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EXAM 3

POUL 3750-2013

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Please Put Your Name
on the Back of this Exam

Points

Question

Points
(1 Each)
once:

Question
1. Fill in the blanks from the following list, the best answer to use all

Phosphorus
Vitamin E
Vitamin D
Selenium
Manganese
Pyridoxine (B6)
Vitamin K
Pantothenic
Acid
Ascorbic acid
Biotin
Calcium
Choline
Cobalt
Folic Acid
Vitamin B12
Fe
niacin
Zn

A mineral very active in energy transfer in the body as well as


skeletal integrity
A biological antioxidant that protects the body from
superoxides
A steroid routinely given to birds
A mineral that is active as part of an amino acid and enzyme
Some limestones contain very low levels of this trace mineral
and led to the discovery of this minerals essentiality to
prevent parrot beaks in embroys
Deficient chicks are anemic and suffer convulsions
Can be classified as either a vitamin or rat poision
A vitamin whose name suggests it is found everywhere, but is
easily destroyed
An organic chemical that is not a vitamin for chickens or
turkeys
A vitamin whose deficiency leads to foot pad dermatitis on the
bottoms of the feet
A mineral involved in nervous transmission as well as skeletal
integrity
A source of labile dietary methyl groups
A mineral that is part of a vitamin
One of two vitamins that transports methyl groups in the body
A vitamin whose deficiency has few symptoms except an
impaired immune system that leads to infectious disease
symptoms
It has been known for millenia that this mineral was involved
in preventing anemia
A vitamin deficiency that results in similar symptoms in
chickens, humans and dogs
A mineral deficiency that may be seen with plastic waterers
but rarely galvanized ones

EXAM 3
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POUL 3750-2011
(4) 2. What does avidin do? Why is it important for the hen to put it in eggs?

Avidin binds biotin. Bacteria (like chickens and other


animals) need biotin, so avidin inhibits bacterial growth in
the egg.
(10) 3. What are good and poor sources of 3 nutrients of your choice from the
nutrients in the list in Question 1, plus methionine, iron, thiamin niacin, vitamin A,
vitamin K ? (Scoring: +1 for correct answers, -1 for incorrect answers,
maximum 10 points)
Nutrient
Niacin
Folic acid

Vitamin B12
Vitamin K
Methionine

Pyridoxine

Vitamin K
Iron
Vitamin A
Thiamine
Pantothenate

Good Sources
Brewers yeast
Meat
Peanuts
Green leafy plants
Yeast, Liver
Whole soybeans
(hulls)
Microbial synthesis
Animal products, Fish
Eggs, Milk, Meat
Fermentation products
Alfalfa meal and green
leafy plants, animal
products, coprophagy
Sunflower meal, potato
protein
Corn, Rice, Wheat,
Most Animal & Fish
Products, Soybean
Meal
Pasture Grasses,
Alfalfa Meal, Animal
By-Products,
Coprophagy
Liver
Plant Products
(carotenes) liver oils
(retinol), Butter,
Synthetic
Whole grains, plant
protein meals
Found everywhere,

Poor Sources
Corn
Fat Back
Bran
Corn

Plants and plant


products

Soybean and most other


oilseed meals
Oats, Rye, Brewers &
Distillers Grains

Grains
Milk
Lard
Fish, animal by-product
meals
Low in corn

EXAM 3
POUL 3750-2011
Choline

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most ingredients
Soybean & poultry
meals, animal products

Any cereals

(2 each) 4. Fill in the blanks from these potential answers:


Perosis

Syndactylia
Nyctalopia

Slipped tendon; where the Achilles tendon of chicks


slips off the condyle.
Any of several orange or red hydrocarbon pigments
that are convertible in various degrees to vitamin A
in the animal body
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly
coordinated voluntary movements
Webbing between the digits
Night blindness

Hypochromic

Less than normal pigmentation.

Keratinization

Development of a horny layer of the skin,


cornification
The eating of animal excrement, good source of B
vitamins
Analog of vitamin K. 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
usually added to feed
The abnormally dry condition of eyeballs causing
conjunctivitis and leading to blindness

Carotene
Ataxia

Coprophagy
Menadione
Xeropthalmia

(4) 5. Why do chicks fed corn based diets show more signs of niacin deficiency than
those fed wheat based diets?
Although corn has more niacin than wheat, wheat has more tryptophan that
can be converted into niacin
(4) 6. Why was the discovery of vitamin K in chickens very important for human health
and well being?
Some people suffered diseases with too much blood coagulation (stroke), and
others too little. But the big effect was the development of effective
vermin control through vitamin K antagonists that greatly decreased
grain consumption by rodents and increased the food supply for
humans world wide.
(12) 7. Define the term labile methyl group:

EXAM 3
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POUL 3750-2011
Refers to unstable, readily moved from compound to compund CH3 groups,
particularly from methionine, choline and betaine
Indicate (X) which of these compounds is a vitamin for these classes of poultry
kept outside.

Choline
Betaine
Folic Acid
Niacin

Vitamin For
Chicks
X

Vitamin for
Mature Birds

X
X

X
X

Is tryptophan ever considered a vitamin?

Why is it even in question?

No, trp can be converted into niacin in the body by most species, but not fast
enough to totally replace dietary niacin
What is a futile cycle? Why are they not necessarily a waste of energy?
A futile cycle is a metabolic pathway in which the same chemicals are
continually made and broken down for no apparent reason, consuming energy.
They may be needed under some circumstances, like ingestion of a heavy
metal, so the energy spent is much like an insurance policy.
(3) 8. Why do broiler nutritionists often provide higher levels of vitamins than the
National Research Council Recommends?
The vitamins may be degraded by heat or storage, and are inexpensive. Or the
nutritionist doesnt agree with the NRC.
(4) 9. Why is copper often fed at pharmacological levels well above nutritional
requirements, and what other nutrient(s) must be increased when it is fed at
the higher levels?
As a growth promoter, methionine
(3) 10. A trace mineral is not excreted in the urine and is in very low concentrations in
milk. What is it and how are its body levels regulated? What is the advantage
to having very low levels in milk?
Iron Its absorption is regulated at the level of the small intestine. It is a
very reactive mineral so it is at low levels in milk, and carefully
regulated in the body to avoid reactions with other nutrients

EXAM 3
POUL 3750-2011

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(2) 11. A vitamin deficiency discovered in chicks eating polished rice, people get similar
symptoms
Thiamin
(2) 12. A vitamin deficiency discovered in chicks with a hemorrhagic disease, people
get similar symptoms
Vitamin K
(2) 14. A compound that can alleviate choline deficiency symptoms except perosis?
Betaine
(2) 15. A compound that can alleviate vitamin A deficiency symptoms except blindness
and embryonic mortality?
Retinoic acid
(2) 16. A mineral deficiency that causes hens to lay eggs with poor hatchability.
Chicks that do hatch may be star gazers?
Manganese

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