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2.

5 Modulation:
Is the addition of information (or the signal) to an electronic or optical signal carrier
In telecommunications, modulation is the process of conveying a message signal, for
example a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another signal that can
be

physically

transmitted.

Modulation

of

sine

waveform

transforms

a baseband message signal into a pass band signal.


2.5.1 Digital modulation:
is to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog band pass channel, for example over
the public switched telephone network (where a band pass filter limits the frequency
range to 3003400 Hz), or over a limited radio frequency band. The most
fundamental digital modulation techniques are based on keying:
1- PSK (phase-shift keying): a finite number of phases are used.

Phase of carrier signal is shifted to represent data

Differential PSK

Phase shifted relative to previous transmission rather than some reference


signal.

Figure (2.2) PSK


2- FSK (frequency-shift keying): a finite number of frequencies are used.

Values represented by different frequencies (near carrier)

Less susceptible to error than ASK

Typically used up to 1200bps on voice grade lines

High frequency radio

Even higher frequency on LANs using co-ax

Figure (2.3) FSK

3- ASK (amplitude-shift keying): a finite number of amplitudes are used.

Values represented by different amplitudes of carrier

Usually, one amplitude is zero

i.e. presence and absence of carrier is used

Susceptible to sudden gain changes

Inefficient

Typically used up to 1200bps on voice grade lines

Used over optical fiber

Figure (2.4) ASK


2.5.2 Pulse-code modulation (PCM)

is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form
of digital audio in computers, Compact Discs, digital telephony and other digital
audio applications. In a PCM stream, the amplitude of the analog signal is sampled
regularly at uniform intervals, and each sample is quantized to the nearest value
within a range of digital steps.
PCM is the most commonly used technique in the PAM family and uses a sampling
rate of 8000 samples per second.
Each sample is an 8 bit sample resulting in a digital rate of 64,000 bps (8 x 8000).
Sampling Theorem: If a signal is sampled at a rate higher than twice the highest signal
frequency, then the samples contain all the information of the original signal.
2.5.3 Analog modulation
is to transfer an analog baseband (or low pass) signal, for example an audio signal or
TV signal, over an analog band pass channel at a different frequency, for example
over a limited radio frequency band or a cable TV network channel.
Amplitude modulation (AM) (here the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied in
accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)

Frequency modulation (FM) (here the frequency of the carrier signal is varied
in accordance to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)

Phase modulation (PM) (here the phase shift of the carrier signal is varied in
accordance with the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating signal)

GSM was designed with a moderate level of service security. The system was designed to
authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response.
Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The
development of UMTS introduces an optional Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM),
that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as well as mutually
authenticating the network and the user, whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the
network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and
authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no non-repudiation

GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The A5/1, A5/2, and A5/3 stream
ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a
stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in
other countries. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to
break A5/2 in real-time with a ciphertext-only attack, and in January 2007, The Hacker's
Choice started the A5/1 cracking project with plans to use FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be
broken with a rainbow table attack.[16] The system supports multiple algorithms so
operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one.

A GSM modem is a specialized type of modem which accepts a SIM card, and operates over
a subscription to a mobile operator, just like a mobile phone. From the mobile operator
perspective, a GSM modem looks just like a mobile phone.

When a GSM modem is connected to a computer, this allows the computer to use the GSM
modem to communicate over the mobile network. While these GSM modems are most
frequently used to provide mobile internet connectivity, many of them can also be used for
sending and receiving SMS and MMS messages.

A GSM modem can be a dedicated modem device with a serial, USB or Bluetooth
connection, or it can be a mobile phone that provides GSM modem capabilities.

For the purpose of this document, the term GSM modem is used as a generic term to refer
to any modem that supports one or more of the protocols in the GSM evolutionary family,
including the 2.5G technologies GPRS and EDGE, as well as the 3G technologies WCDMA,
UMTS, HSDPA and HSUPA.

A GSM modem exposes an interface that allows applications such as NowSMS to send and
receive messages over the modem interface. The mobile operator charges for this message
sending and receiving as if it was performed directly on a mobile phone. To perform these
tasks, a GSM modem must support an extended AT command set for sending/receiving
SMS messages, as defined in the ETSI GSM 07.05 and and 3GPP TS 27.005 specifications.

GSM modems can be a quick and efficient way to get started with SMS, because a special
subscription to an SMS service provider is not required. In most parts of the world, GSM
modems are a cost effective solution for receiving SMS messages, because the sender is
paying for the message delivery.

A GSM modem can be a dedicated modem device with a serial, USB or Bluetooth
connection, such as the Falcom Samba 75. (Other manufacturers of dedicated GSM modem
devices include Wavecom, Multitech and iTegno. Weve also reviewed a number of modems
on our technical support blog.) To begin, insert a GSM SIM card into the modem and connect
it to an available USB port on your computer.

A GSM modem could also be a standard GSM mobile phone with the appropriate cable and
software driver to connect to a serial port or USB port on your computer. Any phone that
supports the extended AT command set for sending/receiving SMS messages, as defined
in ETSI GSM 07.05 and/or 3GPP TS 27.005, can be supported by the Now SMS & MMS
Gateway. Note that not all mobile phones support this modem interface
A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM) is an integrated
circuit that securely stores the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) and the related
key used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as
mobile phones and computers).

A SIM circuit is embedded into a removable plastic card. This plastic card is called a "SIM
card" and can be transferred between different mobile devices. A SIM card follows certain
smart card standards.[1] SIM cards were first made the same size as a credit card (85.60 mm
53.98 mm 0.76 mm). The development of physically smaller mobile devices prompted
the development of smaller SIM cards where the quantity of card surrounding the integrated
circuit is reduced.

A SIM card contains its unique serial number (ICCID), international mobile subscriber identity
(IMSI), security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to
the local network, a list of the services the user has access to and two passwords: a personal
identification number (PIN) for ordinary use and a personal unblocking code (PUK) for PIN
unlocking

The Intel 8051 microcontroller is one of the most popular general purpose microcontrollers
in use today. The success of the Intel 8051 spawned a number of clones which are
collectively referred to as the MCS-51 family of microcontrollers, which includes chips from
vendors such as Atmel, Philips, Infineon, and Texas Instruments.
The Intel 8051 is an 8-bit microcontroller which means that most available operations are
limited to 8 bits. There are 3 basic "sizes" of the 8051: Short, Standard, and Extended. The
Short and Standard chips are often available in DIP (dual in-line package) form, but the
Extended 8051 models often have a different form factor, and are not "drop-in compatible".
All these things are called 8051 because they can all be programmed using 8051 assembly
language, and they all share certain features (although the different models all have their
own special features)

There are 4 8-bit ports: P0, P1, P2 and P3.

PORT P1 (Pins 1 to 8): The port P1 is a general purpose input/output port which can be used
for a variety of interfacing tasks. The other ports P0, P2 and P3 have dual roles or additional
functions associated with them based upon the context of their usage.The port 1 output
buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to portn1 pins are pulled high
by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs.

PORT P3 (Pins 10 to 17): PORT P3 acts as a normal IO port, but Port P3 has additional
functions such as, serial transmit and receive pins, 2 external interrupt pins, 2 external
counter inputs, read and write pins for memory access.

PORT P2 (pins 21 to 28): PORT P2 can also be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no
external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P2 will act

as an address bus in conjunction with PORT P0 to access external memory. PORT P2 acts as
A8-A15, as can be seen from fig 1.1

PORT P0 (pins 32 to 39) PORT P0 can be used as a general purpose 8 bit port when no
external memory is present, but if external memory access is required then PORT P0 acts as
a multiplexed address and data bus that can be used to access external memory in
conjunction with PORT P2. P0 acts as AD0-AD7, as can be seen from fig 1.1

PORT P10: asynchronous communication input or Serial synchronous communication


output.