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Anuria means non passage of urine, in practice is defined as passage of less than 100 milliliters of urine in
a day. Anuria is often caused by failure in the function of kidneys. It may also occur because of some
severe obstruction like kidney stones or tumours. It may occur with end stage renal disease. It is a more
extreme reduction than oliguria, sometimes called anuresis.

In medicine, specifically urology, dysuria refers to painful urination. Dysuria is a symptom of pain,
discomfort, or burning when urinating. It is more common in women than in men. In men, it is more
common in older men than younger men.
These are some of the more common causes of painful urination:
Infections. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the leading causes of painful urination. Infections
can occur in any part of the urinary tract, including:
Ureters (tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder)
Urethra (tube from the bladder that carries urine out of the body)

Myopia commonly known as near-sightedness(American English) and short-sightedness (British English),
is a condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of
it, causing the image that one sees when looking at a distant object to be out of focus, but in focus when
looking at a close object.
Nearsightedness, or myopia, is the most common refractive error of the eye, and it has become more
prevalent in recent years.
Though the exact cause for this increase in nearsightedness among Americans is unknown, many eye
doctors feel it has something to do with eye fatigue from computer use and other extended near vision
tasks, coupled with a genetic predisposition for myopia.
Myopia occurs when the eyeball is too long, relative to the focusing power of the cornea and lens of the
eye. This causes light rays to focus at a point in front of the retina, rather than directly on its surface.
Nearsightedness also can be caused by the cornea and/or lens being too curved for the length of the
eyeball. In some cases, myopia is due to a combination of these factors.
Myopia typically begins in childhood and you may have a higher risk if your parents are nearsighted. In
most cases, nearsightedness stabilizes in early adulthood but sometimes it continues to progress with age.

Glaucoma is a term describing a group of ocular (eye) disorders resulting in optic nerve damage or loss to
the field of vision, typically caused by a clinically characterized pressure buildup in regards to the fluid of
the eye (intraocular pressure-associated optic neuropathy). The disorders can be roughly divided into two
main categories, "open-angle" and "closed-angle" (or "angle closure") glaucoma. The angle refers to the
area between the iris and cornea, through which fluid must flow to escape via the trabecular meshwork, an
area of tissue in the eye located around the base of the cornea. Closed-angle glaucoma can appear
suddenly and is often painful; visual loss can progress quickly, but the discomfort often leads patients to
seek medical attention before permanent damage occurs. Open-angle, chronic glaucoma tends to progress
at a slower rate and patients may not notice they have lost vision until the disease has progressed

Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the simultaneous perception of two images of a single
object that may be displaced horizontally, vertically, diagonally (i.e., both vertically and horizontally), or
rotationally in relation to each other. It is usually the result of impaired function of the extraocular
muscles (EOMs), where both eyes are still functional but they cannot converge to target the desired
object. Problems with EOMs may be due to mechanical problems, disorders of the neuromuscular
junction, disorders of the cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) that stimulate the muscles, and occasionally
disorders involving the supranuclear oculomotor pathways or ingestion of toxins.
Diplopia is the subjective complaint of seeing 2 images instead of one and is often referred to as doublevision in lay parlance. The term diplopia is derived from 2 Greek words: diplous, meaning double,
and ops, meaning eye. Diplopia (double vision) is a common subjective complaint, or diplopia may be
elicited during the course of an eye examination. Diplopia is often the first manifestation of many
systemic disorders, especially muscular or neurologic processes. An accurate, clear description of the
symptoms (eg, constant or intermittent; variable or unchanging; at near or at far; with one eye
[monocular] or with both eyes [binocular]; horizontal, vertical, or oblique) is critical to appropriate
diagnosis and management.

Conjunctivitis (also called pink eye in North America or Madras eye in India) is inflammation of
the conjunctiva (the outermost layer of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids). It is commonly due to
an infection (usually viral, but sometimes bacterial) or an allergic reaction.

Allergic conjunctivitis, caused by allergens such as pollen, perfumes, cosmetics, smoke, dust
mites, Balsam of Peru (used in food and drink for flavoring, in perfumes and toiletries for
fragrance, and in medicine and pharmaceutical items for healing properties), and eye
drops A patch test is used to diagnose it and identify the causative allergen.
Bacterial conjunctivitis
Viral conjunctivitis
Chemical conjunctivitis
Neonatal conjunctivitis is often defined separately due to different organisms

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by immoderate food restriction, inappropriate eating
habits or rituals, obsession with having a thin figure, and an irrational fear of weight gain, as well as a
distorted body self-perception. It typically involves excessive weight loss and is diagnosed approximately
nine times more often in females than in males. Due to their fear of gaining weight, individuals with this
disorder restrict the amount of food they consume. Outside of medical literature, the terms anorexia
nervosa and anorexia are often used interchangeably; however, anorexia is simply a medical term for lack
of appetite and the majority of individuals afflicted with anorexia nervosa do not, in fact, lose their
appetites. Patients with anorexia nervosa often experience dizziness, headaches, drowsiness, fever, and a
lack of energy. To counteract these side effects, particularly the latter, individuals with anorexia may
engage in other harmful behaviors, such as smoking, excessive caffeine consumption, and excessive use
of diet pills, along with an increased exercise regimen.