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Hybrid Solutions for TalloBuildings
C
H
U
B
T
C

Matthew J. Esther

BEng CEng EurIng MICE MIStructE MSFE


g
- Associate
Senior Structural Engineer

Farshad Berahman
BSc MSc PhD
S i St
Senior
Structural
t lE
Engineer
i

WS Atkins Middle East


Dubai,, UAE

Atkins Worldwide

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United Kingdom

11,100

Employees

North America

680

Europe

870

p
o2,500

E
Employees
l

Employees

Middle East & India

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U

Employees

Asia Pacific

1,000

Employees

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We are based in over 130 offices in the UK,, and


a further 70 offices worldwide.

Atkins In the Region

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Turkey
ABU DHABI
SHARJAH
DUBAI
DUBAI METRO
REGIONAL
F&G

KUWAIT 4

Egypt

406
290
879
186
52
224

BAHRAIN 285

India

QATAR 123

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OMAN 190

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INDIA 204

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Africa

Philippines 75

Burj Al Arab Dubai

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Atkins Tall Buildings

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Atkins The Tall Buildings Team

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Steve Harrison
Associate Director

Robert D Scott
Associate

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Ranjith Chandunni
Associate

Min-Hah Chun
Associate

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Matthew J. Esther
Associate

Andrey Danchev
Associate

Farshad Berahman
Senior Engineer

Karsten Veith
Structural Engineer

Dubai Metro UAE

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Full Multidisciplinary Design


Design Coordination of Civil Works
Geotechnical & Site Investigations
Construction Supervision

BWTC Bahrain

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Architecture
Civil & Structural Engineering
MEP Engineering, Sustainable Design
Construction Supervision

Environmental Design

Wind Direction

Wind Impact

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16th July 2003

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Wind Speed

B ildi F
Building
Form

Existing
Technology

Atkins Research and Development Dubai

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Atkins Dubai PV Solar Testing Station Roof


Height on the 20th floor, Bur Dubai

Vertical Axis Turbines

Horizontal Axis Turbines

Delivering Sustainable Solutions

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Collaboration with academia to


develop innovative and
deliverable sustainable solutions
We continuously challenge our
clients,
li t employees
l
and
d supply
l
chain to deliver holistic
sustainable solutions through
Carbon Critical Design

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Engaging with industry on


environmental issues through
the Emirates Environmental
Group (EEG)

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Member: UK Green Building Council

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Introduction tooHybrid
C
Mega Frames
Mega-Frames
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Hybrid Solutions Mega Frames

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Large Gravity Transfer Structure

Coupling of Core Walls Mobilises Frame Action

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Analogy Similar to that of Traditional Outriggers and Coupling


Beams

Solution Driven by Architectural Need

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Efficient Use of Materials

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Better Management of Global Load Effects


Careful Attention to Local Load Effects

Hybrid Solutions Trump Tower

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Hybrid Solutions Icon Hotel

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Trump
p Tower &C
Hotel,, Dubai

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Trump Tower Video Clip

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Trump Tower Initial Design Concept

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Trump Tower Initial Design Concept

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Trump Tower References for Connected Towers

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Umeda Sky Building - Osaka

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La Grande Arche De La Dfense - Paris

Trump Tower General Layout Below Level 40

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Trump Tower General Layout at Level 40

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Trump Tower Structure & Primary Framing

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Trump Tower Transfer Structure: Level 40 to 41

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Trump Tower Hierarchy of Structure

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Outrigger Cantilevers from


Coupling Trusses

Trusses Span Continuously


Between Outrigger and Walls.

Outer Trusses Span Between


Outrigger and Walls.

Trump Tower Transfer Structure: Level 40 to 41

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Trump Tower Coupling of the Concrete Cores

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Lateral displacement of
the core walls uncoupled

Coupling action reduces the


lateral drift by over 70%

Trump Tower Shear Transfer

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Shear Comparison

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250

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200

Heiight

150

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100

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50

-30000 -20000 -10000

Shear

10000 20000

30000 40000

External Load
story shear in walls
Resultant Shear in Truss

Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Images Courtesy Tekla and Murray & Roberts

Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Trump Tower Construction Sequence

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Adjustments C
&o
Phasing
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C

Trump Tower Elastic Shortening

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69.5 mm

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63 4 mm
63.4

Vertical Movement

64.7 mm

55.3 mm

Trump Tower Shortening & Deflections

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Oi i lP
Original
Position
iti

Fi l P
Final
Position
iti With
Withoutt Adj
Adjustment
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Adjustments
Two Parts

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C
Column Shortening
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Movement of
Transfer Structure
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C

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Column shortening to be overcome
by
y
p
adjusting the length of columns
o
C
incrementally with height
H
Continuous jacking of columns during the
U
constructionB
stage
T
C

Options Recommended

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C
Building Movement
H
& Monitoring
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Trump Tower Long-term Shortening

42.8

61.7

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209.70
48.5 57.4

105.9

191.70

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53.1
53.9

107.0

173.70

48.5 56.3

104.7

155.70

42.6

54.5

H
U
37 7
37.7

32.0

B
T

26.6

43.7

36.9

21.2 29.0

14.720.7

49 7
49.7

97.1

134.10

87 3
87.3
116.10

75.7
96.60

63.5
78.60

50.1

60.60
35.4
41.10

Floors

8.512.3 20.7

23.10

C and E
Shrinkage

1.8
2.9
4.7
0.0
0

Total
20

40

60

80

Vertical Displacement (mm)

5.10

100

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120

Trump Tower Long-term Shortening

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Trump Tower

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Icon Hotel,C
, Dubai

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Icon Hotel Dubai Promenade

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Icon Hotel Location

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Icon Hotel The Site

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Icon Hotel The Facts

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Key Facts

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203 Guest Hotel Room


172 Branded Service
Apartments

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42 storey
y wheel
Total built up area
110,000 sqm

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Icon Hotel Building Geometry


34th level-Mechanical
Floor

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160
m

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96m
165m
Sky
y Lift
8th level-Mechanical
Floor

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Elevation

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78m

10.8m

13.2 m
4 3m
4.3m
Plan

Lift cores

Atrium

Icon Hotel Pre-Concept

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Punched Concrete Walls

Th areas with
The
ith high
hi h shear
h
stresses:
t
1.

Thicken the wall - more weight and


more concrete

2
2.

Reduce the number of openings - Not


favourable Architecturally

3.

Use steel plates to reinforce the highly


stressed concrete walls - Not standard
practice

Icon Hotel Pre-Concept

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Permanent
Composite Trusses

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Peer Review LERAs Proposed Alternative

Sketches Courtesy LERA

Icon Hotel Concept Design - Functional Framing & Form Finding

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Icon Hotel Pre- Construction Advisor - SAMSUNG

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Images Courtesy Samsung

Icon Hotel Preliminary Design

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G
Gravity
it Load
L d Path
P th

Icon Hotel Axial Forces Under Gravity Loads

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Axial Force Diagram

Icon Hotel Construction Sequence

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Icon Hotel Mega Frame LLRS

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Deformation has shear


configuration with
maximum inclination near
the base

Deformation
has bending
configuration
g
and story drift
increase with
height

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Icon Hotel

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Icon Hotel Hybrid Mega Frame

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We used high-strength
steels to avoid carrying
load.

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Icon Hotel Modes of Vibration

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T1 = 4.3 Sec

T2 = 3.3 Sec

T3 = 3.0 Sec

Icon Hotel Specialist Studies

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Geotechnical Study
Liquefaction Analysis
Soil Improvement
Seismic Hazard Study
Wind Tunnel Study
Pile Raft Settlement Analysis
Floor vibration analysis
Connections Detail Design
Long Term Effect (Column Shortening)
Performance Based Seismic Evaluation

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Icon Hotel Wind Tunnel Studies

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I t story
Inter
t
drift
d ift less
l
than
th H/1000

Images & Data


Courtesy RWDI

Icon Hotel Design of Connections

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Icon Hotel Floor Vibration Analysis

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Icon Hotel Column Shortening

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ICON HOTEL

MIDAS M
Model
d l

Icon Hotel Differential Shortening Between Inner and Outer Walls

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ICON HOTEL

29th January 2009

Icon Hotel

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ICON HOTEL

29th January 2009

Icon Hotel Performance Based Design Seismic Evaluation

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Seismic Hazard Study


Courtesy Fugro West Inc.

Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Perform 3D

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Envelope of the concrete compression


strain at critical locations

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All the members remained elastic except coupling


beams Building met the performance objectives.

Lander

Coupling beams
behave nonlinearly

Concrete compression
strain earthquake
0.0016
1992
1992-scaled
scaled

Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Usage Ratios

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Icon Hotel Performance Based Seismic Design Perform 3D

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Scaled Lander 1992


increased 4x to see the
extreme behaviour

Conclusions

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Large gravity transfer structures can be used efficiently to


mobilise frame action by coupling the core walls.

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e o a ce based des
design
g p
provides
o des valuable
a uab e information
o a o for
o
Performance
the seismic design of geometrically complex structures which

lie beyond the realms of established building codes.

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Innovations for the future

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