65 vues

Transféré par Anthony Moreno

Circuits 2 Lab Manual for EE 3446, use it to guide you in learning about circuits through guided designs and testing of various small circuits, even up to radio emitters and filters. All parts are listed and named, diagrams are detailed and thorough. Instructions are clear and easy to follow.

- Online Homework 10 Solution
- Seismic Cone Penetrometer Testing
- LeCroy_WaveAce_Datasheet
- rr221001-electrical-and-electronics-measurements
- E1585-English User Manual
- THS710,20,30.pdf
- Tektronik 212 Scope Maintenance Manual
- BAS16_SER
- DDX-7000
- ME3200 simulador de Instrumentação
- EV101_L4_DC_Analysis.ppt
- Cushman Model CE-3 FM Communication Monitor Manual, 1968.
- CRO3apr18
- SouthEastCon2018_12feb2018tw.pdf
- Physics Paper With Answer Paper II Code 9
- Electro Static Deflection in Crt
- LeCroy WavePro 7 Zi-A Datasheet
- Philips L7.2E
- BB60 User Manual
- 2018-I-Ing Quimica Differential Equation( List-05)

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 104

Circuits II

Lab Manual

Howard T. Russell, Jr., PhD

V 1.1 2010 OPALtx

EE 3446

Circuits II

Lab Manual

V 1.1 2010 OPALtx

Table of Contents

Lab Meeting No. 1

Introduction to EE Labs

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Appendix 3

Bills of Material

........................30

...87

....97

- 1 -

..2

Introduction to EE Labs

I.

Introduction

The objective of this first lab meeting is to introduce EE students to a professional laboratory environment where electronic circuits are built and electrical engineering experiments performed. The following topics will be addressed in this

introductory meeting

an orientation regarding proper behavior and safety while in the lab,

tools and tool box requirements,

lab instruments,

cables, connectors, probes, and wires,

electronic components, parts, and the parts request form,

lab report format, and

useful web sites.

II. Lab Orientation

All EE 3446 students are required to attend an orientation regarding proper behavior and safety while in the lab. This

orientation is presented by the resident lab technicians who are responsible for the maintenance and up-keep of the EE

labs in Nedderman Hall.

III. Tools and Tool Box (Attachment A)

Basic items such as pliers, cutters, and wire strippers are integral components in any electrical engineers tool box.

These tools are necessary to build circuits and perform experiments in the EE lab. Therefore, it is a mandatory

requirement that all EE 3446 students obtain and maintain a tool box containing a set of electrical engineering specific tools. The tool box requirement is not an option and all students must bring their tool box fully loaded to every

lab meeting beginning with the second meeting. Students without a tool box on the second and subsequent lab

meetings will not be allowed in the lab and will receive a zero for the lab. A list of these tools along with their photographs is included in Attachment A at the end of this document.

IV. Lab Instruments (Attachment B)

The electrical engineering labs located in rooms NH129, NH129A, NH148, and NH148A are equipped with the

most current industry standard test and measurement equipment found in professional electrical engineering companies. Each lab is divided into a series of lab benches with each bench containing the following instruments

Agilent 34401A 6 digit multimeter (DMM),

Agilent E3620A dual dc power supply (25V, 1A),

Agilent 54621A 60MHz dual channel oscilloscope, and

Agilent 33120A 15MHz function generator.

Most of the experiments performed in EE 3446 will involve the above mentioned instruments to some degree. Data

sheets for these instruments are included in Attachment B.

V. Cables, Connectors, Probes, and Wires

Each lab is equipped with one or more wall-mounted racks containing a variety of cables, connectors, oscilloscope

probes, and wires. These connectors provide the necessary electrical connections among the bench instruments and

your circuits.

VI. Electronic Components, Parts, and the Parts Request Form (Attachment C)

A wide assortment of electronic components and parts are available in the EE lab. An extensive list of components

and parts can be found on the lab web site www-ee.uta.edu/eelabs2/. Click on parts available for a view of the list.

The experiments performed in EE 3446 labs involve the use of parts supplied by the lab GTA. In more advanced

courses, students will have to order their own parts through the lab by submitting an online parts request form. A

copy of this form is shown in Attachment C. Most of the parts listed on the lab web site are considered disposable.

This means that once parts are given to the student, the student is allowed to keep and accumulate them. For parts

not on the list, a formal written request for these parts may be submitted along with instructor approval to lab personnel.

VII. Lab Report Format (Attachment D)

Formal lab reports are due typically within one week after each lab experiment. Exceptions are made for more

complex and/or extensive lab experiments. The format for lab reports is outlined below.

- 2 -

Title Page. Every lab report begins with a title page. This page includes the course and section number, experiment number, experiment title, date the experiment was performed, date the report submitted, and student name

and ID number. A sample of the EE 3446 lab report cover page is included in Attachment D.

Introduction. A brief description of the purpose of the lab and a discussion of key information the reader will

need to understand the experiment. Give a brief description of the theory the experiment is based upon.

Procedure. Describe how the experiment was performed. List equipment, instruments, and components used

in the experiment. Include the theory, equations, and detailed schematics of circuits involved.

Results. Present the results of the experiment with data collected from measurements performed. Data should

be professionally and neatly presented in the form of tables, graphs, and plots.

Discussions. Discuss any new ideas and/or questions produced in the experimental process. Comment on the

validity, accuracy, and usefulness of the procedure.

Conclusion. A description of what the experiment revealed. Generate a comparison between the expected results based on theory and the actual results. An attempt should be made here to explain any discrepancies between

these results.

Appendix. The appendix should contain actual compiled data, notes and comments, equations, sketches, and

schematics made during the experiment.

References. List any material contributed from other sources.

VIII. Useful Web Sites

Mouser Electronics

Jameco Electronics

Marlin P. Jones & Associates, Inc.

Electronics Express/RSR

Nuts and Volts (magazine)

www.mouser.com

www.jameco.com

www.mpja.com

www.elexp.com

www.nutsvolts.com

- 3 -

Attachment A

Tools and the Tool Box

August 2, 2009

Component

Example Brand

Example Source

tool box; fishing tackle box)

box)

Wal-Mart

3.64

Wal-Mart

12.88

(set of 6)

Wal-Mart

Prototype breadboard (6.5 x 2 to 6.5 x

4 with 3 to 5 binding posts) (Figures 4

and 5)

Precision screwdriver set (6 to 11 piece

set with slotted and Phillips screwdrivers)

(Figure 6)

22 gauge solid hook-up wire (Figure 7)

stripper, 34-899C)

Elenco (Model 9425,

6.5 x 2, 830 test

points)

Frys

3.49

Frys

9.99

Wal-Mart

4.88

PLU#1615281

Frys

2.99

Tax:

Total:

Photos

Figure 1

5 needle-nose pliers

- 4 -

Price ($)

3.09

40.96

Figure 2

5 diagonal cutters

Figure 3

Wire strippers

- 5 -

Figure 4

Three binding post breadboard

Figure 5

Three binding post breadboard

- 6 -

Figure 6

Screwdriver set

Figure 7

22 gauge wire

- 7 -

Attachment B

- 8 -

- 9 -

- 10 -

- 11 -

- 12 -

- 13 -

- 14 -

- 15 -

- 16 -

- 17 -

- 18 -

- 19 -

- 20 -

- 21 -

- 22 -

- 23 -

- 24 -

- 25 -

- 26 -

- 27 -

Attachment C

- 28 -

Attachment D

EE 3446.002

Lab Experiment 2

Resistors and Resistor Color Bands

June 7, 2010

Student name:

Student ID:

1000xxxxxxxxx

- 29 -

I. Introduction

The purpose of this lab is to investigate the behavior and characteristics of linear networks in the time-domain. The networks used here are simple first-order RL and RC networks and a bit more complex second-order RLC network. In order to initiate this investigation, it is necessary to perform a thorough analytical study of the network in question from the

derivation of a differential equation that describes its behavior in the time-domain. The solution of this equation and

subsequent plots of network variables versus time give valuable insight into how the network performs over time. Next,

the results of the analytical study are validated from a computer-aided simulation of the network using circuit simulators

such as PSPICE. Time-domain plots generated from simulations are compared to those obtained from the analytical

study to not only validate the accuracy and correctness of analytical methods but to also strengthen the confidence of

employing these methods. Finally, the network is built or constructed in the lab on a breadboard and evaluated with

professional grade instruments and equipment. The results of lab measurements are then compared to those from analytical study and simulation to complete the study. Your job in this lab exercise is to analyze and simulate in the pre-lab

assignment and then build, test, and evaluate in the lab each of the given RLC networks to expand your hands-on experience in working with networks in the time-domain. For each network, make use of the parts supplied by the GTA and

the test equipment located on the lab bench.

II. Components and Instruments

The components and instruments required for this lab are listed below.

Components:

Resistors

Capacitors

Inductors

100

10nF

680H

820

1K

Instruments:

Function generator

Agilent 33120A 15MHz

Oscilloscope

Agilent 54621A 60MHz dual-channel

Additional:

Breadboard

Tool box

Hook-up wire

Oscilloscope probes

III. Pre-lab Assignment

The schematics for three RLC networks N1, N2, and N3 are shown in Figures 1 through 3. Prior to constructing these

networks in the lab, you are to analyze and simulate these networks for the pre-lab assignment. Data from the results of

this work will be used to partially fill out Tables 1 through 5. You must bring the results of your pre-lab assignment to

the lab to assist you in the measurement process.

- 30 -

L1 680H

iL(t)

A

B

vL(t)

Eg(t)

vin(t)

R2

1K

vR(t)

N1

Figure 1

RL network N1

1.

Analysis

a. derive the network ODE with the resistor voltage vR(t) as the dependent variable, time t as the independent

variable, and Eg(t) as the network excitation,

b. set the initial inductor current to zero (iL(0) = 0), set Eg(t) equal to a step function with an amplitude of

10V; that is,

Eg ( t ) = 10V u ( t )

c.

and solve the ODE for the complete time-domain function for vR(t) and the inductor voltage vL(t),

i. use MatLab, Mathcad, or Excel to plot vR(t) and vL(t) versus time, scale the vertical axis for voltage

and the horizontal axis for time large enough to observe exponential behavior, label the axes with correct units, and

ii. fill out the first column of Table 1;

set the initial inductor current to zero (iL(0) = 0), set Eg(t) equal to a sinusoidal function with a peak voltage

of 10V and a frequency f of 150KHz; that is

Eg ( t ) = 10V sin (t )

= 2 f

f = 150 KHz

and solve the ODE for the complete time-domain function for vR(t) and the inductor voltage vL(t),

i. use MatLab, Mathcad, or Excel to plot the input voltage vin(t), the resistor voltage vR(t), and the inductor voltage vL(t) versus time, scale the vertical axis for voltage and the horizontal axis for time large

enough to observe several frequency cycles, label the axes with correct units, and

ii. fill out the first column of Table 2.

2.

PSPICE simulation

a. prepare network N1 in Figure 1 for time-domain analysis in PSPICE,

b. set the initial inductor current to zero (iL(0) = 0), set Eg(t) as a pulse voltage source with the following parameters

V 1 = 0.0

V 2 = 10.0

TD = 1.0u

TR = 1.0n

TF = 1.0n

PW = 5.0u

PER = 10.0u

pulsed value (V)

delay time (sec.)

rise time (sec.)

fall time (sec.)

pulse width (sec.)

period (sec.)

- 31 -

c.

ii. plot the inductor voltage vL(t) and the resistor voltage vR(t) versus time, and

iii. fill out the second column of Table 1;

set the initial inductor current to zero (iL(0) = 0), set Eg(t) as a sinusoidal voltage source with the following

parameters

VOFF = 0.0

VAMPL = 10.0

amplitude (V)

FREQ = 150 K

frequency (Hz)

ii. plot the input voltage vin(t), the inductor voltage vL(t), and the resistor voltage vR(t) versus time, and

iii. fill out the second column of Table 2.

Table 1

RL network N1 parameters; 10V step input

Method

Parameter

Analysis

Simulation

Breadboard

Units

Time-constant

sec.

Rise-time tR

sec.

Table 2

RL network N1 parameters; 10V sinusoidal input

Method

Parameter

Analysis

Simulation

Units

V/V

Phase offset m

deg.

- 32 -

Breadboard

IC(t)

A

C1

10nF

B

vC(t)

Eg(t)

vin(t)

R2

1K

vR(t)

N2

Figure 2

RC network N2

1.

Analysis

a. derive the network ODE with the capacitor voltage vC(t) as the dependent variable, time t as the independent variable, and Eg(t) as the network excitation,

b. set the initial capacitor voltage to zero (vC(0) = 0), set Eg(t) equal to a step function with an amplitude of

10V; that is,

Eg ( t ) = 10V u ( t )

c.

and solve for the complete time-domain function for vC(t) and the resistor voltage vR(t),

i. use MatLab, Mathcad, or Excel to plot vC(t) and vR(t) versus time, scale the vertical axis for voltage

and the horizontal axis for time large enough to observe exponential behavior, label the axes with correct units, and

ii. fill out the first column of Table 3.

set the initial capacitor voltage to zero (vC(0) = 0), set Eg(t) equal to a sinusoidal function with a peak voltage of 10V and a frequency f of 15KHz; that is

Eg ( t ) = 10V sin (t )

= 2 f

f = 15KHz

and solve for the complete time-domain function for vR(t) and the capacitor voltage vC(t),

i. use MatLab, Mathcad, or Excel to plot the input voltage vin(t), the resistor voltage vR(t), and the capacitor voltage vC(t) versus time, scale the vertical axis for voltage and the horizontal axis for time large

enough to observe several frequency cycles, label the axes with correct units, and

ii. fill out the first column of Table 4.

2.

PSPICE simulation

a. prepare network N2 in Figure 2 for time-domain analysis in PSPICE,

b. set the initial capacitor voltage to zero (vC(0) = 0), set Eg(t) as a pulse voltage source with the following

parameters

- 33 -

V 1 = 0.0

V 2 = 10.0

TD = 10.0u

TR = 1.0n

TF = 1.0n

PW = 50.0u

PER = 120.0u

c.

pulsed value (V)

delay time (sec.)

rise time (sec.)

fall time (sec.)

pulse width (sec.)

period (sec.)

ii. plot the input voltage vin(t), the capacitor voltage vC(t), and the resistor voltage vR(t) versus time, and

iii. fill out the second column of Table 3;

set the initial capacitor voltage to zero (vC(0) = 0), set Eg(t) as a sinusoidal voltage source with the following parameters

VOFF = 0.0

VAMPL = 10.0

FREQ = 15.0 K

amplitude (V)

frequency (Hz)

ii. plot the input voltage vin(t), the capacitor voltage vC(t), and the resistor voltage vR(t) versus time, and

iii. fill out the second column of Table 4.

Table 3

RC network N2 parameters, 10V step input

Method

Parameter

Analysis

Simulation

Breadboard

Units

Time-constant

sec.

Rise-time tR

sec.

Table 4

RC network N2 parameters, 10V sinusoidal input

Method

Parameter

Analysis

Simulation

Units

V/V

Phase offset m

deg.

- 34 -

Breadboard

L2

R1

iL(t)

A

Eg(t) = 10Vu(t)

100

B

iC(t)

680H

vin(t)

R3

C4

820

10nF

vC(t)

N3

Figure 3

RLC network N3

1.

Analysis

a. derive the network ODE with the capacitor voltage vC(t) as the dependent variable, time t as the independent variable, and Eg(t) as the network excitation,

b. set the initial capacitor voltage to zero (vC(0) = 0), set Eg(t) equal to a step function with an amplitude of

10V; that is,

Eg ( t ) = 10V u ( t )

and solve for the complete time-domain function for vC(t),

i. use MatLab, Mathcad, or Excel to plot the capacitor voltage vC(t) versus time, scale the vertical axis

for voltage and the horizontal axis for time large enough to observe exponential behavior, label the

axes with correct units, and

ii. fill out the first column of Table 5.

2.

PSPICE simulation

a. prepare network N3 in Figure 3 for time-domain analysis in PSPICE,

b. set the initial capacitor voltage to zero (vC(0) = 0), set Eg(t) as a pulse voltage source with the following

parameters

V 1 = 0.0

V 2 = 10.0

TD = 10.0u

TR = 1.0n

TF = 1.0n

PW = 90.0u

PER = 180.0u

pulsed value (V)

delay time (sec.)

rise time (sec.)

fall time (sec.)

pulse width (sec.)

period (sec.)

ii. plot the input voltage vin(t) and the capacitor voltage vC(t) versus time, and

iii. fill out the second column of Table 5.

- 35 -

Table 5

RLC network N3 parameters, 10V step input

Method

Parameter

Analysis

Simulation

Breadboard

Units

Exponent m

rad./sec.

Damped frequency of

oscillation m

rad./sec.

Damping ratio

Undamped frequency of

oscillation n

rad./sec.

Period of oscillation Td

sec.

Percent overshoot PO

Phase offset m

deg.

In this part of the lab, you are to build these networks on your breadboard and take time-domain measurements necessary

to verify the analytical and simulation calculations performed in the pre-lab. You will use the Agilent 33120A function

generator to provide network excitations and the Agilent 54621A oscilloscope to take measurements. Data taken from

these measurements will be used to complete Tables 1 through 5.

A. RL network N1 (Construction and measurements)

1. layout network N1 shown in Figure 1 on your breadboard using components provided by the GTA,

2. connect the Agilent 33120A function generator to the network in place of the voltage source Eg(t),

3. configure the function generator to produce a square-wave voltage waveform with a frequency of 100KHz, an

amplitude of 10V peak, and an offset of zero volts,

a. place channel A probe of the Agilent 54621A oscilloscope to terminals A and ground and channel B

probe to terminals B and ground of N1,

b. use the built-in functions of the oscilloscope to do the following:

i. display the waveforms of the resistor voltage vR(t) (Channel B) and the inductor voltage vL(t) (Channel A Channel B), compare these waveforms to the ones generated in the pre-lab for the 10V step

input,

ii. apply the oscilloscopes math functions to fill out the third column of Table 1;

4. configure the function generator to produce a sinusoidal voltage waveform with a frequency of 150KHz, an

amplitude of 10V peak, and an offset of zero volts,

a. place channel A probe of the oscilloscope to terminals A and ground and channel B probe to terminals B

and ground of N1,

b. use the built-in functions of the oscilloscope to do the following:

i. display the waveforms of the resistor voltage vR(t) (Channel B) and the inductor voltage vL(t) (Channel A Channel B), compare these waveforms to the ones generated in the pre-lab for the 10V sinusoidal input,

ii. apply the oscilloscopes math functions to fill out the third column of Table 2.

- 36 -

1. layout network N2 shown in Figure 2 on your breadboard using components provided by the GTA,

2. connect the Agilent 33120A function generator to the network in place of the voltage source Eg(t),

3. configure the function generator to produce a square-wave voltage waveform with a frequency of 10KHz, an

amplitude of 10V peak, and an offset of zero volts,

a. place channel A probe of the Agilent 54621A oscilloscope to terminals A and ground and channel B

probe to terminals B and ground of N2,

b. use the built-in functions of the oscilloscope to do the following:

i. display the waveforms of the resistor voltage vR(t) (Channel B) and the capacitor voltage vC(t) (Channel A Channel B), compare these waveforms to the ones generated in the pre-lab for the 10V step

input,

ii. apply the oscilloscopes math functions to fill out the third column of Table 3;

4. configure the function generator to produce a sinusoidal voltage waveform with a frequency of 15KHz, an amplitude of 10V peak, and an offset of zero volts,

a. place channel A probe of the oscilloscope to terminals A and ground and channel B probe to terminals B

and ground of N2,

b. use the built-in functions of the oscilloscope to do the following:

i. display the waveforms of the resistor voltage vR(t) (Channel B) and the capacitor voltage vC(t) (Channel A Channel B), compare these waveforms to the ones generated in the pre-lab for the 10V sinusoidal input,

ii. apply the oscilloscopes math functions to fill out the third column of Table 4.

C. RLC network N3 (Construction and measurements)

1. layout network N3 shown in Figure 3 on your breadboard using components provided by the GTA,

2. connect the Agilent 33120A function generator to the network in place of the voltage source Eg(t),

3. configure the function generator to produce a square-wave voltage waveform with a frequency of 12.5KHz, an

amplitude of 10V peak, and an offset of zero volts,

a. place channel A probe of the Agilent 54621A 60MHz dual channel oscilloscope to terminals A and

ground and channel B probe to terminals B and ground of N3,

b. use the built-in functions of the oscilloscope to do the following:

i. display the waveforms of the input voltage vin(t) (Channel A) and capacitor voltage vC(t) (Channel B),

compare these waveforms to the ones generated in the pre-lab for the 10V step input,

ii. apply the math functions of the oscilloscope to fill out the third column of Table 5.

V. Lab Report

The report for this lab experiment must be neatly and professionally word-processed and must contain the following

items

Title Page.

Introduction.

Provide your account of what this lab experiment is about and what is expected.

Pre-lab.

Include and explain all of your pre-lab derivations, calculations, and simulations. Detail discussions on any

problems encountered. Include Tables 1 through 5 filled out as required.

Lab Procedure.

Include an explanation on how the measurements are to be performed. Explain the use of lab instruments in

performing measurements. Provide schematics of all networks and the connection of the function generator and

oscilloscope. Provide detailed discussions and comments on any problems encountered with equipment and

taking measurements.

Results.

Tables 1 through 5 neatly and completely filled out with the results of your calculations, simulations, and measurements. Provide errors in percent among the calculated, simulated, and measured values with the calculated

values as the basis.

Discussions.

Provide detailed answers and discussions to the following questions

(a) How well do the measured values correspond to those from calculations and simulation?

(b) Are the errors among calculated, simulated, and measured values within reasonable (5% absolute) tolerances? If not, explain why not.

(c) Explain mathematically the relationship between time constant, and rise and fall time.

- 37 -

(d)

Explain the significance and importance of network time constants, and rise and fall times. Why these

values are or are not important.

(e) Explain what can be determined about a network from its time constants.

Conclusion.

Provide detailed answers and discussions to the following questions

(a) In your opinion, do the measurements match the results of calculation and simulation?

(b) Are the procedures and methods used in this experiment suitable for characterizing the time-domain behavior of networks similar to the ones examined in this lab? Explain why or why not.

(c) What other methods can be used? Explain in detail advantages and disadvantages.

(d) Explain what you learned from this lab and how you can apply what you learned.

References.

Include all of your pencil and paper work. All notes, calculations, derivations, measurements, and comments

performed in an informal manner with pencil and paper. This material serves as reference and back-up to the

formally written material included above. Include any references to textbooks and papers.

- 38 -

of Linear Resistive Networks

I. Introduction

Matrix analysis methods are very powerful tools for calculating the branch voltages and currents of a linear network.

The purpose of this experiment is to apply these methods in the pre-lab and post-lab, and to verify the accuracy of these

methods from actual measurements made in the lab. The experiments involved in this lab address the following topics.

(a) Derivation and solution of the mesh-analysis matrix equation (MAME) and the node-analysis matrix equation

(NAME) of a linear resistive network under test (NUT).

(b) Generation of the voltage, current, and power map of the NUT.

(c) Proper layout of a network on a breadboard.

(d) Application of electronic test equipment to make voltage and current measurements.

(e) Performing the least number of measurements necessary to generate the map.

The theory and equations associated with these topics are covered in lectures and class notes. Your job in this session is

to build and apply measurement methods on each of the given networks in order to expand your hands-on experience

with networks and test equipment. Make use of the parts supplied by the GTA, and the DMM and dc power supply located on the lab bench to fill out the following Tables for each network included.

II. Components and Instruments

The components and instruments required for this lab are listed below.

Resistors:

Network N1

Network N2

Network N3

100 (2)

1.8K

10K (3) 30K

1K

3.6K

120

2.4K (2)

20K

100K (2)

1.2K

4.7K

1.2K (2) 2.7K

2K

5.6K

2.7K

7.5K

3.3K

Active devices1:

Op-amp

TLC274

Transistor

2N3819 NJFET

Instruments:

Power supply

Agilent E3620A

Multimeter

Agilent 34401A

Network N4

1K

5.1K

2K

6.8K

3K

10K trim-pot

Additional:

Breadboard

Tool box

Hook-up wire

III. Pre-lab Assignment

The schematics for four resistive networks N1 through N4 are shown in Figures 1 through 4. Prior to constructing these

networks in the lab, you are to perform a full circuit analysis of these networks for the pre-lab assignment. Networks N1

and N2 are to be analyzed with the mesh analysis method while the nodal analysis method is to be used on N3 and N4.

Data from the results of this work will be used to fill out Tables 1 through 4 associated with the networks. As usual, you

must bring the results of your pre-lab assignment to the lab to assist you in the measurement process.

Download data sheets for these devices for use in the lab.

- 39 -

1. Derive the MAME for N1 in symbolic and numerical form using the mesh orientations shown on the schematic.

2. Solve the MAME for the mesh current vector Im and use it to fill out Table 1(a).

3. Apply the mesh currents to calculate the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated by each

network component, and place these values in Table 1(b) for the network variable map.

4. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 1(a) where indicated.

Network N1

R1

100

Eps1

12V

1.2K

R4

m1

R8

m2

R2

m3

R5

1.8K

2.7K

120

m4

Eps2

2.4K

R7

12V

m5

R6

2.4K

R9

1.2K

R3

2

N1

100

Figure 1

Resistive network N1

Table 1(a)

Calculated mesh currents

for N1

Mesh i

Imi (A)

m1

m2

m3

m4

m5

Pdiss

Pdel

Table 1(b)

Calculated variable map for N1

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

100

R2

120

R3

100

R4

1.2K

R5

1.8K

Vi (V)

- 40 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

R6

1.2K

R7

2.7K

R8

2.4K

R9

2.4K

Eps1

12V

Eps2

12V

1. Derive the MAME for N2 in symbolic and numerical form using the mesh orientations shown in the schematic.

2. Solve the MAME for the mesh current vector Im and use it to fill out Table 2(a).

3. Apply the mesh currents to calculate the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated by each

network component, and place these values in Table 2(b) for the network variable map (be sure to include these

variables for the VCVS).

4. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 2(a) where indicated.

Network N2

R2

10K

R1

m3

2

R3

10K

Eps1

5V

R4

3

20K

VR5

m1

30K

m2

10K

VR5

( = 2V/V)

N2

Figure 2

Resistive network N2

Table 2(a)

Calculated mesh currents

for N2

Mesh i

Imi (A)

m1

m2

m3

Pdiss

Pdel

- 41 -

R5

Table 2(b)

Calculated variable map for N2

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

10K

R2

10K

R3

20K

R4

30K

R5

10K

Eps1

5V

VCVS

= 2V/V

Vi (V)

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

1. Derive the NAME for N3 in symbolic and numerical form using the positive node voltage orientation shown on

the schematic.

2. Solve the NAME for the node voltage vector Vn and use it to fill out Table 3(a).

3. Apply the node voltages to calculate the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated by each

network component, and place these values in Table 3(b) for the network variable map.

4. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 3(a) where indicated.

Network N3

2

R2

Vn2

3.3K

Vn4

2K

4.7K

1.2K

R4

5V

Eps1

R7

3.6K

1K

R6

Vn1

1

Eps2

R9

7.5K

8V

N3

Figure 3

Resistive network N3

- 42 -

5.6K

R8

R1

R3

Vn3

R5

2.7K

Vn5

5

Table 3(a)

Calculated node voltages

for N3

Node i

Vni (V)

1

2

3

4

5

Pdiss

Pdel

Table 3(b)

Calculated variable map for N3

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

4.7K

R2

3.3K

R3

5.6K

R4

1.2K

R5

2.7K

R6

7.5K

R7

1K

R8

2K

R9

3.6K

Eps1

5V

Eps2

8V

Vi (V)

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

1. Derive the NAME for N4 in symbolic and numerical form using the positive node voltage orientation shown on

the schematic.

2. Solve the NAME for the node voltage vector Vn and use it to fill out Table 4(a).

3. Apply the node voltages to calculate the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated by each

network component, and place these values in Table 4(b) for the network variable map.

4. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 4(a) where indicated.

- 43 -

Network N4

R3

6.8K

R2

Vn1

R1

3K

1K

Vn3

2K

Jg2

Eps1

R4

Vn2

1mA

R5

5.1K

20V

0

N4

Figure 4

Resistive network N4

Table 4(a)

Calculated node voltages

for N4

Node i

Vni (V)

1

2

3

Pdiss

Pdel

Table 4(b)

Calculated variable map for N4

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

2K

R2

3K

R3

6.8K

R4

1K

R5

5.1K

Eps1

20V

Jg2

1mA

Vi (V)

- 44 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

In this part of the lab, you are to build the networks in Figures 1 through 4 on your breadboard and take dc measurements

necessary to verify the calculations performed in the pre-lab. You will use the Agilent E3620A power supply to provide

network excitations and the Agilent 34401A DMM to take dc voltage and current measurements. Data from these measurements will be used to fill out the Tables included with each network.

A. Measured variables for network N1 (Figure 5, Tables 5(a) and 5(b)).

1. Build network N1 shown in Figure 5 below (identical to Figure 1) on your breadboard with particular attention

paid to strict layout procedures. Connect the power supply to the network in place of the voltage sources Eps1

and Eps2. Set the supply voltages to 12V as indicated on the schematic.

2. Measure with the DMM the resistance of each resistor and the voltage source voltages. Record these values in

the third column of Table 5(a) where indicated.

3. Use the DMM to measure the voltage drop across each resistor and label on the schematic with a positive sign

(+) the resistors positive terminal. Record these voltage readings in the fourth column of Table 5(a) where indicated.

4. Complete Table 5(a) entries by calculating the current through and the power dissipated by each resistor. Use

KCL to determine the current through and the power dissipated by the power supplies.

5. Apply the component currents in Table 5(a) to calculate the mesh currents in meshes m1 through m5. Label on

the schematic the direction of positive current flow with an arrow and record these currents in Table 5(b).

6. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 5(b) where indicated.

Network N1

R1

100

Eps1

12V

R4

m1

1.2K

R8

m2

R2

m3

1.8K

R5

2.7K

120

m4

Eps2

2.4K

R7

12V

m5

R6

2.4K

R9

1.2K

R3

2

100

N1

Figure 5

Resistive network N1

- 45 -

Table 5(a)

Measured variable map for N1

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

100

R2

120

R3

100

R4

1.2K

R5

1.8K

R6

1.2K

R7

2.7K

R8

2.4K

R9

2.4K

Eps1

12V

Eps2

12V

Measured

value

Vi (V)

Table 5(b)

Measured mesh currents

for N1

Mesh i

Imi (A)

m1

m2

m3

m4

m5

Pdiss

Pdel

- 46 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

1. Build network N2 shown in Figure 6 below on your breadboard with particular attention paid to strict layout

procedures. The TLC274 operational amplifier with resistors Ra and Rb is an active subnetwork biased by Eps2

that models the VCVS with a gain parameter determined from

= 1+

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Rb

= 2.0V/V

Ra

Connect the power supply to the network in place of the voltage sources Eps1 and Eps2. Set Eps1 to 5V and Eps2

to 10V as indicated on the schematic.

Measure with the DMM the resistance of each resistor and the voltage source voltages. Record these values in

the third column of Table 6(a) where indicated.

Use the DMM to measure the voltage drop across each resistor and label on the schematic with a positive sign

(+) the resistors positive terminal. Record these voltage readings in the fourth column of Table 6(a) where indicated.

Complete Table 6(a) entries by calculating the current through and the power dissipated by each resistor. Use

KCL to determine the current through and the power dissipated by the power supply Eps1.

Apply the component currents in Table 6(a) to calculate the mesh currents in meshes m1 through m3. Label on

the schematic the direction of positive current flow with an arrow and record these currents in Table 6(b).

Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 6(b) where indicated.

Network N2

R2

10K

m3

R1

R4

10K

30K

R3

Eps2

20K

Eps1

m1

5V

R5

TLC274

10K

Rb

m2

Ra

100K

100K

0

N2

(Eps2 = 10V)

Figure 6

Network N2 with op-amp simulated VCVS

- 47 -

VR5

Table 6(a)

Measured variable map for N2

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

10K

R2

10K

R3

20K

R4

30K

R5

10K

Eps1

5V

VCVS

= 2V/V

Measured

value

Vi (V)

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

Table 6(b)

Measured mesh currents

for N2

Mesh i

Imi (A)

m1

m2

m3

Pdiss

Pdel

1. Build network N3 shown in Figure 7 below (identical to Figure 3) on your breadboard with particular attention

paid to strict layout procedures. Connect the power supply to the network in place of the voltage sources Eps1

and Eps2, and set the supply voltages to 5V and 8V, respectively, as indicated on the schematic.

2. Measure with the DMM the resistance of each resistor and the voltage source voltages. Record these values in

the third column of Table 7(a) where indicated.

3. Use the DMM to measure the voltage at each node (Vni) with respect to the ground node (node 0) and record

in Table 7(b) where indicated. Label on the schematic the polarity of the node voltage with a positive (+) or

negative (-) sign.

4. Apply KVL to the node voltages to calculate the voltage across each network resistor. Record the resistor voltages in the fourth column of Table 7(a).

5. Complete the entries in Table 7(a) by computing the current through and the power dissipated by each resistor.

Use KCL to compute the current through and the power dissipated by the power supply voltages.

6. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 7(b) where indicated.

- 48 -

Network N3

2

R2

Vn2

3.3K

Vn4

5.6K

R8

R1

R3

Vn3

2K

4.7K

1.2K

R4

5V

Eps1

R7

3.6K

1K

Eps2

R6

Vn1

1

R9

7.5K

8V

R5

Vn5

2.7K

N3

Figure 7

Resistive network N3

Table 7(a)

Measured variable map for N3

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

4.7K

R2

3.3K

R3

5.6K

R4

1.2K

R5

2.7K

R6

7.5K

R7

1K

R8

2K

R9

3.6K

Eps1

5V

Eps2

8V

Measured

value

Vi (V)

- 49 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

Table 7(b)

Measured node voltages

for N3

Node i

Vni (V)

1

2

3

4

5

Pdiss

Pdel

D. Measured variables for network N4 (Figures 8(a) and 8(b), Tables 8(a) and 8(b)).

1. Build the network shown in Figure 8(a) with a 2N3819 NJFET. This network is current diode that is to replace

the current sink in network N4 in Figure 4. Adjust the 10K trimpot RT for a drain current ID of 1mA. Use the

DMM to measure the resistance of the adjusted trimpot. Label this resistance RS.

2. Build network N4 shown in Figure 8(b) on your breadboard with the current diode network biased by a source

resistor having a value as close as possible to the value of RS. Again, pay attention to strict layout procedures.

Connect the power supply to the network in place of the voltage source Eps1 and set the supply voltage to 20V

as indicated on the schematic.

3. Measure with the DMM the resistance of each resistor and the voltage source voltage. Record these values in

the third column of Table 8(a) where indicated.

4. Use the DMM to measure the voltage at each node (Vni) with respect to the ground node (node 0) and record

in Table 8(b) where indicated. Label on the schematic the polarity of the node voltage with a positive (+) or

negative (-) sign.

5. Apply KVL to the node voltages to calculate the voltage across each network resistor. Record the resistor voltages in the fourth column of Table 8(a).

6. Complete the entries in Table 8(a) by computing the current through and the power dissipated by each resistor.

Use KCL to compute the current through and the power dissipated by the power supply voltage.

7. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 8(b) where indicated.

- 50 -

Network N4

R3

6.8K

R2

Vn1

ID

3K

VDD

10V

RT

1K

2N3819

R5

1mA

R1

VDD

2K

ID

2N3819

J1

R4

Vn2

J1

10V

Eps1

20V

10K

RS

0

N4

(a)

(b)

Figure 8

(a) NJFET current diode

(b) Resistive network N4 with NJFET current diode

Table 8(a)

Measured variable map for N4

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

2K

R2

3K

R3

6.8K

R4

1K

R5

5.1K

Eps1

20V

J1

1mA

Measured

value

Vi (V)

Table 8(b)

Measured node voltages

for N4

Node i

Vni (V)

1

2

3

Pdiss

Pdel

- 51 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

Vn3

V. Post-lab Assignment

In order to establish a legitimate comparison between the matrix methods of network analysis and physical measurements from actual networks, you are to recalculate the variable maps generated for each network in the pre-lab using

measured resistance values. Fill out the following Tables below for each network.

A. Recalculated variables for network N1 (Figure 1, Tables 9(a) and 9(b)).

1. Repeat the calculation steps performed in the pre-lab assignment on network N1 with resistor values measured

in the lab and recorded in Table 5(a).

2. Record the recalculated mesh currents in Table 9(a).

3. Record the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated by each network component, and place

these values in Table 9(b).

4. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 9(a) where indicated.

Table 9(a)

Recalculated mesh currents

for N1

Mesh i

Imi (A)

m1

m2

m3

m4

m5

Pdiss

Pdel

Table 9(b)

Recalculated variable map for N1

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

100

R2

120

R3

100

R4

1.2K

R5

1.8K

R6

1.2K

R7

2.7K

R8

2.4K

R9

2.4K

Eps1

12V

Eps2

12V

Measured

Value

Vi (V)

- 52 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

1. Repeat the calculation steps performed in the pre-lab assignment on network N2 with resistor values measured

in the lab and recorded in Table 6(a).

2. Record the recalculated mesh currents in Table 10(a).

3. Record the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated by each network component, and place

these values in Table 10(b).

4. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 10(a) where indicated.

Table 10(a)

Recalculated mesh currents

for N2

Mesh i

Imi (A)

m1

m2

m3

Pdiss

Pdel

Table 10(b)

Recalculated variable map for N2

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

10K

R2

10K

R3

20K

R4

30K

R5

10K

Eps1

5V

VCVS

= 2V/V

Measured

value

Vi (V)

- 53 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

1. Repeat the calculation steps performed in the pre-lab assignment on network N3 with resistor values measured

in the lab and recorded in Table 7(a).

2. Record the recalculated node voltages in Table 11(a).

3. Record the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated by each network component, and place

these values in Table 11(b).

4. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 11(a) where indicated.

Table 11(a)

Recalculated node voltages

for N3

Node i

Vni (V)

1

2

3

4

5

Pdiss

Pdel

Table 11(b)

Recalculated variable map for N3

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

4.7K

R2

3.3K

R3

5.6K

R4

1.2K

R5

2.7K

R6

7.5K

R7

1K

R8

2K

R9

3.6K

Eps1

5V

Eps2

8V

Measured

value

Vi (V)

- 54 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

1. Repeat the calculation steps performed in the pre-lab assignment on network N4 with resistor values measured

in the lab and recorded in Table 8(a).

2. Record the recalculated node voltages in Table 12(a).

3. Record the voltage across, the current through, and the power dissipated by each network component, and place

these values in Table 12(b).

4. Calculate the total power dissipated by the network (Pdiss) and the total power delivered to the network (Pdel).

List these powers at the bottom of Table 12(a) where indicated.

Table 12(a)

Recalculated node voltages

for N4

Node i

Vni (V)

1

2

3

Pdiss

Pdel

Table 12(b)

Recalculated variable map for N4

Component

i

Spec

value

R1

2K

R2

3K

R3

6.8K

R4

1K

R5

5.1K

Eps1

20V

J1

1mA

Measured

value

Vi (V)

- 55 -

Ii (A)

Pi (W)

The report for this lab experiment must be neatly and professionally word-processed and must contain the following

items

Title Page.

Introduction.

Provide your account of what this lab experiment is about and what is expected.

Pre-lab.

Include and explain all of your pre-lab derivations and calculations. Detail discussions on any problems encountered. Include Tables 1 through 4 filled out as required.

Lab Procedure.

Include an explanation on how the measurements are to be performed. Explain the use of lab instruments in

performing measurements. Provide schematics of all networks and the connection of the power supply and

DMM. Provide detailed discussions and comments on any problems encountered with equipment and taking

measurements.

Results.

Tables 1 through 12 neatly and completely filled out with the results of your pre-lab, measurements, and postlab. Provide errors in percent among the calculated, simulated, and measured values with the calculated values

as the basis.

Discussions.

Provide detailed answers and discussions to the following questions

(a) For the two networks analyzed with the MAME (N1 and N2), compare the calculated mesh currents from the

pre-lab to those determined from measurements. Compare the calculated variable map to the measured variable map for each network. Explain reasons for any differences greater than 5%.

(b) For the two networks analyzed with the MAME (N1 and N2), compare the calculated mesh currents from the

post-lab to those determined from measurements. Compare the calculated variable map to the measured variable map for each network. Explain reasons for any differences greater than 5%.

(c) Which calculated variables are more accurate, those from the pre-lab or post lab? Explain reasons why.

(d) For the two networks analyzed with the NAME (N3 and N4), compare the calculated node voltages from the

pre-lab to those determined from measurements. Compare the calculated variable map to the measured variable map for each network. Explain reasons for any differences greater than 5%.

(e) For the two networks analyzed with the NAME (N3 and N4), compare the calculated node voltages from the

post-lab to those determined from measurements. Compare the calculated variable map to the measured variable map for each network. Explain reasons for any differences greater than 5%.

(f) Which calculated variables are more accurate, those from the pre-lab or post lab? Explain reasons why.

(g) Provide comments on how efficient, accurate, and reliable the MAME is for calculating network variables. Are

there any restrictions on the application of the MAME for the analysis of on a network? Explain these restrictions.

(h) Provide comments on how efficient, accurate, and reliable the NAME is for calculating network variables. Are

there any restrictions on the application of the NAME for the analysis of on a network? Explain these restrictions.

(i) Are the errors among calculated and measured values within reasonable (5% absolute) tolerances? If not,

explain why not.

(j) How well do the dissipated powers match the delivered powers for each network? Explain any differences

beyond 5% absolute.

Conclusion.

Provide detailed answers and discussions to the following questions

(a) In your opinion, do the measurements match the results of pre-lab and post-lab calculations?

(b) Are the procedures and methods used in this experiment suitable for analyzing networks similar to the

ones examined in this lab? Explain why or why not.

(c) What other methods can be used? Explain in detail advantages and disadvantages.

(d) Explain what you learned from this lab and how you can apply what you learned.

Appendix. The appendix should contain actual compiled data, notes and comments, equations, sketches, and

schematics made during the experiment. Include all of your pencil and paper work. All notes, calculations, derivations, measurements, and comments performed in an informal manner with pencil and paper. This material

serves as reference and back-up to the formally written material included above.

References. List any material contributed from other sources.

- 56 -

I. Introduction

The object of this lab experiment is to gain familiarity with the design cycle of analog circuits. The network used in

this project is a simple RF transmitter that must oscillate with a frequency within the FM band (88MHz to 108MHz).

The network used in this design is shown in Figure 1 where a single NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT)

(MPS5179) is employed as the active device that drives a tuned LC circuit to set the oscillation frequency. Your job

in this lab involves the first two phases in the design cycle of analog circuits

the application of the theory and tools developed in Circuits II to analyze the network in Figure 1 and

the application of the PSPICE circuit simulator to investigate the networks large-signal time-domain behavior.

The third phase is the actual fabrication and testing of the design to verify the analysis and simulation results. This

phase is reserved for a future lab experiment.

No electronic components or instruments are required for this lab experiment.

The small-signal equivalent circuit of the transmitter is shown in Figure 2(a) while the small-signal high-frequency

model of the NPN BJT is shown in Figure 2(b). Values for the bias-dependent model components evaluated at the

dc operating point are given below.

gm =

r =

I CQ

F Vt

F

gm

= 0.271S

= 230

(1)

C = C jc = 0.458 pF

C =

gm

C = 44.4 pF

2 fT

Insert the BJT model into the equivalent circuit in Figure 2(a), assume the capacitor C4 has an initial voltage (vC4(0))

stored on its plates, and do the following.

(a) Derive the symbolic s-domain function for the voltage VC(s) at the collector C. Express VC(s) as a rational response function of s with vC4(0) as the excitation. For best results, apply the NAME algorithm in your analysis

[1].

(b) Use the response function for VC(s) to derive symbolically the relationship among the network and model components that will sustain oscillation.

(c) Derive the symbolic expression for the frequency of oscillation (fosc) in Hz.

(d) Use the network and model component values to generate a plot of the analytical frequency of oscillation (fosc)

versus C3 swept from 6.5pF to 30pF. Include at least 10 points in this plot for good resolution.

IV. Phase 2: Simulation

Use the PSPICE program to perform a dc operating point and time-domain simulation of the network shown in Figure 1. Use the 2N5179 BJT found in the Fairchild semiconductor parts library in place of the MPS5179 device. In

the simulation of the dc operating point, make sure the inductor L1 and all capacitors (C1 through C7) are void of

initial conditions; that is, iL1(0) and vC1(0) through vC7(0) are all zero. This will prevent initial condition contamination of the networks dc bias point. From this simulation, do the following.

(a) Generate a complete voltage, current, and power map of the network at dc. Use the tabular format for this map

as was done in several Problem Set problems.

(b) Generate a plot of the simulated frequency of oscillation (fosc) versus C3 from 6.5pF to 30pF. Include at least 10

points in this plot for resolution.

(c) Compare the analytical and simulated plots of fosc versus C3. Comment on which plot is more accurate and

why.

- 57 -

Ant.

+VCC

C6

C7

10nF

L1

10F

C1

C3

101.5nH

C5

R1

3.3nF

3.3nF

15K

Mod. input

VCC

C4

Q1

9V

10pF

R2

C2

R3

10K

3.3nF

220

C3 = 6.5pF to 30pF

(trimmer capacitor)

Q1 = MPS5179

(NPN RF BJT)

gnd

Figure 1

RF transmitter network

vC4(0)

C4

VE(s)

VC(s)

Q1

C3

L1

R3

(a)

C

B

C

r

gmv

v

E

E

(b)

Figure 2

(a) Transmitter network equivalent circuit

(b) HF BJT model

- 58 -

V. Lab Report

Your lab report on these design phases should consist of the following:

Analysis and simulation phases.

(a) Detailed derivations from circuit analysis. Expression for fosc and conditions for oscillation from analysis. A plot of

fosc vs C3.

(b) Voltage and current map from analysis.

(c) Time-domain plots from simulation. Determine fosc and conditions for oscillation from these plots. A plot of fosc vs

C3.

(d) Voltage and current map from simulation.

(e) A conclusion and comments on the accuracy of your measurements and extracted parameters.

(f) An appendix containing copies of pages from your lab notebook containing all data and calculations made during

the experiment.

Discussions.

Provide detailed discussions on how well the analytical results and values correspond to those from simulation.

Conclusion.

(a) Are the procedures and methods used in this experiment suitable for designing analog networks similar to the

ones examined in this lab? Explain why or why not.

(b) What other methods can be used? Explain in detail advantages and disadvantages.

(c) Explain what you learned from this lab and how you can apply what you learned.

Appendix.

The appendix should contain actual compiled data, notes and comments, equations, sketches, and schematics made

during the experiment. Include all of your pencil and paper work. All notes, calculations, derivations, measurements, and comments performed in an informal manner with pencil and paper. This material serves as reference and

back-up to the formally written material included above. Include any references to textbooks and papers.

References.

List any material contributed from other sources.

VI. References

1. H.T. Russell, Jr., An Algorithm for the Fast Generation of the Nodal-Analysis Matrix Equation of a Linear

Network, OPAL Engineering, Inc., 1995.

- 59 -

I. Introduction

The purpose of this lab is to gain familiarity with several important Electrical Engineering theorems. The experiments

performed in this lab involve the following concepts

application of voltage division,

application of current division, and

superposition theorem.

The theory and equations associated with these experiments are covered in your class notes. Your job in this session is

to investigate and apply the above theorems on resistive networks to provide a hands-on experience to the theory covered

in the lectures on these topics. For each of the networks given below, use the parts supplied by the GTA, and the DMM

and dc power supply located on the lab bench.

II. Components and Instruments

The components and instruments required for this lab are listed below.

Resistors:

Network N1

Network N2

Network N3

100

3.3K

2K (2)

15K

1K (5)

2K (5)

270

5.1K

7.5K

24K

1.6K

10K (2) 30K (2)

Network N4

7.5K

15K

30K

Network N5

1K

5.1K

2.7K

6.8K

3.9K

8.2K

4.7K

Instruments:

Power supply

Agilent E3620A

Multimeter

Agilent 34401A

Additional:

Breadboard

Tool box

Hook-up wire

III. Experiment Procedures

Procedures for performing experiments on a collection of networks are attached. These experiments involve the theory

and applications covered in the lecture on voltage and current division, superposition, and reciprocity. In your lab report, provide detailed answers and discussions to the following

(a) With respect to resistor tolerance, are the results of the measurements within tolerance to calculated values using specified component values?

(b) Explain reasons for any discrepancies between calculated and measured results.

(c) How useful are these theorems and operations? Can you think of any specific applications?

IV. Application of Voltage Division

Voltage dividers play important roles in reference circuits. However, there is another application of the voltage divider

that is just as important. This application involves the indirect measurement of the terminal driving-point resistance of a

given network. Consider, for example, the network N shown in Figure 1. The driving-point resistance of N at terminals

AB is modeled by the resistance RAB which is unknown. A battery EG and resistor RG are connected to the network as

shown. The values for both of these components have been measured and are known. By measuring the voltage VAB,

the value of RAB can be calculated from the voltage divider theory. For the connection shown, VAB is written as

VAB =

RAB

EG

RAB + RG

- 60 -

(1)

RG

EG

VAB

RAB

Figure 1

Network N connected to EG and RG

Since RAB is the only unknown in this expression, it can be calculated from

RAB =

RG

EG

1

VAB

(2)

The result from this equation will be more accurate if the value of RG is selected to be very close to that of RAB. You are

to apply this method to measure the terminal input resistance of two networks.

A. Resistive network N1.

1. Build network N1 shown in Figure 2(a) on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the values of each resistor with the DMM and record in Table 1(a) where indicated.

3. Use network analysis operations to do the following:

a. calculate the value of the resistance at terminal 1 to ground of N1 (Rin1) using specified component values and

record in Table 1(b),

b. calculate the value of Rin1 using measured component values and record in Table 1(b), and,

c. use the DMM to measure the value of Rin1 and record in Table 1(b).

4. Connect terminals 1-0 of N1 to the 10V source and RG as shown in Figure 2(b) and do the following:

a. select a specified value of RG to be as close as possible to that of the calculated value of Rin1; record this value

in Table 1(c),

b. obtain this resistor from the GTA, measure its value, measure the value of EG, and record in Table 1(c),

c. measure the voltage V10 at terminal 1 to ground of N1 and record in Table 1(c),

d. apply the voltage divider operation to calculate the value of Rin1 using the measured values of EG, RG, and

V10; record in Table 1(c), and

e. calculate the difference () in percent between the DMM measured value of Rin1 and the value of Rin1 calculated from the voltage divider operation; use the DMM value as the basis with

(%) =

5.

Rin1 ( DMM )

(3)

Provide comments on the accuracy of voltage division for calculating network input resistance with respect to resistor tolerance.

- 61 -

100%

R2

1.6K

1

R1

RG

100

270

R3

Rin1

R4

5.1K

R5

3.3K

EG

10V

V10

Rin1

N1

N1

(a)

(b)

Figure 2

(a) Network N1

(b) N1 in the voltage divider connection

Table 1(a)

N1 component values

Component

Specified value

R1

270

R2

1.6K

R3

5.1K

R4

100

R5

3.3K

Measured value

Table 1(b)

Rin1 from N1 (Figure 2(a))

Condition

Rin1 ()

Calculated from measured R values

Rin1 measured with DMM

Table 1(c)

Rin1 from voltage division (Figure 2(b))

RG specified

()

RG measured

()

EG measured

(V)

V10 measured

(V)

- 62 -

Rin1 calculated

()

(%)

1. Build network N2 shown in Figure 3(a) on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the values of each resistor with the DMM and record in Table 2(a) where indicated.

3. Use resistor combination operations to do the following:

a. calculate the value of the resistance at terminals A-B of N2 (RAB) using specified component values and record

in Table 2(b),

b. calculate the value of RAB using measured component values and record in Table 2(b), and,

c. use the DMM to measure the value of RAB and record in Table 2(b).

4. Connect terminals A-B of N2 to the 10V source and RG as shown in Figure 3(b) and do the following:

a. select a specified value of RG to be as close as possible to that of the calculated value of RAB; record this value

in Table 2(c),

b. obtain this resistor from the GTA, measure its value, measure the value of EG, and record in Table 2(c),

c. measure the voltage VAB across terminals A-B of N2 and record in Table 2(c),

d. apply the voltage divider operation to calculate the value of RAB using the measured values of EG, RG, and

VAB; record in Table 2(c), and

e. use equation (3) to calculate the difference () in percent between RABs DMM measured value (3c) and

RABs value calculated from the voltage divider operation (4d), use the DMM value as the basis; record in

Table 2(c).

5. Provide comments on the accuracy of voltage division for calculating network input resistance with respect to resistor tolerance.

R1

R3

15K

R2

RAB

R9

B

30K

R8

10K 5

2K

30K R5

R4

7.5K

2K

N2

(a)

RG

EG

10V

VAB

B

(b)

Figure 3

(a) Network N2

(b) Voltage divider with N2

- 63 -

24K R6

R7

N2

10K

Table 2(a)

N2 component values

Component

Specified value

R1

15K

R2

30K

R3

2K

R4

30K

R5

24K

R6

10K

R7

2K

R8

7.5K

R9

10K

Measured value

Table 2(b)

RAB from N2 (Figure 3(a))

Condition

RAB ()

Calculated from measured R values

RAB measured with DMM

Table 2(c)

RAB from voltage division (Figure 3(b))

RG specified

()

RG measured

()

EG measured

(V)

VAB measured

(V)

- 64 -

RAB calculated

()

(%)

An important application of current division is applied in the design of a current output digital-to-analog converter

(DAC). These networks use binary scaled currents generated in a resistive ladder network called the R-2R ladder.

This network is responsible for repeatedly dividing the input reference current (Iref) into a series of branch currents

scaled by powers of 2. A typical R-2R ladder network is shown in Figure 4 where 1K and 2K resistors are used.

1. Build R-2R network N3 shown in Figure 4 on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the values of each resistor and the voltage source EG with the DMM and record in Table 3(a) where indicated.

3. Apply the current division operation to calculate values for the currents listed on the schematic and record in Table

3. Use specified resistor and voltage source values in these calculations.

4. Measure with the DMM these currents and record their values in Table 3.

5. Calculate the difference () in percent between the currents measured from the network (3) and those calculated

with specified component values (2) as the basis, and record in Table 3 where indicated.

6. Provide comments on the accuracy of the current divider network N3 for providing precise binary-weighted currents

resistor scaling and tolerance.

RG1 1K

Iref

R2

I1

RG2 1K

EG

12V

R1

2K

R4

I3

1K

R6

I5

1K

2K

R3

R5

1K

2K

R7

I7

I8

2K

R8

2K

N3

Figure 4

R-2R network N3

Table 3(a)

N3 component values

Component

Specified value

EG

12V

RG1

1K

RG2

1K

R1

2K

R2

1K

R3

2K

R4

1K

R5

2K

R6

1K

R7

2K

- 65 -

Measured value

R8

2K

Table 3(b)

N3 currents

Current

division (A)

Measured from N3

(A)

(%)

Iref

I1

I3

I5

I7

I8

VI. Superposition

A. Resistive Network N4.

1. Build network N4 shown in Figure 5 on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the value of each resistor and each voltage source with the DMM and record in Table 4(a) where indicated.

3. With both sources connected and turned on, measure VAB and record its value in Table 4(a) where indicated.

4. Perform the following operations.

a. With EG1 turned on and EG2 turned off by replacing it with a short circuit, perform the following operations

i. calculate voltage VAB using the specified component values and record in the first row of Table 4(b),

ii. calculate voltage VAB using the measured component values and record in the first row of Table 4(b), and

iii. measure with the DMM voltage VAB from the breadboard and record in the first row of Table 4(b).

b. With EG2 turned on and EG1 turned off by removing it with a short circuit, perform the following operations

i. calculate voltage VAB using the specified component values and record in the second row of Table 4(b),

ii. calculate voltage VAB using the measured component values and record in the second row of Table 4(b),

and

iii. measure with the DMM voltage VAB from the breadboard and record in the second row of Table 4(b).

c. Apply the superposition theorem to do the following

i. calculate the total voltage for VAB by adding the values calculated from specified component values and

record in the third row of Table 4(b),

ii. calculate the total voltage for VAB by adding the values calculated from measured component values and

record in the third row of Table 4(b), and

iii. calculate the total voltage for VAB by adding the values measured from the breadboard and record in the

third row of Table 4(b).

d. Calculate the difference () in percent (%) between VAB measured directly from N4 (step 3) and the total VAB

calculated from superposition with measured values (step 3ciii); use the direct measured value as the basis.

5. Provide comments on the accuracy of superposition for providing precise voltage measurements and on the ease of

making these measurements.

- 66 -

R1

R2

30K

EG1

14V

15K

R3

VAB

7.5K

EG2

14V

N4

B

Figure 5

Network N4

Table 4(a)

N4 values

Component

Specified value

EG1

14V

EG2

14V

R1

30K

R2

15K

R3

7.5K

Measured value

VAB

Table 4(b)

N4 voltages from superposition

Voltage

Calculated from

specified R values

(V)

Calculated from

measured R values

(V)

Measured from N4

(V)

VAB (EG2 = 0)

VAB (EG1 = 0)

VAB (total)

B. Resistive network N5.

1. Build network N5 shown in Figure 6 on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the value of each resistor and each voltage source with the DMM and record in Table 5(a) where indicated.

3. With both sources connected and turned on, measure voltages VAB and VCD directly from N5 and record their values

in column 5 of Table 5(b) under Direct measurement where indicated.

3. Perform the operations similar to those performed in Part A.

a. With EG1 turned on and EG2 turned off by replacing it with a short circuit, measure voltages VAB and VCD, and

record in the first column of Table 5.

b. With EG2 turned on and EG1 turned off by replacing it with a short circuit, measure voltages VAB and VCD, and

record in the second column of Table 5.

c. Apply the superposition theorem to calculate the total measured values for VAB and VCD, and record in the

fourth column of Table 5(b).

- 67 -

d.

3.

Calculate the difference () in percent between VAB and VCD measured directly from N5 (fifth column) and VAB

and VCD calculated from superposition (fourth column) with the direct measured values as the basis. Record

these values in the last column of Table 5(b).

Provide comments on the accuracy of superposition for providing precise voltage measurements and on the ease of

making these measurements.

R1

1K

EG1

R2

A

N5

15V

5.1K

R3

D

8.2K

R5

6.8K

R4

4.7K

EG2

R6

C

3.9K

B

12V

R7

2.7K

Figure 6

Network N5

Table 5(a)

N5 component values

Component

Specified value

EG1

15V

EG2

12V

R1

1K

R2

8.2K

R3

5.1K

R4

6.8K

R5

4.7K

R6

3.9K

R7

2.7K

- 68 -

Measured value

Table 5(b)

N5 voltages

Voltage

Measured with

EG2 = 0

(V)

Measured with

EG1 = 0

(V)

Total from

superposition

(V)

VAB

VCD

- 69 -

Direct

measurement

(V)

(%)

I. Introduction

The investigation of network theorems is continued in this lab. Part 2 of Network Theorems include experiments on the

following concepts

Thevenins theorem,

Nortons theorem,

reciprocity theorem, and

maximum power transfer.

The theory and equations associated with these experiments are again covered in your class notes. Your job in this session is to investigate and apply the above theorems on resistive networks to provide hands-on experience to verify and

demonstrate the theory covered in the lectures on these topics. For each of the networks given below, use the parts supplied by the GTA, and the DMM and dc power supply located on the lab bench.

II. Components and Instruments

The components and instruments required for this lab are listed below.

Resistors:

Network N2

Network N3

Network N1

1K

5.1K

1.5K

6.8K

1K

5.1K

2.7K

6.8K

3K (2)

12K

2.7K

6.8K

3.9K

8.2K

3.6K

15K

3.9K

8.2K

4.7K

4.7K

Network N4

100

1K (3)

Network N5

100

4.7K

300

5.1K (2)

1K (2)

6.8K (2)

2K

8.2K

2.7K

10K

3K

30K

3.9K

51K

Diode:

Network N4

1N4148

Instruments:

Power supply

Agilent E3620A

Multimeter

Agilent 34401A

Additional:

Breadboard

Tool box

Hook-up wire

III. Experiment Procedures

Procedures for performing experiments on a collection of resistive networks are attached. These experiments involve the

theory and applications covered in the lecture on Thevenins and Nortons equivalents, reciprocity, and maximum power

transfer. In your lab report, provide detailed answers and discussions to the following

(a) With respect to resistor tolerance, are the results of the measurements within tolerance to calculated values using specified component values?

(b) Explain reasons for any discrepancies between calculated and measured results.

(c) How useful are these theorems and operations? Can you think of any specific applications?

- 70 -

Resistive network N1.

1. Build network N1 shown in Figure 1(a) on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the values of the voltage sources and resistors with the DMM, and record in Table 1(a).

3. Apply basic network operations to do the following:

a. calculate values for the Thevenins voltage source ETH, Thevenins resistance RTH, and the current IL through

RL using the specified values of the components and record in Table 1(b),

b. calculate values for ETH, RTH, and IL using the measured values of the components and record in Table 1(b),

c. apply the DMM on N1 to measure values for ETH, RTH, and IL and record in Table 1(b), and

d. calculate the difference () in percent (%) between ETH, RTH, and IL measured from the network (c) and those

calculated with specified resistor values (a) as the basis, and record in Table 1(b) where indicated.

4. Provide comments on the accuracy and convenience of Thevenins equivalent for providing precise resistor currents

connected as loads to the network.

R1

1K

EG1

N1

R3

15V

R2

8.2K

A

R4

5.1K

B

4.7K

EG2

R5

3.9K

12V

R6

2.7K

(a)

N1TH

RTH

A

IL

ETH

VL

RL

6.8K

B

(b)

Figure 1

(a) Network N1

(b) Thevenins equivalent network

- 71 -

Table 1(a)

N1 component values

Component

Specified value

EG1

15V

EG2

12V

R1

1K

R2

8.2K

R3

5.1K

R4

4.7K

R5

3.9K

R6

2.7K

RL

6.8K

Measured value

Table 1(b)

N1 Thevenins equivalent

Component

Calculated from

specified R values

Calculated from

measured R values

Measured from N1

(%)

ETH

RTH

IL

V. Nortons Equivalent

Resistive network N2.

1. Build network N2 shown in Figure 2(a) on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the values of the voltage sources and resistors with the DMM, and record in Table 2(a).

3. Apply basic network operations to do the following:

a. calculate values for the Nortons current source JN, Nortons conductance GN, and the current IL through RL

using the specified values of the components and record in Table 2(b),

b. calculate values for JN, GN, and IL using the measured values of the components and record in Table 2(b),

c. apply the DMM on N2 to measure values for JN, GN, and IL and record in Table 2(b), and

d. calculate the difference () in percent (%) between JN, GN, and IL measured from the network (c) and those

calculated with specified resistor values (a) as the basis, and record in Table 2(b) where indicated.

4. Provide comments on the accuracy and convenience of Nortons equivalent for providing precise resistor currents

connected as loads to the network.

- 72 -

R1

N2

3K

3.6K

R2

EG1

R4

R5

EG2

3K

15K

6V

R3

12V

R6

B

1.5K

12K

(a)

N2N

A

IL

JN

GN

VL

RL

6.8K

B

(b)

Figure 2

(a) Network N2

(b) Nortons equivalent network

Table 2(a)

N2 component values

Component

Specified value

EG1

6V

EG2

12V

R1

3K

R2

15K

R3

1.5K

R4

3.6K

R5

3K

R6

12K

RL

6.8K

- 73 -

Measured value

Table 2(b)

N2 Nortons equivalent

Component

Calculated from

specified R values

Calculated from

measured R values

Measured from N2

(%)

JN

GN

IL

VI. Reciprocity and Reciprocal Networks

A. Resistive Network N3.

1. Build network N3 shown in Figure 3 on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the value of each resistor and voltage source with the DMM and record in Table 3(a) where indicated.

3. Perform the following operations.

a. Remove voltage source EG2 from the connection by replacing it with a short circuit. Turn on voltage source

EG1, measure its value, and record in Table 3(a) then

i. using specified component values, calculate current IG2 and transconductance YT21 from

YT 21 =

IG 2

EG1

(1)

EG 2 = 0

and record both IG2 and YT21 in Table 3(b) where indicated,

using measured component values, calculate current IG2 and transconductance YT21 and record both in Table 3(b) where indicated,

iii. measure with the DMM current IG2 from the breadboard and use it to calculate YT21; record both in Table

3(b) where indicated, and

iv. calculate the difference () in percent (%) between YT21 measured and YT21 calculated with specified component values as the basis, and record in Table 3(b).

Remove voltage source EG1 from the connection by replacing it with a short circuit. Turn on voltage source

EG2, measure its value, and record in Table 3(a) then

i. using specified component values, calculate current IG1 and transconductance YT12 from

ii.

b.

YT 12 =

I G1

EG 2

and record both IG1 and YT12 in Table 3(b) where indicated,

using measured component values, calculate current IG1 and transconductance YT12 and record both in Table 3(b) where indicated,

iii. measure with the DMM current IG1 from the breadboard and use it to calculate YT21; record both in Table

3(b) where indicated, and

iv. calculate the difference () in percent (%) between YT12 measured and YT12 calculated with specified component values as the basis, and record in Table 3(b).

Provide comments on the accuracy of your calculations and measurements for generating the transconductance

functions YT21 and YT12.

ii.

4.

- 74 -

(2)

EG 1 = 0

R1

1K

EG1

N3

R3

IG1

R2

8.2K

8V

5.1K

6.8K

R4

EG2

R6

R5

3.9K

4.7K

12V

IG2

R7

2.7K

Figure 3

Network N3

Table 3(a)

N3 component values

Component

Specified value

EG1

8V

EG2

12V

R1

1K

R2

8.2K

R3

5.1K

R4

6.8K

R5

4.7K

R6

3.9K

R7

2.7K

- 75 -

Measured value

Table 3(b)

N3 transconductances

Parameter

Calculated from

specified R values

Calculated from

measured R values

Measured from N3

Difference

(%)

YT21(EG2 = 0) (S)

IG1 (EG1 = 0) (A)

YT12(EG1 = 0) (S)

B. Network N4.

1. Build network N4 shown in Figure 4 on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Determine from measurements if N4 is reciprocal. Provide definite reasons why it is or is not.

R3 1K

V1

R1

D1

R4

1K

1N4148

100

R2

1K

V2

N7

Figure 4

Network N4

VII. Maximum Power Transfer

Resistive network N5.

1. Build network N5 (identical to network N1 in Figure 1(a)) shown in Figure 5 on your breadboard using parts supplied by the GTA.

2. Measure the values of the voltage sources and resistors with the DMM, and record in Table 5(a).

3. Connect the load resistors RL listed in Table 5(b) to terminals A-B and measure the corresponding load voltage VL,

load current IL, and load power PL. Record these measurements in Table 5(b) where indicated.

4. Generate a plot of PL (linear scale) versus RL (log scale) and indicate the maximum power PL(max) and corresponding RL (RL(opt)) on the plot.

5. Use the measured component values in Table 5(a) to calculate the optimal value for the load resistor RL (RLC(opt))

that will produce the maximum power delivered by N5 to the load. Calculate the maximum power PLC(max). Make

use of the Thevenins equivalent.

6. Calculate the difference () in percent (%) between the measured maximum power and the calculated maximum

power with the measured value as the basis, and record in Table 5(c).

7. Compare PLC(max) to PL(max) and RLC(opt) to RL(opt) and comment on the accuracy of the calculations and measurements of these terms.

- 76 -

R1

1K

EG1

N5

R3

R2

8.2K

15V

5.1K

VL

IL

RL

R4

4.7K

B

R5

EG2

3.9K

12V

R6

2.7K

Figure 5

Network N5

Table 5(a)

N5 component values

Component

Specified value

EG1

15V

EG2

12V

R1

1K

R2

8.2K

R3

5.1K

R4

4.7K

R5

3.9K

R6

2.7K

RL

6.8K

- 77 -

Measured value

Table 5(b)

N5 measurements

Specified RL

value ()

Measured RL

value ()

Load voltage

VL (V)

Load current

IL (A)

100

300

1K

2K

3K

5.1K

6.8K

10K

30K

51K

Table 5(c)

N5 maximum power transfer

Parameter

Measured value

Calculated value

RL(opt)

PL(max)

- 78 -

(%)

Load power

PL (W)

Amplifier Networks

I. Introduction

The purpose of this lab session is to gain familiarity with several well-known amplifier circuits built with standard operational amplifiers. The theory and derivations associated with each of the circuits listed below has been covered both in

class and in homework assignments. Basically, your job in this session is to design (where necessary), build, test, and

evaluate each of these circuits in order to expand your hands-on experience in working with operational amplifiers. For

each circuit listed below, use TLC274 operational amplifiers, standard 5% resistors, a 5 volt dc power supply, and an ac

signal generator. For measurements, use ac voltmeters, DVMs, and oscilloscopes.

II. Components and Instruments

The components and instruments required for this lab are listed below.

Components:

Resistors

510

5.1K

10K

18K

30K

39K

51K

10K single-turn potentiometer

Instruments:

Function generator

Agilent 33120A 15MHz

Power supply

Agilent E3620A

20K

Oscilloscope

Agilent 54621A 60MHz dual-channel

Multimeter

Agilent 34401A

Additional:

Breadboard

Tool box

Hook-up wire

Oscilloscope probes

III. Lab Assignment

Build and perform measurements on the following amplifier networks.

A. Amplifier No. 1. An inverting-gain amplifier with a dc voltage gain of -5.0 and an input resistance of 10.0K.

Measure and plot the magnitude of the voltage gain (dB) over frequency from 10Hz to 15MHz. Indicate on this plot

the -3dB bandwidth and calculate the amplifier GBW.

B. Amplifier No. 2. A non-inverting-gain amplifier with a dc voltage gain of +4.0 and an input resistance of 10.0K.

Measure and plot the magnitude of the voltage gain (dB) over frequency from 10Hz to 15MHz. Indicate on this plot

the -3dB bandwidth and calculate the amplifier GBW.

C. Amplifier No. 3. A dual-input difference amplifier with a dc voltage gain of 2.0 and input resistances of 10.0K.

Measure and plot the magnitude of the voltage gain (dB) for each input over frequency from 10Hz to 15MHz. Indicate on this plot the -3dB bandwidth and calculate the GBW for each input.

D. Amplifier No. 4. The dual-output audio panpot amplifier (see problem 1.25 Ref .1) shown in Figure 1. Determine

the 1KHz voltage gain at each output as the pot RP is varied over its full range.

E. Amplifier No. 5. The bridge amplifier (see problem 1.74 Ref. 1, Ref. 2) shown in Figure 2. Design this amplifier

for a differential output voltage gain of 8. Determine the maximum undistorted peak-to-peak voltage swing across

the load resistor RL at 1KHz.

IV. References

1. S. Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, 3rd Ed., The McGraw-Hill

Companies, Inc., New York, NY, 2002, (ISBN 0-07-232084-2).

2. NSC data sheet, LM4991, 3W Audio Power Amplifier with Shutdown Mode, Audio Power Amplifier Series, National Semiconductor Corporation, 2003.

- 79 -

R1L

R3L

5K

10K

R2L

20K

+5V

VoL

OAL

left channel

-5V

RP

10K

Vin

+5V

right channel

VoR

OAR

5K

10K

R1R

R3R

-5V

R2R 20K

Figure 1

Audio panpot amplifier

R1a

R2a

10K

+5V

Vo1

OA1

-5V

Vin

RL

Vo

510

R2b

R1b

Vo2

10K

+5V

OA2

-5V

Figure 2

Bridge amplifier

(aka Boomer Amplifier)

- 80 -

I. Introduction

The purpose of this lab exercise is to test an operational amplifier (op-amp) and to measure a set of its open-loop parameters. The results of these measurements provide important parameters for an op-amp data sheet. Your job in this lab

experiment is to apply test circuit OATC1 shown in Figure 1 to a given device under test (DUT). The description of this

test circuit and the procedures for taking measurements from the DUT are explained in the paper OATC1: A Universal

Test Circuit for Measuring Op-Amp Parameters attached to this experiment. Make use of the parts and the DUT supplied by the GTA, and the instruments located on the lab bench to perform this experiment.

II. Components and Instruments

The components and instruments required for this lab are listed below.

Components:

Op-amp: OP-07 (3)

LM741 DUT

Capacitors: 300nF, NPO multilayer ceramic

Resistors:

100 (2)

2K (5)

30K

51K (3)

100K (2)

Potentiometer:

10K, trimpot

Instruments:

Power supply

Agilent E3620A

Function generator

Agilent 33120A

Multimeter

Agilent 34401A

Oscilloscope

Agilent 54621A

Additional:

Breadboard

Tool box

Hook-up wire

III. Op-amp Parameters and the Data Sheet

Download the data sheet for the LM741 op-amp. From this data sheet, extract the parameters listed in Table 1. Fill out

the first column in Table 1 with these parameters. Build test circuit OATC1 on your breadboard with the LM741 connected as the device under test (DUT). Apply the procedures outlined in the attached paper to measure the parameters

listed in Table 1. Fill out the second column of Table 1 with these measured values.

IV. Compare and Comment

(a)

Compare the parameter values listed in Table 1. How close are the LM741 data sheet parameters to those from

actual measurements? How useful is the test circuit OATC1 for generating a data sheet for an op-amp?

(b)

Comment on any major differences among the data in Table 1. Determine reasons for these differences.

V. References

1. V. Pua, H.T. Russell, Jr., W.A Davis, and R.L. Carter, A Comparison of Operational Amplifier Test Circuits, 9th

IEEE Emerging Technologies Conference (ETC 2006), Richardson, TX, September 15, 2006.

2. S. Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, 3rd Ed., The McGraw-Hill

Companies, Inc., New York, NY, 2002, (ISBN 0-07-232084-2).

VI. Attachments

1. H.T. Russell, Jr., OATC1: A Universal Test Circuit for Measuring Op-Amp Parameters, Department of EE,

UTA, November, 2009.

- 81 -

R7

51K

R3

1

+Vpsp

R4

100

100K

In

100

100K

Ip

R1

R2

Vic

+5V 2K

R5

Vo

R9

2K

OP07

+5V

300nF

2K

DUT

-Vpsn

CC

RC 30K

R8

S4

Vo1

U1

R6

-5V

2K

Vo2

OP07

U2

-5V

Vid

S2

(a)

+5V

Rp

10K

OP07

Vid or Vic

U3

RF3

-5V

2K

(b)

Figure 1

Op-amp test circuit OATC1

Table 1

DUT parameters

(Vpsp/Vpsn = 10V, RL = 2K, T = 27C)

Parameter

LM741

Data sheet

Description

Units

Vos

IB

IBOS

Pdiss

Power dissipation

CMRR

dB

PSRRp

dB

PSRRn

dB

Gvdm(0)

V/V

Gvcm(0)

V/V

- 82 -

OATC1

Department of Electrical Engineering

OPALtx

November 2009

OATC1: A Universal Test Circuit for

Measuring Op-Amp Parameters

The circuit shown in Figure 1(a) is the test circuit OATC1 for the measurement of a variety of operational amplifier parameters. This circuit is an adaptation of the one shown on Intersil Corporations application note AN551.1

entitled Recommended Test Procedures for Operational Amplifiers. You may download this note from the company web site www.intersil.com. A similar circuit may be found in problem 5.27 on pages 246-247 of Sergio Francos textbook2.

R7

51K

+Vpsp

R3

R4

100

100K

In

100

100K

Ip

R1

R2

Vo

300nF

2K

OP07

U1

R6

-Vpsn

+5V

R9

2K

DUT

2

Vic

+5V 2K

R5

CC

RC 30K

R8

S4

U2

-5V

2K

Vo2

OP07

Vo1

-5V

Vid

S2

(a)

+5V

Rp

10K

Vid or Vic

OP07

U3

RF3

-5V

2K

(b)

Figure 1

(a) OATC1 op-amp test circuit

(b) dc voltage generator

The Vpsp and Vpsn dc voltage rails are nominal power supply voltages required to bias the device under test

(DUT) while Vid and Vic represent differential-mode and common-mode input voltages to the DUT. These voltages

are obtained from the circuit shown in Figure 1(b) which generates a low-impedance dc voltage set by Rp. Resistor

values shown on the schematic are typical with 1% tolerances and can be changed if necessary. Assuming that the

OP07s in this circuit are ideal op-amps, routine circuit analysis produces the following low-frequency, small-signal

expression for the output voltage Vo2.

Vid =

F R I F R I G bV

GH R JK GH R + R JK

6

vdm

o2

g FGH RR IJK G

Vic

vcm Vic

F R I G dV

GH R JK

6

vdm

os

+ R p I p Rn In

S. Franco, Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, 3nd Ed., The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., New York, NY,

2001.

- 83 -

(1)

where

Rp = R1 + R2

Rn = R4 +

(2)

R3 R7

R3 + R7

These equations are used in the procedures that follow to measure a series of low-frequency op-amp parameters. In

these procedures, the indicated changes in Vid and Vic are provided by the dc voltage generator with values.

1.

a. close switches S2 and S4,

b. set Vic and Vid to zero by connecting pins 1 and 2 to ground,

c. measure Vo2 with a dc voltmeter,

d. calculate Vos from

Vos =

F R IV

GH R + R JK

3

2.

(3)

o2

a. close switches S2 and S4,

b. set Vic to zero by connecting pin 1 to ground,

c. connect the output of the signal generator to pin 2 for Vid,

d. adjust Rp to change the dc value of Vid to get

af

af

e.

(4)

af

af

f.

(5)

Gvdm =

F R I F1 + R I 1

GH R JK GH R JK F V I

GH V JK

5

(6)

o2

id

3.

a. close switches S2 and S4,

b. set Vid to zero by connecting pin 2 to ground,

c. connect the output of the signal generator to pin 1 for Vic,

d. adjust Rp to change the dc value of Vic to get

af a f

e.

(7)

af

af

(8)

- 84 -

f.

4.

R

1

CMRR = 1 + 7

R3

Vo 2

1

Vic

1

Rp

LMF R I V

MNGH R + R JK

3

o2

+ Vos

OP

PQ

(10)

a. close switch S2, open switch S4,

b. set Vic and Vid to zero by connecting pins 1 and 2 to ground,

c. measure Vo2 with a dc voltmeter,

d. calculate In from

In =

6.

(9)

IJ

K

a. open switch S2, close switch S4,

b. set Vic and Vid to zero by connecting pins 1 and 2 to ground,

c. measure Vo2 with a dc voltmeter,

d. calculate Ip from

Ip =

5.

I

JK F

GH

F

GH

1

Rn

LMF R I V

MNGH R + R JK

3

o2

+ Vos

OP

PQ

(11)

a. calculate IB and IBOS from

IB =

I p + In

(12)

2

I BOS = I p I n

Example. Four 741-type op-amps were tested with this circuit. Circuit values for the DUT are given below.

VCC = 5.06V

VEE = 5.05V

(13)

R7 = 51K

Data for Vos

Unit

Vo2 (V)

Vos (V)

7001

-0.294

575.3

7014A

-0.238

465.7

2E23

-0.157

307.2

D34

-0.0634

124.1

- 85 -

Unit

Vid(1) (V)

Vo2(1) (V)

Vid(2) (V)

Vo2(2) (V)

Gvdm (V/V)

7001

-1.012

-0.316

+1.023

-0.276

26.00K

7014

-1.001

-0.258

+1.069

-0.221

28.59K

2E23

-1.049

-0.1603

+1.038

-0.1599

2.67M

D34

-1.093

-0.0668

+1.096

-0.0666

5.59M

Unit

Vic(1) (V)

Vo2(1) (V)

Vic(2) (V)

Vo2(2) (V)

CMRR

7001

-1.029

-1.294

+1.069

0.757

22.81K

7014

-1.075

-1.301

+1.069

0.819

45.65K

2E23

-1.016

-1.162

+1.044

0.878

52.63K

D34

-1.018

1.065

+1.048

0.974

39.10K

- 86 -

Appendix 1

EE 1105

Bread board layout techniques

September 13, 2008

HTR, Jr.

binding post

(black)

binding post

(red)

R3

R1

1K

R2

33K

Figure 1

Resistor network schematic

Figu re 2

Wrong way off the board with loops

- 87 -

200K

Figure 3

Right way - low to the board and tight

Figure 4

Right way low to the board and even tighter

- 88 -

HTR, Jr.

February, 25, 2009

- 89 -

- 90 -

Appendix 2

Lab Measurement Example 1

R1

R2

10K

Vps

3.3K

56K

680

R5

R3

10V

R6

B

56K

R4

2

Figure 1

Network schematic

Figure 2

Breadboard layout

- 91 -

51K

Table 1

Voltage, current, and power map

Element voltage

Nodes

Element

Specified

value

Measured

value

R1

10K

9.8251K

R2

3.3K

3.2624K

R3

680

684.22

R4

51K

50.294K

R5

56K

55.175K

R6

56K

55.158K

Vps

10V

Element current

Nodes

Measured

value (V)

Calculated

value (A)

Table 2

Kirchhoff current law

Node

Total current

into (Iin) (A)

Total current

out of (Iout) (A)

1

2

3

4

A

B

- 92 -

KCL

(Iin Iout) (A)

Element

power (W)

Table 3

Kirchhoff voltage law

Circuit

Total cw voltage

drop (Vcw) (V)

drop (Vccw) (V)

Vps, R1,

R5, R6

R5, R2, R3,

R4

Vps, R1,

R2, R3, R4,

R6

- 93 -

KVL

(Vcw Vccw) (V)

Solutions

R1

R2

10K

Vps

3.3K

56K

680

R5

R3

10V

R6

B

56K

R4

2

Figure 1

Network schematic

Figure 2

Breadboard layout

- 94 -

51K

Table 1

Voltage, current, and power map

Element voltage

Nodes

Element current

Nodes

Measured

value

Measured

value (V)

Calculated

value (A)

Element

power (W)

10K

9.8251K

1.09245

111.1897

121.4692

R2

3.3K

3.2624K

0.18271

56.00478

10.23263

R3

680

684.22

38.073m

55.64438

2.118549

R4

51K

50.294K

2.8199

56.06832

158.1071

R5

56K

55.175K

3.0406

55.10829

167.5623

R6

56K

55.158K

6.1287

111.1117

680.9704

Vps

10V

10.0147V

10.2831

-111.4

1.145537m

Element

Specified

value

R1

Table 2

Kirchhoff current law

Node

Total current

into (Iin) (A)

Total current

out of (Iout) (A)

KCL

(Iin Iout) (A)

(IR1)

111.1897

(IR2 + IR5)

111.1131

76.63n

(0.069%)

(IR4 + IR5)

111.1766

(IR6)

111.1117

64.91n

(0.058%)

(IR3)

55.64438

(IR4)

56.06832

423.9366n

(0.762%)

(IR2)

56.00478

(IR3)

55.64438

360.4n

(0.648%)

(IR1 + Ips)

210.3n

210.3n

(0.189%)

(Ips + IR6)

-288.3n

288.3nA

(0.259%)

- 95 -

Table 3

Kirchhoff voltage law

Circuit

Total cw voltage

drop (Vcw) (V)

drop (Vccw) (V)

KVL

(Vcw Vccw) (V)

10.26175

(Vps)

10.2831

21.35m

(0.208%)

3.040683

(VR5)

3.0406

83

(0.0027%)

R4, R6

10.26183

(Vps)

10.2831

21.267m

(0.207%)

R1

R2

10K

Vps

3.3K

R5

56K

R3

680

10V

R6

B

56K

R4

2

51K

Figure 3

Oriented network schematic

Total power delivered by the power supply

= 1.145537mW

Absolute difference (%)

= 5.076W (0.445%)

- 96 -

Appendix 3

Bills of Material

Lab 1

Bill of materials (BOM)

Resistors

100

820

1K

Capacitors

10nF

Inductors

680H

- 97 -

Lab 2

Bill of materials (BOM)

Resistors

100 (2)

1.2K (2)

2.4K (2)

3.3K

5.1K

7.5K

30K

120

1.8K

2.7K (2)

3.6K

5.6K

10K (3)

100K (2)

Active devices:

TLC274 op-amp

2N3819 NJFET

1K (2)

2K (2)

3K

4.7K

6.8K

20K

10K trimpot

- 98 -

Lab 3

Bill of materials (BOM)

- 99 -

Lab 4

Bill of materials (BOM)

Resistors

100

2K (5)

4.7K

8.2K

30K (2)

270

2.7K

5.1K

10K (2)

1K (5)

3.3K

6.8K

15K

1.6K

3.9K

7.5K

24K

- 100 -

Lab 5

Bill of materials (BOM)

Resistors:

100

2K

3.9K

8.2K

30K

300

2.7K

4.7K

10K

51K

1K (3)

3K (2)

5.1K (2)

12K

1.5K

3.6K

6.8K (2)

15K

Diode:

1N4148

- 101 -

Lab 6

Bill of Materials

Part

Description

Op-amp

encapsulated

Resistor

Resistor

Resistor

10

Resistor

Resistor

Resistor

Resistor

Resistor

Pot

Misc.

Wire

- 102 -

Count

Lab 7

Bill of materials (BOM)

Active devices:

OP-07 op-amp (3)

LM741 DUT

Resistors:

100 (2)

51K (3)

2K (5)

100K (2)

30K

10K trimpot

Capacitors:

300nF, NPO multilayer

- 103 -

- Online Homework 10 SolutionTransféré parNKHICQ1mEbIw
- Seismic Cone Penetrometer TestingTransféré parszarnani
- LeCroy_WaveAce_DatasheetTransféré parpp
- rr221001-electrical-and-electronics-measurementsTransféré parSRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- E1585-English User ManualTransféré paredson
- THS710,20,30.pdfTransféré parTyrannyBR
- Tektronik 212 Scope Maintenance ManualTransféré parEduardo Escalante
- BAS16_SERTransféré parAbel Gauna
- DDX-7000Transféré parlea_quilmes
- ME3200 simulador de InstrumentaçãoTransféré parferruzzi
- EV101_L4_DC_Analysis.pptTransféré parLiHong Khaw
- Cushman Model CE-3 FM Communication Monitor Manual, 1968.Transféré parBob Laughlin, KWØRL
- CRO3apr18Transféré parPramod Morya
- SouthEastCon2018_12feb2018tw.pdfTransféré parrhill55_911701980
- Physics Paper With Answer Paper II Code 9Transféré parharsh
- Electro Static Deflection in CrtTransféré parutadaneelimadeviutada
- LeCroy WavePro 7 Zi-A DatasheetTransféré parBharath Chenna Rajagopalan
- Philips L7.2ETransféré parcarlosv
- BB60 User ManualTransféré parDramane Bonkoungou
- 2018-I-Ing Quimica Differential Equation( List-05)Transféré parBryan Muñoz
- Wireless Debug TechniquesTransféré parmonel_24671
- L4962ATransféré parabeyrathna
- sam40-datasheet-1152201Transféré parJeremy Toh
- 66_15575_EC410_2014_1__2_1_LECTURE 2 (1)Transféré parZulfiqar Ali
- [Doi 10.1109%2Ficemi.2011.6037891] Zeng Hao, ; Ye Peng, -- [IEEE Instruments (ICEMI) - Chengdu, China (2011.08.16-2011.08.19)] IEEE 2011 10th International Conference on Electronic MeasuTransféré parMario
- LAB 1 ProteusTransféré parHamza Nasir
- spark_wssci07+++Transféré parRobert Režek
- Agilent_86100CTransféré parSol Marjorie
- snoa637Transféré parpvicky
- Rashid Ch02 ImagesTransféré parAtiq Ur Rehman

- ConveyorsTransféré parDeborah Malanum
- DC Circuits Lab Ohms Law CETT 1403Transféré parjuanm01
- R0 VE J108 D E212 Relay Setting Calculation HPL16 09 13Transféré par91thiyagarajan
- Datasheet 1653 FlukeTransféré parAlejandro José
- Cased Hole Cable Tech ManualTransféré parMAKTAR5422
- 7 PotentiometerTransféré parBreno Oliveira
- [Ulf_Langefors]_The_Modern_Technique_of_Rock_Blast(b-ok.cc).pdfTransféré parkike
- GuideSSHV2Transféré parvinhson65-1
- MV Capacitor CalculationTransféré parPramod B.Wankhade
- PT-100Transféré parRicardo Urio
- BSTransféré parpadritita
- ET115-1Transféré parMuhammad Shakeel
- RME PEC Review Questions GeneralTransféré parReneboy Lambarte
- 9702_s11_qp_21Transféré parAhmad Syahmi Irfan
- 8401 0042 v Link LXRS SG Link LXRS Measuring Voltages Above 3 VoltsTransféré parSr. RZ
- 2. Science FormulaeTransféré parNoel Cunningham
- electrician math and formulas.pdfTransféré parionut1990
- Reference DataTransféré parE.C.MADHUDUDHANA REDDY
- Sr - PhysicsTransféré parVishu Vidyasagar
- ELECTRODYNAMICSTransféré parAhmad Fuad Rosyidi
- Kron Reduction - Open ElectricalTransféré parHerman Damanik
- Hvac ElectricalTransféré partinhlaing
- datasheet 104Transféré parAnang Setiawan
- Ejercicios-Cap05Transféré parMiguel Liceaga
- Solar Pv Training Pv-2Transféré parjayminray
- ASM vol11Transféré parCPForman
- Ohm's Law LabTransféré parEamon Barkhordarian
- SAQ_ans_10Transféré parharshanauoc
- Science of 4 20 MA Current LoopTransféré parJoshua Holland
- Laboratory Manual for Dc Electrical CircuitsTransféré parerdvk