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1. Gauri Unni (BA LLB A section)
2. Spoorthi.K (BA LLB B section)

in the 19th century as an
independent study owing to the degree of modernity. The various
advances of the modern world like technology, transport and
communication brought the people closer to one another and knitted
the world as one whole. This led to increasing exchange of ideas and
thought among the people which formed the basis of various
revolutions that occurred in the 19th century. The main reason being
the formation of a radical outlook of the people as opposed to the
traditional norms of the society.
Sociology emerged

Sociology emerged in the late 18th and 19th century

owing to three major revolutions that took place. The Intellectual
Revolution also known as the period of Enlightenment, the French
Revolution and the Industrial Revolution.

A. The Intellectual Revolution.

The intellectual revolution is considered to have the

paved the way for the French revolution. It advocated increasing
rational, scientific study of the existing philosophies. During this time,
the thinkers that emerged provided a scientific and radical
explanation of the social world. It went against the tide of the pre
existing rigid, traditional outlook of life. However, this period of
Enlightenment is also known to have been influenced by the
increasing advances in the field of natural sciences. For example,
Darwins theory of evolution was a clear opposition to the traditional
theory of the church. Thus, it urged the people to think radically. It
also formed a basis for the immediate industrial revolution in the

18th century. Darwins theory of the survival of the fittest, in

the sociological scenario can be applied to the capitalism where the
economic and social super powers dominate the lower rungs of the
society. Thus, it invited thinkers like Karl Marx and Engels in
the sociological arena.

B. The Industrial Revolution.

The industrial revolution of 18th century

clearly sectioned the society into two: the proletariat and
bourgeois. The working class is hugely significant in the field
of Sociology as the proletarian struggle against the bourgeoisie is the
focus of the works of Karl Marx and fellow social thinker Friedrich
Engels, the co-authors of The Communist Manifesto. The increase in
technology and emergence of mass production led to the emergence
of the factory system. Transport and communication were
strengthened with the development of railways and building of ship
canals. This was done mainly to enhance the trade links. This in turn
formed the basis of urbanization. More and more people turned
towards the cities in search of jobs.

C. The French Revolution.

The French revolution by far is the most

significant revolution that led to the emergence of Sociology. The
ultimate result of the revolution was the fall of the traditional church
and emergence of the will of the people. The traditional church and
the monarchy was uprooted in France which ended the theosophical
rule. Consequently a republic state was established which was
governed by revised law and regulations. The people enjoyed new

rights and liberties and improvised laws of education, inheritance,

weights and measures etc. governed the state. In the general sense it
posed a challenge to the traditional government and thus, provided
the people with a completely perspective of the society. With the shift
of power from the church and the monarch to the state, it developed
what is known as Nationalism. This very concept of nationalism was
the cause of uprisings in different parts of the world and provided a
different outlook to the people towards the society they live
in. Nationalism is now an important concept studied
under sociology.
These factors resulted in the fall of the traditional
institutions and the emergence of a whole new branch of social study
based on reason and facts. Sociology spread enormously in Europe
and the united states in the 1960s and thereafter. New subfields
emerged under this discipline which includes analysis of gender-based
social roles and inequalities, the study of emotions, aging etc. These
studies also led to a branch of applied sociology in the form of
consultants, planners, educators, researchers, and managers in federal,
state and local government, in nonprofit organizations, and in
business-especially in the field of marketing, advertising, insurance,
human resources, and organizational analysis.