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# ABSTRACT

This experiment was an experiment for investigate the vortices phenomenon. In these
experiment two observations was done. First observation was on the free vortices in this
experiment we recorded or sketch the profiles of vortices formed. The differences size of
orifice was used to control the outlet. Each of the orifice will result in differ vortex profiles.
Using a small orifice will formed small vortex. When large size of orifice used then large
vortex formed. For the forced vortex, the time for revolution of impeller in the container
was recorded. Then the measured needle length h m, also measured. Then calculation
was done to determine the height of hc.

INTRODUCTION
Vortex
In common usage, by vortex we usually mean a whirlpool, or a circular cavity formed by
a liquid in rotation. Vortex in fluid mechanics means a region of fluid bounded by the socalled vortex lines, whose tangents at all points are parallel to the local directions of
vortices. The vortex lines, which are the axes of rotation, have to be either closed lines,
or begin and end on the boundaries of the fluid or on the points in regions of infinite
vortices. A vortex induces an external fluid motion. A vortex is a form of kinetic energy,
the energy of motion
The Zhukovsky theory of conformal transformation shows that when a flow with
circulation around a circle (vortex) is transformed into a flow past an airfoil, the
circulation remains the same. A circle and a wing can replace the airfoil by a circular
cylinder (long vortex). A bound vortex is imagined to be inside the wing, and confined to
the wing. Because the aircraft wing can ever be infinitely long, the bound vortex too,
must have an infinite length, or span. Zhukovsky suggested that his bound vortex twists
at the tips of the wing and thus a horseshoe vortex system is formed (Tokaty, 1994) from
reference .

Forces vortices
Some of the important cases of forced vortexes are:

The movement of the liquids within the impeller of a centrifugal pump when there
is no flow as, for example, when the outlet valves are closed.

The rotation of the liquid within the confines of a stirrer in an agitated tank.

## The rotation of liquids in the basket of centrifuge

If liquids contains in cylindrical basket which is rotated about a vertical axis, the surfaces
of constant pressure, including the free surfaces are paraboloids of revolutions. In
generals the pressure at the walls was not constant, but varies with height. However at
normal operating speeds the centrifugal forces will greatly exceed the gravitational
forces and the inner surfaces of the liquids will be approximately vertical and the wall
pressure will be nearly constant. At high operating speed, where the gravitational forces,
and the inner surfaces of the liquids will be approximately vertical and forces is relatively
small, the functioning of the centrifuge is independent of the orientation of the axis of
rotation. If mixtures of liquids or suspensions are to be separated in a centrifuges it is
necessary to calculate the pressure at the walls arising from the rotation of the basket
.

Application of vortex

In the engineering field, there is a lot of vortex was apply or used for particular purposes.
The example of vortex was apply in engineering field is vortex water system. A Vortex
Water System means a worry-free solution to refreshing well water, stored water and
municipal water. A vortex system, custom-built for your private well, uses Nature's
process for restoring water. Vortex water is spun through a number of tubes to remove
iron and other minerals that results in rain-soft water that better tastes. It produces
healthy water without polluting the environment as a salt type conditioner does. This
system was rediscovered after 4000 years from references 
So, this experiment was performed to determine the surface profiles of a forced vortex
and to investigate the physical phenomena are visualized with the aid of dye crystals
placed into the fluid.

THEORY
Theory of force vortex
For a constant speed of rotation,

V r

(1)

V = velocity of flow at radius r
The speed of rotation can be obtained by dividing the number of revolution obtained
from the experiment with the time taken for the revolution. Then the speed ( ) of
rotation can be obtained.
If the horizontal plane passing through the nadir (lowest point) of vortex is taken as
datum, theory shows that,
2r 2
,
2g
This is the equation of the parabola.
H h0

(2)

## For this experiment h0 was assumed to be zero.

Theory of free vortex
When water flows out of a vessel through a central hole in the base, a free vortex is
formed. In a free cylindrical vortex, the velocity varies inversely to the distance from the
axis of the rotation.
V

k
r

(3)

The equation governing the surface profiles is derived from Bernoullis Theorem:
V2
zC
2g

(4)

Thus,
k2
z C
r 2 2g

(5)

Which is the equation to a hyperbolic curve which is asymptotic to the axis of rotation
and to the horizontal through z = C

PROCEDURES
Procedure equipment set up
Force vortex
The apparatus was position in the working channel of the bench and the supply was
connected. The blanking plug was placed in into the central hole in the based of the
cylinder. The paddle was press on to the stud. A flexible hose was connected to the
outlet pipe and the outlet valve was closed.
Then the bench pump was switched on, the bench control valve was opened and the
three way inlet valve too. So that the water enters the cylinders from 9 mm tangential
inlet ports which was set at 60 degrees and leaves through the larger ports, discharging
into the volumetric tank.
The outlets a pipe was raised, and allows the water filled up and then lower it into the
volumetric tank. This induces a symphonic effect hence increasing the discharge rate.
Free vortex
The apparatus was positioned into the working channel of the bench and the supply was
connected. Orifice was placed into the center hole in the based of the cylinder.
The bench pump was switched on, the bench control valve was opened and also the
three way inlet valve. So it allows the water enters the cylinder from the 12 mm diameter
tangential inlets ports set at 150 degrees and discharges through the orifice into the
volumetric tank.

## Procedures Taking a set of results

Forced vortex
The bridge was placed with the measuring needles across the top of the cylinder. The
profiles of the surfaces were determined by lowering the measuring needles until they
just touch the water surface. The speed of the rotation of the paddles is measured by
timing a number of paddles rotations using the marker spot as a reference. The bridge
was removed and the length of each needle was recorded.

Free vortex

For the free vortex experiment an observation of the vortex, destruction of vortex and
profiles plotting was done to investigate for the each of the factor associate.

## Observation of the vortex

The phenomenon on how the vortex formed is observed.

## Destruction of the vortex

The effect of the flow rate on the vortex formed and other factor that may affect
the vortex formed was investigated.

## Plotting the profiles

Attach the gauge to the center hole of the bridge and use this and its associated
scale to determine the diameter of the vortex at a range of a depth.

APPARATUS

Figure 1: 1 height measuring device, 2 radius measuring device, 3 height sensor and
pitot tube, 4 transparent double-walled vortex tank, 5 interchangeable central drain, 6
drive motor for rotational movement, 7 controller housing

## Figure 3: An equipment for force and free vortices

TECHNICAL DATA
Position of needles for measuring profile of vortex (from edge of tank)
Table 1: Technical data
Needle

0.11

0.09

0.07

0.05

0.03

0.00

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RESULTS
For forces vortices experiment
The result in table below was obtained by performing an experiment for vortices. The
data obtained by recorded the number of revolution, time and measure of height from
datum (hm). Then calculation was performed based on the result obtained to calculate
the height, hc.

## Table 2: Forces vortices experiment

No.

Number of
revolution,
N

Time, t
(sec)

Revs
per sec
rps, ()

r (m)

Measured
needle
length, hn
(m)

Height
from
datum,
hm (m)

Calculated
height, hc
(m)

1
2
3
4
5
6

10
20
30
40
50
60

6.32
13.12
21.75
29.31
36.03
44.04

1.582278
1.52439
1.37931
1.364722
1.387732
1.362398

0.11
0.09
0.07
0.05
0.03
0

0.115
0.135
0.141
0.149
0.153
0.157

0.115
0.135
0.141
0.149
0.153
0.157

0.001544
0.000959
0.000475
0.000237
8.83E-05
0

This figure below was obtained by an observation of profiles for each size of cylinder
controlling valve.

Vortex formed
Tank
Water

Figure 4: This figure was observed based on the profiles of free vortices by using 9 mm
size of inlet port

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Tank

Vortex

Water

Figure 5: this sketch of free vortices profiles based on the observation made for 15 mm
size of inlet port

Tank

Vortex

Water

Figure 6: This figure of free vortices profiles was sketch based on observation for 25
mm size of inlet port

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DISCUSSIONS
Forced vortex
For the experiment of forced vortex, some calculation has been done in order to
determine the value of hc. The value of hc is determined by the equation (2). From the
result above, when the revolution per second or the angular momentum decreased the
number or the value of the hc also decreased proportionally.
Free vortex
For the experiment of free vortex, an observation of vortex profiles was performed. In
this experiment three size of orifice was used. For the orifice size of 9 mm, the vortex
form was in the smaller radius. For the second orifice which is 15 mm in size, the vortex
formed was much larger than the orifice formed by the 9 mm orifice. The used of orifice
in size of 25 mm was the largest vortex formed. This phenomenon occurs because the
vortex formed is dependent on the size of the orifice used. From the experiment, clearly
when the size of orifice gets larger, then the vortex formed will large too. This occurs
because when the orifice size gets larger the more water can flow out from the tank.
Then it not accumulated. When more water gets out, the larger vortex formed. This
vortex was formed by the force of water flow in the tank. The flow pattern formed is in
circumferential.
For the observation of destruction of the vortex, a core object has been placed at the
center of the orifice. This action will destroy the vortex formed because the flow of water
was block by the core object. When the blocking occurs, the flow rate of the water
through the orifice will decrease. This give more effect on the smaller orifice (9 mm)
cause the flow rate of the water will decrease more than other orifice (15 & 25 mm).
Then the experiment was performed to discover the plotting profiles. The diameter of the
vortex formed was increased proportionally when the size of the orifices used is much
larger. The used of the small orifices will formed the small diameter of vortex. The larger
size of the orifice used the larger of diameter of the vortex formed. The diameter of the
vortex formed is decreased when the depth of the vortex increased. The measurement

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of the diameter will result in decreased pattern if the measurement was taken
proportionally to the depth of the vortex formed.

CONCLUSIONS

From the result obtained from the experiment, we can conclude that the formed of the
vortex is dependent on the size of the orifice used. The larger the orifice used the larger
vortex will be formed. The disturbance that can destroy the orifice is when some core
object blocks the flow of water through the orifice. From the experiment, the profil;es of
orifice is when the measurement is inversely proportional to the diameter of the vortex.
So, from the relation the form of the vortex can be determined.

RECOMMENDATIONS
For this experiment, it is hard to get or set the equipment to achieve the constant vortex
formed. The vortex formed by this equipment is not maintained and usually change. So,
this device must have a good control in flow rate of water flow. Then the vortex formed is
much constant. When the vortex is constant the measurement is easily performed.
Some dye must be introduced in order to observe the vortex profiles. With this dye we
can observe more clear vortices profiles formed.

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REFRENCES
 JM Coulson & JF Richardson, Chemical Engineering, volume 1, 6th edition, page 53
http://www.gunt.de/daten/07015014/datenblatt/07015014%202.pdf#search='free
%20and%20forced%20vortices'
 4 http://www.armfield.co.uk/fluid.html
http://www.gunt.de/daten/07015031/datenblatt/07015031%202.pdf#search='vortices
%20in%20water%20in%20the%20tank'
 http://www.coachesinfo.com/article/165#vortex
 http://www.environmentsensitive.com/vortex.html

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APPENDICES
Full calculation
Calculation for:
No. of revolution of: 10
Time for the revolution: 6.32 s
Measured needle length, hn = 0.115 m
Revolution per second, rev/s =

10
6.32

= 1.5823 rev/s

hc =
=

2r 2
2g

(1.5823 2 )(0.110 2 )
2 * 9.81

= 1.5441 x 10-3 m
Calculation for:
No. of revolution of: 20
Time for the revolution: 13.12 s
Measured needle length, hn = 0.135 m
Revolution per second, rev/s =

20
13.12

= 1.5244 rev/s

hc =
=

2r 2
2g

(1.5244 2 )(0.135 2 )
2 * 9.81

= 2.1586 x 10-3 m
Calculation for:

16

## No. of revolution of: 30

Time for the revolution: 21.75 s
Measured needle length, hn = 0.141 m

## Revolution per second, rev/s =

30
21.75

= 1.3793 rev/s

hc =
=

2r 2
2g

(1.3793 2 )(0.1412 )
2 * 9.81

= 1.93 x 10-3 m

Calculation for:
No. of revolution of: 40
Time for the revolution: 29.31 s
Measured needle length, hn = 0.149 m
Revolution per second, rev/s =

40
29.31

= 1.3647 rev/s

hc =
=

2r 2
2g

(1.3647 2 )(0.05 2 )
2 * 9.81

= 2.373 x 10-4 m

Calculation for:

17

## No. of revolution of: 50

Time for the revolution: 36.03 s
Measured needle length, hn = 0.153 m
Revolution per second, rev/s =

50
36.03

= 1.3877 rev/s

hc =
=

2r 2
2g

(1.3877 2 )(0.030 2 )
2 * 9.81

= 8.834 x 10-3 m

Calculation for:
No. of revolution of: 60
Time for the revolution: 44.04 s
Measured needle length, hn = 0.157 m
Revolution per second, rev/s =

60
44.04

= 1.3624 rev/s

hc =
=

2r 2
2g

(1.3624 2 )(0 2 )
2 * 9.81

=0m

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