the austenite
domain, in which it is necessary not to go
38

2.

Theory of broaching

2.
Fig. 35

100:1

C45, longitudinal section


Pearlite with ferrite bands

Fig. 37

Fig. 36

100:1

C45, longitudinal section


Pearlite, ferrite, banding structure,
consistently narrow

100:1

34CrAlMo5, hardened and tempered


Tempered martensite with residual ferrite
banding, longitudinal section

below a specific minimum cooling speed,


the banding structure can be prevented or
reduced. This accelerated cooling in the
temperature range of the pearlite
transformation suppresses the diffusion of
carbon and thus an orientated separation.
However, heat treatment of this type does
not remove the causes of this banding
structure, and any subsequent heat
treatment allows these bands to reappear
at once.
The transformation behaviour of the steels
determines when an accelerated
continuous cooling is to be done, since the
intermediate stage must not be crossed
under any circumstances. It is necessary to
prevent an undesired intermediate stage
structure with its disadvantageous effects
on the wear of the tool after cooling-down.
It is necessary to carry out a stepped
cooling-down with isothermic holds in the

Fig. 38

500:1

34CrAlMo5, hardened and tempered


Tempered martensite with residual ferrite
banding, longitudinal section

temperature range of the maximum


transformation speed at the pearlite stage
in the case of alloyed steels that are
reluctant to be transformed. It is cooled
down to this temperature at an accelerated
rate, whereby the final cooling after the end
of transformation can be of any desired
type (e.g., in the air).
A factor that affects the critical coolingdown speed is the size of the austenite
grain, which again depends on the
austenitisation temperature. A higher
temperature makes the austenite coarser
and leads to a better homogenisation of the
austenite. The minimum speed in cooling
can be reduced so as to prevent the
formation of banding structures.
It should be shown in the case of
34CrAlMo5 nitriding steel (Figs. 37 and 38)
how the presence of a banding structure
39

2.

Theory of broaching

can affect the hardened and tempered


grain structure. An excessively low
austenitizing temperature meant that the
remaining ferrite could not be transformed
fully so that the hardened and tempered
structure, which is arranged in bands,
shows large amounts of ferrite.

In the same way, poor broaching conditions


prevail when the pearlite begins to change
over to the granular form (Figs. 40 and 41)
as a result of an excessively low coolingdown speed during normalizing. It is also
necessary to reckon with smearing in such
cases.
The formation of a flawless hardened and
tempered grain structure depends on the
austenitisation temperature and the holding
time at this temperature, the cooling-down
speed, and the right tempering treatment.

Fig. 39

500:1

C15, ferrite with granular pearlite


Structure soft annealed

The soft annealed state (Fig. 39) is


completely unsuited for the broaching
process in the case of steels with a low
carbon content. It is necessary to reckon in
such cases with strong adhesion of the
material to the broaches, which leads to the
usual difficulties.

Fig. 40
15CrNi6, ferrite,
Pearlite transforming to granular form

500:1

2.

The most suitable state however does not


exist if full hardening is not possible due to
the wall thickness of the work pieces. While
the conditions may be good in the outer
zone of the work pieces, there is, however,
a mixed grain structure in the direction
of the core that exhibits alternating
constituents of varying hardnesses on a
case by case basis, and this can be seen
clearly in the results of the broaching.

Fig. 41

500:1

C45, beginning of degeneration of lamellar


pearlite, ferrite

40

2.

Theory of broaching

2.
Fig. 42

100:1

Fig. 43

500:1

C45,
Hardened and tempered, mixed structure

C45,
Hardened and tempered, mixed structure
Ferrite with Widmannsttten structure

Fig. 44

Fig. 45

100:1

CK45, Al-deoxidised
Local growth of grain

A typical mixed grain structure applies with


C45 as per Figs. 42 and 43. Ferrite is still to
be seen in addition to tempered martensite
and sorbite. In practice it is also necessary
to reckon with the increased formation of
built-up edges and thus unclean work piece
surfaces.

100:1

C45, forged state


Sorbite, ferrite as grain boundary

The latter microstructures increase the wear


of the broaches and also affect the surface
quality.

Poor broaching results can also be


observed, if, as for example in Fig. 44, local
growth of the grain size occurs due to
incorrect annealing temperatures and thus
the size of the crystallite shows
considerable variations, if an additional and
distinct overheating grain structure exists, or
the cooling took place so quickly as a result
of locally applicable conditions of various
types at various points so that hardening
spots and sorbite (Fig. 45), etc., were found.
41

2.

Theory of broaching
If the carbon content rises to more than
0.9% in the case of unalloyed steels (the
limit is correspondingly lower in the case of
steels with carbide-forming alloying
elements), then there will also be additional
secondary cementite (Fig. 48) to be found
within the grain structure, the negative
influence of which can only be overcome
by complete soft annealing.
Fig. 46

500:1

18CrNi8, intermediate stage structure,


ferrite, sorbite

As was already mentioned when


discussing banding structures, there is the
risk that when cooling down from the
austenite stage the intermediate stage will
be crossed during the normalizing process
in the case of steels that are reluctant to
transform, as shown in Fig. 46 with a
18CrNi8 steel, for example. This produces
an intermediate stage structure with ferrite,
and to some extent sorbite. This can
produce greatly increased wear of the
broaches. This applies equally for
inadequate soft annealed grain structures
(Fig. 47) in the case of steels which can
only be machined in a soft annealed state
due to their carbon content and their
content of carbide-forming alloying
elements.

Fig. 47
C60W3, pearlite partially still lamellar,
inadequate soft annealed

500:1

2.

There can also be difficulties in broaching


such work pieces that have produced strain
hardening due to local cold forming. This
can occur if blunt tools were used during a
previous cutting operation. The tool teeth
are therefore subject to increased wear
which reduces tool life.
In special cases it is recommended that the
cleanliness of the material to be broached
should be investigated if there is premature
wear of the tool. Slag inclusions in larger
quantities than are permitted place extreme
stress on the broaching tool teeth in
connection with their size and shape. This
applies primarily for oxide inclusion and
silicates, while pure sulphides that can be
recognised by their colour and distribution
shape are advantageous.

Fig. 48

500:1

C110W1, incomplete soft annealed,


pearlite partially still lamellar, grain
boundary cementite

42

2.

Theory of broaching

Modern melting technology has led to


extremely low contents of sulphur (less
than 0.002% S), if no resulphurisation is
done subsequently. Although sulphur is
viewed as harmful to steel, it influences to
a very high extent the cutting property and
thus the broaching ability. A drop in the
sulphur content thus reduces the
machinability significantly, while a minimum
sulphur content of 0.02% S is viewed as
meaningful and is often stipulated in the
company standards for the processing
companies.

2.2.3 Machines and devices

There is a special instance in the broaching


of components for the turbine industry,
which cannot be compared with the normal
mass production situation for the
automotive industry. In this case heatresistant steels and special alloys are
broached during the machining of the slot
profiles of blades in gas turbine disks, and
also to some extent the blades themselves.
Some steels exhibit a martensitic hardened
and tempered grain structure, which can be
subjected to high-speed broaching,
whereby the high Cr-Ni-(Co) and Ni- and
Ti-based alloys have an austenitic
structure. Since the austenite tends to
produce strain hardening during broaching
in the contact zone of the broach teeth,
they can only be broached with extremely
low cutting speeds (2 - 3 m/min). The
broaches used in such cases also use a
specially modified geometry.

Further details about the effects of the


machine and devices can be taken from
section 5.4. Defects when broaching.

The stiffness of the machine and the


devices has a major effect on the broaching
results obtained concerning dimensional
accuracy, surface quality and tool life.
Oscillations vertically to the direction of
broaching are unfavourable, since it not
only produces a reduction in the life of the
tool but also can produce chatter marks on
the broached surface. The influence of
oscillations in the machining direction has
not yet been satisfactory explained.

2.

It should be noted that the broach cutting


edges must start from the very beginning in
the cut and the broach must not slide over
(abrade) the surface to be broached,
otherwise the associated strain hardening
of the austenite would bring the cutting
edges to a premature end.

43

3.

Broaches

3.1.

Introduction

A definition of the broaching process and a


number of basic statements about broaches
was given in sections 1.1 and 2. In addition
DIN 1415, Sheet 1, makes a classification
of tools by the type of surface to be
produced and also gives a listing of the
descriptions of the individual broach types
and details about the tool nomenclature.
There are also the following additional DIN
standard sheets:
DIN 1409

High-speed steel
broaching tools
Technical delivery
conditions

DIN 1416

Broaching tools;
design of tooth and tooth
space 1)

DIN 1417

Pull ends and tail ends of


internal broaches.
DIN 1417 replaces the
old standard DIN 1415,
Pages 3 to 6, which is no
longer applicable for new
designs

DIN 1418

Pullers for broaches with


pull ends and tail ends as
per DIN 1417

DIN 1419

Internal broaches with


interchangeable round
broaching shells

3.2.

Design of broaches and


systematic classification of
commonly used cutting
schematics

Broaches are multi-toothed tools whose


teeth have a designed rise with respect to
the previous teeth. It is possible to
distinguish between the roughing, finishing
and reserve section of the teeth of the
broach. There can be several different
roughing, finishing and reserve sections
within a broach. In the case of profile
broaches there is no finishing section,
since generally the profile is produced by
the minor cutting edges (flanks) of the
teeth. All broaches have a reserve section.

3.

The arrangement of the teeth on a broach


and thus the cutting scheme can be
described as stepping. In principle there
are only two basic types, namely depth
stepping and lateral stepping; all other
types of stepping are combinations or
variations of the two basic types. It is
meaningful to further subdivide the
stepping options, into single or group
steppings according to the type of surface
to be produced through the major or minor
cutting edges. In the definition of the
individual cutting schematics, it is
necessary to proceed on the basis of the
direction of the rise of the teeth as related
to the work piece surfaces.

DIN 8589, Part 5 Manufacturing processes,


cutting; broaching

1) Besides

tooth space the expressions chip


space or gullet are in use.

< Fig. 2b / Page 44

45

3.

Broaches

3.2.1 Single stepping


In most cases depth stepping is made use
of for broach teeth (Fig. 49). The broaching
process is thus similar to plunge-cutting.

Work piece

Last tooth
Rise per tooth
Material removed
in layers

First tooth

3.

Fig. 49
Depth stepping with a broach, cutting schematic

The material is cut off in layers by the


broach cutting edges penetrating vertically
into the surface of the work piece. Since a
large length of cutting edge can be
produced, depending on the profile to be
produced, the total cross-sectional area of
the cut is large despite a relatively small
rise of the teeth. Broaches with depth
stepping can therefore be shorter than
those of other types.
We refer to lateral stepping (Fig. 50) if the
rise of the broach teeth runs parallel to the
surface of the work piece. The main cutting

edges are vertical or at a small angle to the


surface of the work piece. Since the total
cross-sectional area of the cut is small,
depending on the thickness of the layer to
be removed by roughing and the maximum
permissible rise per tooth, a greater
number of teeth is required on the broach
then for depth stepping, which naturally
entails longer broaches.
This form of cutting schematic is used to a
great extent when machining cast surfaces
in order to avoid wear when cutting through
the casting skin.

Work piece

Rise per tooth,


finishing
Finishing in depth stepping
Roughing in lateral stepping
Rise per tooth for roughing
Direction of removal

Last
tooth

First
tooth

Fig. 50
Lateral stepping with a broach, cutting schematic

46

3.

Broaches

Fig. 51

Fig. 52

Cutting schematic when broaching an internal square

Cutting schematic when broaching straight sided


splines

Depth stepping is generally used when


broaching profiles (Figs. 51, 52 and 53). The
minor cutting edges of the broach teeth thus
produce the profile flanks.
In view of the precision that can be attained
and also improvements in surface quality,
the flanks produced by the minor cutting
edges can also be subsequently broached
by finishing teeth in lateral stepping. In this
case one refers to flank cutting finishing.
Both flanks of the profile grooves are
broached at the same time. The width of the
broach teeth must therefore increase
towards the end of the tool. Of course there

3.

must also be reserve teeth. The face angle


of the teeth is approx. 0, but an inclination
angle of 5 to 20 is provided. The clearance
angle is very small to ensure good utilisation
of the tool. The rise of the teeth is in the
range of 0.005 to 0.016 mm.
In the main, broaches with flank-cutting
finishing teeth are used for the manufacture
of ring gear (internal gear) of planetary
gears. The finishing section is generally
utilised in the form of a finishing shell on the
broach body (roughing section).

Fig. 53
Cutting schematic when broaching involute splines

47

Broaches

3.2.2 Group stepping


The main advantages of broaches with
group stepping are a longer life for the tool
and lower specific cutting forces.
It is possible to avoid chatter marks when
broaching larger surfaces which might occur
with normal tools with depth stepping. Here
the larger rise per tooth has a positive
effect in connection with the lower cutting
edge width.
When broaching holes, the advantages of
tools with group stepping are particularly
great with regard to the tool life and less
drifting of the broach when compared to
tools with round cutting teeth as used in
depth stepping.

Rise per tooth

Skip stepping is the most important of


various types of group stepping. In principle
this involves a form of depth stepping.
Two or more teeth of the same height are
grouped together. The last tooth of the
group has an uninterrupted cutting edge,
while the other teeth have a groove profile.
If a group consists of two teeth, then profile
and fully cutting teeth alternate. If there are
more than two teeth, then multiple teeth
have a groove profile. The grooves are
either smaller from tooth to tooth or are
offset with respect to each other.
Depending on the kind of processing task
in hand, the number of tooth groups and
the number of teeth within a group can be
set appropriately.

3.

Direction of broaching

3.

Equal tooth
height

Clearance face
Groove

Fig. 54
Skip stepping in a broach

48

3.

Broaches

There are two further forms of stepping that


can be mentioned, which are listed in
DIN 1415, Sheet 1, Page 3, and which are
only used very occasionally nowadays.
- Wedge stepping as a combination of
depth stepping and lateral stepping was
formerly used frequently in machining cast
parts and has been replaced today by
cemented carbide broaches.
- Multi-skip stepping (also referred to as
rotary cut) was formerly used for
broaching of holes (roughing) especially
having cast or forged surfaces. Due to the
substitution of broaching by high-speed
drilling and turning (with the exception of
finishing), the importance of this type of
stepping has disappeared today, it has
been replaced if necessary by skip
stepping.

3.2.3 Backtaper on broaches


In order to avoid jamming of the flanks in
the part of a profile that has already been
broached, broaches are profile-ground with
a backtaper (Fig. 55). Therefore the
profile on the broach has to be modified.
This ensures that the tooth flanks are
steeper than the flanks of the profile to be
produced. Only the corners of the profile
teeth lie on the profile line. Between the
tooth flanks and the broached flanks is a
wedgeshaped clearance. In other words, a
form of step is broached, but the depth of
the steps is very small and is less than the
roughness produced.

3.
The amount of the backtaper depends on
the type of profile to be broached and also
on the length, stability and material
properties of the work pieces. A larger
amount of backtaper reduces the danger of
jamming of the tool flanks in the work piece
and thus prevents the formation of
adhesions of the material to the flanks of
the teeth to a very large extent, but the tool
can more strongly drift in the case of
internal broaching, which causes profile
deviations. Thus a limit is set (Fig. 55)
concerning the amount of the taper
according to the tolerances required.

Work piece

Rise per tooth

Flank clearance
Too
l an
gle
Wo
rk p
(br
oac iece
a
hin
g p ngle
rofi
le)

Not shown to scale so as to


show the action of the backtaper more clearly

Fig. 55
Backtaper when broaching profiles

49

3.

Broaches

3.2.4 Internal broaches


Internal broaches (Fig. 56) consist of a pull
end, pulling faces to transfer the pulling
force in the puller, the front pilot to centre
the work piece, the toothed section, the
rear pilot to centre the work piece, until the
last tooth is out of contact when broaching,
and the tail end for machine insertion and
removal of the broach into and from the
puller. If a specific position is required for
the profile to be broached with respect to
the work piece, locating faces can be
provided on the pull end and tail end to
prevent twisting.
When broaching internal profiles, the bore
must be broached very often. Either a
separate round broach is used or a profile
broach that has teeth at the beginning for
broaching the bore. In the last case reserve
teeth must also be provided in the round
cutting section. Concentricity of the bore
and the profile is produced by teeth
arranged alternately at the end of the tool
to broach the profile and the bore.

Pull end

Toothed section

Consequently work pieces of a volume that


is too great for cutting can be broached in
only a few operations. The following profile
broaches must be slightly smaller in their
profile dimensions to avoid jamming. If the
steps that are produced in the profile as a
result are not acceptable, the entire profile
must be subsequently calibrated. These
calibration tools either have radially rising
teeth with the final profile dimensions
(depth stepping) or flank-cutting teeth that
have been full form relieved.
For reasons related to the manufacture or
application, broaches made up of several
individual parts are often used. Replaceable
calibration (finishing) shells at the end of a
broach increase the life of the tool above all
for the bore broaching process. It is also
standard practice to attach broach inserts to
a broach holder if this is required for
technical or economical reasons.

3.

Tail end

Tail end neck

Pull end neck


Pulling face

Front pilot

Pull end head

Pilot taper

Tail end head


Rear pilot

Fig. 56
Internal broach

50

3.

Broaches

Broaches for the broaching of internal


helical gearing have ring-shaped tooth
spaces (chip spaces) if the helix angle is
not too large. In relation to the manufacture
and sharpening, ring-shaped cutting edges
are favourable. In the case of helical
broaches with ring-shaped cutting edges,
the chips formed by the resulting angle of
inclination of the main cutting edges press
against a profile flank in the work piece. In
addition, the angle between the face
(cutting edge) and the internal helical
gearing on the acute side is less than 90
by the amount of the helix angle, which
greatly weakens the broach teeth at this
point in the case of larger helix angles. For
these reasons it is necessary to arrange
the tooth spaces (chip spaces) to be
somewhat at right angles, and thus to run
in a spiral in the case of increasing helical
angles.

In the case of larger helix angles and with


tight profile tolerances guided rotation
between the broach and the work piece is
imperative. Either the tool or the work piece
can rotate. If the profile to be broached
permits it, helical-shaped guide grooves
are ground into the broach. The work piece
locator is then connected rigidly with a
guide nut, whereby the rotary motion
between the work piece and the broach is
provided in the broaching stroke.
A further option is the use of a separate
lead bar, since the work piece locator can
be rotated directly during the broaching
stroke via a guide nut and gears or by the
use of a non rotating nut and a broach
puller arranged to rotate, with the broach.

3.

If there are demands made on the


accuracy of the profile none too great, it is
possible to dispense with the compulsory
rotation between the broach and the work
piece with small helical angles. It is,
however, important in such cases that the
edges between the pressure flank (obtuse
side) and the face on the first teeth up to a
broaching depth of approx. 0.5 to 1 mm
have been slightly blunted to favour the
rotation of the work piece with the rotating
work piece locator (prevention of profile
deviations).

51

3.

Broaches

The most modern alternative is represented


by CNC-helical broaching machines, lead
bar and nut are not required.

It is, however, often not easy to design


such broaches in accordance with the task
to be carried out.

To an increasing extent, broaches with


helical-shaped tooth spaces are used for
very short broaching lengths or for
unfavourable hole recesses in the work
piece.

Fig. 57 shows a shape systematic for


existing internal broaches.

This applies likewise for straight and helical


inner profiles. Broaches of this type work
without vibrations and produce a better
tool life as a rule.

3.

Designation

Basic
shape

Basic
shape

8-spline broaches

Keyway broaches
Keyway broaches

Designation

With
reinforced
backs

10-spline broaches
16-spline broaches

Round broaches
Round broaches

With one
face

Other spline
broaches

Round broaches

With two
faces

Involute spline
broaches

DIN
5480

Square broaches

Involute spline
broaches

DIN
5482

Rectangular
broaches

Other involute spline


broaches

Elongated hole
broaches

Serration broaches

Hexagonal
broaches

Other serration
broaches

Bihexagonal
broaches

Helical profile broaches

Other polygonal
broaches

Broach shells

4-spline broaches

Other internal
broaches

DIN
5481

6-spline broaches
Fig. 57
Shape systematic for internal broaches

52

3.

Broaches

3.2.5 Forst full form monoblock broach


for the broaching of ring (internal)
gear
In order to do away with profile errors due
to the drifting of the broach when broaching
high-precision ring gear, finishing shells
with flank-cutting profile teeth are attached
for calibration (finishing) behind the
roughing section of the broach as a rule.
This type of configuration is complicated.

A patented new development is represented


by a broach (full form monoblock broach) in
which each tooth has a flank rise in the
micron range in addition to the depth
stepping. The flanks have the original profile
and are full form relieved. Roughing and
finishing are thus combined. There are no
longer any assembly problems or
associated build errors. Due to this
principle, there are also advantages
concerning wear, since the premature wear
of the corners that is normal in the case of
backtapered tools is almost completely
eliminated (Fig. 60).

3.

Fig. 58

Fig. 60

Backtaper profile

Cutting schematic for full-form monoblock broach

Fig. 59
Profile deviation due to drifting of a broach with
a backtapered profile

53

3.

Broaches

3.2.6 External broaches


In external broaching, broach inserts are
without exception setwise installed in
broach holders which are attached to the
tool slide of the machine. The assembly of
broaches to the holder is done by
screwing-in or clamping. Tapered gibs or
shims permit an adjustment of the
broaches concerning their position and
thus also concerning the dimensions to be
broached.
Normally, complete broach holders are
replaced during a tool change. If extremely
high precision or large heavy broach
holders are being used, it is recommended
that the broach inserts should be replaced
under certain circumstances without
undoing the broach holder from the tool
slide. The type of broach fastening must
depend on the type of changing. It is above
all important in this case that all the screws
can be tightened up according to a
stipulated scheme by means of a torque
wrench in order to avoid dimensional
differences in the broached work piece due
to lack of attention when tightening up. In
many cases it is often advisable to screw
several individual holders directly onto the
tool slide or to attach them to a common
base plate with regard to the tool change or
for design reasons. In the same way, it is
also necessary to use intermediate holders
for specific broach inserts.
The organisation and type of tool change
on external broaching machines is to be
planned carefully, since the time required in
terms of work sequence-related downtime
adversely affects the level of utilisation of a
unit. The measuring of broach holders with
sharpened inserts outside of the machine
must be carried out with extreme care in
the same way as setting up these holders
on the machine in order to avoid scrap and
increased downtime.

Quick clamping systems in connection with


tool changing systems of various types not
only greatly reduce the tool changing times
but also make a significant contribution to
increasing work security. The exact
positioning of the broach holders can be
controlled by air jets, which ensures a
maximum amount of reproducibility of the
position of the broach holder on the tool
slide in connection with clamping forces
that are always constant.
If the broaches had previously been
checked and fine-adjusted with suitable
measuring means concerning installation
into the broach holder, it is possible to
change the complete tool device without
dimensional problems for the work pieces.

3.

The title illustration of the next section (4.)


shows an automatic change of broach
holder by the vertical movement of the tool
carriage. In the downwards movement the
broach holder is placed on to the transport
carriage, and by the upwards movement
the broach holder is extracted, pulled up,
aligned and clamped.
In sections 2.1.2 and 2.2.1, there are a
number of explanations about broaches
with cemented carbide cutting edges. A
number of notes should, however, be made
here concerning the design factors.
In general, a distinction is made between
soldered broaches and those with clamped
cemented carbide inserts. Soldered
broaches with cemented carbide cutting
edges invariably are of multi-toothed form
in the same way as for those made of highspeed steel. The pitch from tooth to tooth
cannot be selected to be so close as for
broaches made of high-speed steel, since
there must be sufficient material to support
the inserts and the thickness of the inserts
means that the tooth pitch must be
correspondingly increased.

54

3.

Broaches

For reasons of economy, broaches with


inserts, where they can be used for
technical reasons, are to be preferred to
soldered ones. An effort is made on cost
reasons to make use of standardised
inserts; but it is only possible to resort to
special dimensions on a case by case
basis. It should be said in conclusion that
there are a large number of various types
of clamping mechanisms used for broaches
with changeover inserts. The main points of
view in the selection of the clamping
system are quick and simple handling in
the case of insert change, secure location
of the inserts and also avoidance of
distortion of the body under the effect of the
clamping forces.

Description

Basic form

Straight
square cut
Straight
square cut

Square
angular cut

with
notch
and
chamfer

with
notch
and
chamfer

with
notches

Double
angle cut
Double
angle cut

Description

with
notches

Basic form
with
notches

Parallel
angular cut
Parallel
angular cut

with
notches

Square
angular cut

opposite

Square
angular cut

opposite

Convex
arc cut
Convex
arc cut

Double
square cut
Double
square cut

3.

Triple
square cut

Straight
angular cut
Straight
angular cut
Square
angular cut

The systematic in Fig. 61 gives information


about the main forms of external broaches
used.

with
notches

Concave
arc cut
Concave
arc cut

with
notches

Safety
lock profile

with
notches

Other external
broaches

with
notches

Parallel
cut
Parallel
cut

(or component
parts)

Triple
square cut
Fig. 61
Form chart for external broaches

55

3.

Broaches

3.3.

Cutting materials

Broaches made out of high-alloyed tool


steels with high amounts of chrome are still
used for specific applications. These steels
are not, however, as good as high-speed
steels in terms of resistance to wear, and
also they do not have sufficient red
hardness (resistance to tempering). The
vast majority of broaches are therefore
produced from high-speed steels (HSS)
produced in various ways and chemical
composition. In the meantime, and also for
reasons of simplifying procurement, a
restriction to a small number of types has
been carried out. Although in the past there
was a significantly greater variety of highspeed steels that were used, it has been
found that a specific range of alloying
options was adequate to cover the
performance requirements of broaches. If
the customer regulations do not stipulate
specific grades of high-speed steels, the
selection is done on the basis of the
experience of the broach manufacturer.
High-speed steels are high-alloyed
ledeburitic tool steels which have been
subjected to secondary hardening. They
include alloying elements Cr, Mo, W and V
as carbide-forming agents, which function
on the one hand as a resistance to wear,
and on the other hand they also limit the
growth of the grain and permit hardening
temperatures close to the melting point. A
specific proportion of carbides are solved
(solid solution) in the hardening and thus
the matrix is additionally enriched, which
gives them their high red hardness and
allows tempering temperatures up to
580C.
In addition, high-speed steels additionally
alloyed with (non-carbide-forming) cobalt
produce a further increase in the matrix
and red hardness.

In the case of ingot cast high-speed steels,


a cast ingot is pressed out as the initial
material and semi-finished products are
forged in round and flat sections, and are
also rolled and drawn for specific
dimensions and quantities. Only a specific
maximum ingot size and ingot length can
be produced for metallurgical reasons
(including ingot and crystal segregation),
from which sections of a restricted length
are subjected to three-dimensional
pressing, which permits a forging reduction
ratio that is still adequate. In particular in
the case of longer blanks with a diameter of
more than approx. 160, e.g., for large
broaches, three-dimensional hot-forming is
no longer possible and thus we have a
lower forging reduction ratio with the
consequences of negative effects on the
micro-grain structure. In addition to a
marked carbide banding structure, these
also have a coarser primary carbide and a
less fine grain. As the dimensions of semifinished products become less, it is
possible to achieve a higher forging
reduction ratio, which produces better
carbide distribution and lower carbide sizes
and also a finer initial grain.

3.

When producing sintered high-speed steels,


a stream of melted metal is sprayed out of
nozzles from the melt in inert gas. Fine
particles in the shape of molten spheres
with a diameter of approx. 0.1 - 0.8 mm are
produced. Due to the very rapid cooling,
they do not segregate and thus have an
ideal carbide size and carbide distribution
and also an extremely fine grain. The
powder produced in this way is filled into
prefabricated sheet metall cases which are
welded in a vacuum. The subsequent
manufacturing steps are cold and hot
compacting (sintering by hot isostatic
pressing = HIP).

Concerning the type of production, a


distinction is made between ingot cast and
sintered high-speed steels.

56

3.

Broaches

In this way it is also possible to produce


tubular cross-sections of practically any
desired dimension, which are only limited
by the size of the HIP (hot isostatic press).
High-speed steels which have only been
sintered can be used in this form for tubular
large broaches, while smaller full crosssections can be hot-formed to a semifinished product.
Due to an even and fine-grained
microstructure resulting from this type of
production, high-speed steels produced by
sintering can be better ground than
conventional steels of the same alloy
composition but are significantly more
expensive. Thus the use of sintered cutting
materials is not always justified when
broaching unalloyed steels with low cutting
speeds. Whether the use of sintered highspeed steels is justified, i.e., whether
longer tool lives can be expected, must be
decided on a case by case basis when
broaching.

3.

Cobalt-free high-speed steels are often


used also for cutting speeds up to
24 m/min for work piece strengths of up to
approx. 700 N/mm 2 . In case of higher
strengths (hardened and tempered
condition, BY-annealed or an austenitic
grain structure), cutting materials
containing cobalt are to be prefered in view
of their high red hardness.
Determination of the type of high-speed
steel consequently depends on the
conditions for use, such as cutting speed,
material and its heat treatment and also the
resulting grain structures and strengths.

57

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

In order to allow the planning engineer to


be in a position to determine approximately
the necessary values for the broaching
process, the following calculations have
been provided. The values provide the
basis for the design of the tool, the size of
the machine and the performance of the
unit.
Summary of formula values
l
b
H
H1

mm
mm
mm
mm

H2

mm

h1
h2
x
AK
t1
t2
c
e
r
a2
a2.1
a2.2
a2.3
z
z1
z2
z3
zE

mm
mm
mm
mm2
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm

kc
Fc
Fw
s
Amin

N/mm2
N, kN
N, kN
mm
mm2

Zmax N/mm2
Zzul N/mm2

Fig. 62

Length of cut
Width of cut
Thickness of the layer to be removed
Thickness of the layer to be removed by
roughing
Thickness of the layer to be removed by
finishing
Rise per roughing tooth
Rise per finishing tooth
Chip space factor 1)
Chip space cross-section
Pitch of the roughing teeth
Pitch of finishing and reserve teeth
Depth of the chip space
Thickness of the tooth back
Radius of the cutting face
Length of the toothed section
Length of the roughing teeth section
Length of the finishing teeth section
Length of the reserve teeth section
Total number of teeth
Number of roughing teeth
Number of finishing teeth
Number of reserve teeth
Max. number of teeth in contact
during broaching
Specific cutting force
Cutting force
Required pulling force at the broach
Stroke
Smallest cross-section on the
broach
Max. tensile stress in the broach
Permissible tensile stress in the
broach

4.

1) Besides

chip space the expressions


tooth space or gullet are in use.

< Fig. 2c / Page 58

59

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

4.1.

Calculation of broaches

Working out the design of broaches


covers determination of the basic design
parameters.

Characteristic

Parameter affected

Explanation
in section

Basic layout and design

Design principle, machine

4.1.1

Cutting schematic

Work piece precision,


geometrical tolerances

4.1.2

Material

4.1.3

Rise per tooth

Work piece geometry, material

4.1.4

Size of chip space

Length of cut, conditions of use

4.1.5

Tooth pitch

Size of chip space, tooth action behaviour

4.1.6

Cutting forces

Material, tool geometry

4.1.7

Calculation of stresses

Cutting forces, tool geometry

4.1.8

Selection of tooth geometry

4.
4.1.1 Basic design
The selection of the basic design is
determined by the requirements of the work
pieces, the connecting dimensions and the
working principle of the broaching machine
and also the production facilities for the
broaches. A number of important notes are
given here as an example:

Parameter affected

Broach configuration

Work piece dimensions

Single- or multiple-part configuration

Work piece precision

Replaceable parts subject to wear

Connecting dimensions

Tool lengths, connecting elements

Working principle

Pull-type broaching, push-type broaching

Production facilities

Economy of operation of the design chosen

60

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

4.1.2 Cutting schematic


A main advantage of broaching is the fact
that the quality of the broaching and the
work performance is unaffected by outside
factors to a very large extent and depends
on the broach itself. The cutting schematic
and the design of the toothing thus have a
corresponding importance.
A number of notes are given here too:

Parameter affected

Cutting schematic, tooth design

Work piece tolerances

Roughing and finishing operations, reserve sections,


depth stepping, lateral stepping, calibration teeth,
replaceable cutting elements

Location tolerances

Pilot teeth, alternate cutting teeth,


stabilising cutting principles

Surface quality

Finishing section design

Shape of cutting edges

Internal broaches: ring-shaped, helical.


External broaches: straight-toothed, inclined-toothed

4.

61

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

4.1.3 Tooth geometry


Finding the optimum tooth geometry is part
of the classic form of investigation for each
instance of optimisation of each tool which
has been especially designed for the
individual application. The values given in
the following table should therefore only be
taken as guideline values and can only be
regarded as suitable for initial design.

Material to be
broached

Tensile strength
Rm

Cutting
speed

Face angle

Clearance angle

Cutting
material

N/mm

vc
m/min

Degrees

Degrees

Type

Unalloyed steels;
C < 0.15%

Up to 400

... 6

18...25

2...4

HSS

Case-hardening
steels

400 up to 700

... 8
...24

15
18...22

2
2...3

HSS
HSS-E

Heat-treatable
steels

700 up to 950
900 up to 1200

... 8
... 24
... 8

15
15...20
15...18

2
2..3
2

HSS
HSS-E
HSS-E

Martensitic
Austenitic

... 30
... 4

15...18
12...18

2
2..4

PM 30, HSS-E
T15, PM60

Cast steel

... 8
... 24

15
18...22

2
2...3

HSS
HSS-E

Nodular cast iron

... 8
... 24

15
18...22

2
2...3

HSS
HSS-E

Grey cast iron

... 60

8...12

HSS, cemented
carbide, HSS-E

Malleable cast iron

... 6

15

HSS

Non-ferrous
metals

...60

12...25

1...4

HSS

Aluminium alloys

... 60

12...25

1...4

HSS

High-alloy
Cr-Ni steels

4.

62

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

4.1.4

Rise per tooth

The basic requirements for the selection of the rise per tooth are as follows:
Material producing long chips
Chips that curl well

->
->

lower rise per tooth


higher rise per tooth

High strength of material


Medium strength of material

->
->

lower rise per tooth


higher rise per tooth

Low cutting speed


High cutting speed

->
->

higher rise per tooth


lower rise per tooth

Rise of teeth for broaching (m)

Material
to be broached

Tensile
strength

Cutting
speed

Round broaching

Profile broaching

N/mm2

Unalloyed steels;
C < 0.15%

m/min

Roughing

Finishing

Roughing

Finishing

Roughing

Finishing

Up to 400

... 6

15...20

5...10

30...80

5...10

30...100

5...10

Case-hardening
steels

400 up to 700

... 8
...24

15...20

4...8

30...70

4...8

30...120

5...12

Heat-treatable
steels

700 up to 950

... 8
... 24

15...20
12...16

4...8

30...70
30...50

4...8

30...120
30...80

5...12

900 up to 1200

... 8

15...20

4...8

30...70

4...8

30...80

5...12

Martensitic
Austenitic

... 30
... 4

12...16

4...8

30...70
30...50

4...8

30...80
30...70

5...12

... 8

15...20

4...8

30...70

4...8

30...120

5...12

... 24

12...16

... 8

15...20

... 24

12...16

Grey cast iron

... 60

20...30

10...15

30...80

10...15

50...160

10...20

Malleable cast iron

... 6

15...20

4...8

30...70

4...8

30...120

5...12

Non-ferrous
metals

...60

20...30

10...15

30...80

10...15

50...160

10...20

Aluminium alloys

... 60

20...30

10...15

30...80

10...15

50.160

10...20

High-alloy
Cr-Ni steels
Cast steel

Nodular
cast iron

30...50
4...8

30...70

External broaching

4.

30...80
4...8

30...50

30...120

5...12

30...80

63

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

4.1.5 Chip space size


The required chip space cross section Ak is
calculated from the rise per tooth h, the
length of cut l and the safety factor for chip
space x as per the formula
Ak = h x l x x
The safety factor for chip space x takes into
consideration that the chips curl when
machining most types of materials and thus
require a larger amount of space than the
actual volume cut per tooth, and above all,
that there may be several chips within a
chip space for safety reasons especially for
use in high-volume mass production.
Aim for the maximum values of the table
when broaching with increased cutting
speeds.

4.

Chip space factor x


Tool type

Small production runs

Large production runs

Material

Material

Forms short chips

Forms long chips

Forms short chips

Forms long chips

Round broaches

12...18

14...20

12...18

14...20

Profile broaches

4...7

6...8

8...10

10...12

Flat broaches

4...6

6...8

8...10

10...12

External broaches

6...8

8...10

8...10

10...12

64

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

4.1.6 Selection of the chip space


The tooth pitch for chip spaces as per
DIN 1416 can be calculated from the chip
space cross-section on the basis of the
formula
__

______

t = 2,3 x h x l x x = 2,3 x Ak
On the basis of the theoretical pitch
calculated in this way, select the pitch that
is as close as possible for subsequent
design work from the following table.
It is advantageous to select a chip space
as per DIN 1416, since in most cases the
necessary grinding wheels and tools are
available for this.

Design of cutting teeth and chip space (with respect to DIN 1416)
Chip space cross section

Pitch

Depth of chip space

Tooth back thickness

Radius of cutting face

Ak

1.5

2.8

0.9

1.9

3.2

1.1

2.2

3.5

1.2

1.1

3.1

1.4

1.2

3.8

4.5

1.6

1.4

4.8

1.8

1.6

5.7

5.5

1.8

6.8

2.2

9.0

2.5

2.2

12.0

2.8

2.5

15.0

3.2

2.8

19.0

10

3.6

3.2

22.5

11

3.6

30.0

12.5

4.5

36.0

14

4.5

48.0

16

5.6

60.0

18

6.3

5.6

76.0

20

7.1

6.3

90.0

22

7.1

120.0

25

0.6

4.

0.8

1.25

1.6

2.5

3.2

65

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

Unequal pitches (excerpt from Forst standard sheet F-167 page 19))
Nominal tooth pitch

Individual pitch sequence

Cumulative pitch

t1

t2

t3

ts

2.8

3.5

3.2

2.8

9.5

3.2

3.5

3.2

10.7

3.5

4.5

3.5

12

4.5

13.5

4.5

5.5

4.5

15

5.5

16.5

5.5

5.5

18.5

21

24

10

27

11

10

30

10

12.5

11

10

33.5

11

14

12.5

11

37.5

12.5

16

14

12.5

42.5

14

18

16

14

48

16

20

18

16

54

18

22

20

18

60

20

25

22

20

67

22

28

25

22

75

25

32

28

25

85

The nominal pitch is given as per DIN 1416.


The depths of the chip spaces, thicknesses
of the tooth back and radii of the chip
space are to be selected according to the
nominal pitch.
The length of the toothed section of a
broach can be determined from the number
of the teeth required and the individual
tooth pitch values. The total of the values
for rise per tooth must correspond to the
thickness of the layer H to be removed by
broaching. The number of reserve teeth
varies between 3 and 9.

Layer to be
removed by
broaching

H divided into
H1 and H2

Roughing

z1 = H1 / h1

Finishing

z2 = H2 / h2

Reserve section

z3 = 3...9

Toothed section
length

a2 = z1 x t1 + (z2 + z3) x t2
t2 is often set as
equal to t1

4.

66

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

4.1.7 Cutting forces


The total length of an internal broach can
be calculated from the sum of the individual
lengths as shown in DIN 1415, Sheet 1.
Length of pull end

Length of front
pilot

l1 determined from
DIN 14151) or
DIN 1417
a1 at least equal to
the broach length
or the work piece
height

The following formula can be used to


determine the pulling force Fw applied to
the broach
Fw =

b x h x zE x kc

total cutting width of a


cutting tooth

rise per tooth

kc

specific cutting force

zE

maximum number of teeth


coming into contact during
broaching (broach length /
pitch) rounded up to the next
integer

Toothed section length a2 as stated above


Length of rear
pilot

a3 approx. 1/3 of
the broaching
length

Length of tail end

l2 determined from
DIN 14151) or
DIN 1417

1)

A safety factor of 1.25 to 1.4 must be taken


into consideration when calculating the
pulling force, due to the broach becoming
blunt.
The specific cutting force depends greatly
on the type of material to be cut and the
rise per tooth.

DIN 1415 is not for new designs

4.
The following table gives guideline values
for the most important types of steel.

Material

Specific cutting force kc (N/mm2) for tooth rise


h=0.02 mm

h=0.05 mm

h=0.10 mm

10 S 20
C 15
16 Mn Cr 5
18 Cr Ni 8

2.000
2.800
2.700
2.800

1.700
2.600
2.300
2.400

1.500
2.400
2.000
2.100

St 52-3 N
C 35 V
C 45 N
C 45 V

2900
2.800
2.900
3.000

2400
2.400
2.400
2.700

2000
2.100
2000
2.500

31 Cr Mo V 9 V
34 Cr Mo 4 V
42 Cr Mo 4 V

2.900
3.000
3.100

2.500
2.600
2.700

2.200
2.200
2.300

100 Cr 6
X 10 Cr Ni Ti 18 9

4.200
3.600

3.500
3.000

3.100
2.600

67

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

The values given in the table correspond to


the upper limit of the scatter range. They
are based on a cutting speed of approx.
5 m/min and cutting angles of approx. 15
and broaching oil as a metalworking fluid.
They are therefore only to be regarded as
approximate values, since on the one hand
there is a whole series of additional
influences that can occur in individual
cases, such as metalworking fluid, work
piece elasticity, the actual structure of the
grain, coating of the tool and the cutting
speed, which must likewise be taken into
consideration.

4.1.8 Calculation of tensile stress


A calculation of the tensile stress arising
from the pulling force and the tool crosssection is essential above all in the case of
internal broaches.

4.

Zmax = Fw x (1,25 to 1,4) / A min < Zzul


A value of 250 N/mm2 may not be exceeded
as the permissible tensile stress for
broaches made of high-speed steel.
The following table gives information about
the permissible pulling force on broach pull
ends as per DIN 1417.

68

4.

Notes on tool design and machine planning

Round pull ends as per DIN 1417 shapes J and K with inclined pulling face
Nominal diameter
d1 (mm)

Length of pull end


l1 (mm)

Max. permissible load


(N)

4
4.5
5

180
180
180

1.600
2.000
2.500

5.5
6
7

180
180
180

3.200
4.000
5.000

8
9
10

180
180
180

6.300
8.000
10.000

11
12
14

180
180
180

12.000
16.000
20.000

16
18
20

180
180
180

25.000
32.000
40.000

22
25
28

180
180
200

50.000
63.000
80.000

32
36
40

200
220
220

100.000
120.000
160.000

45
50
56

250
250
280

200.000
250.000
320.000

63
70
80

280
320
320

400.000
500.000
630.000

90
100

360
360

800.000
1.000.000

4.

69

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

5.1.

Broaching machines

The operating manuals include detailed


descriptions about setting up, troubleshooting and the various operating modes,
safety instructions and other operating
information on broaching machines.
General details would not be helpful, due to
the wide variety of different configurations
and designs for broaching machines.

5.2.

Cooling and lubrication when


broaching

5.2.1 Basic principles of cooling and


lubrication when broaching
The use of a suitable metalworking fluid is
important to achieve better surface quality
and longer tool life. The metalworking fluid
must fulfill a number of different tasks:
a) Removal off the cutting heat;
b) Lubrication to reduce the friction
between the tool and the curling chip
and between the tool and the work
piece;
c) Reduction of cold welding of the
material onto the flanks and lands of the
tool teeth and also suppressing the
formation of built-up edges on the
faces;
d) Lubrication of sliding parts in the area of
the flow of metalworking fluid such as
the guide bars and work piece slides in
chain broaching machines or lubrication
of tools that slide in tool holders. The
latter is always the case during external
broaching on internal broaching
machines or when broaching keyways
with a flat broach;
e) Removal of chips from tools and
devices on the machine table.

The cutting heat must be removed off so


that the tools and work pieces do not heat
up too much. This is in the interest of tool
life, work piece surface quality and for
dimensional compliance when broaching.
Intensive cooling can also completely or
partially suppress the creation of built-up
edges. An adequate degree of lubrication
also increases tool life as a result of a
reduction of friction. At the same time, the
broaching results can also be favourably
influenced.
The geometry of the chip formation does
not permit the formation of a wedgeshaped lubricating film. In addition the
surface pressures and temperatures in the
contact zone between the sliding chip and
the cutting faces of the tool are so high that
hydro-dynamic lubrication is not possible.
Due to their polar interaction, fatty oils
increase the wetting and lubrication
capability. Forming a lubricating film onto
the metal surface by adsorption, they
provide an adequate lubricating effect at
pressures and temperatures that are not
too high. They are effective at temperatures
from 20C up to around 180C. In this case
fatty acids are more effective than neutral
fatty oils.
If the surface pressures increase, then
activated cutting fluids using phosphorous
and sulphur compounds are used. These
EP additives become chemically active at
higher pressures and correspondingly
higher temperatures. They form solid and
self-renewing reaction layers (metal salts)
on the metal surface. They reduce or
prevent the direct contact of the metal
peaks and thus reduce friction on account
of their reaction layers. The temperature at
which the salts are formed depends on the
chemical composition of the substances
that contain phosphorous or sulphur. In
principle, the additives should only react
with the materials involved under cutting
conditions and should have a neutral form
of behaviour with respect to all materials at

5.

< Fig. 2d / Page 70

71

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

room temperature with which they come


into contact during actual operation. Fluids
containing sulphur can discolour nonferrous heavy metals, if they do not contain
inhibitors or copper inactive sulphur
compounds. The most reactive substances
forming films are metal phosphates and
metal sulphides.
The temperatures differ at the various points
of a working broach tooth. The highest
pressure can be found on the cutting surface
directly below the cutting edge. The flanks
and clearance faces of the tooth are subject
to lower surface pressures. A suitable
metalworking fluid must therefore include
different kinds of additives which take effect
at different temperatures. Higher
requirements are placed on the metalworking
fluid when broaching at higher cutting
speeds.
Cutting oils, miscible oils or to some extent
synthetic water-based products can also be
used. It must however be said that it is
barely possible to use water-based
metalworking fluids for high-speed
broaching. Broaching oils are to be
preferred due to their better lubricating
action.

5.2.2 Water-miscible metalworking fluids


In addition to their better flushing
properties, water-miscible metalworking
fluids have the advantage of better cooling
performance compared to cutting oils due
to the higher heat conductivity and specific
heat capacity of the water. Metalworking
fluids that are suitable for broaching include
EP additives. They are known under the
description of water-miscible high-pressure
or high-performance metalworking fluids.
The proportion of the concentrate in the
emulsion should be 10 - 15%. It is
recommended that the concentration
should be checked daily by means of a

refractometer and weekly for its condition


(pH value, concentration, amount of
bacteria and fungi, etc.).
A number of points should be noted when
using water-miscible metalworking fluids to
avoid operational problems if at all
possible. The concentrate is always stirred
into the water. The other way around
should never be done, as otherwise it is not
necessarily possible to emulsify the fluid.
The water used for emulsions should have
a hardness of 10 to 20 dH (German
hardness). Extremely hard water (>25 dH)
precipitates calcium compounds from
emulsions which adversely affect the
stability of the emulsion. This can form a
cream and ultimately even oil on the top of
the liquid. The emulsion tends to foam in
the case of soft water (<5 dH), especially
at higher flow speeds. This can be dealt
with by using a foam suppressant or by
hardening the water. Defoamers are very
effective, but have a limited period of
action. After a longer period of use of the
coolant, its tendency to foaming diminishes
which can be due to the emulsion
becoming contaminated with leaking oil,
chips and dust. Under certain circumstances
it is advisable to increase the hardness of
the water with suitable salts (e.g., calcium
acetate). It should further be noted that the
water to be used for the emulsion should
be clean and chemically neutral (pH value
6.5 - 7.5). Do not use rainwater or well
water, since there is the risk of bacteria
being brought in.

5.

In addition to the other components for


protection against corrosion in a watermiscible metalworking fluid, the alkalinity
(pH value) is significant for reliable
protection against corrosion. It should be
between 8.7 and 9.5 when machining
ferrous metals. For non ferrous metals the
metalworking fluid must be inhibited to
prevent black staining. At higher pH values
than 9.5, skin irritations may occur.

72

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

The pH value should be determined using


pH indicator paper, pH indicator sticks or a
pH electrode with pH meter. An excessively
low pH value is generally the consequence
of an increase in bacteria, and it is
necessary to kill off the bacteria by means
of a bactericide. The metalworking fluid
must be changed if this measure does not
have success.
It is recommended that the machines and
all the piping are thoroughly cleaned. Begin
this by adding 1-2% of a system cleaner to
the metalworking fluid in use 24 to 48 hours
before the disposal. After that flush with a
1% cooling solution to which bactericide
has been added to kill off the remaining
bacteria. If there is a central system, the
metalworking fluid should be circulated at
certain intervals to prevent the formation of
microorganisms during a shutdown. The
various metalworking fluid manufacturers
will give instructions about the use and the
maintenance of the relevant emulsions.
Synthetic metalworking fluids tend to form
deposits with hard water and may cause
corrosion in the spray area of the machine.
In addition the hose and sealing materials
can likewise also be strongly affected. It is
essential to contact the machine and
metalworking
fluid
manufacturers
beforehand in such cases.

the teeth of the broach, which should be


taken into consideration when selecting a
broaching oil.
When broaching helical profiles or profiles
in thin-walled elastic work pieces, it is
possible that high pressures will be exerted
on the profile flanks of the broach teeth
which require effective lubrication by
suitable additives in the oil. In this case,
primarily fatty acids and fatty oils are
required or EP additives, which are
effective at relatively low temperatures.
The cutting speed has a considerable
influence on the composition of the cutting
oil. The cutting temperatures also increase
as the cutting speed increases, which must
be taken into consideration in every case. It
must be emphasised once again that the
activity of an oil must be matched to the
relevant conditions.
In order to obtain a good flushing effect to
remove chips from tools and devices, today
we generally use low-viscosity oils with
regard to a good cooling performance,
which also have the further advantage that
they penetrate more easily into capillary
spaces between the tool and the work
piece.The viscosity should be if at all
possible 20 - 40 mm 2 /s at 40C. The
adequate and targeted supply of the
metalworking fluid to the tool and the
workpieces is of great importance.

5.

5.2.3 Broaching oils


5.2.4 General
Broaching oils are metalworking fluids that
are not soluble in water and are generally
based on mineral oil, which primarily include
EP additives in addition to fatty oils and fatty
acids. The type and concentration of the
active agents depends on the composition,
the strength and the micro-structure of the
materials and also the cutting speed and
type of profile to be broached.
The micro-structure of the materials and
also their strength and toughness in
connection with the chemical composition
affect the pressures and temperatures at

Solid lubricants such as graphite,


molybdenum sulphide or the like are not
soluble in oil and have no advantages.
Cutting fluids are strongly affected by
lubricating and hydraulic oils and
lubricating greases. It should be pointed
out specifically at this point that normal non
or less activated soluble or neat oils are not
recommended due to the difficult cutting
conditions.

73

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Fig. 63

5.

Fig. 64

74

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

5.3. Care and maintenance of broaches


5.3.1 Storing broaches
In order to attain perfect results when
broaching, the actual broaches should be
protected against all types of damage. Very
often the tools are simply put into one
corner without any thought at the site or are
transported in an inappropriate manner, and
it is very easy to damage the teeth if they
knock against each other in such cases. It is
therefore strongly recommended to store
broaches separately to prevent them from
knocking against each other or against
other hard objects. Tool stands or tool
cabinets can be used, according to the
working situation.

5.3.2 Determining the end of the tool life


of broaches
The end of the tool life of a broach can be
determined on the basis of various criteria.
The wear of the broach produces an
increase in the pulling force in addition to a
worsening of the broached surface. In
general, an increase in pulling force of 25
to 40% constitutes the criteria for the end of
the life of the tool, unless the broach has to
be reground earlier due to an excessive
degree of worsening of the surface quality
of the work pieces. Above all in the case of
internal broaching, a blunt tool expands the
work pieces elastically so the broached
profile may be too small at the end of the
broaching operation. Dimensional compliance
can also determine the end of the tool life.

If cold welding has taken place on the


lands and flanks of the broach teeth, the
broached surfaces will not be clean and the
pulling force increases. It can also produce
an expansion of the work pieces during
internal broaching, which means that under
certain circumstances the broached profiles
can be too small. Adhesions on the flanks
lead to tearing-out on the work piece
surface.
Tears are formed during broaching if a
tooth has been damaged in this way by
being hit by another hard object so that a
sharp burr is formed. Hard inclusions in the
material of the work pieces can also break
off the cutting edge in the same way as for
knocking against a hard object. If further
broaching is done with the tool, material is
deposited at the breakage point; this
produces wedge-shaped tearing-out on the
work piece surface which become broader
at the outlet. This build-up of the material
often leads to over-stressing of the tooth
which can therefore break off. The teeth
behind it will therefore also break or are
severely damaged if it does not even bring
about the breakage of the entire broach.
If an internal broach jams inside a work
piece, then under no circumstances should
the tool be pulled out forcibly. Turning right
up to the tool teeth and careful separation if
there is no more jamming at the tooth
flanks allows the work piece to be removed
while preventing damage to the teeth.

5.

Apart from the constant control of the


broached work pieces, the broach itself
should be examined. Worn lands on the
clearance faces of the teeth that are more
than 0.3 mm in width, chipping and flaking
of the cutting edges, striations in the tooth
head and excessive rounding-off of the
cutting edge indicate the end of the tool life.

75

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

5.3.3 Maintenance of broaches


a. Round and round-profiled broaches
First of all, the tool must be checked for run
out. Run outs of more than 0.03 mm means
that the tool must be straightened. For
straightening the tool is supported on the
convex side while the tool is stretched on
one side by blows from an straightening
chisel which is placed in the tooth gaps on
the concave side (forming compression
stresses). The chisel is to be held in such a
way that there is no contact with the cutting
edge, which could cause damage. The
straightening chisel may not have any
sharp edges but must be completely
rounded off so that a notch effect and a
stress concentration does not break the
tool (Fig. 65).

The tooth flanks can be stoned with a fine


oil stone if material welding has taken place.
In the case of profiles with straight flanks a
triangle stone can be used, one whose
edges must have a larger rounding-off
radius than the basic profile of the tools. If
the profiles in the groove base are pointed
as in the case of serrations, then the
oilstone must have an angle approximately
5 more acute than the flank gap. In the
case of flank profiles that are not straight
the stone first cuts on the base and is then
rolled off on the flanks by moving it to and
fro. It should be noted once again that the
corners between the flanks and the cutting
edges must not be rounded off
(Fig. 66).

5.

Fig. 65

76

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Fig. 66

If the corners between the flanks and the


cutting edges have been rounded off
(corner wear), the tools must be cylindrical
ground while preserving the rise per tooth.
The cutting edge taper is shifted totally to
the rear; the first teeth retain the same
diameter as the front pilot, while one or two
reserve teeth can be brought into the
cutting edge taper. If the broach has chip
breaker grooves, then the reserve teeth
used for the cutting task must also have
chip breaker grooves. The first tooth with
the final dimension for the diameter has
chip breaker grooves in this case. A tool
can be retapered as many times as desired
until only two teeth have the same diameter
at the end, of which the last one may not
have any chip breaker grooves. Profile
broaches primarily have at the end no chip
breaker grooves so that only one tooth with
the nominal dimension may remain. If
necessary, the existing chip breaker
grooves must be ground deeper. If a tooth
has been broken off or shows damaged
corners, then it should be ground to the
same dimensions as the previous one and
the rise of the following teeth must be
corrected.

In order not to have to grind off too much


from the face during the sharpening in the
case of excessively broad lands on the
clearance face of the broaches - the broach
teeth cannot be sharpened often enough in
this case - it is recommended that the
clearance faces should likewise be ground.
Back off grinding is necessary if the cutting
edge taper has been reground. The
clearance faces should be marked
beforehand with a suitable form of
colouring so that it is possible to precisely
check the widths of the remaining lands. If
necessary, the chip breaker grooves should
also be ground deeper.

5.

Next, sharpening is done between centers


by rotating the broach (Fig. 67).

77

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Fig. 67

The grinding wheel profile must match the


face radius of the teeth. The wheel is free
from the transition of this radius to the
upper part of the face. Peripheral grinding
is done below this point, and cross-grinding
above it, since the grinding wheel touches
the upper part of the cutting face outside
the plane on which the center lines of the
broach and the grinding spindle lie. If the
grinding wheel profile protrudes over the
cutting edge, which means peripheral
grinding up to the cutting edge, it would not
be possible to produce sharp cutting edges
or an exact face angle of the tool due to
wear of the wheel.

If the grinding wheel axis does not cut the


center line of the broach, i.e. the wheel is
out of center, cross-grinding is not done but
instead arc-grinding is used. Experts prefer
arc-grinding to cross-grinding. Due to the
formation of burrs, it is important in this
case that the grinding wheel cuts at the
point at which it dips into the chip space, as
seen by the rotation, in other words, the
direction of grinding runs from the cutting
edge to the base of the tooth.
When sharpening round tools, the face
angle, the setting angle of the grinding
wheel and the diameter of the grinding
wheel and the tool are all in a specific
relationship to each other (Fig. 68).

5.

Fig. 68

78

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

With a reduction in grinding wheel


diameter, the ground face angle will be
larger unless the setting angle of the
grinding spindle is not reduced with respect
to the tool axis. If the tool diameter is
reduced in a corresponding relationship to
the grinding wheel diameter, then the
setting angle of the grinding spindle does
not need to be changed in order to retain
the face angle. One therefore begins at the
end of the tool in sharpening in order to
compensate the wear of the grinding wheel
to some extent, since the diameter of the
tool is the greatest here.
The diagram in Fig. 69 shows the setting
angle depending on the broach diameter,
grinding wheel diameter and the face angle
to be ground. It should also be noted that
the chip space should not be ground
deeper and that the radius of the chip
space must be retained. The face angle
can be checked with Forst angle measuring
gauges.

Since the lands show a slightly negative


angle as a result of the conical grinding in
order to produce the rises per tooth, they
should under no circumstances be broader
than 0.2 mm, but they should have the
same width over the entire circumference
of the broach. They should still be visible in
all cases, otherwise the cutting edges of
the individual teeth could loose their
intended rise due to excessively high
removal of material on the clearance face.
The lands of the reserve teeth are parallel
to the broach axis, and for that reason land
widths of up to approx. 0.5 mm are aimed
for in order to ensure the dimensional
stability of the broaches and thus also of
the broached work pieces over a longer
period of time.

5.

79

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

The setting angle for the grinding


spindle depends on the
broach diameter, grinding wheel
diameter, and face angle to be
ground

Setting angle

Face angle

Broach diameter

Grinding wheel diameter

5.

Fig. 69

80

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Soft plate

Fig. 70

b. Flat broaches
Flat broaches must be straightened before
all grinding operations if any distortion has
been detected. If the back of a broad flat
broaching tool is convex, it is must be
straightened by blows from an
straightening chisel placed into the chip
spaces. If the toothed side is convex, the
tool can be straightened by blows with an
straightening hammer on the back surface
(Fig. 70). The flat tool must be placed on a
soft plate so as to avoid damage to the
teeth.

Narrow flat broaches which are bent in the


direction from the back to the toothing can
be straightened by blows on both side
surfaces, whereby the concave side is
stretched. The straightening must be done
equally on both side surfaces so that these
remain even (Fig. 71).

5.

Fig. 71

81

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Fig. 72

If the corners of the flanks have been


rounded off in the case of key way
broaches, the clearance faces must be
reground while retaining the rise of the tooth.
When sharpening a tool, it is necessary to
ensure that the geometry of the chip spaces
is retained. Under certain circumstances the
chip spaces can be ground deeper if the
height of the teeth has been greatly
reduced.
Saucer grinding wheels are used for the
sharpening (Fig. 72) of flat and flat-profiled

broaches. As was already mentioned in the


case of round sharpening, cross-grinding is
done on the upper part of the cutting face.
If the grinding wheel is set at a slight angle,
this produces arc-grinding, whereby the
side of the grinding disk that is descending
into the chip space should cut with regard
to the formation of burrs. The tooth base
and the cutting face radius of the tooth
show peripheral grinding.
Grinding of the clearance faces is absolutely
essential after any correction that needs to
be done to the height of the teeth (Fig. 73).

5.

Fig. 73

82

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

When broaching with a flat broach insert


whose reserve teeth have been set deeper,
the shims in the broach holder are to be
altered correspondingly. Profiled broaches
do not allow themselves to be set higher,
and for that reason the reserve section
cannot be altered. In this case it is
necessary to retain two teeth with the final
dimensions when correcting the cutting
section in the same way as for round
broaches, whereby the first tooth has chip
breaker grooves, if indeed chip breaker
grooves are to be present at all, otherwise
one tooth is enough.
If the cutting edge of a tooth shows
breakages, then the tooth is to be ground
to the same dimensions as the previous
one; subsequent teeth are to be corrected
in a similar manner in terms of their rise. If
a tooth shows slight wear or breaking at the
corner between the flank and the cutting
edge, it is treated in such a way that a
sharp edge is produced at the front towards
the face and the land acquires a clearance
angle. Depending on the width of this type
of land formation, a number of teeth
aligned one after another are provided at
the corners with lands that become ever
smaller so that the material left by the first
land will be removed by several teeth.
The chip breaker grooves of tools whose
clearance faces have been ground must
likewise be ground more deeply.

transition towards the welding seam with


the same diameter as the opposite portion.
If the broach was broken in the first chip
space, then it is necessary to take into
account that the first two or three teeth will
be rendered soft by the welding of the new
pull end and thus can no longer be used for
broaching. The tool is centered in the
cutting section to turn the part that was
welded on. Grinding of the new pull end
assumes hardening and tempering to 42 to
48 HRC. The last thing is to grind the
cutting section of the tool , if this is
necessary. In the case of tools whose teeth
have been rendered soft by welding, these
must be ground to the diameter of the front
pilot and the rise of the entire broach must
be reground.
If the remaining cross-sections are
adequate for the forces encountered, it is
better to grind a threaded lug on the broach
and to screw on a pull end. This method
does not apply any additional heat to the
broach and avoids the associated problems
such as tensions, distortions and loss of
hardness. A suitable adhesive is adequate
to secure the threads. A hardened and
tempered steel with a strength of approx.
1100 to 1400 N/mm2 in the hardened and
tempered state is used as material. It is
also usual to use high-speed steel for more
demanding requirements.

5.

c. Repair of broken broaches


Internal broaches broken within the toothed
section can normally no longer be repaired.
On the other hand, repair is possible if the
broach was broken off in the first chip
space or the pull end or if the pull end head
was torn off. There are a number of options
for applying a new pull end to the broach.
The most simple way is to butt-weld a new
piece made of high-speed steel. The
welded end should be about 5 mm thicker
than the tool itself and must have a

83

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

5.3.4 Machines that can be used

5.4.

Defects when broaching

In order to ensure that a good tool life can


be achieved, sharpening of broaches is of
extremely great importance. The evenness
of the amounts required to be ground off,
maintaining the tool geometry and retaining
an excellent surface quality when avoiding
surface zone effects with their negative
consequences (grinding skin, new
hardening, cracks) can only be attained on
a continuous operation basis with
automatic sharpening machines.

A number of problems and defects can


occur when broaching. Four different
sources of such problems are distinguished
in general, these being due to

In this case, Oswald Forst offers a broach


sharpening machine in the form of the
X-SWR/N2 that sets new standards
concerning precision, process reliability
and operator-friendliness. The machine has
a comprehensive variety of programs for
operator guidance and the most modern
grinding and dressing technology for the
grinding of the faces and clearance faces
of all current broaches.

5.4.1 Defects due to the work piece

the work piece


the tool
the machine and the fixture
the metalworking fluid

a. Internal broaching
The forces encountered during broaching
elastically deform the materials, and in
unfavourable cases permanently. The
passive force (back force) acting
rectangular to the broaching direction
expands the work pieces during internal
broaching.
If the wall thicknesses are too small for the
parts to be broached, then this elastic
deformation must be taken into
consideration in the design of the broach.
The cutting schematic, rise per tooth,
clearance angle and face angle and the
dimensions of the tool must all be matched
to each other.

5.

Dimensionally-precise work pieces are in


many cases only attained after tests.
Uneven wall thicknesses in the crosssection can lead to distortion of the
broached profile; in longitudinal sections
these can cause varying profile dimensions
along the broaching length. It is especially
necessary to take care to provide adequate
support when broaching long thin-walled
parts, otherwise the broaching will be
defective due to inclination of the work
piece or the broach can even break. Angle
deviations in the work piece axis to the tool
axis lead to one-sided load of the tool and
can cause a breakage of the tool,

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5.

Instructions for broaching operations

especially with larger broaching lengths, as


a result of bending stresses with an
increase at the same time in the pulling
force. For these reasons value is placed on
the smallest possible axial runout of the
work pieces.
If the hole to be machined in the work piece
is not concentric to the broach centerline,
which can be caused by a radial runout of
the centering diameter on the work piece
with at the same time too little play in the
work piece support, then similar
consequences as for an angle deviation in
the tool to work piece axis will be
encountered. To the same extent this also
applies for the case that the previously
produced hole in the longitudinal direction
deviates in a curved manner from the
theoretical axis, which is especially
unfavourable if the broaching length is
large compared to the profile cross-section.
The broach can drift if the holes drilled in
the work pieces are too large. Single-sided
stresses load the tool unfavourably with
respect to bending. If the previously made
holes are too small, the tool cannot be
introduced or it will stuck in the work piece.
This can cause interruptions in broaching
operation if work pieces of this type are not
sorted out.

c. General work piece defects


Apart from the geometrical shape, the
material of the work piece, its micro
structure and the condition of the surface to
be machined have a great effect on the
broaching results. This means that not all
materials can be equally well machined.
The broaching properties of steels are
discussed in detail in section 2.
The conditions of the surface to be
broached affect to a very high degree the
life of the tools. Cast skin, forged skin,
layers of scale produced by prior heat
treatment can cause strong wear of the tool
due to their hardness or lead to chipping of
the cutting edge. Oxide and sand
inclusions have the same effect in the case
of cast pieces, forging defects in the case
of forged parts, and segregation zones.
If the surfaces to be broached have been
work-hardened by a previous process, then
it is necessary to reckon to some extent
with considerable reductions in the life of
the broaches. This work-hardening can be
produced by a non-cutting cold-forming
process or by a cutting operation using
blunt tools, which is frequently the case.

5.

b. External broaching
A secure and adequately stiff support and
clamping of the work piece is absolutely
essential for external broaching, since the
passive force (back force) cannot be taken
up by the work piece itself, unlike with
internal broaching. Larger deviations in the
dimensions of the work pieces make it
more difficult to locate them and can lead to
inaccuracies when broaching. It is
necessary to ensure that there is adequate
stiffness with regard to the broaching
process when designing the work pieces. If
the work pieces are bigger than intended,
then there is a danger of a breakage of the
first broach teeth since the cut is too large
for them.
85

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

5.4.2 Defects due to the tools


Poor broaching results can also be caused
by the tools, of course.
Apart from the design of the tool, the
cutting geometry should be paid
considerable attention. Selection of the
correct face angle and clearance angle has
a very considerable effect on the surface
quality and dimensional accuracy of the
broaching and also on the life of the tools.
If the face angle is too small, the chips are
not removed well enough, especially with
tough materials; the tool tears and presses
more rather than cuts. The result is raw,
scaly surfaces and low tool lives. The
higher cutting forces produce a greater
amount of elastic deformation, which
primarily leads to dimensional deviations in
the work pieces with lower stability.
If the face angle is too large, the tooth is
weakened and the cutting edge is more
delicate. It is more likely to produce
chipping at the cutting edge, therefore the
cutting edges more quickly become blunt
and even are deformed under certain
circumstances. In addition, this tends to
produce chatter marks on the surface of
the work piece.
The clearance angle at the cutting teeth
is almost invariably 2, and 0.5 to 1 at the
reserve teeth. The lands of the clearance
face are to be kept as small as possible,
since otherwise unclean work piece
surfaces will be produced by pressing and
the associated increased friction. This
friction also favours the deposition of
particles of the material on the lands. It
thus produces a similar effect as that for a
blunt cutting edge. Somewhat broader
lands also help much more to prevent
occurrence of chatter marks, in particular
during broaching of thin-walled work
pieces.

The broach teeth must be ground without


any lands on the clearance face if the
materials to be broached have a tendency
to work-harden. In any case there is an
increased risk of producing chatter marks.
Single-sided blunting of broaches can have
defective broaching results as a
consequence, since the tools are forced to
drift from the blunt side to the sharper side
during the work process. Incorrect
preparation of the work pieces or incorrect
handling of the tools often result in more
wear on one side. Excessively narrow
profiles are often produced during
broaching as a result of rounding-off
between the tooth flanks and cutting edges
(corner wear), which at the same time
produces the risk of jamming of the broach
teeth flanks in the work piece, associated
also with the build-up of material, which
once again leads to unclean surfaces in the
profile (tearing-out). When sharpening, the
tooth heights of tools worn in this way must
be reground until the edge wear has been
removed.
Particles of the material can attach
themselves to chipped areas on the cutting
edges of broach teeth, which will produce
striations and wedge-shaped tearing-out
during broaching, which become broader in
the direction of broaching. In extreme
cases teeth will break off.

5.

It should also be mentioned in this context


above all that the sharpening of round or
round-profiled broaches with excessive run
out deviations will produce unequal land
widths. Basically, all tools are to be
checked for straightness before each
grinding operation and straightened if
necessary.
The chips removed by a tooth are kept in
the chip space ahead of it during the
broaching process. When the tool leaves
the work piece, the ends of the chip often
adhere still to the cutting edges. These
chips are generally released during the
next broaching process by the new chip
86

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

being formed. The chip space must


therefore be sufficiently large to
accommodate several chips. Broaching
with tools that are not accessible or in
automatic operation can only be carried out
if the chips can be removed by the flow of
metalworking fluid or by suitable devices.
If the chip space is very deep in relation to
its length, there is the risk that the chips will
stick in it. In many broaching operations the
tooth space fills up, the chips are
compressed together and cold-welded,
they squeeze themselves between the
clearance face of the tooth in front and the
surface of the work piece. This causes
tearing-out on the surface to be broached,
teeth break off, and the tool is destroyed by
the stronger pulling force that is produced if
the machine has not been stopped. The
work piece is jammed onto the tool.

face. The life of the tool is reduced due to


the raggedness of the cutting edges.
As a result of incorrect sharpening, one or
more teeth can lose the designed rise from
one tooth to another and they do not cut.
The first tooth that cuts then has to cut off
such a thick chip that there is a danger of
breakage.
As a result of the clearance angle, a broach
tooth looses height and diameter when
regrinding the face (sharpening). Since the
clearance angle in the finishing section is
greater than of the reserve, which leads to
varying reductions of the tooth height for
the same amount ground off the face, there
can be a relatively large increase in the rise
between the last finishing tooth and the first
reserve tooth. This has a negative effect on
the broaching results due to the
excessively large rise of this reserve tooth.

If the radius of the cutting face at the foot of


the tooth is too small, then the proper
curling of the chip according to the cutting
conditions is prevented. The chip is
compressed, it can produce cold-welding of
the chip onto the cutting face of the tool. If
further broaching is done, this necessarily
produces damage to the tool and the work
pieces. It is therefore necessary to ensure
when sharpening broaches that the radii of
the tooth spaces are not reduced.

In many cases it can be seen that the life of


a broach diminishes after the first
sharpening operation compared to the new
state. This is a sure proof of inappropriate
sharpening of the tools. The importance of
proper maintenance of the tools should
once again be stated emphatically at this
point in order to avoid defects in broaching
results and reductions in tool life.

Extremely small particles are deposited on


the cutting and clearance faces when
cutting many types of materials. In many
cases it is not sufficient to grind the tools in
the sharpening operation on the cutting
faces, but it is also necessary to stone the
lands or even to regrind the rises of the
teeth.

Possible errors in the design of the tool can


also include the rise of the teeth, the size of
chip space and thus the pitch, the cutting
schematic or the backtaper. It is not,
however, necessary to go into this further
at this point, since an experienced
manufacturer of broaches takes care to find
the correct design solution and must be
able to ensure a proper configuration of the
tools.

5.

Special attention must be paid to the


roughness of the cutting and clearance
faces. The roughness of the lands and the
faces directly affects the surface quality of
the broaching. If the face is rough, then the
friction with the chip that is curling is also
greater. It can more easily produce coldwelding of material particles onto a rough
87

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Broaches are throughout produced from


high-speed steels. Reductions in
performance, apart from defects relating to
the material, can have their origin in
incorrect heat treatment. Given proper
hardening with the corresponding
tempering treatment, it is possible to aim for
hardnesses of 63 to 66 RC. Cracks due to
hardening or straightening are just as
impermissible as casting or forging errors
in the raw material.
Incorrect grinding can produce high
temperatures at the surface. As a result of
the associated tempering action, there is
the risk of the formation of a grinding skin
on the tool surface, which will naturally
greatly reduce the working life of the tool
when broaching. We have still not
mentioned the risk of the formation of
cracks during grinding.

Further details can be found in the section


Care and maintenance of broaches (5.3.).

5.4.3 Defects due to the machine and


devices
a. Internal broaching
In internal broaching machines the centres
of the pullers must match the centres of the
work piece centerings (work plates and
work piece supports) and those of the
retrievers within the permissible tolerances.
If excessively large deviations appear, then
broaching will necessarily be done
incorrectly inclinated. The same risk occurs
if the table surface (the support surface for
the work pieces) is not rectangular to the
direction of broaching.
Elastic deformations of the individual
machine parts can occur due to the high
pulling forces, which can cause angular
deviations of the broaching with respect to
the previous machined bore. Excessively
high wear in the guides of the tool slide can
also under certain circumstances prevent
precise broaching.
When internal broaching is carried out on
horizontal broaching machines, there is the
risk of a deflection of the tool during the
return stroke if the tail end has not been
centred in the retriever. The tool can
contact the work piece support. This can
cause damage which will require
reconditioning of the broach. Under no
circumstances may the teeth of the tool
come into contact with hardened parts. For
that reason work piece supports are not
hardened in most cases in the area of the
bores.

5.

88

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

b. External broaching
The passive force (back force) acting
vertically to the direction of broaching is not
taken up by the work piece alone in
external broaching, as is the case in
internal broaching of the work piece. It is
far more the case that the work piece and
the tool support each other via the work
piece support (clamping fixture) and the
table, the toolslide and the frame.
It is clear that production inaccuracy and
play in guide ways can occur to a far
greater extent in the results of external
broaching than is the case for internal
broaching. Relatively high forces are
encountered in broaching, as opposed to
other finish machining operations. There
may, however, still be dimensional
deviations despite a rigid and stable design
of the equipment, which must be
counteracted by taking suitable measures.
If the required work piece tolerance is
extremely tight, then if at all possible
machines should be used in which
clearance free guide ways and a very good
reproducibility of the positioning of the
moving elements can be attained due to
suitable design measures.
In addition to inadequate dimensional
precision, unsufficient surfaces, and
especially chatter marks, are frequently the
results of broaching with machines and
fixtures with inadequate stability and
stiffness. In addition, the life of the tool is
reduced.
We would like to refer once again at this
point to the importance of the correct
cutting speed.

5.4.4 Defects due to the metalworking


fluid
Failures in broaching are often due to the
selection of an unsuitable metalworking
fluid. Supplementing the section Cooling
and lubrication when broaching (5.2.), we
would like to refer once again to some
possible difficulties and defects.
The formation of built-up edges and coldwelding of particles of the material onto the
flanks and lands of the tools must be
effectively combated in the interest of
adequate lives of the tools and higher
surface quality.
It is often difficult to maintain an effective
lubricating film on the tool teeth over the
entire cutting length since the supply of
metalworking fluid is scarcely possible
during the action of the tool in the case of
large cutting lengths. This explains the
tendency for reductions in the surface
quality over the cutting length. It is
therefore necessary to use a highly
activated broaching oil with extremely high
film strength. In cases where it is not
possible to achieve satisfactory broaching
results, i.e., the tools are subjected to
relatively high wear, material depositions
can be found on the flanks and lands, the
work piece surfaces are raw and scaly or
show large amounts of tearing-out, in such
cases it is necessary to investigate first
whether or not the metalworking fluid used
is basically suitable.

5.

It has often been seen in practice that


broached dimensions are slightly enlarged
when using oil instead of a water-miscible
metalworking fluid.

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5.

Instructions for broaching operations

5.4.5 Problems in broaching;


searching for the causes

Problems with the work piece Possible causes

What needs to be checked?

Dimensional accuracy,
tolerances exceeded

Broach design

Was the right broach design


selected?

General error

Are the designs of the broach and


the gauge correctly matched to
each other?

Broach dimensions

Was the tool remeasured, and what


are the results?

Diameter of measuring
pins and contact
diameter at the
broach

Was the right diameter of gauge


pins used? Was the dimension
between pins determined at the
point designated in the drawing?

Broaching length

Have changes been made in the


work piece concerning chamfers or
recesses in the hole?

Wall thickness of the


work piece

Are there differences in the


thickness of the wall in the axial or
radial direction?
Have the rise per tooth, backtaper
and face angle been selected
correctly?

Face angle,
clearance angle

5.

Is the tool new, or has it been


resharpened?
Was the tool correctly
resharpened?
How was the tool measured after
the resharpening?

Radial runout,
axial runout

Rise per tooth after


sharpening

Was the intended values for


rise per tooth changed during
resharpening?

Burrs from sharpening

Was the tool checked for


burrs?

Clearance between front Have the dimensions of


pilot and bore of work
premachined hole been changed?
piece
Has the front pilot of the broach
been reground?
90

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Problems with the work piece Possible causes


Roundness of the
premachined hole

What needs to be checked?


How is the work piece supported,
especially in the case of
items with thin walls?
Has the type of heat treatment
been changed?

Runout deviations
between the external
diameter and the
premachined hole

Were the inner and outer


diameters produced
concentrically?

Face angle,
clearance angle, lands

Was the tool resharpened


carefully?
Have all the faces been fully
and cleanly ground?
Are the cutting face and flanks free
of lands?

Work piece support

How is the work piece supported?


Is there enough radial play in the
work piece support?
Was the work piece supported
adequately for broaching?
Has the work piece support been
aligned correctly and rectangular to
the direction of broaching?
Is the work piece support still OK?

5.

Precision of the machine Does the precision of the machine


and devices
still correspond to the acceptance
conditions?
Roughness of the surface,
tearing-out and scaly
formations on the surface,
shiny and matt patches

Metalworking fluid,
neat oil or water
miscible fluid

Is the metalworking fluid suitable


for the broaching task?
Is the supply of metalworking fluid
adequate?
Is the metalworking fluid still OK, or
has it been contaminated by other
oils or particles of dirt?
When was the metalworking fluid
last replaced or topped up?
Was a different kind of
metalworking fluid used?
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5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Problems with the work piece Possible causes

What needs to be checked?

Water miscible
metalworking fluid

Was the fluid checked


for pH value, concentration,
bacteria and fungi?

Hardness and strength


of the work piece and
its grain structure

Has the material or its grain


structure been changed?
Has the supplier for the material or
unmachined parts been changed?
Was the work piece improperly or
only partially heat-treated?
Has the material been changed in
terms of origin?
Has the material welded onto the
tool?

Number of resharpening
operations and amount
of grinding

How is the frequency of


resharpening determined?

Wear

Were the type of material or


metalworking fluid changed?
How many pieces were broached,
compared to earlier quantities?
Is the wear uneven?

Chatter marks

Tooth flanks
corner wear

Is material stuck to the tooth


flanks?

Clearance face lands

Are the lands too wide or has


material built up?

Coating on the cutting


face

Were the broaches resharpened


after being coated?

Chip jams

Do the chips curl properly or do the


chips jam in the chip space?

Unstable support of the


work pieces

Were several work pieces


broached stacked together?

5.

Was the work piece supported


adequately for broaching?
Broach

Have the profile corners of the


broach been rounded off?
Is the tooth pitch matched to the
broaching length?
Have the values for rise per tooth,
backtaper and face angle been
selected correctly?
92

5.

Instructions for broaching operations

Problems with the work piece Possible causes

Problems
with the broach
Damage

Increased wear,
unacceptably short tool life

What needs to be checked?

Face angle, clearance


angle, lands

Was the tool resharpened


carefully?

Precision of the
machine and devices

Does the precision of the machine


still correspond to the acceptance
conditions?

Possible causes

What needs to be checked?

Cutting edge breakages


and impact marks

How was the broach handled


and stored?

Rust on the broach

How was the broach stored and


protected against corrosion?

Broken teeth

Do the chips curl properly or do the


chips jam in the chip space?

Material adhesions
on the broach

What metalworking fluid is being


used?

Tooth flanks,
corner wear

Is material stuck to the tooth


flanks?

Chips stuck on

Is the metalworking fluid


still OK?
Was the broach correctly
resharpened?

5.

Are there signs of damage on the


broach?

Hardness and strength


of the work piece and
its grain structure

Has the material or its grain


structure been changed?
Has the supplier for the material or
unmachined parts been changed?
Was the work piece improperly or
only partially heat-treated?
Has the material been changed in
terms of origin?
Has the material welded onto the
tool?

93

6.

Hard broaching

6.1.

Introduction

The development of automotive technology


requires constant improvements in
transmissions and other units with smaller
dimensions and greater power. These
demands can only be met by achieving
higher precision of the components. For
this reason there has been particular
attention paid to details concerning the
transmission of power at gear-shaft
connections and best concentricity of outer
to inner profiles.
Differing from external machining, postmachining of broached internal profiles to
remove distortion due to hardening was not
normally done, since this was simply not
economically possible. Grinding or eroding
proved to be unsuitable for high-volume
mass production, and likewise also the use
of broaching mandrels with geometrically
undefined cutting edges (diamond or CBN
layers).
Improvements in tolerances were primarily
aimed at reductions in green tolerances
and the reduction of distortion by the action
of hardening. The precision achieved in this
way did not however meet the increased
requirements.

For technical reasons relating to the cutting


process, a cutting speed of approx.
60 m/min is used. The machines are
hydraulically driven, whereby the high
acceleration rates and speeds require a
closed loop system (CNC, servo-valves) in
connection with an accumulator system.
The Forst hard broaching process is in use
and has also been developed for mass
production for a series of work pieces in the
automotive industry, such as gears,
synchro sleeves, tripod joints, outer races
of cross-groove joints, pulleys for CVT
transmissions and cams for cam shafts
(Fig. 74), etc.
All the work pieces have as common
criteria a hardness of 58 to 62 HRC, full
hard or surface-hardened and with stock
removal of 0.05 to 0.15 mm.
The high requirements placed on surface
quality are met since roughness values of
R a < 0,6 m and R z < 2,5 m can be
maintained in continuous operation. Quality
level 6 can be attained concerning the gear
tolerances as per DIN 3962, although some
individual errors are even smaller than that.

A significant breakthrough in economy and


quality was achieved by the hard broaching
technology developed by Forst, using
geometrically defined cutting edges while
using broaches made out of cemented
carbide.
This process capability and economy of
operation can be seen on a daily basis in a
whole series of mass production
applications with high-performance
broaching machines likewise developed by
Forst.

6.

< Fig. 2e / Page 94

95

6.

Hard broaching

Fig. 74
Hard-broached work pieces

6.2.

Main areas of application

A number of different main areas of


application can be seen by analyses of the
customer requirements and also the Forst
hard broaching processes that have been
achieved:

6.2.1 Bearing area fraction of surface


and quality of the jointed
connection, e.g., gears with
shafts
The high tolerance requirements must be
met to ensure a long lifetime of the shaftgear connection with increased power and
limited dimensions. This could only be done
previously by checking and classifying the
work pieces 100% in order to meet the
required narrow pairing tolerances.

Especially in the case of press-fit, the


pressing-in forces were often outside the
press force tolerances due to distortion
within the profiles caused by the hardening
process. There is also a loss in the bearing
area fraction of surface caused by these
form deviations due to distortion from the
hardening process, which negatively affects
the lifetime of the connection.
As a result of hard broaching, decisive
quality improvements in all individual errors
of the profile, the surface quality and the
dimensions between pins were achieved
here. It is no longer necessary to classify
the gears (Fig. 75).

6.

The tooth flanks, as well as the major and


minor diameter of the internal profiles can
be broached, depending on the given
requirements.

96

6.

Hard broaching

~ 0.1 Hard-broached
Previously broached

~ 0.1 Hard-broached

~ 0.1 Hard-broached

Detail A

Fig. 75
Gear with illustration of profile

6.2.2 Automatic joining in assembly


lines for transmissions

6.2.3 Internal hard broaching as a basis


for the hard machining of gear
teeth

Distortion due to hardening is corrected


with hard broaching. Scrap is prevented
due to the more precise inner profiles and
this attains a high degree of process
reliability with automatic joining. Monitoring
of the process can be done with normal
statistic evaluation on the basis of a smaller
number of tooth criteria (Fig. 76).

A high degree of concentricity between the


internal and external gearing is a
prerequisite for improved quality in gears.
Hard machining of the external gear teeth
is normally done on expanding mandrels.
In order to achieve the required precision of
roundness and concentricity, distorted (as a
result of hardening) internal profiles may
not be used to take and clamp the gears. In
this case it is necessary to use hard
broaching to correct the distortion caused
by the hardening process (Fig. 77).

Upper tolerance limit

6.
Lower tolerance limit

Previously broached

Hardened

Hard-broached

Fig. 76
Dimensions between pins

97

6.

Hard broaching

Fig. 77
Gear with runout tolerances

6.2.4 Precision in sliding gear such as


synchro sleeves for
transmissions
The generally extremely delicate crosssections of synchro sleeves are very
difficult to deal with from the point of view of
hardening. So there are generally large
amounts of distortion in the lead and the
profile after hardening and also the out of
roundness and runout of the gears. This
can adversely affect the gear changing of
the transmission (Fig. 78).

Attempts were made through suitable


design of the work pieces on an empirical
basis to compensate for the amount of
distortion expected and to reduce it by
complicated hardening procedures.
Hard broaching also permits decisive
improvements here in the joining of
synchro sleeves with synchronising hubs.
The entire operation sequence in the
production of synchro sleeves is less
sensitive to changes in design or
production.

6.

Previously broached

Hardened

Total lead variation F

Hard-broached
Roughness
value Ra

Fig. 78
Lead and surface quality

98

6.

Hard broaching

6.3.

Tools for hard broaching

The tools especially developed for the


requirements of hard broaching are built-up
broaches. They have a broach holder with
interchangeable shells made of coated
cemented carbide and a profiled front pilot
(Fig. 2e).

Economic aspects

In the same way as for green broaching,


the proportion of tool costs to part costs is
also significant in the case of hard
broaching. Thus the attainment of long tool
lives was an urgent goal in the
development of the tools. As a result of
intensive development work in tool design,
production technology and also improved
coating processes and modified coatings,
considerable success has been attained.
Depending on the work piece, it is already
possible to attain today a tool life
of approx. 100,000 pieces without
resharpening. Further improvements can
be expected (Fig. 79).

Total number of pieces

The design of the broaches done to match


various work pieces in connection with high
production precision and excellent surface
quality of the shells produces a longer life
for the tools if the type and quality of the
cemented carbide blanks and also the
coating are matched to the hard broaching
process.

6.4.

Fig. 79
Trends in tool life

6.

99

6.

Hard broaching

6.5.

Summary

Hard broaching offers many advantages


and benefits for the user:
A high level of process reliability by
consistently tight tolerances and secure
production can be attained in the
production of work pieces.
Short process times (cycle times < 15 sec.)
and also the option for machining of
several pieces simultaneously contribute to
improving the cost-effectiveness of the
process.

Increasing process reliability by automatic


joining of the components and thus the
prevention of troubles by using automated
assembly processes further reduce costs.
Greater forces can be transferred for the
same dimensions of the work pieces due to
the higher bearing area fraction of surface
for the components of the shaft-hub
connections.
Last of all, there are also additional useful
effects in terms of noise reduction, the life
of the components, and overall, a
significant increase in quality.

The best possible surface qualities of


R z < 2.5 m and R a < 0.6 m can be
attained with certainty.
Quality improvements in the work pieces by
correcting distortion caused by the
hardening process provide even better
accuracy than is possible with green
broaching with conventional broaches.
Scrap due to excessive distortion in the
hardening process is also avoided.
The long tool life of hard broaching tools
(up to 100.000 work pieces without
resharpening) contribute considerably to
the cost-effectiveness in the entire process
chain.
After hardening, the hub profiles are
broached to exactly match the required
dimensions of the shafts if these need to be
classified. This produces a reduction of
work piece circulation with correspondingly
simplified logistics and a reduced tying-up
of capital.

6.

It is only possible to have a perfect basis


for the hard machining of the outer gear
teeth by using hard broaching of the
internal profiles, since in this case the work
piece is clamped on an expanding mandrel.

100

7.

Appendix

7.1.

Symbols and units

AK
Amin
a1
a2
a2.1
a2.2
a2.3
a3
B
b
bf
bf
bk
c
GH
d1
dR
dS
e
FM
FP
F n
FC
Fw
F t
F
H
H1
H2
h
hch
h1
h2
HB
HRC
HV

kc

mm2
mm2
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
dH
mm
mm
mm
mm
kN
N
N
N
N, kN
N
N
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
mm
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2

Chip space cross-section1)


Smallest cross-section on the broach
Length of the front pilot of the broach
Length of the toothed section
Length of the roughing teeth section
Length of the finishing teeth section
Length of the reserve teeth section
Length of the rear pilot of the broach
Width of wear mark
Width of cut
Land width of the clearance (back-off) face
Land width of the cutting face
Width of contact zone
Depth of the chip space
German Hardness (water hardness)2)
Pull end diameter
max. Broach diameter
Diameter of grinding wheel when grinding the cutting faces
Thickness of the tooth back
Pulling force of the machine
Back force (passive force)
Perpendicular force on the face
Cutting force
Required pulling force at the broach
Tangential force on the face
Resultant force - total force exerted by the tooth
Thickness of the layer to be removed
Thickness of the layer to be removed by roughing
Thickness of the layer to be removed by finishing
Rise per tooth
Thickness of chip
Rise per roughing teeth
Rise per finishing teeth
Brinell hardness
Rockwell hardness C
Vickers hardness
Number of broaching stations
Specific cutting force

1)

Besides chip space the expressions tooth space or gullet are in use.

2)

The amount of dissolved salts of calcium, magnesium, barium and strontium make up the so-called
hardness of the water.

7.

101

7.

Appendix

mm

Total length of broach

mm

Length of cut

l1

mm

Length of pull end

l2

mm

Length of tail end

pH-value

Negative logarithmic value of the concentration of hydrogen ions

R
_t
Rt

m
m

Surface roughness value Rt


_
Average roughness value Rt

Ra

mm

Surface roughness value Ra

Rz

mm

Surface roughness value Rz

mm

Radius of the cutting face

mm

Stroke

Cutting temperature

mm

Pitch

t1

mm

Pitch of the roughing teeth

t2

mm

Pitch of finishing and reserve teeth

vc

m/min,

Cutting speed

mm/s
vR

m/min,

Return stroke speed

mm/s
w

Total length of cuts (number of work pieces multiplied by the


length of cut)

Chip space factor

Total number of teeth

z1

Number of roughing teeth

z2

Number of finishing teeth

z3

Number of reserve teeth

zE

Max. number of teeth in contact during broaching

degrees

Clearance angle (back-off angle)

degrees

Land angle on the clearance (back-off) face

degrees

Face angle

degrees

Land angle on the face

degrees

Setting angle for grinding of the cutting face (angle between the
grinding spindle axis and the broach axis)

degrees

Angle of inclination

mm /s

Kinematic viscosity

Rounding radius of the cutting edge

kg/dm3

Density

degrees

Angle of friction on the face

Zmax

N/mm

Max. tensile stress in the broach

Zzul

N/mm2

Permissible tensile stress in the broach

degrees

Shear angle

7.

102