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CHAPTER I

Problem and it's background


A. Introduction
Many people have trouble with reading. Reading is a process of the brain where you look at symbol on a page
and your mind sees the pattern of characters and understand the meaning in them. If you develop good reading
skill, it'll be very helpful to your future.
We read for a variety of reason which differ from person to person and range from the straight forward and will
define task of information gathering to the more amorphous goal of reading for pleasure. Reading seems to be
tied to most of our day-to-day activities. Perhaps this iis why so much interest has been given to the reading task
in artificial intelligence, cognitive, psychology and education.
Researchers have long been searching for a theory of reading. While many computer systems have been build to
model this process and many theories have been proposed to explain it, few have come anywhere near
succeeding. These earlier attempts failed for a variety of reason which can all be traced to the fact that they did
not make use of a complete reading theory. The theory describes the complete reading therory. The theory
describes the complete set of function which a reader must perform during the comprehension process.
The value of explaining reading under the aegis of a theory of general cognition os compelling reading is a
cognitive act, but there is nothing about reading that does not occur in other cognitive acts that do not onvolving.
We perceive, recognize, interpret, comprehend, appreciate, and remember information that is not text form as well
as information that is in text form. Cognition in reading is a special case general cognition that involves written
language.
Theories specific to reading must eventually conform to broader theories of general cognition for scientific
progress to advance.
The essence of both reading and reading instruction is changes. Reading a book changes us forever as we return
from the worlds are inhabit during our reading journeys with new insights about our surrounding and ourselves.
Making a habit of student to read is also a transforming experience. By doing a student to read we change the
world.
Today, reading instruction and more broadly conceived notion of literacy and instruction are being defined by
change in even more profound ways as new technologies require new literacy's to effetively exploit their
potentials. These include technologies such as gaming software, video, technologies that establish communities
or the internet, search engines, WebPages, and many more yet to emerge.

B. Statement of the problem


Specifically, this research was conduct to determine the effects of Advance reading and self determination to pass
the pre-board examination. Those student nurses base on the perception of senior nursing students of Calayan

Educational Foundation Incorporated. Unequivocally, it answers the following question as a baseline of this
question.
1. What are the demographic profiles of respondent when they are group according to;
1.1 Age
1.2 Sex
1.3 Civil Status
2. What are the effects of advance reading in relation to taking pre-board examinations in terms of'
2.1 Preparedness
2.2 Habits
2.3 Time Management

C. Conceptual Framework of the Study


The resercher believed that this study will determine the status of the result of nursing board in Calayan
Educational Foundation Incorporated according to Krashen (2001, cited in Harmer 1991, (33-34) argues that
students can acquired language pn their own provided:
a.) They recieve enough explore to comprehensive language.
b.) It is done in a relaxed-stress-free atmosphere
According to (B.F. Skinner) various approaches to reading presume that students learn difficulty. Behaviorism
based on studies of animal behavior where animal such as pigeon learned to do tasks when they recieved award.
According to (Ram and Hunter 1992) No reader, for example would have the time memory and other resources to
read every single word of a story and consider the possible extrapolation and resulting from each.

D. Definition of Terms
The investigators defined some of the following terms/words to clarify meaning used in this investigation.
Calayan Educational Foundation Incorporated (CEFI) - an educational institution that eater's health allied courses
in Quezon province for more than thirty years.
Education - Information gained from previous reading.
Knowledge - a cognitive awareness or understanding of student nurse.
Nursing Board Exam - The examination takes by all nursing graduate to achieve license on their profession.
Nursing Student of CEFI - those students who enrolled at Calayan Educational Foundation.

Reading - on habitual action of nursing student.


Perception - an insight derived from the senior nursing student of CEFI.
Advance - placed ahead before taking board exam.

E. Significance of the Study


This research study determine the effects of advanced reading and self determination in taking pre-board exam of
student nurses as percieved by senior nursing student of Calayan Educational Foundation Inc.
Likewise, this study will give an overview about the result of pre-board passer from the current result of pre-board
examination.
This investigation is also significant to the following:
a.) Senior Nursing Student - This wills the senior nursing student to fully understand the advance reading is one
way of getting high percentage to pass the nursing pre-board examination.
b.) Nursing Profession - This study can help to define the parameters of nursing success as it relates to what
constitute effectiveness to nursing education.

Scope of the Study


This study was conducted from the month of january to February 2011 through the perception of senior nursing
student of Calayan Educational Foundation Inc. It was limited and focused only the effects of advanced reading
and self determination based on the solicited opinion perception of senior nursing student for the SY - 2013-2014
The study was limited to 10 respondents who already took the nursing pre-board examination who were selected
through non-random sampling.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE

A. Related Literature

a.) Local
According to Ben Domingo (2001), who teaches mass communication, says that he could not have ended the way
he writes now if he had been reading. "No! Never! But in addition to reading. I have to listen to how people talk,
observe my surroundings up to their very minute details and describe those through the use of appropriate words
that I can create my mind.
A call of action of sort (Ben,2001) encourage teachers and parents to teach the student to enjoy reading as a
habit and lifestyle," Also teachers and parents should be seen reading a lot and should share what they have read
to their student and children. Long after their school days, imposed or not imposed, reading has been a way of
life.
In talented idea (Sammy 2003), says that reading cannot be imposed on a person. "I would say" he says, "You
can led a horse to the library, but you cannot force it to read a book. According to (Sammy 2003), high school
teachers must find a way to make reading and relevant to young people. "As a young boy, I remember being
required to read certain books or essays. I never liked as a student. I don't think I ever grasped or understood the
significance of those I found really boring.
"Reading is something they learn from their parents" says (Chay 2003), "If their parents are not readers, they
cannot be readers". She also says that reading cannot be imposed one someone because reading is a desire that
comes from the heart.
When children see that their mother and father read willingly, they try to imitate them "says the polish weekly
PRZYJACIOTKA by (Awake 2001). In an era when children increasingly watch tv, says the article, it is worthwhile
to read to children even is young as two years of age, drawing their attention to pictures and explaining them.
Parents can ask a child about what they have just read to see if the child comprehend the information." And if the
child suddenly bored....try to enliven the reading with lively gestures and intonation changes" Do not give up
reading to your child even they can do it themselves says PRYZJACIOTKA (Awake 2001). Sometimes it is
enough to read a few pages for encouragement, and the child will gladly read on.
Reading makes us well-informed. It is a means of gaining access to various areas of knowledge. Through reading
we learn the mistakes of the men before us and learn some recipes of human success. Book tell us how to be
happy when sad, how to grow plants, repair machines, build houses, lose our wrinkles and keep young. Reading
can be worthwhile form of recreation. It is fun to read. Bennet Cerf once said "the most Unfortunate people in the

world are those who are never learned the soul-satisfying pleasure of reading books" (Angelita D. Romero &
Rene Romero, 2003)

b.) Foreign
Reading fluency is gaining new recognition as an essential element of every reading program, especially for the
students who struggle in reading. Reading fluency is one of defining characteristics of poor readers. Differences in
reading fluency is not only distinguish good readers from poor, but a lack of reading fluency is also reliable
prediction of reading comprehension problem. Once struggling reader's learn sound-symbol relationship through
intervention and become accurate decoders, their lack of fluency emerges as the next hurdle they face on their to
reading proficiency. (Torgesen et.al 2001)
Does extensive reading learning to vocabulary acquisition? Reading compression? Promote positive attitudes
towards reading? What challenges does a beginning foreign language learners face is the extensive reading did
the learners deal with this challenges?
been validated by research. It is rare to find anymore who is so reflective on the teaching process and possessed
of the confidence to share the mystery of how it all happens "Reading doesn't matter anymore unless we
remember story in the heart of literacy".
At one level, Booth's theory of literacy is a very simple one; read anything and anything that interest you and that
you can get your hands on. (David Booth's 2006)
Poster believes learning is a continues lifelong process and personal responsibility. Students must be actively
involved in learning process to acquired clinical proficiency and to socialized into professional roles, learning
experience are implemented to achieve sequence, continuity and synthesis of knowledge and experties, the
needs of a multicultural society, and the changing health care system. The educational process facilitate the
development of each person's and promotes cultural competence and assumption of ethical principles. (Elizabeth
C. Poster Ph. D, 2005)
This individualized courses serves as on alternative Gebre and designed for students to strengthen their basic
English Genre is designed for students to strengthen their basic vocabulary, spelling, grammar, punctuation, as
well as basic reading and listening skill will be refined Emphasis on the development of skills necessary for oral
and written communication will be ongoing. (Marple Newton, 2000)
The English literature and composition cause in designed to engage students careful reading of selected texts.
Student can deeper their understanding of the way reader's. As they read, student should consider a work
structure. Style and theme as well as such, smaller-scale elements as the use of figurative language, imaginary,
symbolism and tone.
The American Board of International Medicine Board Certifying examination differ from most traditional
examination differs in that it test over all knowledge and the application of that knowledge to solve problems rather
than simply recalling facts. To be successful you may need view of examination differently and prepare in a new
ways. (Patrick C. Alquire, 2001)

B. Related Studies

a.) Local

So, what are the Filipino reading and writing? The Ateneo de manila conducted an informal survey among its
student last school year. The survey revealed that 60% of the population said they read. (Ong 2004), "When
asked to rank their preferences in term of genre comedy was number one for all levels.

b.) Foreign

Imagine 3rd & 4th grade classrooms in which silent reading is interrupted only by rapidly turning pages and the
occasional chuckle. Imagine a group of boisterous boys reading with intense focus for 30 minutes in a corner of a
classroom. During the last four years, with a team of teacher and researcher from the University of Connecticut,
we have helped bring about such scenarios daily in high poverty school through an alternative approach to
reading instruction : the School wide Enrichment Model in Reading (SEM-R;Reis et al. 2003), The enrichment based approach, which involved from the school wide Enrichment Model (Renzulli,& Reis 2003). Focused on
engaging student in challenging reading accompanied by instruction and in higher order thinking and strategy
skills. Teacher's differentiate both instruction and student reading materials and guide student is continually
regulating challenging themselves as readers.
Principal at Chicago elementary school including (Jerry Travlos 2001), at Washington D. Smyser Elementary
School, say Open Court Reading dovetails perfectly with the Chicago Reading Initiative. In 2001, the city school,
focusing on four components of reading proficiency; word knowledge, comprehension fluency and writing both
district and state.

Readers have become an endangered species writes (Jim Trelease 2000), in the Read- Aloud Handbook. Even
in the United State, it has been estimated that one out of five adults lack the basic reading skills they need while
13% of all 17 years old are functionally illiterate. But you can make difference especially in the lives of the children
whom you know. You can improve your childrens reading skill and still in them a love of reading.
Washington (Feb.22, 2007). Today high school student are taking seemingly tougher courses and earning better
grades, but their reading skill are not improving according to the result of national assessment released here
today that cited grade inflation as a possible explanation. The National Assessment of Education Progress, often
called the nations report card, surveyed transcripts of 26,000 student comparing them with an earlier study of
student coursework in 1990. It also reported on the reading and math scores of 12 th graders across the country.
Then reported offered several rationale for the disparity between rising grade point average and more difficult
course work on the other hand, and stagnant reading scores with other including grade inflation, changes in

reading standard performance. Darwin M. Winick, chairman of National Assessment Governing Board which
oversees the exam, said in prepared statement that the finding provide little comfort and suggest that we need
to know much more about the level of rigor associated with the courses that high school student are taking.
The result found that the reading skills of 12 th graders tested in 2005 were significantly worse than those of
students in 1992, the first time a comparable test was given, and essentially flat since took the exam in 2002.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter the description of methods and procedures use in this study in the effects of advance reading and
self determination in taking pre- board examination. Primary data will gather by descriptive method through the
interview method. Information will be gathered through the aid of survey questionnaire. The survey will cover the
effect of advance reading and self determination in taking board. Secondary data, however, will use to
substantiate information from survey. This will be done by putting all the information in a columnar paper to enable
the researcher to compute, interpret and analyze the data to be gathered. Simple averaging formula and
percentage will be employed in the computation and analysis of gathered data.

A. Research Design
This study made use of the descriptive method of research. The method best fits studies intending to uncover new
facts about the situation under study. This method will also deem most appropriate in determining status or trend,
and to study that way elicit information pertaining to a group of people class subject.
Descriptive is not usually aimed at finding cause and effect relationship but is useful to describe a phenomena or
situation. Descriptive studies propose to explore and define, not to establish relationship between variables. The
study proposes to explore the effect of advance reading and self determination in taking board exam. The process
of descriptive research goes beyond mere gathering and tabulation of data. It involves an element of interpretation
of meaning significance of what is described. Thus, description is often combined with comparison and contrast
involving measurement, classification, interpretation and evaluation.
For data gathering, the survey method will adopt, this is usually the technique that is utilize to obtain demographic
data, information about peoples behavior, their intention, future behavior, attitudes, opinions and interest.
The researcher made use of descriptive survey method. The descriptive method will employ to determine in taking
pre board exam. The statements will be rate as to always (5) often (4), sometimes (3), seldom (2), and never (1).
The knowledge of each respondent was determining base on the score in the questionnaires they answered. The
descriptive survey method on the other hand will use to asses the result of exam passer in recent years.

B. Research Universe
The researcher will use structured survey questionnaire as the main tool in the study which is usually
used by many researcher because they believe that this instrument was very effective for obtaining measurement
of people attitudes, perception and opinions. The instrument is consist of four main parts; Part I is the
demographic profiles of the respondents; Part II is all about the effects of advance reading and self determination
in taking board exam; Part III concerns the level IV students of Calayan Educational Foundation Inc. and lastly the
significant for those student become a register nurse someday.

C. Sampling Technique
In gathering desire information, the researcher will use the descriptive method. It is a process which involves
description, recording, analysis and interpretation of the presentation. Descriptive method is the most popular
approach in research projects. It describes and interpret what is and reveal condition and relationship that exist.,
practices that prevail or do not prevail, behavior or point of view or attitudes that are held or not held, produces
what is going on or otherwise, effects that being trends are developing.
The subject of the study are the student nurse of CEFI at level IV who are present during the administration of
research instrument. The respondents were taken from the campus of CEFI non- random sampling.

D. Variable and their Measure


The researcher identified the following variable as the Demographic profile and risk factor involve in the study
such as; Age, Gender.
The researcher use Likert Scale to analyze and interpret the data answered from the respondents questionnaire.
Likert Scale
Strongly Agree
Agree
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
Undecided

E. Data Processing
Selection of research topic was never easy. The researcher had undergone lot of studies and reviews of different
topic. The researcher come up with the study entitled Effect of Advance Reading and Self Determination in taking
Board Exam.
As the preliminary step, the researcher passed a letter for the Office of Student Affairs approval in conducting a
study. The researcher prepared all the necessary materials needed for data gathering. Prior to the conduct of the
study, the researcher explained tasks and instructions of the study. The respondents were chosen through nonrandom sampling; during the process the respondents were given their own sets of questionnaires. The
respondents were asked to answer questions from their personal experience. The researcher wants to make sure
of the validity of the results. Data gathering was done at faculty room within the campus premise of CEFI. The
data obtained were tabulated, computed, analyze and interpreted.

F. Statistical Treatment
The data will gather by tail, analyze, and interpret accordingly. The most basic concept in statistics is the idea of
an average. An average is a single number which represents the idea of a typical value. There are three different
numbers which can represent the idea of an average value. Theses are the mean, the median, and the mode.
The median is obtain by adding all the values and dividing the sum by the number of values. The formula for
mean is
M = ( F1,, Fn ) / n
Wherein:
M = mean
f = represents the frequency of responses,
n = for the number of values.
The median is the middle value list of numbers. To find the median, numbers must have listed in numerical order.
The mode is the value that occurs often. It is the least commonly used of these three average measures, and its
generally the least meaningful.
Other treatment as follows:

a. Percentage
P = f/n x 100
Wherein:
P = Percentage
f = represents the frequency of responses,
N = for the number of respondents
Multiplied by 100% to determine the %

b. Weighted Mean
WM = wf/N
Wherein:
wf= represent the summation of weighted
N = represent the total respondents

WM = Weighted Mean
Likert Scale will be used for the numerical equivalents of the respondents with the following interpretation

Point

Range scale

Analysis

4.60 5.0

Strongly Agree

3.60 4.59

Agree

2.60 3.59

No comment

1.60 2.59

Disagree

1.0 1.59

Strongly Disagree

Approval Sheet
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor in Nursing, this undergraduate thesis THE
EFFECTS OF ADVANCE READING AND SELF DETERMINATION IN TAKING PRE- BOARD EXAM has been
prepared and submitted by Marie Linnette P. Barlan who is hereby recommended for pre-oral examination.

Dr. Jaime M. Buzar


Adviser

Calayan Educational Foundation Inc.


Red-v, Lucena City

Dear Respondents,

The undersigned is a student of Calayan Educational Foundation, Inc. Presently working on her
undergraduate thesis entitled The Effects of Advance reading and Self Determination in Taking PreBoard Examination.
In this regard she is requesting you to extend your full support and cooperation by answering
the attached questionnaires. You can rest assured that shall keep your responses in strict confidence.
Your cooperation would be a great help and pave the way for the success of this study.

Sincerely yours,
MARIE LINNETTE BARLAN