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Wave motion in a medium is the movement of a disturbance relative to the medium. The effect of changes at a given point in the medium is communicated to other points through wave motion. Since the molecules in a solid medium are closer to each other compared to liquids and gases a disturbance is communicated (through an elastic wave) to other parts in a comparatively much shorter time. The special phenomenon of the wave propagation in compressible fluid media (gases and vapours) is largely responsible for the marked departure in the nature of analyses between compressible and incompressible flow problems.

Various types of waves in closed passages that may be considered are:

 (a) Infinitesimal pressure waves (sound waves) (b) Non-steep pressure waves with finite amplitude (c) Steep pressure waves (shock wave) (d) Expansion waves.

A wave which is at a lower pressure than the fluid into which it is moving is called an expansion (rarefaction) wave. Conversely a wave which is at a higher pressure than the fluid is referred to as a compression wave.

Wave action only in gases will be discussed in this chapter. However, for a better understanding of some aspects of the wave phenomenon a brief article on wave propagation in an elastic solid medium is considered here.

Figure 5.1 shows a solid rod of uniform area of cross-section A. Compressive stress f (N/cm 2 ) is generated due to the sudden action of a force at one end of the rigid rod. The distance travelled by the wave-front with a velocity a in time t is (at). The change in the length of the portion of the rod through which the wave has travelled is l. Therefore,

Wave-front
A
f
l
atat
ll

Strain

=

l

at

Modulus of elasticity of the rod is

E

=

Stress

Strain =

f

l/ at

(5.1)

(5.2)

The particle velocity of the medium (particles of the rod material)

c

= l

t

Equations (5.2) and (5.3) yield

c

=

f

E/a

Applying momentum equation to the above system.

Impulsive force = change of momentum fAt = ρA (at) c

f

c =

ρa

By comparison of Equations (5.4) and (5.5), we get

f f

E
/
a = ρ
a
E = ρa 2
E
a =
ρ

(5.3)

(5.4)

(5.5)

(5.6)

In this section propagation of sound waves in gases is considered.

A sound wave is an infinitesimal pressure wave. The changes across such a wave are small and the speed of the process corresponding to these changes is fast. Therefore, if there is no heat transfer in the system under consideration the changes across an infinitesimal pressure wave can be assumed as reversible adiabatic or isentropic. The velocity of sound in a gas depends on its bulk modulus of elasticity (K) or the rate of change of pressure with density (p/∂ρ).

The propagation of an infinitesimal pressure wave into the stagnant gas in a constant area duct is shown in Figure 5.2. The wave moves with a velocity a towards the right into the stagnant gas which is at pressure p and temperature T. The pressure and temperature of the gas that has been traversed by the wave are raised to p + dp and T + dT respectively and a velocity dc is imparted to the gas. This is the pattern of the process that will be observed by an observer at rest.

p
+ dp
T
+ dT
Stagnant gas
dc
a
p, T
A
Pressure
Constant area
wave
duct
dc
Velocity

Distance

p + dp
p
Pressure

Distance

The pattern shown in Figure 5.3 will be observed when the observer moves with the wave. In this case the stagnant gas at pressure p on the right appears to flow towards the left with a velocity a. When the flow has passed through the wave to the left its pressure is raised to (p + dp) and the velocity lowered to (a dc).

Thus the wave can be considered as a stationary wave contained within a control surface through which flow occurs from right to left.

Now the momentum and continuity equations are written for the control surface.

The shear force for such a flow will be small and therefore, can be ignored.

Momentum equation for this process gives

A [p – (p + dp)] = m

[(a dc) – a]

 Adp = m dc (5.7) From continuity equation m = ρAa (5.8) Equations (5.7) and (5.8) yield dp = ρa dc (5.9)

Velocity

Pressure

Control surface
a – dc
a
A = Constant
a
a – dc

Distance

p + dp

p

Distance

From continuity equation for the two sides of the wave

m

= ρAa = (ρ + dρ) (a dc) A

ρ dc = a dρ Substituting from Equation (5.10) in (5.9)

a 2 = dp dρ

(5.10)

(5.11)

Since the process has been assumed isentropic Equation (5.11) can be written as

a =

p
∂ρ

s

(5.12)

Equation (5.12) shows that in compressible fluids in which there is a large density change for a given pressure change the velocity of sound is much lower compared to incompressible fluids (liquids); for example, velocity of sound in air at normal ambient temperature is about 340 m/s compared to 1700 m/s in water and 5000 m/s in steel.

Substituting Equations (1.58) and (1.62) in (5.12) yields the following relations:

a

=

K
γ p
R
==
γ RT
=
γ
ρ
ρ
W

T

(5.13)

Following conclusions are drawn from Equation (5.13):

(a) In a given fluid, velocity of sound is higher at higher temperatures.

(b) Fluids with higher values of the bulk modulus (or lower values of the coefficients of compressibility) have higher velocities of sound.

(c) With little change in the values of γ for commonly used gases velocity of sound at a given temperature is higher for lower molecular weight gases and vice versa. Hydrogen, with a very low molecular weight has a high of sound of about 1400 m/s, while the velocity of sound in some freons which have higher molecular weights, is only about 150 m/s.

The above figures suggest that Mach number plays an important role in the design and working of machines using higher molecular weight fluids. In contrast to this Mach number has negligible effect on machines using low molecular weight gases like hydrogen; this is because the fluid or gas velocities are very small compared to velocity of sound at the prevailing temperatures.

As stated earlier Mach number (M) of a moving object like an aircraft or a missile is the ratio of its velocity and the velocity of sound in the medium (at a given state) into which it is moving. The Mach number of a flowing fluid is the ratio of its velocity and the velocity of sound at the prevailing temperature.

Definition of Mach number can also be obtained from

M 2 = Inertia force Elastic force

 Inertia force = ρ Ac 2 Elastic force = KA

Substituting for K from Equation (5.13)

Elastic force

= ρAa 2

Therefore,

M 2 =

Ac

ρ

2

ρ Aa

2

M 2 =

c

a

2

(5.14)

(5.15)

Figures 5.4 ((a), (b), (c) and (d)) show the movement of a source of disturbance (S) at a velocity u in a fluid from right to the left. Point S represents the present position, while 1, 2 and 3 show its positions before 1, 2 and 3 seconds respectively. The disturbance travels distances of a, 2a and 3a metres in 1, 2 and 3 seconds respectively. In an incompressible flow model (as shown in Figure 5.4 (a)) velocity u of the source of disturbance is negligibly small compared to the velocity of sound a. Infinitesimal spherical waves (sound waves) are generated which travel at a velocity a in all the directions; here the displacement of the point S during the time considered (3 sec.) is insignificantly small compared to the distance travelled by the pressure waves.

1
2
3
s 33aa
u
aa
22aa
SoundSound waveswaves
( a ) Incompressible flow
(ua/
0, M 0)
SoundSound waveswaves
s
12
3
aa
22aa
33aa
( b ) Subsonic flow
(a/2uM,
= 0.5)

Wave propagation in subsonic flow at (M = u/a = 0.5) is shown in Figure 5.4 (b); here the source of disturbance travels at half the velocity of the wave (disturbance). Spherical sound waves generated at t = 3, 2 and 1 secs. before the present position S are shown. It is observed that the wave-fronts move ahead of the point source and the intensity is not symmetrical. In Figure 5.4 (c) the point source travels with the same velocity as that of the wave; the velocity of the point source is sonic (M = 1). Under this condition, the wave-fronts always exist at the present position of the point source and cannot move ahead of it. Therefore, the region downstream of the point source, i.e., the zone lying on the left of the wave-front is a zone of silence because the waves do not reach this zone. The zone on the right of the wave-front is traversed by the waves and is therefore a zone of action. Figure 5.4 (d) shows a supersonic flow model. As an example the point source is assumed to be moving at twice the velocity of sound (M = u/a = 2). The waves generated at positions 3, 2, 1 and S are shown. The point source is always ahead of the wave-fronts. Tangents drawn from the point S on the spheres define a conical surface referred to as ‘Mach cone’.

Zone of action
Zone of
silence
SoundSound waveswaves
23
s 1
u = a
aa
22aa
33aa

u = 2a

Mach cone
T
Sound
Mach angle
= sin –1 1
Waves
atat
M
utut
s
1
2 3
a
22aa
33aa
Zone of silence
Zone of action
a =
uM =

All the waves are confined to the region within the Mach cone; therefore, this is referred to as the zone of action. The waves do not reach the region outside the Mach cone; therefore, this zone is known as the zone of silence. The semi-angle of the cone is known as the Mach angle; this is given by

α

= sin 1 3 3 T S = sin 1 at

ut = sin 1

α = sin 1

1

M

.

1

u/a

(5.16)

In this section equation of motion for a sound wave is derived. Continuity and momentum equations for three-dimensional flow have been derived in Chapter 10. Here the flow is assumed as one-dimensional, inviscid and the body forces are considered as negligibly small. Figure 5.5 shows an infinitesimal pressure wave (sound wave) moving into the stagnant gas (c = 0) of density ρ . The density and velocity changes along the wave are given by

 ρ = ρ ∞ + ∆ρ (5.17) c = c ∞ + c′ = c′ (5.18)

The fluid through which the wave has passed moves with a small velocity c. Momentum equation for this flow is

 1 + ∂ ∂ p ∂ c c = 0 + c ρ t x x ∂ ∂ ∂ 1 ∂ p = 1 ∂ p ∂ρ ρ ∂ x s ρ ∂ρ s ∂ x

s

(5.19)

(5.20)

c
c
= 0
a
x

Expansion of

But

Therefore,

p

∂ρ

in Taylor’s series gives

s

pp

=

2

p

∂ρ

s

∂ρ

s ,

∂ρ

2

+ ∆ρ

s ,

+

 ∂ p ∂ρ s, ∞ = a ∞ 2 ∂ p = a ∞ 2 + ∆ρ ∂ 2 p s , ∞ ∂ρ s ∂ρ 2 1 ∂ρ = 1 ∂ ∆ρ ρ ∂ x ρ + ∆ρ ∂ x s = ∞ 1 1 + ∆ρ − 1 s ∂∆ρ ρ ρ ∂ x 1 ∂ρ = ∞ 1 − ∆ρ ∞ ∂ ∆ρ ρ ∂ x s ∂ ρρ ∞ x ∞

s

= 0

(5.21)

(5.22)

Substituting from Equations (5.21) and (5.22) in (5.20)

 1 ∂ p = ∞ 2 + ∆ρ ∂ 2 p 1 − ∆ρ ∂ ∆ρ ρ ∂ x s a ∂ρ 2 s , ∞ ∞ x ρρ ∂ ∞

For small value of ∆ρ the above equation can be written in the following simplified

form:

1

p

∆ρ

ρ

x

s

x

ρ

=

a

2

(5.23)

Substituting from Equations (5.18) and (5.23) in (5.19)

2

a

 ∂ ∆ρ + ′ ∂ c ′ + ∂ c ′ ∂ x ρ ∞ c ∂ x ∂ t

= 0

For small values of c, c

c x = 0, therefore,

a

2

∆ρ

+ ∂ ∂

c

x

ρ

t

= 0

Continuity equation gives

∂ρ

∂ρ

c

T

x

x

+ c

+ ρ

=

0

(5.24)

Substituting from Equations (5.17) and (5.18) in the above equation

t

(ρ + ∆ρ) – c

x

(ρ + ∆ρ) + (ρ + ∆ρ)

c

x

= 0

Noting that ∂ρ /t = 0, ∂ρ /x = 0 and ∆ρ and care small quantities, the above equation reduces to

c ′ ∂ x

t

(∆ρ) + ρ

∆ρ

+ ∂ ∂

c

t

ρ

x

= 0

= 0

(5.25)

Since Equations (5.24) and (5.25) have been derived assuming isentropic flow with infinitesimal changes, they are valid for the sound waves.

Differentiating Equations (5.24) and (5.25) with respect to x and t respectively

a

2

2

∆ρ

+

+

2

c

x

2

2

ρ

∆ρ

x

2

c

t

t

2

ρ

t

x

=

=

0

0

By subtraction of the above equations and noting that

2

c

2

c

=

x

t

t

x

we have

2

a

2

∆ρ

2

∆ρ

x

2

ρ

t

2

ρ

= 0

(5.26)

Differentiating Equations (5.24) and (5.25) with respect to t and x respectively, we have

 ∂ 2 ∆ρ + 1∂ 2 c ′ = 0 ∂ t ∂ x ρ ∞ a 2 ∞ ∂ t 2 ∂ 2 ∆ρ + ∂ 2 c ′ = 0 ∂ x ∂ t ρ ∞ ∂ x 2

By subtraction of the above equations and noting that

we have

 ∂ 2 ∆ρ = ∂ 2 ∆ρ ∂ tx ∂ ρ ∞ ∂ xt ∂ ρ ∞

a

2

2

c

2

c

x

2

t

2

= 0

(5.27)

Equations (5.26) and (5.27) show that changes in both velocity and density follow a wave pattern defined by these equations.

A general solution of the wave Equation (5.26) can be written as

∆ρ

ρ

= f 1 (x a t) + f 2 (x + a t)

This is shown graphically in Figure 5.6.

(5.28)

t
ƒ (x
ƒ (x
+ +
a
a
t)
t)
ƒ (x – a
ƒ (x – a
t)
t)
2 2
1
1
dx
dx
= –a
= –a
=
= a
a
dt
dt
– x
0
x

The rightward running lines represent the first part of the solution f 1 (x a t) = constant

dx

dt

= a

(5.29)

(5.30)

The leftward running lines represent the other part of the solution

f 2 (x + a t) = constant

dx

dt

=

a .

(5.31)

(5.32)

Till now only infinitesimal pressure waves have been considered. As stated before the changes across these waves are isentropic and small in magnitude. Such waves can be generated by an impulse imparted by the sudden movement of a piston in a cylinder as shown in Figure 5.7 (c). If such impulses are continuously generated by the piston in a few steps before it achieves a steady speed there will be a finite change in pressure and other quantities. This finite change is made up of a number of infinitesimal isentropic changes as shown in Figure 5.7 (b); therefore, the overall change across the wave is finite but still remains isentropic. Since the changes across the wave are continuous it is a non-steep finite wave. Such a wave is considered here. This is moving towards the right into the stagnant gas (c = 0) at pressure (p 1 ) and temperature (T 1 ). The flat top of this wave corresponds to the steady speed of the piston. The passage of the wave into the fluid sets it into motion with a velocity c and raises its pressure to p as at section P in Figure 5.7. The properties at points P and 1 can be related through isentropic relations:

=

1/2

T

=

a

p

a

1

T

1

p

1

p = constant ρ γ

(γ − 1

)/

2 γ

(5.33)

ln p = ln constant + γ ln ρ

p

p

p
+ dp
dpdp
a
T
+ dT
p
+ dp
c = 0
dc
p
T
t
( a )
P
1
p
a
T
dp
c
c = 0
p
.
T.
111
t
( b )

( c )

By differentiation

dp

d

ρ

= γ

p ρ

dp

γ

p

=

d

ρ

ρ

= a 2

d

ρ

= 1

γ

dp

ρ

p

Equation (5.10) can be written as

dc = a

dρ

ρ

Substituting from Equation (5.34)

dc

=

a dp

γ

p

Substituting for a from Equation (5.33)

dc =

( γ

1

)/

2

γ

dp

a

1

p

γ

p

1

p

After rearranging and integrating

a

c

0

dc =

1

γ

p

(

1

γ

1

)/

2

γ

p

p

1

p

(

γ

+ 1

)/

2

c =

p

2

a

1

γ − 1

p

1

( γ

1

)/

2

γ

γ

1

dp

.

(5.34)

(5.35)

Equation (5.35) gives the velocity of the gas (at section P) that is induced after the passage of the finite non-steep pressure wave. The local velocity of sound, from Equation (5.33) is given by

a = a 1

p

p

1

(γ − 1

)/

2 γ

Therefore, the velocity of the wave propagation is

c w = c + a

c w =

 2 a 1 p ( γγ − 1 )/ 2 − 1 + p γ − 1 p 1 a p 1

1

 (5.36) ( )/ − 1 γγ 2 (5.37)

 γ + 1 p ( γ − 1 )/ 2 γ − 2 c w = γ c w − 1 p 1 γ + 1 = p (γ − 1 )/ γ − 1 2 γ − a 1 2 M w = a 1 γ − 1 p 1 γ − 1 p = p 1 + ∆p p (γγ− 1 )/ 2 = 1 + ∆ p (γγ− 1 )/ 2 p 1 p 1 p (γ − 1 )/ 2 γ = 1 + γ − 1 ∆ p p 1 2 γ p 1 c w = γ + 1 + γ + 1 ∆p − 2 a 1 γ − 1 2 γ p 1 γ − 1 1 + γ + 1 ∆p c w = 2 γ p 1 a 1

A wave Mach number can be defined by

If

For small values of p, by binomial expansion

Substituting the above equation in (5.38 (a)), we get

(5.38 (a))

(5.38 (b))

(5.38 (c))

When the finite wave approaches the infinitesimal wave

p

p 1

0

and the above expression yields c w = a 1 .

The Mach number of the gas through which the wave has passed is given by

M =

c

a

Substituting from Equations (5.35) and (5.36)

p
( γγ
− 1
)/
2
(
γγ
− 1
)/
2
2
p
M =
a
1
a
1
γ −
1
p
1
p
1
1
(
γ
− 1
)/
2
γ
2
p
1
M
=
1
γ − 1
p

(5.39)

Figure 5.8 shows the generation and propagation of compression waves in a cylinder. The space-time diagram for the waves along with the trajectories of the piston and the fluid particles is shown.

t

Piston
t 5
trajectory
t 4
t 3
t 2
t 1
Fluid particle
trajectory
Finite non-steep
Finite
non-steep
compression
compression
waves
waves

x

Due to the continuous passage of waves through the fluid its pressure and temperature are raised. Therefore, the local velocity of sound for a wave generated at t = t 5 will be much higher (on account of the higher gas temperature) compared to a wave generated at an earlier stage say at t = t 1 . Besides this with the continuous passage of pressure waves through the fluid its velocity is also progressively increasing. Therefore, the waves generated in the later stages propagate at higher velocities of sound relative to the fluid which itself is moving faster than before. But the velocity of wave propagation is given by c w = c + a

Therefore, the propagation velocity of each subsequent wave is greater than that of the preceding wave; this fact can be observed as the decreasing slope of the subsequent waves on the time-space diagram.

In this section a special case of the finite pressure waves is discussed. In the preceding section it was explained that the impulsive motion of the piston in a number of steps generated pressure

t
Steep
waves
Non-steep waves

x

waves which move at higher velocities than the preceding waves. Thus the faster moving waves tend to overtake the slower waves generated earlier.

Figure 5.9 shows a condition when a number of compression waves merge into one “finite pressure steep wave”. This is due to the above phenomenon of faster waves overtaking the slower waves ahead, and is best explained on the time-space diagram (Figure 5.9).

In contrast to the infinitesimal and non-steep compression waves the change in the pressure and other properties of the flow across a steep compression wave is abrupt; therefore, it is referred to as a “shock wave”. A detailed analysis of the shock waves will be covered in the latter chapters.

Figures 5.10 (a), (b) show the propagation of a steep compression wave into stagnant gas in a constant area duct; the quantities upstream of the wave are c 2 , p 2 , T 2 , ρ 2 , etc. and those in the stagnant gas are c 1 = 0, p 1 , T 1 and ρ 1 . The velocity of propagation of the wave is c sw .

p

2
1
T
2
p
c
2
sw
ρ
2
c 1 = 0
T 1
p
1
ρ
1

Wave
c 2
c 1 = 0
p 2
p 1
Stagnant gas
c 5w
T 2
T 1
2
1

In Figure 5.10 (c) the gas is assumed to be moving towards the left at a velocity c 1 = c sw . This gives zero velocity to the wave and a velocity (c sw c 2 ) to the flow on the left of the stationary steep compression wave.

Continuity equation for this flow model (Figure 5.10 (c)) gives

m

= ρ 1 c sw A = ρ 2 (c sw c 2 ) A

Control
surface
p 2
p 1
T 2
T 1
c sw – c 2
c 1 = c sw
ρ 2
ρ 1
h
h 2
1
∆pp=
– p
2
1
∆p = ρρ–
2
1

ρ

1

=

c

sw

c

2

=

1

c

2

ρ

2

c

sw

c

sw

c 2 =

ρ

2

ρ

1

ρ

2

c sw

(5.40)

(5.41)

Momentum equation for the control volume gives

(p 1 p 2 ) A = m

[(c sw c 2 ) – c sw ]

p 2 p 1 = ρ 1 c sw c 2 Substituting for c 2 from Equation (5.41), we get

2

p 2 p 1 = ρ 1 c sw

ρ

2

ρ

1

ρ

2

This gives the velocity of the steep wave as

c sw =

c sw =

ρ
− p
p
2
2
1
ρρρ
1
2
1
ρ
p
2
ρ
∆ρ
1

Equation (5.42) can also be written as

2

c sw

1

p
(/) pp − 1
1
2
1
=
c sw =
ρ
1 − (/) ρρ
1
1
2
ρ
p
p
1
=
ρ
ρ
p
1
2
1
1
2 1
ρ
1
1
p
1 p
=−
1
2 − 1
2
ρ
2 ρ
c
p
1
sw
1
(/) − 1
p
p
2
1
RT
1
1 −ρ (/) ρ
1
2

(5.42)

(5.43)

(5.44)

(5.45)

Unlike the infinitesimal and non-steep finite compression waves the changes across the steep wave may or may not be adiabatic. If heat transfer is considered negligible or absent the flow process can be assumed as adiabatic. Therefore, from energy equation for adiabatic flow across the wave (Figure 5.10 (c))

h 1 +

1

2

2

c sw

= h 2 +

1

2

(c sw c 2 ) 2

(5.46)

But

h =

γ

p

γ − 1

ρ

(Equation 2.31)

Therefore, substituting from Equation (2.31) for h and from (5.40) for (c sw c 2 ) into Equation (5.46)

 γ p 1 + 1 2 = γ p 2 + 1 2 ρ γ − 1 ρ 1 2 c sw γ − 1 ρ 2 2 c sw ρ

1 2

2

Expressing the first term on the right hand side in the above equation in terms of density and pressure ratios, we get

 2 γ p 1 + 2 = 2 γ p ρ 1 p 1 + c 2 ρ γ − 1 ρ c sw 1 γ − 1 p 2 1 ρ 2 ρ 1 sw ρ

1

2

2

(5.47)

Substituting for ρ 1 /ρ 2 from Equation (5.45) in (5.47) yields

 2 γ p 1 + 2 = 2 γ p 2 1 − 1 p 1 p 2 − 1 p 1 γ − 1 ρ 1 c sw γ − 1 p 1 c 2 sw ρρ 1 p 1 1

+

1

1

p

1

p

2

c

2

sw

ρ

1

p

1

1

2

c sw

Opening the brackets, simplifying and collecting the terms containing c 2

sw

 1 p 1 1 p 1 2 − 1 1 + p 2 γ + 1 ⋅ = 2 p 2 1 2 − c 2 sw ρ p p 1 − 1 γ = p 1 2 1 γγ − 1 − 1 p 2 − 1 γ − 1 p

The above equation on further simplification and rearrangement yields.

2

c sw

=

γ

1 p

1

+

γ + 1

pp

1

2

2

ρ

1

2

ρ

1

p

1

(5.48)

This equation gives the velocity of the steep wave in terms of the initial properties (p 1 , ρ 1 , etc.) and the amplitude (p 2 p 1 ) of the wave or the pressure ratio across it.

If

p 2 = p 1 + p

= 1 +

p

2

p

p

1

p

1

Substituting the above value in Equation (5.48)

c

c

2

sw

2

sw

=

 γ − 1 p γ + 1 1 p + 1 1 + ∆ p 2 ρ 1 1 2 ρ p 1

= γ p

ρ

1

+

γ + 1

p

1

2

ρ

1

When the finite pressure wave approaches the infinitesimal wave (p 0) the above equation yields

c

2

sw

= γ p 1

ρ

1

2

= a 1

which has been derived earlier for the sound wave.

An expression for the Mach number of the flow (M 2 = c 2 /a 2 ) through which the wave has passed can be derived from the relations so far developed. Comparison of Equations (5.40) and (5.45) gives

 ρ 1 =− 1 c 2 =− 1 1 p 1 1 p 2 ρ 2 c sw c 2 sw ρ p 1 2 p 1 = RT = a 1 1 ρ 1 γ c 2 a 2 1 == 1 p 2 − 1 c sw c 2 sw γ p 1 c 2 = a 1 p 2 − 1 a 1 c sw 1 γ p 1

Now

Therefore,

which after rearrangement gives

1

Equation (5.48) can also be rewritten as

2
2
γ
− 1 a
1 + ap
γ
+ 1
2
1
2
=
c sw
2 γ
2 γ
p
1
γ
− 1
+ γ + 1 p
c sw