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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING

Volume1,No 3,2010
Copyright2010AllrightsreservedIntegratedPublishingservices

Researcharticle

ISSN0976 4399

FiniteElementModelingonbehaviorofReinforcedConcreteBeam
ColumnJointsRetrofittedwith CarbonFiberReinforcedPolymer
Sheets

RobertRavi.S1, PrinceArulraj.G2
1AssistantProfessor, SchoolofCivilEngineering,KarunyaUniversity,Coimbatore.
2Professor&Dean,Dept.ofCivilEngg.,S.N.SCollegeofTech.,Coimbatore.
srobertravi@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Recent earthquakes have demonstrated that most of the reinforced concrete structures
were severely damaged during earthquakes and they need major repair works. Beam
columnjoints,beingthelateralandverticalloadresistingmembersinreinforcedconcrete
structures are particularly vulnerable to failures during earthquakes. The existing
reinforced concrete beamcolumn joints which are not designed as per code IS
13920:1993mustbestrengthenedsincetheydonotmeettheductilityrequirements.The
finite element method (FEM) has become a staple for predicting and simulating the
physical behavior of complex engineering systems. The commercial finite element
analysis(FEA)programs havegainedcommonacceptanceamongengineers in industry
and researchers. The details of the finite element analysis of beamcolumn joints
retrofitted with carbon fiber reinforced polymer sheets (CFRP) carried out using the
package ANSYS are presented in this paper. Three exterior reinforced concrete beam
columnjointspecimensweremodeledusingANSYSpackage.Thefirstspecimenisthe
controlspecimen.ThishadreinforcementaspercodeIS456:2000.Thesecond specimen
which is alsothe control specimen. This had reinforcement as per code IS 13920:1993.
ThethirdspecimenhadreinforcementaspercodeIS456:2000andwasretrofittedwith
carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. During the analysis both the ends of
columnwerehinged.Staticloadwasappliedatthefreeendofthecantileverbeamuptoa
controlled load. The performance of the retrofitted beamcolumn joint was compared
withthecontrolspecimensandtheresultsarepresentedinthispaper.
Keywords:Beamcolumnjoint Retrofitting GFRPsheetAFRPsheet.
1.Introduction
The techniques of using fiber sheets for strengthen the beamcolumn joints have a
number of favorable characteristics such as ease to install, immunity to corrosion and
highstrength.Thesimplestwaytostrengthenthejointsistowrapfibersheetsinthejoint
region intwoorthogonaldirections.Many fiberreinforcedpolymersheetsareavailable
in the market for strengthening reinforced concrete members. Carbon fiber reinforced
polymer sheets are commonly used for retrofitting the structural elements. During the
present investigation, ANSYS modeling of reinforced concrete beamcolumn joints has

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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING
Volume1,No 3,2010
Copyright2010AllrightsreservedIntegratedPublishingservices

Researcharticle

ISSN0976 4399

been carried out to understand the behavior of retrofitted reinforced concrete beam
columnjointspecimensretrofittedwithcarbonfiberwrappingsheets.
2. Modeling
The beamcolumn joint considered for analysis consists of a cantilever portion and
columnportionasshowninFigure1.aandFigure1.b.Thecolumnhadacrosssectionof
200mmx200mmwithanoveralllengthof1500mmandthebeamhadacrosssection
of200mmx200mmandthelengthofthecantileveredportionwas600mm.Thecontrol
specimensweredesignatedasC1andC2.C1hadreinforcementaspercodeIS4562000
and C2 had reinforcement as per code IS 139201993. The specimen retrofitted with
carbon reinforced polymer sheet was designated as C3 which had reinforcement as per
codeIS4562000.Thecolumnportionwasreinforcedwith4numbersof12mmdiameter
Fe415rodsandthebeamportionwasreinforcedwith2numbersof16mmdiameterFe
415rodseachinthetensionandcompressionzones.Thelateraltiesinthecolumnsofthe
specimensC1andC3were6mmdiameterFe250barswiththespacingof180mmc/c
aspercodeIS456:2000,clause26.5.3.2(c).Beamhadverticalstirrupsof6mmdiameter
Fe 250 bar at 120 mm c/c as per code IS 456:2000, clause 26.5.1.6. The development
length of the tension and compression rods in beam were also provided as per clause
26.2.1ofcodeIS456:2000.ForthespecimenC2,thelateraltiesinthecolumnsconsisted
of 8 mm diameter Fe 415 bar at 75 mm c/c forthe central distance of 1100 mm as per
codeIS 13920:1993, clause 7.4.6 and 6mm diameter Fe250 bars at 100 mm c/c forthe
remaininglengthofthecolumn.Beamshadverticalstirrupsof6mmdiameterFe250bar
at 40 mm c/c. up to a distance of 340 mm from the face of the column as per code IS
13920:1993, clause 6.3.5 and 6 mm diameter Fe250 bar at 80 mm c/c for remaining
lengthofthebeam.Thedevelopmentlengthofthebeamrodswerealsoprovidedasper
codeIS13920:1993,clause6.2.5.M20gradeofconcretewasadopted.Thetypicalviews
oftheANSYSmodelofthespecimensareshowninFigure.1(a)andFigure.1(b).

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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING
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Figure1a.TypicalViewofANSYSModel Figure1b.TypicalViewofANSYSModel
DetailedaspercodeIS456:2000
DetailedaspercodeIS13920:1993
MeshingwasdoneforbothcontrolandretrofittedspecimensusingANSYS.Bothendsof
the column were hinged. The concrete was modeled using Solid 65 element. The
reinforcement was modeled using Link 8 element. The wrapping was modeled using
Solid45element.Thestaticloadwasappliedatthefreeendofthecantileverbeamata
regular load interval of 5 kN for the control and retrofitted reinforced concrete beam
column joint models. The performance of the retrofitted beamcolumn joint specimen
wascomparedwiththecontrolbeamcolumnjointspecimens.Figure.2a)andFigure.2
b)showthemeshingforthecontrolandretrofittedspecimen.

Figure.2a:Typicalmeshed
ControlSpecimen

Figure.2b:Typicalmeshed
Retrofittedspecimen

3.NonlinearmodelingoftheBeamColumnjoints
Nonlinear analysis was done for three beamcolumn specimens using the
softwareANSYS.Atransversestaticwasappliedatthefreeendofthebeamtodevelopa
bendingmomentatthejoint.Theloadwasincreasedinstepstillacontrolledloadof20
kN.Thedeflectionatthefreeendofthecantileverbeamwas noted.Thedeflectionsof
thespecimenC1werefoundtobe3.5mmfortheloadof5kN,5mmfortheloadof10
kN, 15.5 mm for the load of 15 kN and 42.5 mm for the load of 20 kN. The same
procedurewasrepeatedforthespecimendetailedaspercodeIS139201993andforthe
retrofittedspecimen.Figure3.a),Figure3.b),andFigure3.c)showthetypical viewsof
thedeflectedcontrolandretrofittedspecimens.Figure4.showstheloaddeflectioncurve
forthecontrolandretrofittedspecimens.Table1.showsthedeflectionsatvariousinterval
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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING
Volume1,No 3,2010
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Researcharticle

ISSN0976 4399

of loadofthecontrolandretrofittedspecimens.Table.2showscomparisonbetweenthe
deflectionsandenergyabsorptioncapacityofthecontrolandretrofittedspecimens.
Table1:DeflectionsofControlandRetrofittedSpecimens.
Specimen
ID
C1

Deflectioninmmfortheloadof
5kN
10kN 15kN 20kN
3.5
5.0
15.5
42.5

C2

2.5

3.5

10.0

32.5

C3

1.0

2.0

8.0

10.5

Table2:ComparisonbetweenDeflectionandEnergyAbsorptionCapacity
Specimen
ID
C1

Def.inmmforthe
loadof20kN
42.5

%reduction
indeflection

E.A.Cuptoa
def.of10mm
61.25kN.mm

C2

32.5

23.53

87.50kN.mm

42.86

C3

10.5

75.29

131.25kN.mm

114.89

Figure3.aTypicalViewofDeflected

%increase
inE.A.C

Figure3.b: TypicalViewofDeflected
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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING
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ControlSpecimen(IS4562000)

ISSN0976 4399

ControlSpecimen(IS139201993)

Figure3.c: TypicalViewofDeflected
Figure4.LoadDeflectionCurveforthe
RetrofittedSpecimenControlandRetrofittedSpecimen
4.DiscussionoftheResults
It can be found from the Table 2. that the deflection of the beamcolumn joint
specimendetailedaspercodeIS139201993is23.53%lessthanthatofthespecimen
detailed as per code IS 4562000 and deflection of the beamcolumn joint specimen
retrofitted with carbon reinforced polymer sheet was 75.29 % less than that of the
specimen detailed as per code IS 4562000.The energy absorption capacity of the
specimen beamcolumn joint specimen detailed as per code IS 139201993 is 42.86 %
morethanthatofthespecimendetailedaspercodeIS4562000andenergyabsorption
capacity of the beamcolumn joint specimen retrofitted with carbon reinforced polymer
sheetwas114.29%morethanthatofthespecimendetailedaspercodeIS4562000.
5.Conclusions
Based on the ANSYS modeling and analysis carried out on the control and
retrofitted beamcolumn joint specimens using CFRP sheets, the following conclusions
weredrawn:
The deflection of the beamcolumn joint specimen detailed as per code IS
139201993wasfoundtobe23.53%lowerthan thatofthespecimendetailed
percodeIS4562000.

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ISSN0976 4399

ThedeflectionofthebeamcolumnjointspecimenretrofittedwithGFRPsheet
reduced the deflection about 75.29 %.when compared with the deflection of
specimendetailedaspercodeIS4562000.
Theenergyabsorptioncapacityofthebeamcolumn jointspecimendetailedas
per code IS 139201993 was found to be 42.89 % higher than that of the
specimendetailedpercodeIS4562000.
The energy absorption capacity of the beamcolumn joint specimen retrofitted
with CFRP sheet increased about 114.29 %.when compared with the energy
absorptioncapacityofspecimendetailedaspercodeIS4562000.
6.References
1. BinduK.R.,JayaK.P.,2008.PerformanceofExteriorBeamColumnJointswith
CrossInclinedBarsUnderSeismicTypeLoading.Journalofengineeringandapplied
science. vol.7,pp591597
2. Alexander G. Tsonos ., 2008.Effectiveness of CFRP Jackets and RC Jackets in
PostEarthquakeandPreEarthquakeRetrofittingofBeamColumnSubAssemblages,
Journalofengineeringstructuresvol.30,pp777793.
3. Lakshmi G.A, Anjan Dutta, Deb S.K Grim, R.E., 2008. Numerical Study of
Strengthening of Beam Column Joints Under Cyclic Excitation Using FRP
Composites,Journalofstructuralengineering,vol35,pp5965.
4. AppaRoaG.,Mahajan.M,GangaramM.,2008.Performanceofnonseismically
Designed RC Beam Column Joints Strengthen by Various Schemes Subjected to
SeismicLoads.Journalofstructuralengineering,vol.35,pp5258.
5. Yousef A. AlSalloum , Tarek H.Almusallam , 2007. Seismic Response of
Interior RC Beam Column Joints Upgrade with FRP Sheets. I: Experimental Study
Journalofcompositeforconstruction vol.11,pp575589.
6. Yousef A. AlSalloum , Tarek H.Almusallam , 2007. Seismic Response of
Interior RC Beam Column Joints Upgrade with FRP Sheets. II: Analysis And
ParametricStudy ,Journalofcompositeforconstruction vol.11,pp590599.
7. Devados Menon ,Pradip Sarkar , Rajesh Agrawal , 2007, Design of RC Beam
Column Joints Under Seismic Loading A Review , Journal of structural
engineering,vol.33,pp449457.
8. Jamal Shannag. M., Nabeela Abu,2005, Lateral Load Response of High
Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beam Column Joints , Journal of
constructionandbuildingmaterials,vol.19,pp500508.

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9. SaidA.M.,NehdiM.L ,Kehew,A.E., 2004, UseofFRPforRCFrameInSeismic


Zones,EvaluationofFRPBeamColumnJointsRehabilitationTechniques,Journalof
appliedcompositematerials,vol.11,pp205226.

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