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Division of Structural Engineering

Design of
Structural
Connections
Bjrn Engstrm
Chalmers University of Technology
Gteborg, Sweden
Bjrn Engstrm

Division of Structural Engineering

Content
Design philosophy
Structural purpose
Force paths at different levels
Mechanical behaviour design aspects

Basic force transfer mechanisms

Compression
Shear
Tension
Bending - torsion

fib Bulletin on Structural connections


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Division of Structural Engineering

Design of structural connections

Design aspects:
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Division of Structural Engineering

Structural behaviour for ordinary


and excessive loads

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Division of Structural Engineering

Appearance and function in the


service state

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Division of Structural Engineering

Structural fire protection

Load bearing function


Separating function
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Division of Structural Engineering

Manufacture
Production of precast elements
Handling, storage and transportation of
precast elements

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Division of Structural Engineering

Mounting of precast systems


Mounting should be possible

Tolerances

Accessibility

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Division of Structural Engineering

Modular co-ordination

Traditional detail

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Alternative detail

Division of Structural Engineering

Demountability

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Division of Structural Engineering

Force paths structural level

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Division of Structural Engineering

Force paths structural level

Diaphragm action
Fixed end
columns

Shear panels
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Division of Structural Engineering

Force paths structural level


Shear
walls
Shear walls
Floor diaphragms

Floor diaphragms

Compression
Compression
Shear
Shear

Tension
Tension

Shear
Shear

Core
Core
Tension
Tension
Compression
Compression

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Division of Structural Engineering

Force paths
structural subsystems

In-plane action of precast floor


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Division of Structural Engineering

Force paths
structural subsystems

In-plane action of precast wall

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Division of Structural Engineering

The force paths local level

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Division of Structural Engineering

Alternative designs force paths

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Division of Structural Engineering

Alternative
designs
force paths
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Division of Structural Engineering

Design of the whole connection

The connection as part of the structural


system
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Division of Structural Engineering

Design and detailing


for safe force paths

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Division of Structural Engineering

Flow of forces
through the
connection and
further away

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Division of Structural Engineering

Mechanical behaviour

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Division of Structural Engineering

Mechanical response

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Division of Structural Engineering

Need for movement

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Division of Structural Engineering

Balanced design for ductility

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Division of Structural Engineering

Anchorage for ductility

Avoid anchorage failures

Provide anchorage for rupture of the steel


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Division of Structural Engineering

Unintended restraint

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Division of Structural Engineering

Avoid unfavourable crack locations


Unfavourable

Preferred

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Division of Structural Engineering

Alternative solutions

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Division of Structural Engineering

Unintended composite action

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Division of Structural Engineering

Force transfer in connections

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Division of Structural Engineering

Basic force transfer mechanisms


Shear

Compression
w
N

Tension
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Division of Structural Engineering

Transfer of compression
local compression,
compressive strength
in confined concrete
tension
stress dispersion
splitting effects

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Division of Structural Engineering

Compression through several layers

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Division of Structural Engineering

Design of bearings

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Division of Structural Engineering

Design of soft bearings

Consider vertical resistance


Limit shear deformation for horizontal loads
Compression over the entire face of the bearing pad
Avoid direct contact in case of rotation
Avoid that the bearing protrudes outside the edges
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Division of Structural Engineering

Design examples

Wall connection
with mortar joint

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Beam support
with soft bearing

Division of Structural Engineering

Design examples

Beam column connection


with steel plates
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Hollow core floor wall connection

Division of Structural Engineering

Bolted connections

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Division of Structural Engineering

Failure modes of bolted


connection
Shear failure of bolt
Splitting of concrete
Combined bending
in bolt and crushing of
concrete

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Division of Structural Engineering

Avoid splitting failure


Q

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Division of Structural Engineering

Design of splitting reinforcement

Compare with local


compression
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Division of Structural Engineering

Dowel action one-sided


Failure
mechanism

High
bending
stress

Q
x0

High
compression

VR = 2

Bending failure in bolt


crushing of concrete
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x0 =

f cc f sy

VR
3 f cc

Division of Structural Engineering

Effect of eccentricity
eccentricity factor ke
Q
e
x0

11

0,8

0.8

fck/fyk
20/500

k e1( e ) 0.6

0.6

k e2( e )

VR = ke
x0 =

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f cc f sy

VR
3 f cc

0,4

0.4

0,2

0.2

0.18322

50/320
0
0

0.5
0,5

1
1,0

e/

1.5
1,5

2
2,0

2.5
2,5
2.5

Division of Structural Engineering

Dowel action two-sided


VR = 2

Slip

x0 =

fcc

f cc f sy

VR
3 f cc

x0
2e
x0
fcc

Slip
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Division of Structural Engineering

Different conditions
V1 = 2
x 0 ,1 =

fcc,min

f cc ,min f sy

V1 = 2

VR
3 f cc.min

fcc,min

VR
3 f cc.min

x0,1

x0,1
2e

x0,2

fcc,max

fcc,max
VR = 2

x0, 2 =

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x 0 ,1 =

f cc ,min f sy

f cc ,max f sy

VR
3 f cc ,max

Failure
mechanism

2e

Division of Structural Engineering

Response in shear
Shear force

V1 = 2
x 0 ,1 =

fcc,min

f cc ,min f sy
VR

3 f cc.min

Second plastic hinge plastic mechanism


First plastic hinge

x0,1
2e

Shear slip

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fcc,max

Division of Structural Engineering

Effect of restraint
VR = k r 2

f cc f sy

fcc

x0 =

VR
3 f cc

1 kr 2
x0
My,red
fcc

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Division of Structural Engineering

Restraint and eccentricity


VR = ke ,r 2
x0 =
fcc

f cc f sy

VR
3 f cc
2

ke ,r = k r + 2

x0
e
fcc

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Division of Structural Engineering

Effect of anchorage
VR = ( s As ) + 2
fcc

f r ,red = f s s

x0
x0
fcc

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f cc f s ,red

Division of Structural Engineering

What happened here?

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II

III

Division of Structural Engineering

Shear in joints

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Division of Structural Engineering

Shear friction
Crack width

Crack
width

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Shear slip

Shear slip

Division of Structural Engineering

Self-generated friction

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Division of Structural Engineering

Influence of bond and anchorage


w

Fv
s

deformed bars
strain localisation
high steel stress
yields for
small slip,
friction dominates
Fv

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Division of Structural Engineering

Influence of bond and anchorage


joint separation

Fv
s

induced
tension

Fv

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shear slip

plain bars
uniform strain
low steel stress

yields for
large slip,
friction + dowel

Division of Structural Engineering

Compare with bolted connection


w

Fv
VR = ( s As ) + 2

s
fcc

f cc f s ,red

f r ,red = f s s

x0
x0
fcc

Fv

Shear friction in joint


Plain bars with end anchors
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Bolted connection
Plain bolt with end anchors

Division of Structural Engineering

Different responses

External bars
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Internal reinforcement

Division of Structural Engineering

When will the transverse bars yield?


w

Fv
s

Fv

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Depends on:
joint roughness
bond resistance of
transverse bar

Division of Structural Engineering

Maximum crack width vs.


end slip response of transverse bar
Force in bar

Force in bar

Force in bar

Crack width
Maximum crack width
Bar yields in shear
friction
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Crack width
Maximum crack width
Bar yields not in shear friction

Division of Structural Engineering

Increased joint separation


6
52

Joint profile with waveshaped undulations

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Division of Structural Engineering

Joints with shear keys


shear stress
with shear keys

plain joints
slip

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Division of Structural Engineering

Shear transfer clamping is needed

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Division of Structural Engineering

Distributed ties provides clamping

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Division of Structural Engineering

Concentrated ties provide clamping

Adequate between elements with high in-plane


stiffness that are arranged in the same plane
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Division of Structural Engineering

Distributed ties are needed here

Inclined forces separate


the elements arranged
at a corner
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Example of distributed ties


between floor and wall

Division of Structural Engineering

Shear resistance of joints depends


on overall design of the subsystem

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Division of Structural Engineering

Design examples
Fv
High
compression

High
bending
stress

Response of plain dowel

Frictional resistance of concrete


interface
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Division of Structural Engineering

Connections between wall


elements
monolithic
with shear keys

monolithic

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plain

with
shear-keys

plain

Division of Structural Engineering

Connections between floor


elements

Uncracked joint

Vertical shear
capacity

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Cracked joints

Division of Structural Engineering

Applications

beff

reinforcement
in concrete
filled sleeves

transversal ties

cast in-situ
concrete
beff

joint fill
2

4
1

transversal ties
longitudinal tie

Shear transfer in hollow


core floor
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Shear transfer in composite


beams

Division of Structural Engineering

Transfer of tension
2

pl

Fsu

y
l ty

l t,pl

Anchorage with bond


Anchor head

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Division of Structural Engineering

Headed bar

Concrete capacity
design approach

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Division of Structural Engineering

Design of connection zone


The force must go further

Local compression

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Anchorage of headed bar

Division of Structural Engineering

Hollow core floor connection

Tensile capacity is
needed for:
diaphragm action
in floor
shear friction
resistance of joints
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Division of Structural Engineering

Bond stress development

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Division of Structural Engineering

Bond stress development

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Division of Structural Engineering

Inclined bond forces


N

b . tan

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Division of Structural Engineering

Splitting cracks

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Division of Structural Engineering

Anchorage failures
N Nmax

Splitting

Pull-out
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Nmax

Division of Structural Engineering

Tensile force development


Tensile force
[kN]
140

Influence of embedment length


Tensile capacity
Yield capacity

120

N220
N290a
N500
H90b
H170
H210
H250

100
80
60
40
20
0
0

100

200

300

Position x [mm]

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400

500

Division of Structural Engineering

Bond stress - slip relation


Force
.

40
mm

. . .
.
. .
.
.
. . .

.
. .
.
. .
.
.
.
.

Slip

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Bond, b

Bond stress
[MPa]
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
0

HSC
NSC

10
15
20
Passive end-slip [mm]

25

30

Division of Structural Engineering

End slip
Reference point
Slip

F
Steel bar

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Steel bar in tension

Division of Structural Engineering

Elastic response
Crack width [mm]

2,0
1.58184

w6 s

1,5

w8 s

32
25
20
16
12
10
8
6

1.5

w 10 s
w 16 s

1,0

w 20 s
w 25 s

0,5

w 32 s

0.5

0
0

8
1 10

100

8
2 10

200

8
3 10

300

8
4 10

400

8
5 10
8
5 .10

500

Steel stress [MPa]


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Division of Structural Engineering

Yield penetration
2
pl

lty

Fsu

lt,pl

Plastic zone
Elastic zone

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Division of Structural Engineering

Response of connections
Rupture
of bar

N
Fsu
Fsy
w
N

wy

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0,5 wu

wu w

Division of Structural Engineering

This information was needed


w

Fv
s

When will the


transverse bars
yield?

Depends on:
joint roughness
bond resistance of
transverse bar
Fv

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Division of Structural Engineering

Maximum crack width vs.


end slip response of transverse bar
Force in bar

Force in bar

Force in bar

Crack width
Maximum crack width
Bar yields in shear
friction
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Crack width
Maximum crack width
Bar yields not in shear friction

Division of Structural Engineering

Examples
N [kN]
109
101

Prediction of end-slip
response of anchor bar

send [mm]
send,y =
0,468

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0,5send,u =
0,795

send,u =
1,59

Division of Structural Engineering

Examples
Design of anchorage allowing
for full yield penetration

Effect of local weakening

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Division of Structural Engineering

Examples
Estimation of tie bar stiffness
w
N

Design of loop
connection

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Division of Structural Engineering

Prevention of progressive
collapse
Withstand accidental
loading
Reducing the risk of
accidental loading
Increase redundancy and
prevent propagation of
initial damage
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Division of Structural Engineering

Analysis of collapse mechanisms


3,0

3,0

4,5
3,0

6,0
5,0

5,0

[m]

Tie force

Fsu
Fsy

wy

0,5 wu

wu w

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Crack width

B
l

Division of Structural Engineering

Transfer of bending moment

Beam column
connections

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Division of Structural Engineering

Transfer of bending moment

Column splice
connection

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Column base
connections

Division of Structural Engineering

Transfer of bending moment

Floor connections:
no restraint, unintended restraint, full restraint, partial
continuity in the service state

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Division of Structural Engineering

Example
Rebars d 10
c/c 300,
L = 200+300

50

2 rebars d=12
L = 5300

40
100
Thin plastic
30
60 70 sheet
Plywood board
100
100
30x50x60
under webs,
200
2 pc./slab end

Fs

Moment rotation response of connection at end support

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Division of Structural Engineering

Transfer of torsional moment


q

Simply supported
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Firmly connected

Torsional restraint
at beam support

Division of Structural Engineering

fib Bulletin on
Structural Connections
Encourage good practice in design of
structural connections
Design philosophy
Connections Structural system
Understanding of basic force transfer
mechanisms

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