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1.

Introduction
1.1. Ornamental fish culture in the world
The ornamental fish sector is a widespread and global component of international trade of
fisheries, aquaculture and development. It is recognized as the second most popular hobby
in the world. The market for ornamental fish in the world for public aquaria is less than 1%
at the present and over 99% of the market for ornamental fish is still confined to hobbyist.
Since 1985 the value of international trade in exports of ornamentals has increased at an
average growth rate of approximately 14% per year. Developing countries account for about
two thirds of the total export value (FAO, Fisheries and aquaculture Department). The top
exporting country is Singapore with a market share of 25% followed by Hong Kong,
Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Indonesia and India.
The largest importer of Ornamental fish is the United State of America followed by Europe
and Japan. The emerging markets are China and South Africa. Southeast Asia is the focal
point of Ornamental aquarium trade, supplying up to 85% of the aquarium trade and nearly
all of the live food fish trade.
The trade in marine ornamentals, Southeast Asia contributed some 36% of the global trade
in hard corals (marine ornamentals), with Vietnam alone contributing 25%. Between 1996
and 1999, the share of the United State ornamental fish market coming from Southeast Asia
increased from 67% to 78%. The United States is by far the largest consumer, importing
about 60% of all marine ornamental fish and 70% - 90% of all live coral worldwide.
1.2. Ornamental fish culture in Sri Lanka
The recorded history of the ornamental fish exports from Sri Lanka can be traced to around
1920 or 1930. The trade at this time was limited to a few small scale importers, breeders
and hobbyists in Sri Lanka. A commercial aquarium was started in 1952 in Colombo. It has
developed in to a successful industry by earning profit and developed into a valuable
foreign exchange earner for Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka contributes to 3.5% - 4% of market share
of ornamental fish in world (FAO statistics). Total export earnings from the fisheries sector
with ornamental fish production contributing another 11%.
Ornamental fish that are marketed include fresh water fish, marine water fish, brackish
water fish and captive breeding species. Fresh water aquarium trade obtains specimens for
export both from wild-caught and captive breeding/ hatchery reared stocks, whereas the
marine trade relies solely on the natural or wild habitat to provide specimens for export.
Export value of ornamental fish is increase during last few years.
The export of marine ornamental fish, however, is totally dependent on the capture of wild
stocks and currently over 200 marine species belonging to 40 families are exported (FAO,
Fisheries and aquaculture department).
Ornamental fish comprise two main categories as live bearers and egg layers. Live bearers
include guppy, molly, platy, sword tails and egg layers includes barbs, tetras, gouramis,
danios and cichlids, carps, gold fish, angles and fighters etc.
Live bearers are contributed to 80% of production while rest from egg layers. Among the
live bearers guppy ranked highest as it contribute to 67% of production of live bearers.

Ornamental fish are exported to over 25 countries, mostly developed. These include United
State of America (USA), Japan, United Kingdom (UK), Holland, Germany, Singapore and
Hong Kong. The principal countries competing against Sri Lanka are Singapore, Indonesia,
Thailand and Philippines. The USA is our highest buying country, Hong Kong ranks next
followed by Japan.
Germany is also a Leading buying country. Countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong,
Malaysia, Bahrain and Holland purchase our aquarium fish mostly for re-export. The
exports to Europe have been increasing at an annual rate of 10% over the last five years.
The exports from Sri Lanka are undertaken by about 25 exporting companies. According to
Customs statistics, there are 66 large and small scale ornamental fish exporters in Sri
Lanka, of which 10 exporters have exported ornamental fish valued at over SLR 10 million
per annum (FAO).
A considerable amount of foreign exchange is earned through the export of ornamental fish.
In 2002 this was SLR 680 million, which represents around 11% of the total export earnings
from fish and fishery products.
The key institutions related to the development and regulation of aquaculture under the
Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources are the National Aquatic Resources Research
and Development Agency (NARA) and the National Aquaculture Development Authority
(NAQDA). NAQDA is enrolled with the activities of developing commercial aquaculture
and extension activities.
1.3 The National Aquaculture Development Authority (NAQDA)
The National Aquaculture Development Authority (NAQDA) was established in 1999 by
the Parlimentary Act (No. 53 of 1998). The main centers of NAQDA are located at
Udawalawa, Iginiyagala, Dambulla, Nuwara Eliya, Rambadagalla, Ginigathhena, Pambala
and Tillawatawana. Among those centers Rambodagalla and Ginigathhena contribute to
ornamental fish breeding and training farmers.
1.3.1. Vision
To improve quality of peoples life through development and sustainable management of
aquatic resources of Sri Lanka.
1.3.2. Mission
To contribute to the improvement of the socio economic condition of rural societies and
alleviation of poverty by facilitating the supply and availability of fresh water and brackish
water fish through sustainable management of aquatic resources and encouraging the
development of small, medium and large scale aquatic enterprises.
1.4. Rambadagalla Ornamental Fish Breeding and Training Center
Rambadagalla Ornamental Fish Breeding and Training Center is located in Kurunegala
district, Ridigama secretarial division and Rambadalla village. Land area of the centre is
about 5.28 ha.
1.4.1. Vision
To support national social and economic development by strengthening the wide spread
ornamental fish and aquatic plant growers.

1.4.2. Mission
Supplement of good service in order to develop the ornamental fish/aquatic plant
sector.
Supplement of new technology to develop the Ornamental fish and Aquatic plant
industry.
Development of sustainability of the institute.
The Rambadagalla center was established during 1972-1980 period under the former
Inland Fisheries Division (IFD) of the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic resources and
was handed over to the private sector after government abolished the IFD in 1991.
The center was reacquired in the year 2000 under NAQDA and since then it functioned as
an Aquaculture Development Center, producing the carp fry and fingerlings in limited
quantities for the national food fish production. Until mid 2004, it played a supporting
role to major centers at Dambulla and Udawalawe, helping the fish seed production
program of NAQDA, with limited resources and facilities available at the centre.
Rambadagalla ornamental fish breeding and training center establishes in 27th of May
2005 under the National Aquaculture and Development Authority Sri Lanka after it has
been identified as a suitable location for the proposed ornamental fish development
program of NAQDA. However, the implementation was delayed due to lack of resources.
In 2004, a decision was taken to develop the centre as the apex facility within NAQDA to
assist the ornamental fish and aquatic plants industry in the country. Accordingly, the
centre was renovated and refurbished with facilities necessary for the ornamental fish and
aquatic plants industry. Among the facilities renovated at the centre are hatchery,
laboratory, ornamental fish tanks and officers quarters and dormitories in 2007.
There are several units in the farm as Guppy unit, Brine shrimp unit, Hatchery, Barb unit,
Tetra unit, Aquatic plant, Gold fish unit, Holding section, Mud ponds, new strain
development section for guppy and Feed unit. Water that required for all sections of the
farm is obtained from wells. In addition to ornamental fish production and marketing,
cultivate fruits such as plantains, mangoes and plantation crops like coconut.
Rambadagalla centre continues operation in experiment on breeding new varieties of
ornamental fish. Those are named as semi dwarf top sword green cobra, half black and
red eye kohuko.
Table 1: Land area availability for ponds in Rambadagalla centre
Category
Total land
Rearing
Nursery

Area (Ha)
4.9
09
36

1.4.3. Services
Rambadagalla ornamental fish breeding and training centre provide several services to
ornamental fish breeders in different aspects. Those are,
Provide training programs for the ornamental fish/aquatic plant cultivation sector.

Lead the growers to establishment, improvement and planning nad implementation


of ornamental fish / aquatic plant cultivation.
Held the training programs by covering all the theories in this sector with or
without accommodation facilities.
Introduce new low cost and high profit efficient technologies to the sector.
Helps to build up the connections between local and foreign market.
Introduce new technologies to the producers about new techniques.
Supply financial facilities to initiate the aquatic plant/ ornamental fish cultivation.
To broad the local and foreign market about aquatic plants / ornamental fish
cultivation.
Disseminate the new knowledge through the research and development.
Introduce knowledge to the growers with the involvement of NARA like
institutions.

1.4.4. Training
Training programs for breeders, exporters, teachers, students, researchers and personnel
from non-governmental organizations and entrepreneurs, development officers from
government agencies all those who are interested in ornamental fish industry are
conducted with in short duration to transfer technologies related to ornamental fish and
aquatic plant culture. The training programs that offer are included followings,
Training in Aquaculture (fresh water and brackish water), fisheries industry, post
harvest technologies.
Provision of knowledge to students of universities/ technical colleges and to
conduct research and training.
Training of ornamental fish farmers in following fields,
Ornamental and aquatic plant production
Ornamental fish feed and nutrition
Prevention and treatment of ornamental fish diseases
Breeding of ornamental fish
Propagation and culture aquatic plants
Research training
There is a provision for university students and the students of technical colleges to
conduct research in collaboration with NAQDA scientists on specific research topics.

1.4.5. Human resources of Rambadagalla ornamental fish breeding and training


centre

O.I.C. (Officer In Charge)


(01)
Aquaculturist
(02)
Assistant Aquaculturist

(01)
Clerk

Labourers

(01)

Permanent
Laborers

Check roll
Labourers

(16)

(03)

Store Keeper

Daily
Labourers

Driver

2. LIVEBEARER PRODUCTION
Guppy (Poecilia reticulata ) Unit
Guppies are one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world.
Guppy is small member of the class Antinoplocheilichthyinae. perygii, order
Cyprinodontiformes. They belong to the family Poeciliinae, Fluviophylacine, and
Aplocheilichthyinae. Females are 4 6 centimeters (1.6 2.4 in) long, and males are 2.5
3.5 centimeters (1.0 1.4 in) long.
Guppies ( Poecilia reticulate) are beautiful fish that are easy to keep in aquarium and
popular livebearer due to a combination of small size , bright colors, peaceful behavior,
adaptability, and hardiness.
The male guppy show considerable variation in color pattern, whereas the female guppy is
not nearly so colorful. Guppies are originated in West indies which was introduced to Sri
Lanka to control Malleria.

There are four varieties of guppy are reared in Rambadagalla Ornamental fish breeding
center as Red Blond, Toxedo, Half Black, Bumble Bee, and also there is a section for new
guppy varieties development. Varieties such as Sumi Dwarf Top Sword Green Cobra,
Half Black are developed in this center.

2.1. Space allocation for guppy Unit


Guppy selection is sub divided in to several selections according to growth stages. Tank
sizes are vary with Growth stages. This is same for four guppy varieties in the farm.
Table 2 : Space allocation for different selections of guppy unit
Growth Stage

Tank Size

Number of Tanks

Nursery

4 X 4

20

Stocking
fish / ft2
40

Grow out 1

5 X 5

16

10 20

Grow out 2

5X 10

16

10

Brood stock

5X 10

Backup

5X 10

Replacement

5X 10

Density

2.2. Brood stock management


Guppies are highly prolific livebearers. The gestation period of a guppy is 21 30 days,
with an average of 28 days, varying according to water temperature. Guppies are able to
breed after 45 days of age. After the female guppy is inseminated, a dark area near the
anus, known as the gravid spot, will enlarge and darken. Just before birth, the eyes of fry
may be seen through the translucent skin in this area. Guppies prefer water temperature of
about 270C for reproduction.
The female guppy give birth to 2 100 fry, typically ranging between 5 and 30. From the
moment of birth, each fry is fully capable of swimming, eating and avoiding danger. After
giving birth, the female is ready for conception again within only a few hours. Guppies
have ability to store sperm, so the females can give birth many times, after only once
breeding with a male. If not kept separate, the order, mature guppies eat the fry so use
cacabans to provide hiding places for fries from their parents.
Male female selection is most important to obtain quality fries for the nursery. Factors
such as color, free from diseases; body condition should be considered before selection
for the brood stock. Males are selected to brood stock when they are in grow out 2 section
and select 30 males out of 200. Females are selected in nursery stage allowed to grow
those 10 15 days and select 300 out of them. After another 10 15 days select 90
females out of 300 female for breeding, this stock known as replacement stock.
Before stock brood stock in the brood stock tank it should be cleaned well by using in
Hydrogen peroxide 80ml per liter of water H2O2 will destroy all parasites and other
organisms. Fill the tanks with water conditioned it for overnight. First Brood stock
females are introduced to breeding tank; and introduce 20 females per day and introduced
all of them to the tank within a week. All males are introduced to tank with 3 4 days.
These will jelp to obtain continues production.
Females give birth to fry every day, parents are fed on these fries. So provide cacabans as
hiding place for fries. As well as daily collection for fries is more important to maintain
continuous production. Fries are transfer to nursery tanks acing to stocking density.

2.2.1. Brood stock feeding

Nutritive feed supplementation is essential to brood stock to maintain quality of fries. In


this farm provides two types of feed for brood stock as meat meal and power feed which
rich in vitamins. Meat is provided in one week interval. It is prepared using heart and
spleen of beef at ratio of 3:1. Remove fat around the heart and connective tissues in spleen
and cut heart in to small pieces. Then blend them together and store in refrigerator at 40C
Power feed is prepared by mixing following feed ingredients for one kilogram of feed.
Prima fish feed 800g. Vitamin 10g. Mineral 10g. Vitamin E 6g. Fish meal 200g. First mix
micro ingredients by using mixture.

The mixed ingredient mix with water and prepare pellets, store them in 500C for 24 hours
in an oven. After oven dried grind the pellets and prepare power for feeding. Feeding is
practiced in three times per day.

2.3. Nursery Management


Nursery period of guppy is 20 days. Birth weight of guppy fry is 5 8 mg and at the end
of the nursery period body weight is 55 60 mg. at the end of nursery period sort out of
male female is practiced.
2.3.1 Sort out of Male Female
Male Female separation in most important to obtain quality fish for market. Male female
sort out is based on several factors. Those include females are much larger and rounder
than males. Females are dull grey; males are very colorful and have large fins. In females
, a dark area near the anus. Known as the gravid spot, will enlarge and darken.

Figure 4: Mature Guppy Female


Males are transfer to grow out 1 section while females are used to select for replacement
stock. Rest is used to marke ; but they have low demand so, use as feed for carnivorous
fish such as Oscar, Arovana.
2.3.2. Feeding for Nursery
According to the guppy feeding schedule provide Decapsulated artemia and powder feed
to the nursery. Nursery tanks are siphoned daily and fill with oxygenated water.
2.4 Grow out section
Guppies are reared in grow out tanks for 60 days. Secondary growth characters of guppies
are developed in this section. At the age of 50 days male sort out is practiced according to
size of the fish and to maintain the quality of fish. The selected males are transferred to
grow out 2 sections.
After 2 months in grow out section they are categorized according to the size as 3.5cm,
2.75cm using stranded length and market.
Provide fish meal as balls for four times per day. Grow out feed 1Kg consist with fish
Male (triple nine) 100g. prima note 900g. vitamin 10g, Mineral 10g, vitamin E 6g. At the
end of the grow out period fish are marked according to the length of the fish.

2.5 New Guppy Strain Development section


Ornamental fish Industry depends on the ornamental value of the fish. To maintain
constant market demand it is required to develop new varieties. That will create diversity
of fish. Color development, to development specific changes to fins, change the shape of
fish etc, cane obtained by development of new varieties in a fish species. Most of breeders
use recessive characteristics of fish or genetic abnormalities to develop new varieties.
Ornamental Fish Breeding and Training center Rambadagalla, developed two new strains
of fancy guppy. The two strains were named as semi dwarf Top Sword Green Cobra and
Half black. Brood stocks of them are maintained by the center. In addition the center has
also a brood stock of a rare strain of sword tail which is named as Red eye kokako.
The breeding of different strains result fries which has diversified characteristics.
Continues selection of the fries and brood stock according to their characteristics will
improve the characteristics of next generation.

3. EGG LAYERS

Large number of fish are belongs to egg layers. Egg layers are categorized in to several
group according to behavior of egg laying. Those are egg scatters, egg placers, Bubble
nest builders, mouth breeders and egg buries.
Egg scatters are belongs to family Cyprinidae, which includes Gold fish, Crap, Barb and
Tetra. They are not show father or mother car; both will eat eggs.
Fish in family Cichlidae are egg placers. Angel, Discus and Oscar are egg placers and
their father and mother care on the eggs.
Family Anabantidae fish such as Fighter, Gouramy and comb tail are bubble nesters. They
show father care. Therefore female should be removed from the breeding tanks after egg
spowning

Mouth brooders are kept their eggs and hatchlings in their mouth to protect them from
predators. E.g. Tilapia, Malawi. Mother care on eggs and hatchlings. Egg buriers include
killifish.
3.1 GOLD FISH (Carassius auratus auratus) UNIT

The gold fish (Carassius auratus auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of
order Cypriniformes. The goldfish is classified as a coldwater fish and native to Japan.
The varieties that rear in the center are golden veil tail, Red cap Oranda, Gogle eye, Black
moor, Telescope eye, lion head, Calico, Rd fan tail, Bubble eye, Gold fish requires 70O F
80O F temperature and pH of 7-8. The average lifespan of a gold fish is 5-10 years. Gold
fish range from Eastern Europe across to China and inhabit well vegetated pools and
lakes.
Table 3: Space allocation for Gold fish
Type of tank
Size
Breeding tank
5*5
Brood stock tank
10*5
Nursery tank
5*5
Back up brood stock
10*5
Holding tanks
10*5

Stocking density
2 ft 2
2 ft 2
30 ft 2
2 ft 2
2 ft 2

3.1.1. Brood stock management


Gold fish are reached to the maturity at the age of 5-6 months. As all cyprinids, they are
egg layers. Average number of eggs that produce in one breeding is about 2000. Their
successful breeding period is about 12-15 months with 3-4 week breeding interval in 4-5
years of life span.

Brood stock fish are kept in 5*10 tanks with 6 water level and fed in three times per
day. Powder feed consist with fish meal 200g, prima note 800g, CMC 10g, vitamin 10g,
Vitamin E 6g, mineral 10g in 1kg of powder feed. Other than this provide fish meal
prepared as balls after mix with water. Gold fish produce considerably high amount of
fecal matter. So to maintain the water quality daily siphoning is essential.
Table 4: Characters to identify male and female
Characters
Female
Body shape
Round
Operculum
No any mark
Belly skin
thin
Anus (mature)
Swollen, red in color
Pectoral fin (inner line)
smooth

Male
Flat, slim
Whitish dots
Thick
When press milt comes out
Rough

Males and females are in separate tanks. Male female separation is based on several
characteristics of fish (Table 4). In black molly variety there is a white color margin in the
pectoral fin which is absent in females.
Male female selection is most important to obtain healthy, quality fries. Selection of male
female for breeding depends on the health condition of fish without any abnormalities,
with correct body shape and color.
Gold fish are egg layers. Their eggs are adhesive and attach to aquatic vegetation,
typically dense plants. Breeding tank size is 5*5. Before breeding, tank should disinfect
properly and at the same time substrate should disinfect properly.
Coconut leaves used as breeding substrate, and introduced after fill the tank with
conditioned water. Female is introduced first to tank at about 1000hr, because female
should be acclimatized to the environment. Male is introduced at the evening (about
1600hrs). Male female ratio is 1:2. Female lay eggs at 4000hrs of next day which last for
4hrs (spawning will take place early in the morning, usually just before sunrise).
Both male and female eat eggs. Therefore both should be transfer to another tank to avoid
eating eggs and if female has more eggs, they are allowed to release them. 2ppm
methylene blue is applied to tanks with eggs to avoid fungal infections. Eggs are hatched
within 2-3 days. This period depends on water temperature.
3.1.2. Nursery Management
Feed supplement is started when fries are in free swimming stage. As first feed egg york
or Paramesium is provide at 5 times per day. During this period one third of water should
be changed. Artemia nauplii are supplied after one week of age at three times per day.
With the growth of fish powder feed is introduced. Nursery period is about one month
(21-28 days0. At the end of the nursery period transfer fish to mud ponds.
3.1.3 Grow out fish management
Gold fish grow in mud ponds for about 2 months (45-60 days). Stocking density is 2 fish
per 1 ft2. During this period fish depend on natural feed available in the pond and prima
floating feed. This feed is supplied at 3 times per day. Fish are transfer to cement

tanksafter harvesting from the mud ponds using nets. neguvan is applied for parasite
control such as Argulus. If necessary apply other medication such as triple mixture.
Fish are graded according to the color and size. Brood stock fish are selected after
removing deformed, brown color and single tail fish. Fish with double tail and ideal color
combination and diseased free fish are selected for brood stock. Rest of the fish are selling
according to the size.
3.2 KOI Carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio)
Koi carp belongs to family Cyprinidae, order Cypriniformes and class Actinopterygii are
an ornamental strain of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) native to Asia and Europe.
Size in aquariums (min-max) is 60-100cm (23.62 39.37)and maximum size is
120cm. Water conditions that required for rearing of koi carps are pH 7-7.5, hardness 030dGH, temperature 15-250C. They are peaceful and compatible to other fish species.
Cyprinus carpio carpio requires a very large aquarium with lot of open space to swim at
the surface and better suited for ponds than aquariums.
Varieties of Koi rear in the center are Kohoku (white fish with red patterns no other
beside the red and white), Ogon (sometimes called as lemon koi and usually in golden
color), Taisho Sanke (with three colors red, white and black), tancho (white with bit of
orange on the top of the head).
3.2.1. Breeding of Koi
Each female of Koi will produce approximately 200000 eggs when hatch out 100000 eggs
and grow the Koi to 2-3 which takes approximately 120 days. Males reach to maturity at
the age of 1 year and females 1 years, breeding interval is 1- 1 month. Most suitable
varieties should be selected for breeding pairs to obtain fries that need to harvest. Always
pair, varieties that need to produce certain variety. For example, if trying to breed kohaku,
use the kohaku male and female fish.
Breeding tank size is 10*10 and those should be disinfecting properly before breeding.
As the Koi are egg scatters it is required to provide substrate for keeping eggs. Coconut
leaves are used as breeding substrate for carps. That substrate also should disinfect
properly. One day prior to the breeding, tanks should be filled with water up to 10 and
aerate well.
Table 5: Characters to identify males and females
Character
Female
Body shape
Round
Operculum
No any mark
Belly skin
thin
Anus (mature)
Swollen, red color
Pectoral fin (inner surface)
smooth

Male
Flat, Slim
Whitish dots
Thick
When press milt comes out
rough

Following day matured female introduce 10.00am. Male introduce to breeding tank at
4.00 pm. Male female ratio is 2:1. Usually following day coconut leaves are covered with
very tiny eggs. If there is large number of eggs on coconut leaves remove some of them to
other tank for hatching. Parents should be removed to another tank to prevent eating eggs

and to allow to lay eggs that remain in their body. It is best to treat the eggs with 2ppm
methylene blue to prevent fungal attacks to the eggs. The tank must be setup to have
running water to remove ammonia in the tank. This will continue till the ammonia smell is
removed from the water. The eggs will take approximately 3-4 days to hatch, but it
depends on the temperature.
3.2.2. Nursery management
When fries are reached to 3 days of age they are in free swimming stage. Feeds are not
provided until they reached to this stage as they are depending on their York sac. At free
swimming stage Artemia is introduced as feed. After 5 days in nursery fingerlings in the
cement tanks are transferred to the mud ponds. Stocking density of the mud pond is 100
fries per 1m3. Fingerlings are fed on natural feeds available in the ponds as phytoplankton,
daphnia. It is better to apply fertilizers like poultry manure, cow dung one week prior to
set up breeding. This will provide adequate time period for growth of natural food
sources. If daphnia culture is available, it also incorporates to ponds which result large
population at the time of fries.
3.2.3. Grow out management
Fries are normally reached to 3-5 cm within one month. They are harvested from nets and
stocks in cement tanks. Those are subjected to sort out considering body shape and color
according to the variety. The selected fish are again stocked in mud ponds for further
growing. After 3 weeks in the ponds their length is about 7-9 cm. So they are harvested
and select fish which shows real characteristics of variety. They are selected for brood
stock.
3.3. Barb unit
The barbs, a species of tropical fresh water fish belonging to the Puntius genus of the
Cyprinidae family. The natural geographic range reportedly extends throughout the Malay
Peninsula, Sumatra and in South Asia. But with little reliable collection data over long
periods of time, definite conclusions about their natural geographic range versus
established introductions are difficult. There are different types of barbs that are rear in
the center. Those varieties are Tiger barb, rosy barb, black ruby barb, two spotted barb,
albino barb and green tiger barb.

3.3.1. Tiger barb (Barbus tetrazona)


Tiger barbs are originated in Sumatra. They prefer to live in pH value 6.5-7.5, soft to
medium water with 3-10 dH range of hardness. As they are tropical fish the optimum
temperature for growth is 20-25 0C. Tiger barbs are widely distributed in Borneo and
Sumatra, also reported in Thailand. The tiger barb can grow to about 7cm long and 3cm
wide although they are often smaller when kept in captivity. Its average lifespan is 6
years. The tiger barb usually attains sexual maturity at a body length of 2 to 3 cm in total
length at approximately 2-3 months of age.
Tiger barbs body has four wide Black-blue bands running across the body. There is a
strip near to the eye and the third band starts at the back base of the dorsal fin and extends
down to the start of the anal fin. The dorsal and anal fins are a bright red orange and the

rest of the fins are a pale shade of red. The rest of the body is brown orange color and the
back is almost like an olive green.
The females are larger with a rounder belly and mainly black dorsal fin while the males
have a bright red nose with a distinct red line above the back on their dorsal fin. The egg
layers tend to spawn in the early morning in clumps of plants. On average 300 eggs can be
expected from each spawn in the mature brood stock population. Spawned eggs are
adhesive, negatively buoyant in freshwater and average 1.180.05 mm in diameter.
Inter and intra specific hybridization is done to achieve different colors and patterns to
satisfy market demand for new tiger barb varieties. Gold tiger barbs and albino tiger barbs
are examples of commercially produced fish based on recessive xanthic (yellow) and
albino genes. These are not hybrids.
3.3.2. Rosy barb (Puntius conchonius)
The general color of the sides has a yellow tinge in the female and red in the male. At
breeding time the male become the most vivid red. Both sexes have a black dot edged in
gold near the beginning of the tail fin. The males dorsal fin is edged in black with the
female only having a trace at the rear of the fin. Both sexes have shiny scales with an
olive green color and pale centers. A darker color will bring out the rosys coloration.
Water conditions are not to critical as they will adapt to almost all variations, but they will
benefit from aged water and of course the partial water changes. They spend most of their
time on or near the bottom. The rosy barb is an active, peaceful species well-suited for a
community aquarium. It is considered one of the hardiest barbs.
3.3.3. Green tiger barb
This variety is also known as moss-banded barb. The body of the green tiger barb is truly
striking, being a deep fluorescent green or metallic blue green. The four very distinctive
black stripes in the parent tiger barbs are missing. There is red on the outside of the dorsal
fins as well as on the tail and ventral fins. When in spawning mode they have bright red
snout. These fish get up to 7cm. Since they are omnivorous they eat all kinds of live, fresh
and flake foods.
3.3.4. Albino tiger barb
This looks very pale compared to the ordinary tiger bard due to albinism which leads to a
lack of pigmentation. Cares for your albino tiger barb just as if they were ordinary tiger
barbs, both types appreciate the same conditions.
3.3.5. Two spot barb (Puntius cumingii)
These originate from Asia. They are endemic to Sri Lanka. Maximum size in aquarium is
4-5cm. They prefer water pH of 5.5-6.5, and temperature is 22-260C. The average life
span is 6 years. There are two main varieties, the yellow fins and the red fins.
Algae, plankton and detritus provide their main diet but will accept other foods. The
males are slimmer than the females and have more coloration; this is more pronounced
when spawning. The breeding tank should be dimly lit with either fine leaved plants or a
spawning mop added.
3.3.6. Breeding of barbs

Breeding of all these barbs are same in the center. They are egg scatters. Brood stock is
selected after harvesting a pond. Factors such as healthy, colorful with proper body shape
should consider during selection of brood stock. Separating the males from the females is
necessary to avoid unnecessary breeding. Males more colorful rather than females have
larger abdomen area than males.
Barbs reached to maturity within 2-3 months and average egg production is 100. Breeding
male: female ratio is 1:1. Glass tanks (15*8*6) are prepared for breeding by washing
the tank thoroughly. The stones and coconut coir is to catch eggs that spread by females.
For tiger barbs use plants like Cabomba, Bacopa as substrate with sand bottom. For the
breeding of Black ruby barbs use plants and sand asbottom substrate.
Full the tank with clean water and conditioned for overnight. Introduce female at
10.00a.m to acclimatize for the environment and male introduced at 4.00pm. If following
day found eggs, remove brooders because they eat eggs. Methylene blue at concentration
of 2ppm adds to tanks to avoid fungal diseases of eggs. Kottamba dried leaves used for
absorption of ammonia from the water.
3.3.7. Nursery management
After 2 days fries are come out from the eggs, they depend on the York sac. Therefore do
not need to practice feeding. When they reached to free swimming stage after 2-3 days
feed them with brine shrimp at 3 times per day. During this period one third of water
should be changed. After 3-4 days transfer them to nursery tanks. With the growth of the
fish introduce powder feed. Nursery period is one month. At the end of the nursery period
transfer fish to the mud ponds.
3.3.8. Grow out management
Fries are grown in 45 days in mud ponds. They are mainly depending on natural foods
available in the ponds and also supply Prima floating feed, three times per day. After the
grow out period harvest them and kept in cement tanks in holding unit. If required,
apply appropriate medications to prevent parasite problems.
3.4 TETRA UNIT
Tetra includes to the family Characidae, which is made up of about 1,500 species located
mostly in South America and Africa. They come in many different colors, they are very
usually very peaceful. Although most of these fish in the wild come from water systems
that are very soft and with a low PH, most species can adapt to the hard and alkaline
conditions. There are several varieties of tetra are rear in the center. Those are Serpae
Tetra ( Hyphessobrycon serape), Lemon Tetra (Hyphessobrycon pulchipinnis), Black
Phantom Tetra (Megalamphodus megaloperus ), Neon Tetra.
3.4.1. Serpae Tetra
Originates from South America where it is found in the Amazon River basin. Water
temperature between 22 and 260 C, the pH 5 7.8 and the hardness 10 25 dH optimum
for Sepea tetra. The Serpae tetra prefers to stay close to the surface among aquatic plants.
Wild tetra is found in clam black waters with densely grown planets.

Serpae tetra belongs to genus Hyphessobrycon. The body of the srpae tetra is tall and
compressed and can reach a size of 1.5 inches (4 centimeters). The shades body color
varies from bright red to reddish brown. The red body is decorated with a black mark in
right behind the gill cover. Some serpae tetra specimens have a very small marking or
have no marking at all. As serape tetra grows older, the marking will grow smaller. The
anal fin, ventral fin and tail are all red, and the anal fin is fringed with black and white
fringe. This fringe can sometimes have reddish hue.
They are schooling fishes. They can become a bit aggressive during feeding, since they
will compete for feed. Serape tetra feeds on insects, worms, crustaceans and plants in the
wild.
3.4.2. Neon tetra (Paracheirodon innesi)
The neon tetra belongs to the genus Paracheirodon in the family Characidae. The neon
tetra is an extremely popular aquarium fish. They are often kept together in planted
community aquariums with soft, acidic waters and tropical water temperatures. Maximum
size of neon tetra is about 2.2 cm. They prefer water with pH range 5.0-7.0, hardness
range is 1-2 and temperature 20-260C.
This is pelagic freshwater fish native to tropical parts of Northern South America. The
neon tetra originates from western Brazil, south eastern Colombia and Eastern Peru.
Tetras have bright colors and an iridescent stripe in order to be visible in dark black
waters.
The neon tetra has a spindle shaped body and a blunt nose. A glistering blue line runs
along each side of the body, from the nose and all the way to adipose fin. The neon tetra is
also decorated with a red stripe that runs from the middle of the body to the base of the
caudle fin. The side over the blue stripe is a dark olive green shade. The belly is of a
silvery color and the anal fin is nearly transparent.
3.4.3. Black phantom tetra (Hyphessobrycon megalopterus)
This tetra lives in Bolivia and Brazil on the South American continent. The black
phantom tetra is a bentho-pelagic species that needs tropical temperatures from 22-280C.
Its natural habitat is densely grown and therefore it will appreciate a well planted
aquarium.
Maximum size is 3.6cm, and the water conditions of pH ranges from 6.0-7.5 and hardness
from 18. The black phantom tetra is peaceful and stays comparatively small.
The male and female are very easy to distinguish from each other. The female has red
adipose, pectoral and anal fins. The male has a silvery or smoky grey coloration. The male
is also equipped with a bigger dorsal fin. Both male and female have oval and lateral
compressed bodies and are decorated with a big black patch behind the gills, in front of
the dorsal fin. The dorsal fins and the caudal fin are grey where they attach to the main
body, and will then gradually turn in to black color. The anal fin has black edge.
3.4.4. Breeding of tetras
Tetras are egg scatters. Brood stock is selected after harvesting a pond. Factors such as
healthy, colorful, with proper body shape should consider during selection of brood stock.
Separating the males from the females is necessary to avoid unnecessary breeding. Males
are more colorful than females and females have larger abdomen area than males.
Tetras reached to maturity within 2-3 months and average egg production is 100.
Breeding male:female ratio is 1:1. Glass tanks (15*8*6) are prepared for breeding by

wash the tank thoroughly. The stones and coconut coir are sterilize by washing with
KMnO4 followed by clean water and dry in sun light. Then prepare tank bottom using
coconut coir to catch eggs that spread by females.
Fill the tank with clean water and conditioned for overnight. Introduce female at 10.00am
to acclimatize for the environment and the male introduced at 4.00pm. If following day
found eggs, remove brooders because they eat eggs. Methylene blue at a concentration of
2ppm applies to tanks to avoid fungal diseases of eggs. Kottamba dried leaves used for
absorption of ammonia from the water. Breeding of neon tetra also same as this procedure
but need to provide dark conditions of the tanks. Therefore tanks should be covered with
black polythene from all the sides. After egg laying do not exposed them to light.
3.4.5. Nursery management
After 2 days fries are come out from the eggs and depend on the York sac. Therefore do
not need to practice feeding. When they reached to free swimming stage after 2-3 days
feed them with brine shrimp at three times per day. During this period one third of water
should be changed. After 3-4 days transfer them to nursery tanks. With the growth of the
fish introduce powder feed. Nursery period is one month. At the end of the nursery period
transfer fish to mud ponds.
3.4.6. Grow out management
Fries are grown in 45 days to 60 days in mud ponds. They are mainly depending on
natural foods available in the pond and also supply prima floating feed three times per
day.
3.5 ANGEL FISH (Pterophyllum scalare)
Origin of Angel fish is Amazon region of South America. Their body shape is like a disk
or vertically slim and flat due to the habitat they live in, where more water vegetation is
found, they easily swim through the plants. E.g. Amezon Sword Plants (Echinodorus).
Normally size of angel fish is Up to 6 in length, the top and bottom fins spanning a
greater distance in the Veil varieties. Ideal Water Quality parameters are soft (0.6 to 1.2
dH), slightly acid (pH 6.5 to 6.9) and successful breeding have occurred in pH 6.8,
temperature 28 300C.
Varieties that are reared in the center are Albino red eye angies, Zebra angels, Marble
angle, Tricolor angles, Golden Angle, Golden stranger, Black vail tail.

3.5.1. Brood stock management


Angle fish reached to Maturity at 6 8 months of age. Average Egg production is 300
eggs per breeding. Early stage it is difficult to identify sex. After maturity somewhat easy
to identify sex. After maturity female choose the male. The appearance of the pairs
genital papillae is enables to use differentiation of sex. These look like little nipple like
projections and are called ovipositors (egg placers). The females ovipositors is larger
and blunter than the males which is slender and more pointed. Angle always prefers
clean water therefore It is always advisable to have a bio filter.

Breeding pairs can be selected by self pairing. Also pair out angel shows territorial
behavior. Normally angels are reared in tanks in quarantine unit. Normally angles are
reared in tanks in quarantine unit. At about 8.00 p.m. select breeding pairs in dark
environment. They are transferred to hatchery and keep only pair by pair. Breeding Tanks
size 11/2x 11/2x11/2.
Angeles are egg depositors. Therefore keep a columnar surface for them to lay eggs,
like a PVC pipe that can be removed for cleaning. Feed them with protein filled diet, or a
formulated feed with 35 40% protein. When spawning actually takes place, the female
will pass over the site and eggs are deposited which adhere to the surface. The male then
moves in and swim along over the string of eggs just laid and fertilizes them.
Once they lay eggs (Most twice every month) on a slate, remove the slate from the parent
tanks and place in a hatching tank with aeration. Add a few drops of Methylene blue (2
ppm.) solution to prevent bacterial and fungal infestations in eggs.
3.5.2. Nursery management
Eggs will hatch in 3-4 days with temperature provided higher newly hatched fry are not
fed because still they have a yolk sack to live. After about 3-5 days when they are reached
to free swimming stage, introduce newly hatched brine shrimp. Grow them in basins with
daily water changes as they do grow faster with new water addition. Never over feed
which leads to poor water quality. At this stage can feed with frozen blood worm or any
live feed. After two weeks in the nursery tanks they are transferred for growing in to
cement tank.
3.5.3. Grow out management
At the earthen ponds, they will grow fast. Fish are kept 2 months in earthen ponds and
harvest using nets. If required, necessary treatments should be applied for parasites and
other diseases.
After harvesting ponds select brood stock considering Health condition, Color With
proper body shape. They are stocked in cement tank at quarantine unit. Stocking density is
1 fish in 2ft space.
3.6. OSCAR UNIT (Astronotus ocellatus)
Oscars are originated in south America, amazon and Orinoco River Basins, Argentina,
Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Oscars are
belonged to family cichilidae. Rambadagalla Ornamental Fish Breeding and Training
Center has two varieties of oscar fish as Albino Oscar and tiger Oscar.
Size of Oscar fish is 12-16 inches standard length (SL) and up to 3.5. Fry can grow up at
the impressive rate of up to 1 inch per month. Longevity of Oscar can live for well over a
decade.
Water quality parameters that required for Oscar fish are pH between 6-8, a general
hardness of 5-19dH, and a water temperature of about 25 270C. Oscars will do well in
soft acidic water as well as in harder alkaline water. Oscars are bentho pelagic, meaning

they swim and feed in open waters as well as on the bottoms. They are typically found in
the shallower, slower moving waters, with sand or mud bottoms.
Oscars are mildly aggressive. They are territorial though, and a breeding pair may become
highly aggressive towards tank mates when spawning. Oscars in the same tank of
constantly fight, when provides inadequate space.
3.6.1 Breeding of Oscar fish
Oscar fish are seasonal breeders. Their breeding season is ranged from April to August.
During their breeding season they enable to use for breeding in 2 weeks interval. Oscar
fish can be bred in aquariums as long as provide them with favorable conditions. The
brood stocks of Oscar are kept in 10*10 cement tanks in holding unit. Oscars are
monomorphic, meaning that male and female look the same. It is hard to sex young
Oscars, but they are pair out naturally. Once a pair has been formed remove them to
breeding tanks.
Oscars are preferred to lay eggs on a flat surface. They are not lay eggs directly on the
substrate. Therefore they lay eggs in the bottom of the tanks. When female laid the eggs
the male comes along to fertilize the eggs. An Oscar fish lays 1000-2000 eggs. After the
eggs are laid, both parents look after their eggs, drifting them with their fins. The center
provides powder feed and meat meal which contain beef heart and spleen mix in a ratio of
3:1 for brood stock.
3.6.2. Nursery management
In the presence of perfect and constant tank temperature, the eggs should hatch in just
about 2-3 days. Oscars reached to free swimming stage within 4 days after hatching.
During this time, parents persistently focus to their fry.
Bring shrimp are provided as feed for free swimming fries at 3 times per day. With the
growth of the fries introduced powder feeds. After 1 month in nursery tanks they were
transfer to the mud ponds.
3.6.3. Grow out management
Fries are grown in 45 days to 60 day in mud ponds. They are mainly depended on natural
foods available in the pond and also supply prima floating feeds, three times per day. Fish
are transfer to cement tanks after harvesting from the mud pond using nets. Neguvon is
applied for parasite control such as Argulus. If necessary apply other medication such as
triple mixture.
Fish are graded according to the color size. Select fish for brood stock after removing
deformed, fish not with correct color. Select fish with ideal color combination and disease
free fish for brood stock. Rests of the fish are selling according to size.
3.7. FIGHTER FISH (Betta splendens) UNIT
Fighter fish belongs to family Osphronemidae, genus Betta, species B. splendens (Regan,
1910). The fish is a member of the gourami family which originated in Thailand and

naturally distributed to Asia and Africa. B. splendens a labyrinth fish usually grow to
overall length of about 5 cm, though some varieties reach 3-5 inches in length.
This species lives approximately 2-5 years in captivity, generally between 2-3 years. They
enable to tolerate high level of ammonia in the water. They are bubble nest builders that
show father care.
Siamese fighting fish has a upturned mouth and are primarily carnivorous surface feeder.
Siamese fighting fish has ability to breathe oxygen from the atmosphere. This is possible
because of a specialized breathing organ known as the labyrinth. As an air breather they
can be kept without water oxygenation.
They are known for their brilliant color and large, following fins. There are several
brilliantly colored and longer finned varieties. ( i.e. Veiltail; Delta; Superdelta; and
Halfmoon ) have been developed through selective breeding. Rambadagalla center is
reared Halfmoon and Crown tail varieties.
3.7.1. Brood stock management
Brood stock fish are selected considering strengthens of fish, colorfulness, free from
diseases, and correct size and shape. Fish becomes maturity at the age of 3 4 months and
average number of eggs per pair is 100. Size of fish used to breeding is 60mm.
Size of the tank that use for breeding is 15 x 8x 6, fill with water to 4 inches and allow
to conditioned for overnight. The water column should be 4 inches. Because of they are
bubble nest builders it is essential to introduce floating substrate. Piece of polythene is
used as substrate in this farm because of their durability and not adversely affect to water
quality.
Males are introduces first (about 10.00 am) to the breeding tanks as they are bubble nest
builders. Female that kept in a bottle also introduced to tank to stimulate the preparation
of bubble nest. At the evening introduced female to the tank. The male wraps his body
around the female; around 10-41 eggs are released during each embrace, until the female
is exhausted of eggs.
The male, in his turn, releases milt in to water, and fertilization tanks place externally.
During and after spawning, the male uses his mouth to retrieve sinking eggs and deposit
them in the bubble nest. At the end of the spawning remove the female before attacked by
male as it is likely that eat the eggs due to hunger. Henceforth, the eggs remain in the
males care.
3.7.2. Nursery management
Incubation lasts for 24-36 hours, and the newly hatched larvae remain in the nest for the
nest 2-3 days, until their York sacs are fully absorbed. Afterwards the fry leave the nest
and the free swimming stage begins. Then remove the male from the breeding tanks. At
the free-swimming stage provides paramecium or egg York for 3-4 days as first feed.
After 3-4 days, introduce brine shrimps. Fries are reared in Nursery tank (5x5) at
stocking density of 30/ft2 for 3-4 weeks.

3.7.3. Grow out management


They are kept in Grow out tanks for another 4 weeks and Separate male and female. Male
grow in bottles 2-3 weeks Female grow 2 weeks select brood stock and other fish sale.
Meat provided a meal for a day as feed for grow out fish.

3.8. GOURAMY (Trichogaste) UNIT


All Gouramy species originate from Africa and Asia. Gouramy are tropical fish belonging
to the Labyrinth family (Family: Belontiidae). The Labyrinth fish are a group known for
their ability to breathe atmospheric oxygen in the event the water they live in becomes
depleted of oxygen or polluted. The organ that allows these fish to breathe oxygen is
called the Labyrinth.
Optimum water temperature for most species is 74-790F (24 260C). the water should be
neutral to slightly acidic and relatively soft. pH of water should be 6.0 8.8, and hardness
of 5-35 dGH. Many of the Gouramy species can be found in several different color
variations. Usually size of adult fish is 4 inches (10cm).
3.8.1. Breeding of Gouramy
Gouramies are egg layers and bubble nest builders for spawning and raising their young.
They show father care. Sexes are primarily differentiated by the shape of the dorsal fin,
which is long and pointed in males, compared to the females shorter rounded dorsal.
Females that are prepared for spawning will show a pronounced swelling in the abdomen
area, while the male has a far more slender girth. The male can be rather aggressive
during spawning.
Gouramy male and female introduce to the breeding tanks at the same time about 10.00
am. Breeding tank size is 5x5x8. Introduce pies of polythene as a floating substrate to
preparation of bubble nest. Spawning begins with the building of the bubble nest by the
male, which usually occurs early in the day. After a suitable nest has been prepared, the
male will attempt to entice the female under it by swimming back.
During spawning the male wraps his body tightly around the female, turning her on her
side or back. During female lay eggs male fertilize them. Then eggs are placed in bubble
nest.
The pair may repeat the process a number of times over the course of several hours. Once
spawning is complete, the females involvement is over, and she should be removed to
prevent her from being attacked by the male. From this point forward until they hatch, the
male will tend the eggs, carefully rearranging them.
3.8.2. Nursery management
After 24 hrs the gouramy eggs will hatched and after 3-5 days they reached to free
swimming fry in the breeding tanks. Feed the Gouramy fry newly hatched are fed with
paramecium or egg York as they are small in size. After 3-4 days introduce brine shrimp
powder feed. They are rear one month in the nursery tanks.

3.8.3. Grow out management


After the nursery period introduce them in to the mud ponds. Because they grow fast in
ponds as they are rich in natural foods. Prima floating feed also provide three times per
day as artificial feed. At the end of two months of growing period in mud pond they are
harvest using nets. They are stocked in tanks in holding unit. If parasites and other disease
are present, suitable medication should be applied to cure diseases and control of
parasites.
The fish are sort out of for breeding stock considering their health condition, correct body
color, shape. Other fish are sold according to the length of the fish.

4. FISH FREEDING MANAGEMENT


Feeding is most important factor to obtain optimum growth of fish. Good nutrition in fish
production system is essential to economically produce a healthy, high quality fish.
Natural feeds can be utilized when fish are stocked in mud ponds. Other than natural
feeds, artificial feeds provide for proper nutrition balance. During the nursery period of
fish it is critical to provide suitable fish feed which match with their size. To solve that
problem, use artificial feed to early larval stages of fries. With the growth of fish provide
powder feed and floating feed.
4.1. Live feed.
Live food is considered to be necessity for raising fish fry, especially during the first
weeks of feeding. Most fish fry require a food item that shows independent movement.
This live food must also be appropriate for the mouth size of the fry and must provide a
nutritionally compete diet. Fish culturists have historically used newly hatched brine
Shrimp, Paramecium, Micro worms, Daphnia also use as live feeds for raising fries.
4.1.1. Artemia
The ornamental fish culture depends greatly on the ability of the successful rearing
through the early life stages. Suitable nutrition is the one of principle factors influencing
fish survival and growth. Usually hatchling and fries are small in size. So fry feeding is
more critical during the early nursery period. Therefore live feed supplement is most
important is most important to fulfill the nutritional requirement of fries.
Artemia salina is widely used live feed in nurseries. Artemia is typical arthropod with a
segmented body to which is usually 8 10 mm while adult female is about 10 12 mm.
Artemia able to provide as decapsulated Artemia cyst from or as hatched Artemia
(Artemia nauplii). Hatched Artemia cyst or nauplii in instar 1 and instar 2 stages are most
widely used forms in artemia in aquaculture.

4.1.1.1. Artemia Hatching


Fiberglass cylinders are filled with water up to 50L mark and add salt (1600g) till the
salinity reached to the 32ppt. Then aerate the water slightly. 61 grams (6cups) of Artemia
cysts add to the cylinders. Continue vigorous aeration and illuminate with lights hung
above the cylinders. Incubate overnight. Brine shrimps are harvest after 24 hrs hatching.
After Artemia cysts are hatched turn off aeration and remove heater and air stone. Wait
approximately 5 minutes for the empty casings to float to the surface of the water. Cyst
castings are separated from the hatched Artemia by draining to contents of the cylinder in
to the Organdhi collecting net.
Nauplii are removed in to the collecting net and rinse collected nauplii with water. Then
place contents of the collecting net to the container but do not aerate. Cover it with a black
plastic sheet leaving an uncovered space near the bottom. Wait approximately 5 minutes
and nauplii are siphoned from the bottom of the aquarium using the glass tubing. Those
harvested brine shrimps are used as feed for nursery stages of the center. Hatched Artemia
provides in three times per day at 9.30 am, 11.00 am and 2.30 pm. At the same time set up
hatching jars for Artemia to use for next day.

4.1.1.2 Artemia Decapsulation


The dry cysts are hydrated in a container for 4 hrs with the water and are kept in continues
suspension by aeration from the bottom. A saturated commercial hypochlorite solution is
prepared and takes pure solution, without the precipitation. The hypochlorite solution is
added to cysts suspension and aerate well. When cysts become to the dark brown via
white to orange cysts are filtered through Organdhi net. Then wash them by clean water
till it disappear smell of the hypochlorite remove from the decapsulated cyst. These cysts
are stored in 40C in a refrigerator till they are fed to fries. Normally, Decapsulated cysts
are provided for guppy nursery in the center. This is practiced in four days intervals.
4.1.2. Micro Worms
The nematode panagrellus sp., commonly known as micro warms to tropical fish
hobbyists are an alternate live food for fry. Micro warms are one of simplest live food
culture. They produce a dependable harvest and are tolerant of environmental variables.
These nematodes are small (usually less than 1/16 long), white, unsegmented warms that
move continuously. The tail end is pointed while the mouth end is more rounded.
They are approximately 15 times as long as they are wide. Micro worms remain alive in
fresh water for twelve hours or more. Micro warms reproduce sexually. The males have a
curved tail, are smaller, more slender, and less numerous than the females.
Micro warms are live bearing, releasing 10 to 40 young every 1 to 1.5 days for a 20 to 25
day life span. Therefore, each female produces approximately 300 young. The young
reach sexual maturity in approximately three days. Their size increases by three times
during the first day and five to six times during the next three days. The nematodes are
76% water and 24% dry matter; 40% of the dry matter is protein and 20% is fat.

Micro warms can be cultured in almost any shallow container. The culture media can be
prepared from bread, milk powder and water. The mixture should have very thick pastelike consistency. The media is spooned in to the culture container and started culture of
nematodes is then spread over the surface.
The culture should be kept in a well lighted area at room temperature, 68-850F. the micro
worms feed on the yeast and bacteria after 3 days, the surface of the media will appear to
shimmer with the movement of the micro worms, and they will start climbing up the sides
of the container.
The micro warms are harvested by simply scraping them from the sides and top of the
container. Then they are dilute in water and provide as a feed for fries. The culture should
be renew after 4 days.
4.1.3. Paramecium
Paramecia are unicellular microorganisms belonging to the phylum Ciliophora. Members
of this phylum (ciliates) are characterized by their external covering of continuously
beating, hair-like cilia. Under favorably conditions they multiply rapidly by a process
called binary fission where they divided in half forming smaller duplicates of themselves.
They can also reproduce by conjugation in a similar manner as a sexual reproduction in
more complex animals.
The paramecium culture media is prepared by using vegetables like cabbage. Cabbage are
cut in to small pieces and placed in water container. The water should be free from
Chlorine which kills the paramecium culture. Two spoon of milk powder are added to the
water. Previous culture of paramecium is added if it available in the farm. Then cover
with a lid that allow to air transmission. At about four days paramecium are grown in the
media. This can be used up to ten days. After ten days culture media should be renewed.
Paramecium is harvested using a bottle. The bottle is filled with water that contains
paramecium. Paramecium is aerobic organism. Therefore they are gathered around the
bottle neck to obtain oxygen. So wait for about five minutes and harvest them by
siphoning the top of the bottle using a small piece of tubing or a syringe.
4.2. Artificial Feed
4.2.1. Powder feed
Prepared or artificial diets may be either complete or supplemental Complete diets supply
all the ingredients (protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals) necessary for the
optimal growth and health of the fish. Artificial feeds are provide mainly for grow out
fish. In addition to live feed supply artificial feed for fries in nursery.
According to the species of fish, Growth stage, the amount and type of feed that supply to
fish should be changed. Rambadagalla Ornamental fish breeding and training center use
feed as Prima note, Prima one feed, and Fish meal (triple nine). Other than those
ingredients vitamin C, minerals also mix to the feed.

Prima tropical fish feed number 02 consist with fish products and other animal by
products cereal. Cereal by products, Poonac, fish oil, vitamin mineral, permitted additives.
Crude protein content of this feed is 42%, crude fat 10%, Fiber 4%, Ash 12%,
Metheonone 0.94. there is a feed room with several equipments such as Oven, Grinder,
feed pellet preparation machine that use to feed preparation machine that use to feed
preparation. According to the requirement of nutrition to the fish mix ingredients and
produce feed themselves. They are used different formulas to preparation of feed for fish.
Table 6: Nursery feed Guppy
Ingredient
Fish meal Triple nine
Gold coin person feed
Prima note
Vitamin
Mineral
Vegetable oil

Amount for 1kg of feed


500g
250g
250g
10g (Vitamins are dissolved in oil,mix)
10g
25ml

Table 7: Grow out feed

Ingredient
Prima note
Fish meal
CMC
Vitamin
Vitamin E
Mineral
Color Enhancer

Amount for 1kg of feed


900g
100g
10g
10g
06g
10g
0.45g

Table 8: Gelatinous Brood stock Feed

Ingredient
Prima note
Fish meal
CMC
Vitamin E
Vitamin
Mineral
Vitamin coated

Amount for 1kg of feed


800g
200g
10g
6g
10g
10g
2g

Table 9: Brood stock feed Guppy, Gold fish, Angel


Ingredient
Prima note
Fish meal
CMC
Vitamin E
Vitamin
Mineral

Amount for 1kg of feed


800g
200g
10g
6g
10g
10g

4.2.2. Meat meal


Some fish are carnivorous. Therefore prepare meat mixture to feed them the center. This
will provide for Fighter fish, Brood stock of Guppy and Angels, Oscar fish Combtail fish,
tetras and barbs. Spleen and heart of beef used in 1:3 ratio as feed ingredients for meat
mixture. First remove the fat around the meat particles and connective tissues. If the
mixture contain connective tissues, that make digestive difficulties in fish.
The heart is cut in to pieces and grind with spleen. Then those are kept in a tray in a
refrigerator at 40C temperature. Those are cut in to pieces and provide one meal per day.
Meat once a month supply for guppy brood stock.

5.5 Fish disease diagnosis


Post mortem examination is an important component of fish disease diagnosis. Fish
should be kept in moistened condition during the examination by spreading water or
covering with a wet paper towel. Then measure the body weight and length of fish.
5.5.1. External examination
Place a fish in plastic board and record abnormalities. Should be consider about body
condition, Changes in eyes, abnormalities in fins, body surface, ulcers, abscess,
discoloration, excess mucus, parasites cysts, abnormal growth, protruded scales. Collect
samples from external lesions, for microbiological and parasite examination where
appropriate. Collect samples of blood and prepare blood smear carefully.
5.5.2 Preparation of external scraping
Scrap the body external surface of fish using blunt side of the scalpel blade or cover slip
and place a saline water ion the scrap. Place a cover slip avoiding air bubbles. Similarly
scraping of lesions should be collect and place a water drop. Bacteria, fungi, parasites can
be detected by observing these slid under microscope.
5.5.3. Examination of the gills
Remove the operculum and place in a Petridis and observe under dissecting microscope.
Using a small pair of surgical scissors, remove a portion of gill arch. Slightly tease apart
the gill filament to view the filaments and lamella properly and add drop of water.
Examine gill filament with or without cover slip. Look for Bacteria, fungi, parasites or
abnormal growth.
5.5.4 Internal examination
Using a pair of sterilized scissor cut the abdominal wall ventrally starting from the base of
the pectoral fin up to the operculum. Starting from the same point cut dorsally just below
the lateral line. Lift the body wall away from the viscera, while processing. Continue
cutting interiorly in a semicircular manner to the top of the body cavity again up to the
operculum. It is important to be careful not to damage intestinal wall or other abdominal
organs.
Carefully remove the flap of the body wall using a forceps. Once the body cavity is
opened, the swing bladder should be remain inflated a gastrointestinal track should be
intact. Examine the abnormalities presents in the viscera (abscesses, ulcers growth,
hemorrhages, cysts, fluids, discoloration and fat contend). Before opening up the intestine
take samples from kindly for microbiological examination.

5.6 Quarantine of fish


For newly acquired freshwater fish you will want to acclimatize the fish to the water in
quarantine tank and monitor them very closely for a period of two to three weeks. In the

Fish Industry Quarantine is inspection of disease conditions and External and Internal
conditions of alien fish prior/before introducing to the production unit of the farm.
Quarantining a fish is necessary when you purchase a new fish, or if one comes down
with an illness and needs to separate from the others in the tank.
The purpose of quarantining is to avoid introducing new diseases to a stable system, and
to be able to better observe new fish for signs of disease. As well as to select high quality
fish to back up, brood stock and preparatory stocks. A quarantine tank can also double as
a hospital tank for sick fish. Hospital tanks are good because they lower the cost of using
medicines and keep diseased fish separate from health ones.
Also after the inspection the health condition can be identified. If there is certain problem
carrying out suitable treatments and then can use to production. Unless a certain disease
or a parasitic condition is difficult to control destroying should be done in quarantine
period. The observation period of a certain fish obtained from the market before
introducing for an aquarium tank or a fish pond should follow the quarantine procedure.
Quarantine procedure begins just after the shock treatment.
5.6.1 Quarantine procedure
Fish should stock in a certain tank before introducing to the aquarium of fish pond.
During this period the behaviors of the fish is observed and inspection is carried out for
diseases and apply proper treatments for diseases. After this period healthy fish can be
introduce to the aquarium or pond.
The tank must be disinfected correctly before reuse. Disinfection is done for destroying
parasites or different stages of the life cycle of parasites which can be seen in fish tanks
accessories or fish bodies. Quarantine tank and every accessory wash thoroughly and
allow to dry well or clean with a suitable disinfectant before reuse. Disinfection of tanks
can be done by using Salt 32ppt for 10-15 min, kondis 20ppm for 10-15min, Formalin 5%
for 60 min, H2O2 8% for 10-15 min and Bleaching powder Ca(OIC)2 200ppm.

Disinfection of utensils

Utensils should be disinfected properly to avoid transmission of diseases. Infected water,


dead fish, polythene bags should be destroyed without any contamination to
equipments.

Treatment to the fish

External parasites of fish are removed using a certain treatment which is done during a
short time period. Do a bath with a high concentrated treatment mixture during a short
time period. Only one fish or few can be used at time. Low concentrations should be
applied for sensitive fish varieties. E.g. Cat fish, Angel
Shock treatment is used for fish to acclimatize to the changes to the water quality
parameters of the farm. Fish introduce to solution with the correct concentration and
observe their behavior such as quick movement, try to come out of the basin,
imbalance. As shock treatment salt or methylene blue can be use. The treatment
solution should be aerated well.

When the first fish packed in 2ppm Methelene Blue and 2ppt salt solution can minimize
the effect of Nitrogenous wastes on Oxygen exchange. As well as can minimize the
problems caused by fungi. 2ppm methylene Blue is important to avoid secondary
infection due to damage the slim coat and is a treatment for physical damages.
As well as to remove external parasites protozoan can use 125-150 ppm Formalin mixed
water 60 min. KMnO4 also can be used for fish that are not more sensitive. Therefore,
cant be applied for Barb, Cat fish like sensitive fish. 5ppm KMnO4 10-15 min used
for removal of external parasites protozoa and bacteria.
After the shock treatment introduce the treat fish in to an aerated tank when the
temperature regulates. After 3-4 weeks observation period healthy fish can be
introduced to the cement tank/glass tank in the farm.
When the certain disease is difficult to control diseased fish must be destroyed from the
tank and buries them without exposing to the open environment. E.g. Viral diseases,
some bacterial disease(Columnaris). When the cost for the control a certain disease is
very high the affected fish samples should be destroyed. When the cost for the control
a certain disease is very high the affected fish samples should be destroyed.