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AndhraPradesh
Area:2,75,069sq.km
Population:6,210,007
Capital:Hyderabad
PrincipalLanguages:TeluguandUrdu

SriK.Rosaiah,ChiefMinister
GeneralAdministration,Law&Order,PE,Finance,Planning,SmallSavings,Lotteries,LegislativeAffairsand
allotherportfoliosnotallottedtootherMinisters

Constituency:

MLC

OfficeAddress:

BlockC,Floor6

ResidenceAddress:

AmeerPet,Hyderabad

OfficePhone:

04023456698

ResidencePhone:

CampOffice:04023451805/23455205

SriPSudarshanReddy
MinisterforMedicalEducation

Constituency:

Bodhan

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:201/202

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023454715

ResidencePhone:

SriD.SridharBabu
MinisterforHigherEducation,NRIAffairs

Constituency:

Manthani

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:430

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023453241/23450785

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SriDamodarRajaNarasimha
MinisterforMarketing&Warehousing

Constituency:

Andole

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:810

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023455998/23450878

ResidencePhone:

SmtV.SunithaLaxmaReddy
MinisterforMinorIrrigation,A.P.IrrigationDevelopmentCorporation,LiftIrrigation,GroundWater
Development,WALAMTARI

Constituency:

Narsapur

OfficeAddress:

KBlockNo:237

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023457144/23450812

SmtJ.Geeta
MinisterforI&PR,Cinematography,FDC&Tourism,Archaeology,Museums,Archives&Culture

Constituency:

Zahirabad

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:220

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023453210/23453211

ResidencePhone:

SmtP.SabitaIndraReddy
MinisterforHome,Jails,FireServices,SainikWelfare

Constituency:

Maheshwaram

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:801

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023457687/23453900

ResidencePhone:

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SriD.Nagender
MinisterforHealth&FamilyWelfare,APVVPandHospitalServices

Constituency:

Khairatabad

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:344

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023450708/23450503

SriM.MukheshGoud
MinisterforB.C.Welfare

Constituency:

Goshamahal

OfficeAddress:

ABlockNo:111

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023456514/23453239

SmtD.K.Aruna
MinisterforSmallScaleIndustries,Sugar,Khadi&VillageIndustries,Printing&Stationery

Constituency:

Gadwal

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:151

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023453220/23450872

SriJ.KrishnaRao
MinisterforFood,CivilSupplies,LegalMetrology&ConsumerAffairs

Constituency:

Kollapur

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:805

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

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SriKomatireddyVenkatReddy
MinisterforIT,YouthServices&Sports,Communications

Constituency:

Nalgonda

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:358

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023450368

ResidencePhone:

SriP.Lakshmaiah
MinisterforMajor&MediumIrrigation,A.P.WaterResourcesDevelopmentCorporation

Constituency:

Jangoan

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:403

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023450633

ResidencePhone:

SriR.VenkatReddy
MinisterforCooperationandLabour&Employment,Factories&Boilers

Constituency:

Palair

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:366

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023453222/23451217

ResidencePhone:

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SriS.Vijayaramaraju
MinisterforTransport

Constituency:

Pathapatnam

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:326

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023450533

ResidencePhone:

SriD.PrasadaRao
MinisterforRevenue,Relief,Rehabilitation,U.L.C.

Constituency:

Srikakulam

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:142

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023453212

SriB.Satyanarayana
MinisterforPanchayatRaj

Constituency:

Cheepurupalle

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:301

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023455976

SriP.Balaraju
MinisterforTribalWelfare&R.I.A.D.

Constituency:

Paderu

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:115

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023453231/23450328

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SriP.SubashChandraBose
MinisterforSocialWelfare

Constituency:

Ramachandrapuram

OfficeAddress:

BBlockNo:402

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023450347

ResidencePhone:

SriP.Viswarupu
MinisterforRuralWaterSupply

Constituency:

Amalapuram

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:510

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023456703

SriPitaniSatyanarayana
MinisterforArogyaSree,HealthInsurance,104,108&MedicalInfrastructure

Constituency:

Achanta

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:811

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023453425/23457113

SriV.VasantKumar
MinisterforRuralDevelopment,IKP,Pensions&NREGP,SelfHelpGroups

Constituency:

Unguturu

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:501

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023454168

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SriK.PardhaSaradhi
MinisterforAnimalHusbandry,DairyDevelopment,FisheriesandVeterinaryUniversity

Constituency:

Penamaluru

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:235

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023456043

ResidencePhone:

SriM.V.RamanRao
MinisterforLaw&Courts,TechnicalEducation&ITIs

Constituency:

Repalle

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:116

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023450372/23452068

SriGadeVenkataReddy
MinisterforEndowments,Stamps&Registration

Constituency:

Bapatla

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:237

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023450556

SriKannaLakshmiNarayana
MinisterforMajorIndustries,Commerce&ExportPromotionFoodProcessing

Constituency:

GunturWest

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:261

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023450813

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SriD.ManikyaVaraPrasadaRao
MinisterforSecondaryEducation,GovernmentExaminations,A.P.ResidentialEducationalInstitutions
Soceity,HyderabadPublicSchool&IntermediateEducation

Constituency:

Tadikonda

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:204

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023454238/23451135

SriB.SrinivasaReddy
MinisterforMines&Geology,Handlooms&Textiles,SpinningMills

Constituency:

Ongole

OfficeAddress:

JBlockNo:603

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023450579/23454667

SriAnamRamaNarayanaReddy
MinisterforMunicipalAdministration&UrbanDevelopment

Constituency:

Atmakur

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:345

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023453233/23450455

SriMohd.AhmadullaSyed
MinisterforMinoritiesWelfare,Wakf,UrduAcademy,PrimaryEducation,SSA,AdultEducation,APOpen
SchoolsSoceity,JawaharBalBhavan,A.P.MahilaSamataSoceity,SIET,PublicLibraries,SCRET&A.P.Text
BookPress

Constituency:

Kadapa

OfficeAddress:

BBlockNo:506

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

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SriC.SilpaMohanReddy
MinisterforHousing,WeakerSectionHousingProgramme,A.P.Coop.HousingSocietiesFederation,A.P.
HousingBoard

Constituency:

Nandyal

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:251

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023452339/23453207

SriNeelakanthapuramRaghuveeraReddy
MinisterforAgriculture,AgricultureTechnologyMission,Horticulture,Sericulture,R.S.A.D.

Constituency:

Kalyandurg

OfficeAddress:

JBlock

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:
ResidencePhone:

04023451196

SriP.RamachandraReddy
MinisterforForest,Environment,Science&Technology

Constituency:

Punganur

OfficeAddress:

DBlockNo:260

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023454063/23453894

ResidencePhone:

SmtG.ArunaKumari
MinisterforRoads&Buildings

Constituency:

Chandragiri

OfficeAddress:

LBlockNo:205

ResidenceAddress:

OfficePhone:

04023450855/23453230

ResidencePhone:

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HistoryandGeography
TheearliestmentionoftheAndhrasissaidtobeinAitereyaBrahmana(2000B.C.).Itindicatesthatthe
Andhras,originallyanAryanracelivinginnorthIndiamigratedtosouthoftheVindhyasandlatermixed
withnonAryans.RegularhistoryofAndhraDesa,accordingtohistorians,beginswith236B.C.,theyear
of Ashoka's death. During the following centuries, Satavahanas, Sakas, Ikshvakus, Eastern Chalukyas,
Kakatiyas ruled the Telugu country. Other dynasties that ruled over the area in succession were the
kingdomsofVijayanagarandQutubShahifollowedbyMirQumruddinandhissuccessors,knownasthe
Nizams. Gradually, from the 17th century onwards, the British annexed territories of the Nizam and
constitutedthesingleprovinceofMadras.
Although Sanskrit writings dating to about 1000 bce contain references to a people called Andhras
living south of the central Indian mountain ranges, definitive historical evidence of the Andhras dates
from the times of the Mauryan dynasty, which ruled in the north from the late 4th to the early 2nd
centurybce.ThegreatMauryanemperorAshoka(reignedc.265238bce)sentBuddhistmissionstothe
Andhras in the south. About the 1st century ce, the Satavahanas (or Satakarni), one of the most
renowned of the Andhra dynasties, came to power. Its members ruled over almost the entire Deccan
plateauandevenestablishedtraderelationswithRome.Theywerepatronsofdiversereligionsandalso
weregreatbuilders;theirprincipalcity,Amaravati,containedBuddhistmonumentsthatinaugurateda
new style of architecture. Experts ascribe parts of the famous paintings in the Ajanta caves of the
Deccan to the Andhra painters of that period. Buddhism prospered under the Andhras, and in their
capitalflourishedthegreatBuddhistuniversityofantiquity,whereNagarjuna(c.150250),thefounder
oftheMahayanaschoolofBuddhism,taught.Theruinsoftheuniversity,atNagarjunakonda,stillreflect
itsformerglory.
The Andhras continued to prosper over the next millennium, and in the 11th century the eastern
Calukya dynasty unified most of the Andhra area. Under the Calukyas, Hinduism emerged as the
dominantreligion,andthefirstoftheTelugupoets, Nannaya,begantranslatingtheSanskritepic,the
Mahabharata,intoTelugu,markingthebirthofTeluguasaliterarymedium.Duringthe12thand13th
centuries the dynasty of the Kakatiyas of Warangal extended Andhra power militarily and culturally;
duringtheirregimethecommercialexpansionoftheAndhrastowardSoutheastAsiareacheditspeak.
Bythistime,however,followersofIslamhadestablishedthemselvesinthenorth,andtheirinvasionof
the south led to the fall of Warangal in 1323. But the rise of the kingdom of Vijayanagar, to the
southwest of Warangal, arrested further expansion of the Muslim power for some time. Widely
acclaimednotonlyasthegreatestkingdominAndhrahistorybutalsoasoneofthegreatestinIndian
history, Vijayanagar, under the rule of its preeminent king Krishna Deva Raya (reigned 150929),
became synonymous with military glory, economic prosperity, good administration, and artistic
splendour. Telugu literature, for instance, flourished during this period. The formation of an alliance
betweenthevariousneighbouringMuslimprincipalitiesultimatelyledtothefallofVijayanagarin1565,
leavingtheMuslimsincontroloftheAndhraareas.
In the 17th century, European traders began to involve themselves in Indian politics, as successive
nizams(rulers)ofHyderabad,seekingtoconsolidatetheirkingdomagainstrivals,obtainedfirstFrench
and later British support. In exchange for their help, the British acquired from the nizam the coastal
AndhradistrictslyingtothenorthofthecityofMadras(nowChennai)andlaterthehinterlanddistricts.

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Thus,themajorpartoftheAndhracountrycameunderBritishrule.PartoftheTeluguspeakingareas,
knownastheTelanganaregion,remainedunderthenizamsdominion,andtheFrenchacquiredafew
towns.
Indiannationalismaroseduringthe19thcentury,andtheAndhrastookaplaceattheforefrontofthe
movement. Leaders such as Kandukuri Veerasalingam were pioneers in social reform. In the struggle
against British rule, Andhra leaders played decisive roles. Pride in their historical and linguistic
achievementsledthemtodemandaseparateprovince.Simultaneously,amovementwasorganizedto
unitetheTeluguspeakingpeopleslivingunderBritishrulewiththoseunderthenizamsadministration.
Once India gained independence, the Andhras demand for separate statehood became so insistent
that,whenthecentralgovernmentrefusedtocomply,alocalleader,PottiSreeramulu,fastedtodeath
in1952todramatizetheissue.Thegovernmentfinallyaccededtothepeoplesrequestbycreatingon
Oct.1,1953,theAndhrastate,whichincludedtheTeluguspeakingdistrictsoftheformerMadrasstate
to the south, thus paving the way for the formation of linguistic states throughout India in 1957. The
erstwhile state of Hyderabad, which had joined independent India in 1949, was split up, and its nine
Teluguspeakingdistricts(constitutingTelangana)werejoinedtotheAndhrastateonNov.1,1956,to
formthenewstateofAndhraPradesh.

AfterIndependence,TeluguspeakingareaswereseparatedfromthecompositeMadrasPresidencyand
anewAndhraStatecameintobeingon1October1953.WiththepassingoftheStatesReorganisation
Act,1956,therewasamergerofHyderabadStateandAndhraState,andconsequentlyAndhraPradesh
cameintobeingon1November1956.
Andhra Pradesh is bound on the north by Orissa and Chhattisgarh, on the west by Maharashtra and
Karnataka,onthesouthbyTamilNaduandontheeastbytheBayofBengalwithacoastlineof974km.
Land
Thestatehasthreemainphysiographicregions:thecoastalplaintotheeast,extendingfromtheBayof
Bengal to the mountain ranges; the mountain ranges themselves, the Eastern Ghats, which form the
western flank of the coastal plain; and the plateau to the west of the Ghats. The coastal plain, also
knownastheAndhraregion,runsalmosttheentirelengthofthestateandiswateredbyseveralrivers,
flowing from west to east through the hills into the bay. The deltas formed by the most important of
these riversthe Godavari and the Krishnamake up the central part of the plains, an area of fertile
alluvialsoil.
The Eastern Ghats are part of a larger mountain system extending from central India to the far south
and running parallel to the east coast. Interrupted by the great river valleys, these mountains do not
formacontinuousrange.Theyhavehighlyporoussoilsontheirflanks.
TheplateautothewestoftherangespartoftheDeccaniscomposedofgneissicrock(gneissbeinga
foliatedrockformedwithintheEarthsinteriorunderconditionsofheatandpressure);ithasanaverage
elevation of about 1,600 feet (500 metres). The southern portion of the plateau is commonly called
Rayalaseema, and the northern portion is called Telangana. As the result of erosion, the plateau is a
regionofgradedvalleys,withred,sandysoilandisolatedhills.Blacksoilisalsofoundincertainpartsof
thearea.

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Climate
AsummerthatlastsfromMarchtoJune,aseasonoftropicalrainsthatrunsfromJulytoSeptember,
and a winter that lasts from October to February constitute the three seasons of Andhra Pradesh.
Throughoutmuchofthestate,annualmaximumtemperaturesrangefromthemid70stothelow80sF
(themid20sC),whileminimumtemperaturesusuallyreadinthelow50sF(about10to12C).Onthe
coastal plain, however, summers are extraordinarily warm, with temperatures often exceeding 100 F
(38 C) in some places. Conversely, summers are cooler and winters colder on the central plateau.
Annualrainfall,whichderiveslargelyfromthesouthwestmonsoon,varieswidelyacrossthestate.Some
coastal areas may receive as much as 55 inches (1,400 mm) of rain, while the northern and western
partsoftheplateaumayreceiveaslittleas20inches(500mm).
Plantandanimallife
MangroveswampsandpalmtreesfringethecoastalplainofAndhraPradesh,whilethornyvegetation
covers the scattered hills of the plateau. Of the states total area, about onefourth is forestcovered,
withdensewoodlandsoccurringprimarilyinthenorthalongtheGodavariRiverandinthesouthinthe
EasternGhats.Theforestsconsistofbothmoistdeciduousanddrysavannavegetation;teak,rosewood,
wild fruit trees, and bamboo are plentiful. Elsewhere in the state, neem (which produces an aromatic
oil),banyan,mango,andthepipal(orBo;Ficusreligiosa)areamongthecommontrees.AndhraPradesh
alsohasanarrayoffloweringvegetation,includingjasmine,rose,andanumberofendemicspecies
particularlyinthehillyregionoftheEasternGhats.
Animal life, apart from common domestic types (dogs, cats, and cattle), includes tigers, blackbucks,
hyenas,slothbears,gaurs,andchitals,whichaboundinthehillsandforestareas.Therealsoaredozens
ofspeciesofbirds,includingflamingosandpelicans,aswellassomerarevarieties,suchastheJerdons
courser(Rhinoptilusbitorquatus),whichisfoundinthethornyorscrubcoveredareassurroundingthe
EasternGhats.Theeasterncoastisanestinggroundforseaturtles.
Populationcomposition
ThepopulationofAndhraPradesh,likethatoftheotherstatesofIndia,ishighlydiverse.Ingeneral,the
states various communities are identified more readily by a combination of language, religion, and
social class or caste than they are by specific ethnic affiliation. Telugu is the official and most widely
spokenlanguageinthestate;asmallminorityspeaksUrdu,alanguageprimarilyofnorthernIndiaand
Pakistan.Mostoftheremaininggroupsspeakborderarealanguages,includingHindi,Tamil,Kannada,
Marathi, and Oriya. Lambadi (Banjari) and a number of other languages are spoken by the states
ScheduledTribes(indigenousminoritypeopleswhoarenotembracedbyIndiascastehierarchy).
The great majority of the residents of Andhra Pradesh practice Hinduism. Smaller segments of the
population follow Islam or Christianity. Christians live mostly in the urban centres and coastal areas,
whileMuslimsareconcentratedintheTelanganaandRayalaseemaregions.
Settlementpatterns
Morethanonefourthofthepopulationlivesinurbanareas.Oftheurbandwellers,overathirdinhabit
theindustrialandmanufacturingareasaroundthethreemaincitiesHyderabad,Vishakhapatnam,and

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Vijayawada. With increasing industrial development, these cities began to merge with neighbouring
towns,formingurbanagglomerations.
Agriculture,forestry,andfishing
Dominatedbytheproductionoffoodgrains,agricultureistheprimarysectorofthestateseconomy.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the leading ricegrowing states in the country and is a major producer of
Indiastobacco.Thestatesrivers,particularlytheGodavariandtheKrishna,accountforitsagricultural
importance;foralongtimetheirbenefitswererestrictedtothecoastaldistrictsoftheAndhraregion,
which had the best irrigation facilities. Since the mid20th century, however, great efforts have been
madetotapthewatersoftheseandotherriversforthebenefitofthedryinterior;indeed,asignificant
portionofthestatestotalinvestmentfordevelopmentisallottedtoagriculturalirrigation.
Canal irrigation in the Telangana and Rayalaseema regions of the plateau has given rise to agro
industrial complexes rivaling those of coastal Andhra Pradesh. The Nagarjuna Sagar multipurpose
project,divertingthewatersoftheKrishnaforirrigation,hasincreasedsubstantiallytheproductionof
riceandsugarcane.Riceflour,ricebranoil,paintsandvarnishes,soapsanddetergents,cardboardand
other packaging materials, and cattle feed are all produced from local paddy rice. Other agricultural
commodities now grown statewide include chili peppers, sorghum, pulses (peas, beans, and lentils),
castorbeans,peanuts(groundnuts),andcottonallofwhichareprocessedlocallyaswellandgrapes,
mangoes, bananas, and oranges. This economic development in Telangana and Rayalaseemafurther
stimulatedbyimprovedagriculturaltechnology,useofchemicalfertilizersandpesticides,andupgrades
in transport, marketing, and credit systemshas helped to reduce the political tensions that formerly
existedbetweeninteriorandcoastalAndhraPradesh.
The woodlands of Andhra Pradesh annually yield highquality timber, such as teak and eucalyptus.
Nontimberforestproduceincludingsalseeds(fromwhichanedibleoilisextracted),tenduleaves(for
rollinglocalcigarettes),gumkaraya(atypeofemulsifier),andbambooisalsoimportant.
Withitslongcoastlineandmanyrivers,thestatehasasignificantandexpandingfishingindustry.Much
oftheyieldisdrawnfromfreshwaterandmarineaquaculture,butopenseafisheriesaresignificantas
well.Prawnsandshrimpareamongthemainproductsoftheindustry.
Resourcesandpower
Among the states principal mineral resources are asbestos, mica, manganese, barite, and highgrade
coal.Lowgradeironoreisfoundinthesouthernpartsofthestate.AndhraPradeshproducesamajor
share of the countrys barite. It is the only state in southern India that possesses significant coal
reserves.Intheearly21stcentury,largedepositsofnaturalgaswerediscoveredonshoreandoffshore
inthebasinsoftheGodavariandKrishnarivers.ThediamondminesofGolcondawereoncerenowned
worldwideforproducingtheKohinoordiamondandotherfamousstones;effortshavebeenmadeto
revive production in the area. Quartz, limestone, and graphite also occur. The state has established a
miningandmetaltradingcorporationtoleadtheexploitationofitsmineralresources.
Most of Andhra Pradeshs energy is produced by thermal generators in the public sector, with
hydroelectric power stations providing an important secondary source of energy. In addition, the
government has established several wind farms. A number of private companies operate generators

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poweredbynaturalgas;theyalsohaveworkedtodevelopwind,biomass,andothernonconventional
powersources.
Manufacturing
AlthoughAndhraPradeshhassincethemid20thcenturybecomeoneofthemosthighlyindustrialized
states in India, manufacturing continues to account for a small percentage of the states income.
Industries such as shipbuilding, aeronautics, and the manufacture of electrical equipment, machine
tools, and drugs have been established in the Vishakhapatnam and Hyderabad areas. Private
enterprises,manyofthemlocatedinandaroundtheurbanagglomerationofVijayawadaandGunturin
the eastcentral region, produce chemicals, textiles, cement, fertilizers, processed foods, petroleum
derivatives,andcigarettes.Anumberofimportantenterprisesofmoderatesize,suchassugarfactories,
are scattered across the medium and smaller urban areas. There is a mammoth steel plant at
Vishakhapatnam, where raw materials and port facilities are easily accessible; an oil refinery also is
located there, as is a large shipbuilding yard. The phenomenal increase in power generated by
hydroelectricandthermoelectricprojectssincethelate20thcenturyhasbenefitedindustrializationand
irrigation.
Transportation
Thereareairportsinthe stateatHyderabad,Vijayawada,Tirupati,andVishakhapatnam.Anextensive
roadandrailsystemconnectsAndhraPradeshwithmostotherpartsofIndia.Bustransportation,alarge
shareofwhichisprivatelyoperated,offersfacilitiesforexpresstravelbetweenvariouscities.Theriver
canalsincoastalareas,especiallythesaltwaterKommamur(Buckingham)Canalrunningparalleltothe
coastfromtheKrishnaRivertoChennai(Madras),areusedforcargotransportation.Vishakhapatnamis
amajorinternationalseaport.
Constitutionalframework
AndhraPradeshisaconstituentunitoftheRepublicofIndia;assuch,thestructureofitsgovernment,
likethatofmostIndianstates,isdefinedbythenationalconstitutionof1950.Agovernor,appointedby
the president of India, is the executive head of the state administration, but the real power is in the
handsofachiefministerandaCouncilofMinistersresponsibletothestatelegislature.Thestatehasa
bicamerallegislature,theLegislativeAssembly(VidhanSabha),whichiselectedbyadultsuffragefrom
territorialconstituenciesandLegislativecouncil.
The administration is conducted by various ministries and departments, each under the direction of a
minister,assistedbyastaffofpermanentcivilservants.TheStateSecretariatatHyderabadsupervises
theadministrationofthestatesnearlytwodozendistricts.Localadministrationineachdistrictisthe
responsibility of a district collector. Rural local government has been democratically decentralized by
theintroductionofasysteminwhichlocalauthoritiesoperateatthevillage,block(aunitconsistingofa
groupofvillages),anddistrictlevels.Municipalbodiesgoverntheurbanareas.
TheregionalcommitteesforTelanganaandRayalaseemaareaspecialfeatureofthestategovernment;
thedutyofthecommitteesistoensurethattheviewsofthepeopleofTelanganaandRayalaseemaare
givenadequateconsideration.Thecommitteeswereestablishedtoprotectregionalinterestswhenthe
regions joined Andhra Pradesh in 1956, since the areas were economically and educationally less

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advanced than the coastal Andhra areas. The disparities of development that existed at the regional
levelinAndhraPradeshgaveriseintheearly1970stotheformationofTelanganaPrajaSamiti(Telugu:
Telangana Peoples Committee), a political party demanding Telangana statehood. In the following
decade, organizers of another political party, Telugu Desam (Land of Telugu), advocated a reduced
roleforthenationalgovernmentinstateaffairs.TeluguDesamruledAndhraPradeshformuchofthe
late20thandearly21stcenturies.
The state judiciary is headed by a High Court, located in Hyderabad; the High Court has original
jurisdictioninsomecasesandexercisesappellateandadministrativecontroloverthedistrictandlower
levelcourts.TheHighCourtisitselfsubjecttotheappellateauthorityoftheSupremeCourtofIndiain
certain matters. The Secunderabad cantonment, north of Hyderabad, comprises a number of defense
establishments,andVishakhapatnamistheheadquartersoftheEasternNavalCommand.
Healthandwelfare
Governmentsupported health facilities have expanded rapidly since the late 20th century. Under the
PrimaryHealthCentresscheme,medicalhelp,bothcurativeandpreventive,hasbeenbroughttomany
ruralareas.Urbanpublicmedicalcentres,suchasthelargeOsmaniaHospitalatHyderabadandtheKing
George Hospital at Vishakhapatnam, have undergone expansion and upgrading; and specialized
institutes, including those for treating specific diseases, have been opened. There is also a family
planning program. Medical aid is free to lowincome groups, and several medicalinsurance schemes
covervariouscategoriesofemployees.
Beforethestatesindependence,socialwelfareworkwasmainlyundertakenbyprivateagencies.Since
the mid20th century, however, the magnitude of need and the scarcity of resources, both
organizational and financial, led the government to accept primary responsibility in this field. Public
investment in social welfare accounts for a large proportion of the total amount spent on planning.
There are socialwelfare programs for people with disabilities, for Scheduled Castes (formerly called
untouchables)andScheduledTribes,andforothergroupsthatarenotfullyintegratedintothesocial
structure. Such programs include, among others, those that reserve places in educational institutions,
those that provide employment, and housing and landdistribution schemes. A separate government
department addresses womens concerns. There remain, nevertheless, many privately run social
organizationsthatoperatealongsidethoseofthegovernment;theAndhraMahilaSabha,forinstance,
broadlypromoteswomenswelfare.
Education
Thestateseducationalsystemprovidesfor10yearsofschoolingfollowedbyatwoyearjuniorcollege
course leading to undergraduate and postgraduate education. Primary school has been compulsory
since 1961, and both primary and secondary school are provided free of charge. In the early 21st
centurytheliteracyratewasroughly60percent.
Andhra Pradesh has some 20 universities, a number of which provide postgraduate instruction and
research facilities. The Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages, which is a nationally
prominent institution, is located at Hyderabad. Since the late 20th century, technical education has
receivedspecialattentioninordertomeetthedemandsofindustrialization.Variousindustrialtraining
institutes offer vocational training, while the engineering colleges of the universities train advanced

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technical personnel. Scholarship programs are available for Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and
other disadvantaged groups in all educational institutions that receive substantial financial assistance
fromstateandfederalagencies.Privatelyrunfacilitiesalsooperateatalllevels.
Culturallife
TheAndhrascontributiontoIndiasculturalheritageissubstantial.Architectureandpaintinghavebeen
highly developed arts in the region since ancient times. The kuchipudi style of dance is unique in the
Indian tradition, while Karnatak (South Indian) music has derived much from Andhra roots. Many of
southern Indias major classical composers have been Andhras, and Telugu has been the language of
mostofthecompositions.Telugu,oneofthefourliterarylanguagesoftheDravidianfamily,occupiesa
prestigiousplaceamongIndianlanguages,beingrenownedforitsantiquityandadmiredbymanyforits
mellifluous quality. Telugu literature was prominent in the Indian literary renaissance of the 19th and
20thcenturies,asthewritingresonatedwitharevolutioninliteraryformsandexpression,stimulatedto
alargedegreebyWesterngenres.AndhraPradeshhasmanyperiodicalsinEnglish,Telugu,andUrdu.
MuslimcultureintheTelanganaregionfurtherenrichesthestatesculturaldiversity.
Before independence, arts and literature thrived mostly under the sponsorship of royal patrons and
private organizations, many of which still function. Since independence, the state has created
autonomous academies to revive, popularize, and promote fine arts, dance, drama, music, and
literature.
Theconsciouscultivationofculturalexpressionismoreanurbanthanaruralphenomenon,forcultural
performances, literary meetings, and religious discussions occur mostly in towns or cities. Cultural
development in different parts of the state under different historical circumstances resulted in the
occurrenceofrecognizablevariationsindialect,incastestructure,andinothertraditions,allofwhich
ultimately served to diversify the rural arts. Rural cultural media such as balladry, puppetry, and
storytellingareindigenoustothearea;useofthesemediainsocialandpoliticalcommunicationisalso
common. The penetration of the mass media, especially of radio and television, into rural areas has
helped to bring an awareness of classical traditions to the rural communities and of rural arts to the
urbanpopulation.AndhraPradeshisamongthefewmajormoviemakingstatesofIndia.
Agriculture
Agricultureisthemainoccupationofabout62percentofthepeopleinAndhraPradesh.Riceisamajor
foodcropandstaplefoodoftheStatecontributingabout77percentofthefoodgrainproduction.Other
important crops are jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, castor, tobacco, cotton and
sugarcane.Forestscover23percentoftheState'sarea.Importantforestproductsareteak,eucalyptus,
cashew,casurina,bamboo,softwood,etc.
TheGovernmentdecidedtoarrangecroploanstothefarmeratconcessionalratesofinterestfromthe
kharifseason(2008)underthe'PavalaVaddi'(3%rateofinterest)schemeandalsoincreasedtheloan
amounttofarmersfromRs.23,000croresin200708toRs.26,000croresin200809toachievethegoal
of increasing food grain production. Under the Centre's Rs. 60,000 crore loan waiver scheme. 77 lakh
farmers of the State benefit to the tune of Rs. 12,000 crore. The prestigious 'Jalayagnam' project is
designed by the Government to save the farmer from the vagaries of monsoons and provide assured

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irrigation facility to every acre of land. Farming in Andhra Pradesh today is so encouraging and
remunerativethatnofarmerentertainsfarmers'suicides.
Irrigation
ImportantirrigationschemesimplementedintheStateareVamsadharaProjectStageI,GodavariDelta
System, Yeleru Reservoir Project, Krishna Delta System, Pennar Delta System, Pennar River Canal
System, Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy Sagar Project, Tungabhadra Project high level canal StageI,
TungabhadraProjectlowlevelcanal,SriramsagarStageI,NizamsagarProject,NagarjunaSagarProject
andRajolibandaDiversionscheme.
AndhraPradeshisthefirststatetoinvolvethefarmersinthemanagementofirrigationsources.
Power
Important power projects in the State are: the Nagarjunasagar and Neelam Sanjiva Reddy Sagar
(Srisailam Hydel Project), Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Hydel projects and Nellore,
Ramagundam, Kothagudem, Vijayawada and Muddanur thermal power projects. The Srisailam Hydro
Electric project (Right Bank) with an installed capacity of 770 MW and the Srisailam Left Bank HES
capacityof900MWandtheNagarjunasagarcomplexwith960MWaretheprincipalsourcesofhydel
generation.VijayawadaThermalPowerstationwithaninstalledcapacityof1,260MWandKothagudem
ThermalPowerstationwithaninstalledcapacityof1,200MWarethemainsourcesofthermalpower
generation. The 1,000 MW coalbased Simhadri Thermal Power station aims at supplying the entire
energygeneratedtotheState.InstalledcapacityofthestateasonMay'08is12,382MWFormassive
capacity addition of 8860 MW, 17 new projects are programmed by APGENCO which are expected to
completewithinnextfiveyears.
IndustryandMinerals
There are several major industries in operation around Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam. They
manufacture machine tools, synthetic drugs, pharmaceuticals, heavy electrical machinery, fertilizers,
electronicequipments,aeronauticalparts,cementandcementproducts,chemicals,asbestos,glassand
watches. Andhra Pradesh has the largest deposits of quality chrysolite asbestos in the country. Other
important minerals found in the state are copper ore, manganese, mica, coal and limestone. The
SingareniCoalMinessupplycoaltotheentireSouthIndia.
The State Government has been promoting the manufacturing sector in a big way by providing
concessionsinpowertariff,allottinglandandrelaxinglabourlawsinSEZs.APhaspromoted71SEZsof
which 52 have been notified by the Government of India with an investment potential of Rs. 35,000
croreandcreationofemploymentfor25lakhpersons.
AccordingtoRBIReportofAugust2007,AndhraPradeshrankedsecondamongStatesintheCountryin
attracting investments of Rs. 25,173 crore in 200607. The Confederation of Indian Industry lauded
AndhraPradeshastheBestPerformingStateinthemanufacturingsector.

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InformationTechnology
AndhraPradeshhasbeenforgingaheadin thesphereofInformationTechnology.Itisaheadofother
statesinexploitingtheopportunitiestothehilt.TheStateGovernmenthasintroducedmanyschemesto
utilizethemaximumnumberofskilledhumanresourcesintheI.T.Sector.During200708I.T.exports
crossedRs.26,000crores.
The Government is making efforts to spread I.T. to Tier II cities like Warangal, Tirupathi, Kakinada,
Vishakhapatnam,Vijayawada,GunturandKadapa.Asaresult,jobopportunitiesintheI.T.sectorinTier
II cities have improved. The IIT coming up in Medak district will become operational from the coming
academic year. Further, the Government succeeded in persuading BITS Pilani to open a campus in
Hyderabadwhichwillbecomeoperationalfromthecomingacademicyear.
The Government is according top priority to I.T. development by creating the requisite infrastructure
andsettingupof3IndianInstitutesofInformationTechnology(IdupulapayainKadapaDistrict,Nuzvid
in Krishna District and Basara in Adilabad District) under Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge
Technologiestoturnoutqualifiedpersonnel.
Transport
Roads:NationalHighwayspassingthroughAndhraPradeshconstitute4,647km.Thereare63,863kmof
stateroadsincluding10,412kmofStatehighwaysand1,24,142kmofPanchayatiRajroadsintheState
asonMarch2008.
Railways:Oftherailwaysroutecovering5,107kminAndhraPradesh,4,633kmisbroadgauge,437km
ismetregaugeand37kmisnarrowgauge.
Aviation: Important airports in the State are located at Hyderabad, Tirupathi and Visakhapatnam.
InternationalflightsareoperatedfromHyderabad.
Ports:Visakhapatnamisamajorport.ThereareminorportsintheState.AndhraPradeshhasemerged
asthecountry'sno.2intheshareofCargohandlinganditscapacityhasgoneup.
TouristCentres

Charminar, Salarjung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad, Thousand Pillar Temple and Fort in
Warangal,SriLakshmiNarasimhaSwamyTempleatYadagirigutta,BuddhaStupaatNagarjunakondaand
Nagarjuna Sagar, Sri Venkateswara Temple at TirumalaTirupathi, Sri Mallikarjunaswamy Temple at
Srisailam, Kanaka Durga Temple at Vijayawada, Sri Satyanarayana Swamy Temple at Annavaram, Sri
VarahaNarasimhaSwamyTempleatSimhachalam,SriSitaRamaTempleatBhadrachalam,ArakuValley,
HorsleyHills,Nelapattu,etc.,arethemajortouristattractionsinAndhraPradesh.Thirtythreelifesize
statuesofeminentTelugupersonalitiesoftheStatewereerectedonTankbundofHussainsagarlakein
Hyderabad.AgiantstatueofLordBuddhaofaheightofabout60feethasbeenerectedontheGibraltar
rockintheHussainsagarlake,whichseparatesHyderabadandSecunderabadcities.

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