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Unit 6

Additional Materials
Use of English: Multiple Choice
Jessica
The trouble was just Jessica had been brought up by a strong, clear-minded and independent woman, and (1) ............
with the expectation that she would be the same. This had meant that at the earliest (2) she had been
encouraged to fly the nest and (3) her wings. At no time had she considered marriage or ever having children;
the two things didnt (4) into her thinking. As a child there had been no bed-time stories of young girls being
rescued by handsome princes. Whatever you want to do, her mother would say when kissing her goodnight, believe you
can do it and you will. And more important than anything else, make sure you enjoy what you do. Which might have (5)
some children into becoming (6) achievers, but not Jessica. What it did was convince her from an
early age that whatever she did would be because she wanted to do it, and for no other reason.
1
2
3
4
5
6

A raised
A occasion
A spread
A come
A caused
A great

B grown
B possibility
B open
B go
B provoked
B big

C produced
C opportunity
C flap
C move
C incited
C huge

D reared
D moment
D try
D get
D incensed
D high

(HINT: Semantic precision)


(HINT: Fixed phrase)
(HINT: Idiom)
(HINT: Phrasal verb)
(HINT: Word complementation)
(HINT: Collocation)

Childs play
Childs play? Not at all, says Dr David Campbell, consultant clinical psychologist, who explains that children as young as
seven as busy (1) their identify outside the family. They are developing relationships that give them (2)
about what kind of person they are pretty, sporty, and so on. Its a very important time for them. As they get older,
relationships become more routine.
Psychological theories indicate that women are more (3) to find their identify through relationships than boys, who
define themselves more through activities, he adds. At first, rejections are (4) painful for girls, so they can seem
much more important than they really are. He points out that the oldest child may feel more threatened by relationships
that (5) wrong. If they lose a girlfriend at school, it reverberates with all their past experiences of (6) to
siblings.
1
2
3
4
5
6

A constituting
A feedback
A possible
A greatly
A come
A losing out

B establishing
B reports
B probable
B extremely
B get
B getting out

C basing
C advice
C likely
C highly
C go
C bowing out

D grounding
D references
D given
D utterly
D do
D running out

Use of English: Open Cloze


Causes of conflict between adolescents and their parents
Some interesting discoveries have been (0) made by psychologists studying conflicts between adolescents and their
parents. One notable feature is that they seldom argue about such major topics (1) sex, drugs, or politics. This
is surprising, (2) that great differences often exist between the attitudes of parents and adolescents (3)
such issues. Researches suggest the explanation may be that such topics (4) not usually relate to day-to-day
family interaction and are (5) discussed as they are not directly relevant (6) family life. Instead, parents
and children tend to (7) out over everyday family matters such as housework.
Despite the changes that have (8) place over the past fifty years, adolescents appear to have the same kinds of
arguments with their parents as their parents had (9) they themselves were young. It seems to come (10)
to the conflict between the adolescents desire for independence (11) the parents authority. Teenagers
spoke of their right to be free of restrictions, while parents were equally (12) of their right to exert control,
backing this up (13) referring to the needs of the family as (14) whole. Interestingly, both groups could
see the others (15) of view even though they disagreed with it.

Use the hints below to help you with the more difficult items.
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

part of a collocation meaning occur


a conjunction
part of a phrasal verb
part of the structure the conflict between (something) (something)
an adjective followed by the dependent preposition of
a preposition
part of an expression meaning altogether
a fixed expression: to see someones of view

Suddenly, it's as (1) . saying goodbye to a spouse is no (2) . the dismal climax to
protracted misery that it (3) . was. Divorce in the 21st century (4) . a simple lifestyle
choice, the result of two people drifting (5) .: now the ex-partners can move (6) . and
rebuild their lives. Today, those people who once (7) . the knot because living together was frowned (8)
. are cohabiting. However, the divorce (9) . is still high; there is a phenomenally high
9. of marital breakdown - 4 out of 10. So, who divorces and why? What might that (10) . us about
marriages that last? Academics discovered that the deprived (11) .

more divorce-prone, (12)

. are those who have cohabited more than once before marriage, those who have embarked (13)
. relationships (14) . a young age, those who have experienced parental divorce and
those who have "low emotional well-being". In (15) . , an awful (16) . of us are
vulnerable. It's this "happy ever (17) . " that we can't quite seem to get (18) ..

Listening
You will hear an interview with two writers who have each written books about marriage. Listen to the
recording. For questions 1-9, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
Evelyn's first 1 .... did not reveal why so many modern marriages fail.
Evelyn found her daughter's attitude to one of the 2 .... very significant.
Paul agrees that not many couples believe that marriage is a 3 .... .
Paul accepts that people shouldn't 4 .... with very bad marriages.
Evelyn believes that 5 .... are only part of the problem.
Evelyn thinks that people no longer 6 .... with each other.
Paul refers to two modern 7 .... to getting married.
The previous generation would have found these arrangements 8 .... .
Evelyn feels that deep down, people are still 9 .... .

Reading
For questions 1-6. read the following text and then choose, from the list A-J given below, the best
phrase to fill each of the spaces. There are three phrases you will not need. There is an example (0).
Dads: Equalising the Family Equation
When my child was small, we used to read 0) ..J..., which was about the Bumsteads, a typical suburban family. The
funniest episodes always seemed to involve the times when Dagwood, 1) ............, had to baby-sit the children. The first
thing he'd do as parent-in-residence was put on his wife Blondie's apron. It was as if, by wearing something that belonged
to her, he was symbolically becoming her. For the Bumsteads, as for most Western couples during the 1950s, 60s, and
70s, being 2) ............ .
Today we know better. Studies have shown the importance of gender roles in shaping our consciousnesses, and we are
now aware of the critical role fathers play throughout 3) ............ . Because he is male and because he is the other parent,
the father expands the child's range of experience and clarifies 4) ........... .

Despite all the changes that have taken place in the last few decades, two facts remain: First, mothers are still the primary
caretakers of preschool children and, second, most day-care providers are women. This means that young children are
still raised in an environment that is almost exclusively female. It may also mean that the father is the only male 5) ............
The problem with this is that it gives a child an incomplete notion of what 6) ........... . The male parent, with his different
ways of relating and playing, rounds out a child's sense of the different sexes. He demonstrates that human society is
made up of two genders, each with distinct styles of dress, thought, and behaviour.
A the stages in a child's development
the world is about
the child has contact with on a regular basis
D the opinions they have on childcare
E the father and breadwinner
F the female meant being at home
G the ideas they have about masculinity
H the parent meant being the mother
I the father's responsibilities are
J the popular comic strip Dagwood and Blondie

Generations Apart
Psychotherapist Gael Lindenfield examines the role of grandparents today.
No one warned me that in my early 40's. I would start cooing longingly into prams. I was totally unprepared to meet this
new aspect of myself. My own nest had just emptied and I was eagerly filling the 'vacuum' with innumerable career and
globe-trotting adventures. Admittedly the master vision for the rest of my life did include a few happy granny and grandpa
scenes, but they were more distant and more a family joke than a serious prediction. So this strange primitive urge to
extend my family into another generation was both perplexing and even a little irritating.
When the right time came, I had, of course, every intention of becoming a conscientious, involved grandparent. But that
was more about doing the right thing for the children than fulfilling a deep instinctive need of my own. As a
psychotherapist, I am hyper-aware of how life-transforming a good relationship with a grandparent can be. It offers so
much more than treats, extra quality time and cheap nannying. Good grandparents help build psychological security by
making their grandchildren feel part of a much wider, diverse and stable supportive family network. They also give them a
sense of their place in history and evolution and give their life a meaningful sense of perspective.
Even when we reach adulthood, our psychological health can be affected by the relationship that we may or may not have
had with our grandparents. I frequently work with people who have (to put it mildly!) a less than perfect relationship with
their own parents. Many times I have been able to help people heal emotionally by simply reawakening a cherished
memory of a much happier and more unconditionally loving relationship with a grandparent.
Alan was, in his own words, a hopeless case of workaholism. He still fell driven by trying to please his ambitious,
perfectionist father. But, fortunately, I discovered that he had also received a much more unconditional kind of love from
his calmer, happier and affectionate grandfather. Putting a photo of his granddad on his desk helped Alan keep his
promise to himself to maintain better balance in his life.
Similarly, another client, Angela, had very low self-esteem. We found that by just recalling her grandmother's look of pure
joy when she used to greet her after school each day, Angela could give herself a powerful boost of confidence whenever
she needed it.
Until I became a grandparent myself, however, I never appreciated how important Alan and Angela must have been for
the happiness and welfare of their grandparents.
Nowadays, the chances of children and grandparents having such intimate, mutually satisfying relationships are fast
diminishing. Recent research revealed that in Britain, one out of twenty grandparents is likely to have had no contact
whatsoever with at least one of their grandchildren during the past five years. There are many reasons for this new
distancing of generations. Sometimes, it's mere geography that keeps them apart. I recently met a woman who proudly
showed me a picture of her family in Australia. Unfortunately, she told me, she hadn't ever visited them, and hadn't even
seen her five-year-old granddaughter. Her son had brought over his seven-year-old son six years ago, but he hadn't had
the time or money to visit since. She explained that she herself had a heart condition, which would make a long flight too
risky.
The positive aspect of this story was that, however sad this situation was for both parties, there appeared to be no
bitterness or resentment. But many grandparents feel quite differently. They're being forced apart from their grandchildren
by less acceptable factors of modern society. Perhaps pressure of time maintains the distance. After all, nowadays, even
if close extended families live within easy visiting distance, they may still not see much of each other. Parents often spend
so much of their precious weekends cleaning, shopping and decorating that they hardly have time to get to know their
children. Equally, the children themselves may have such a heavy weekend of programmed activity that their time is also
stretched to its limits. A visit to or from grandparents feels like a luxury that no one can afford.
Another increasingly common reason for estrangement is the break-up of family through divorce or separation. Many
grandparents who consequently lose contact with their grandchildren go through a painful bereavement process, which
can even lead to emotional and physical illness. This is because they never give up hope. They will not accept the finality
of separation or loss. It seems that the grandparenting instinct and bond is so strong that it is rarely killed by even the
most bitter family squabbles and separations.

1 When she was about forty, the writer


A became a grandparent.
was planning to travel.
was annoyed by her family.
D regretted not having grandchildren.
2 The writer thinks that grandparents are particularly important because
A they ensure children get better treatment.
they teach children about the past.
they provide children with financial support.
D they give children a sense of belonging.
3 According to the writer. Alan and Angela benefited from
A understanding the reasons for their parents' behaviour.
realising how important they were to their grandparents.
remembering their grandparents' attitude to them.
D finding out why they were lacking in confidence.
4 How did the woman whose grandchildren were in Australia feel?
A She knew that visiting would be difficult for both sides of the family.
She blamed her son for not making enough effort to see her.
She was happy that her family had been so successful.
D She preferred not to see them regularly.
5 When grandparents live near to their families,
A seeing each other is usually much easier.
parents try to keep the grandparents at a distance.
lack of time may prevent regular contact.
D grandchildren resent repeated visits from grandparents.
6 Why does losing contact with grandchildren affect grandparents so deeply?
A They feet then love for their grandchildren is being destroyed
They wish they had done more to prevent the separation.
They know that their grandchildren will suffer from the loss.
D They continue to hope that contact will be re-established.

Speaking

What problems do you think are caused by people of different ages living together?
In what ways do you think attitudes change as you get older?
In what ways can money cause arguments between parents and children?
Do you think what young people have a sense of the importance of money?
Do you think that parents and children have different attitudes to school and homework?
How important is academic success to children?

How easy is it for parents and children to understand each other?

Generation gap
Financial problems
Education and careers

Which of the following do you think are the five most important qualities in a future husband / wife? Rank them.
a professional security
b professional prospects
financial security
d educational background
e social background

f maturity
g moral values
h sense of humour
i intellect
j empathy

k devotion
I romantic nature
m taste in books/films etc.
n attractive appearance

How can the following help or hinder the success of a marriage?


financial difficulties
willingness to compromise

open-mindedness
professional success

sense of humour
assertiveness

What, in your opinion, is the most essential ingredient for a successful marriage?

KEY

Use of English: Multiple Choice


Jessica
The trouble was just Jessica had been brought up by a strong, clear-minded and independent woman, and (1) raised with
the expectation that she would be the same. This had meant that at the earliest (2) opportunity she had been
encouraged to fly the nest and (3) spread her wings. At no time had she considered marriage or ever having children; the
two things didnt (4) come into her thinking. As a child there had been no bed-time stories of young girls being rescued by
handsome princes. Whatever you want to do, her mother would say when kissing her goodnight, believe you can do it
and you will. And more important than anything else, make sure you enjoy what you do. Which might have (5) provoked
some children into becoming (6) high achievers, but not Jessica. What it did was convince her from an early age that
whatever she did would be because she wanted to do it, and for no other reason.
1
2
3
4
5
6

A raised
A occasion
A spread
A come
A caused
A great

B grown
B possibility
B open
B go
B provoked
B big

C produced
C opportunity
C flap
C move
C incited
C huge

D reared
D moment
D try
D get
D incensed
D high

(HINT: Semantic precision)


(HINT: Fixed phrase)
(HINT: Idiom)
(HINT: Phrasal verb)
(HINT: Word complementation)
(HINT: Collocation)

Childs play
Childs play? Not at all, says Dr David Campbell, consultant clinical psychologist, who explains that children as young as
seven as busy (1) establishing their identify outside the family. They are developing relationships that give them (2)
feedback about what kind of person they are pretty, sporty, and so on. Its a very important time for them. As they get
older, relationships become more routine.
Psychological theories indicate that women are more (3) likely to find their identify through relationships than boys, who
define themselves more through activities, he adds. At first, rejections are (4) extremely painful for girls, so they can
seem much more important than they really are. He points out that the oldest child may feel more threatened by
relationships that (5) go wrong. If they lose a girlfriend at school, it reverberates with all their past experiences of (6)
losing out to siblings.
1
2
3
4
5
6

A constituting
A feedback
A possible
A greatly
A come
A losing out

B establishing
B reports
B probable
B extremely
B get
B getting out

C basing
C advice
C likely
C highly
C go
C bowing out

D grounding
D references
D given
D utterly
D do
D running out

Use of English: Open Cloze


Causes of conflict between adolescents and their parents
Some interesting discoveries have been (0) made by psychologists studying conflicts between adolescents and their
parents. One notable feature is that they seldom argue about such major topics (1) as sex, drugs, or politics. This is
surprising, (2) given that great differences often exist between the attitudes of parents and adolescents (3) on such
issues. Researches suggest the explanation may be that such topics (4) do not usually relate to day-to-day family
interaction and are (5) not discussed as they are not directly relevant (6) to family life. Instead, parents and children tend
to (7) fall out over everyday family matters such as housework.
Despite the changes that have (8) taken place over the past fifty years, adolescents appear to have the same kinds of
arguments with their parents as their parents had (9) when they themselves were young. It seems to come (10) down to
the conflict between the adolescents desire for independence (11) and the parents authority. Teenagers spoke of their
right to be free of restrictions, while parents were equally (12) sure/certain of their right to exert control, backing this up
(13) by referring to the needs of the family as (14) a whole. Interestingly, both groups could see the others (15) point of
view even though they disagreed with it.

Use the hints below to help you with the more difficult items.
8
9
10
11
12

part of a collocation meaning occur


a conjunction
part of a phrasal verb
part of the structure the conflict between (something) (something)
an adjective followed by the dependent preposition of

13
14
15

a preposition
part of an expression meaning altogether
a fixed expression: to see someones of view

Suddenly, it's as 1. if saying goodbye to a spouse is no 2. longer the dismal climax to protracted misery that it 3. once
was. Divorce in the 21st century 4. appears a simple lifestyle choice, the result of two people drifting 5. apart: now the
ex-partners can move 6. on and rebuild their lives. Today, those people who once 7. tied the knot because living together
was frowned 8. upon are cohabiting. However, the divorce 9. rate is still high; there is a phenomenally high 9. rate of
marital breakdown - 4 out of 10. So, who divorces and why? What might that 10. tell us about marriages that last?
Academics discovered that the deprived 11. are more divorce-prone, 12. as are those who have cohabited more than
once before marriage, those who have embarked 13. on relationships 14. at a young age, those who have experienced
parental divorce and those who have "low emotional well-being". In 15. short, an awful 16. lot of us are vulnerable. It's
this "happy ever 17. after " that we can't quite seem to get 18. right

Listening
You will hear an interview with two writers who have each written books about marriage. Listen to the
recording. For questions 1-9, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
Evelyn's first 1 investigation did not reveal why so many modern marriages fail.
Evelyn found her daughter's attitude to one of the 2 marriage vows very significant.
Paul agrees that not many couples believe that marriage is a 3 lifetime commitment.
Paul accepts that people shouldn't 4 persevere with very bad marriages.
Evelyn believes that 5 unrealistic expectations are only part of the problem.
Evelyn thinks that people no longer 6 communicate with each other.
Paul refers to two modern 7 alternatives to getting married.
The previous generation would have found these arrangements 8 unacceptable.
Evelyn feels that deep down, people are still 9 romantics (at heart).

Reading
For questions 1-6. read the following text and then choose, from the list A-J given below, the best
phrase to fill each of the spaces. There are three phrases you will not need. There is an example (0).
Dads: Equalising the Family Equation
When my child was small, we used to read 0) ..J..., which was about the Bumsteads, a typical suburban family. The
funniest episodes always seemed to involve the times when Dagwood, 1) the father and breadwinner, had to baby-sit
the children. The first thing he'd do as parent-in-residence was put on his wife Blondie's apron. It was as if, by wearing
something that belonged to her, he was symbolically becoming her. For the Bumsteads, as for most Western couples
during the 1950s, 60s, and 70s, being 2) F the female meant being at home.
Today we know better. Studies have shown the importance of gender roles in shaping our consciousnesses, and we are
now aware of the critical role fathers play throughout 3) A the stages in a child's development. Because he is male and
because he is the other parent, the father expands the child's range of experience and clarifies 4) G the ideas they have
about masculinity.
Despite all the changes that have taken place in the last few decades, two facts remain: First, mothers are still the primary
caretakers of preschool children and, second, most day-care providers are women. This means that young children are
still raised in an environment that is almost exclusively female. It may also mean that the father is the only male 5) the
child has contact with on a regular basis.
The problem with this is that it gives a child an incomplete notion of what 6) the world is about. The male parent, with
his different ways of relating and playing, rounds out a child's sense of the different sexes. He demonstrates that human
society is made up of two genders, each with distinct styles of dress, thought, and behaviour.
3 A the stages in a child's development
6 the world is about
5 the child has contact with on a regular basis
D the opinions they have on childcare
1 E the father and breadwinner
2 F the female meant being at home
4 G the ideas they have about masculinity
H the parent meant being the mother
I the father's responsibilities are
J the popular comic strip Dagwood and Blondie

Generations Apart
Psychotherapist Gael Lindenfield examines the role of grandparents today.
No one warned me that in my early 40's. I would start cooing longingly into prams. I was totally unprepared to meet this
new aspect of myself. My own nest had just emptied and I was eagerly filling the 'vacuum' with innumerable career and
globe-trotting adventures. Admittedly the master vision for the rest of my life did include a few happy granny and grandpa
scenes, but they were more distant and more a family joke than a serious prediction. So this strange primitive urge to
extend my family into another generation was both perplexing and even a little irritating.
When the right time came, I had, of course, every intention of becoming a conscientious, involved grandparent. But that
was more about doing the right thing for the children than fulfilling a deep instinctive need of my own. As a
psychotherapist, I am hyper-aware of how life-transforming a good relationship with a grandparent can be. It offers so
much more than treats, extra quality time and cheap nannying. Good grandparents help build psychological security by
making their grandchildren feel part of a much wider, diverse and stable supportive family network. They also give them a
sense of their place in history and evolution and give their life a meaningful sense of perspective.
Even when we reach adulthood, our psychological health can be affected by the relationship that we may or may not have
had with our grandparents. I frequently work with people who have (to put it mildly!) a less than perfect relationship with
their own parents. Many times I have been able to help people heal emotionally by simply reawakening a cherished
memory of a much happier and more unconditionally loving relationship with a grandparent.
Alan was, in his own words, a hopeless case of workaholism. He still fell driven by trying to please his ambitious,
perfectionist father. But, fortunately, I discovered that he had also received a much more unconditional kind of love from
his calmer, happier and affectionate grandfather. Putting a photo of his granddad on his desk helped Alan keep his
promise to himself to maintain better balance in his life.
Similarly, another client, Angela, had very low self-esteem. We found that by just recalling her grandmother's look of pure
joy when she used to greet her after school each day, Angela could give herself a powerful boost of confidence whenever
she needed it.
Until I became a grandparent myself, however, I never appreciated how important Alan and Angela must have been for
the happiness and welfare of their grandparents.
Nowadays, the chances of children and grandparents having such intimate, mutually satisfying relationships are fast
diminishing. Recent research revealed that in Britain, one out of twenty grandparents is likely to have had no contact
whatsoever with at least one of their grandchildren during the past five years. There are many reasons for this new
distancing of generations. Sometimes, it's mere geography that keeps them apart. I recently met a woman who proudly
showed me a picture of her family in Australia. Unfortunately, she told me, she hadn't ever visited them, and hadn't even
seen her five-year-old granddaughter. Her son had brought over his seven-year-old son six years ago, but he hadn't had
the time or money to visit since. She explained that she herself had a heart condition, which would make a long flight too
risky.
The positive aspect of this story was that, however sad this situation was for both parties, there appeared to be no
bitterness or resentment. But many grandparents feel quite differently. They're being forced apart from their grandchildren
by less acceptable factors of modern society. Perhaps pressure of time maintains the distance. After all, nowadays, even
if close extended families live within easy visiting distance, they may still not see much of each other. Parents often spend
so much of their precious weekends cleaning, shopping and decorating that they hardly have time to get to know their
children. Equally, the children themselves may have such a heavy weekend of programmed activity that their time is also
stretched to its limits. A visit to or from grandparents feels like a luxury that no one can afford.
Another increasingly common reason for estrangement is the break-up of family through divorce or separation. Many
grandparents who consequently lose contact with their grandchildren go through a painful bereavement process, which
can even lead to emotional and physical illness. This is because they never give up hope. They will not accept the finality
of separation or loss. It seems that the grandparenting instinct and bond is so strong that it is rarely killed by even the
most bitter family squabbles and separations.
1 When she was about forty, the writer
A became a grandparent.
was planning to travel.
was annoyed by her family.
D regretted not having grandchildren.
2 The writer thinks that grandparents are particularly important because
A they ensure children get better treatment.
they teach children about the past.
they provide children with financial support.
D they give children a sense of belonging.
3 According to the writer. Alan and Angela benefited from
A understanding the reasons for their parents' behaviour.
realising how important they were to their grandparents.
remembering their grandparents' attitude to them.

D finding out why they were lacking in confidence.


4 How did the woman whose grandchildren were in Australia feel?
A She knew that visiting would be difficult for both sides of the family.
She blamed her son for not making enough effort to see her.
She was happy that her family had been so successful.
D She preferred not to see them regularly.
5 When grandparents live near to their families,
A seeing each other is usually much easier.
parents try to keep the grandparents at a distance.
lack of time may prevent regular contact.
D grandchildren resent repeated visits from grandparents.
6 Why does losing contact with grandchildren affect grandparents so deeply?
A They feet then love for their grandchildren is being destroyed
They wish they had done more to prevent the separation.
They know that their grandchildren will suffer from the loss.
D They continue to hope that contact will be re-established.

QUOTING, REPORTING and INTERPRETING


I. Referring directly to other peoples words.
We can use a number of phrases or structures to refer to what other people have said or written:
According to the Chancellor, a tax increase is unavoidable.
In the words of Shakespeare, all the worlds stage.
To quote Julius Caesar; I came, I saw, I conquered.
As the Prime Minister has it, Things can only get better.
Beckett once wrote that people were bloody ignorant apes.
To paraphrase Abraham Lincoln, were not all idiots all the time.
II. Inanimate objects can speak.
Its not only people who say and tell us things. We can talk about written materials in a number of ways:
What came in the post, dear? Oh, the usual stuff. The Sun says its time to forget were Europeans. And
there was a leaflet offering four CDs for the price of one. And a letter from WD Autos reminding us that a
service is due on the car. And a circular from the Town Hall telling us that our house is to be demolished. And
a note from my boss saying Ive been fired.
III. Casting doubt on what people have said.
We may wish to cast doubt or uncertainty on what has been said. We can use different phrasing:
If hes to be believed,
Theyre saying that
I gather/understand/hear
hes on his way out.
He is supposed to
Theres a rumour going around that
The word is that
IV. Interpreting the meaning of what has been said.
Sometimes, as the listener or reader, we interpret what we hear or read. We can use a number of verbs and
common phrases:
I infer from your letter that
The only possible inference is that
Your comments imply that
From the tone of your letter I conclude that
I feel bound to interpret your comments as
Judging by your reply, you
What you are saying in so many words is that
V. Verbs that indicate how something is said.
We can use a number of verbs (and related adverbs) to indicate the purpose or effect of speakers or writers
words:
He stated categorically that he was innocent.
He maintained throughout that he had done nothing wrong.
He challenged the authenticity of the papers.
He questioned the peoples right to doubt his sincerity.
Other verbs that indicate the persons attitude include:
(utterly) repudiate assert
confirm
clamour (for)
(openly) confess (to) doubt
demand
recollect
(proudly) proclaim allege
reminisce
suspect
VI. Nouns that summarise what has been said.
If we know what was said previously, we can summarise it with a noun:
He has repudiated all the recent allegations.
She continues to deny their accusations.
We cannot possibly meet their demands.
Their claims border on the ludicrous.
Common nouns that act like this include:
comments remarks
statements queries
criticism
praise
compliment attack recollections

protest

1. Fill each gap with one of the words listed.


unconfirmed spies rumour
bird
apparently
1. has it that hes leaving.
2. My tell me youre going.
3. A little told me youre emigrating.
4. this is her third marriage.
5. reports say shes resigning.
2. Fill each gap with one of the words listed.
denote
read
signify
dropping
1. What does this line from Hamlet ?
2. If I between the lines ,
3. A colon can a list is to follow.
4. I think he was a hint.
5. I couldnt see what he was at.
6. what he said with a pinch of salt.

driving

take

3. Choose the option, a, b, c or d, that best completes each sentence.


1. The police me about my missing road tax disc.
a suspected
b accused
c queried
d questioned
2. He will be hard pressed to these latest allegations.
a refute
b restrain
c object
d dissent
3. Well have to take what he says on .
a trust
b faith
c belief
d confidence
4. Coming from him that is indeed.
a praise
b congratulations
c comment d compliment
5. What did you infer ... what he said ?
a from
b up
c of
d out
6. Dont me, but I think most modern art is a load of rubbish.
a report
b paraphrase c quote
d attribute
7. What ... does this word have in this context ?
a connotations
b purposes c meanings d proposals
8. They say that under pressure from the authorities Galileo .
a repudiated
b rebutted
c recanted
d renounced
9. Under press from his peers, Big Billy .
a denied
b admitted
c confessed d withstood
10. I think we can take what he says with a of salt.
a grain
b pinch
c carton
d speck
4. Fill each of the gaps in the following sentences with one suitable word.
1. I couldnt work what his message was.
2. What did you make what he said?
3. I couldnt make what he had written.
4. I think she saw his promises immediately.
5. His assurances certainly didnt take me .
6. I couldnt make head nor of what he was saying.
7. Im afraid his lecture on astrophysics went right over my .
8. There was so much information being thrown out I just couldnt take it all .
9. How would you sum what he said?
10. I still have no idea what he was getting .
5. Rewrite the following sentences using the prompt words that follow.
Example: My mother really scolded me.
real
My mother gave me a real telling-off.
1. She insisted that I should be silent.
silence
2. She talked to the others about me behind my back.
spread/gossip
3. He denied categorically that he had been involved.
denial/involvement

4. He issued an ultimatum that the others ignored.


paid/demand
5. When she put her foot down regarding his time-keeping, he acquiesced.
strong/toe
6. When he announced the redundancies, everyone was astonished.
announcement/took
7. He criticized us constantly until we just had to retaliate.
kept/at/answer
8. He mocked her mercilessly until she simply blew her top.
merciless/resulted/temper