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139 vues19 pagesUnderstanding the dynamics of Binary Stars in the Oxford Physics course

Dec 03, 2014

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Understanding the dynamics of Binary Stars in the Oxford Physics course

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Understanding the dynamics of Binary Stars in the Oxford Physics course

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Diego Granziol

25/01/2014

Abstract

I describe my analysis of the eclipsing binary data, taken by Radhakrishnan & Sarma and by Tomkin on the eclipsing binary system R Canis

Majoris. I determine the orbital period as 1.139480 0.0000122 days and

use this to fit the phase radial velocity data for both stars. The orbits

are found to be nearly circular which allows a deduction of the radii of

both stars as 1.12 R (Solar Radii) and 0.8943 R and their masses as

1.002092105 M (Solar Masses) and 0.156081863 M. I also estimate the

effective black body surface temperatures of the two stars as 7393.076K

and 5189.508K. The measurements on the second star suggest it is no

longer on the main sequence and must have had a far greater mass in

the past. A possible scenario for the evolution of the binary system is

discussed in the main text.

Introduction

The future evolution of a star is largely determined by its mass. Although the

situation is changing now, historically stellar masses could only be determined

directly for objects in binary systems and inferred for single stars by comparing

their spectra with those of binaries. The study of binaries, and eclipsing binaries

in particular, remains an important way of determining stellar masses and of

providing insights into the later stages of stellar evolution [ref.Hilditch 2001] The

purpose of the work descibed here is to verify physical and geometric characteristics of the eclipsing binary system R Canis Majoris using previously reported

radial veloctity and light curves [Ref. Radhakrishnan & Sarma, Tomkin]. The

purpose of this experiment is to infer fundamental properties about the eclipsing binary R Canis Majoris from the light and radial velocity curves. We will

then determine paramaters such as the orbital period, the radii, the mass, the

effective temperature and the extent of distortion from a spherical shape for

both stars. I list the experimental objectives here

Determine the orbital period, that is the time taken by both stars to orbit

their centre-of-mass and produce phased light curves for both the Johnson-B

and Johnson-V filters.

Phase radial velocity data for both stars using the derived period.

Fit sinusoids to both phased radial velocity curves and assess whether or

not the assumption of circular orbits is reasonable.

For circular orbits whose planes lie in the line-of-sight, fitting sinusoids

to the phased radial velocity curves gives orbital speeds; use these to estimate

masses of both stars and their orbital radii.

Deduce the radii of both stars from eclipse timings.

Estimate effective temperatures of both stars from (B-V) colours.

Compare masses, radii and effective temperatures of both stars with those

of the Sun and deduce whether or not these are Main Sequence stars. The

reality of any conclusion reached will depend on the precision with which the

mass-ratio is known.

One of the two stars will be identified as having evolved beyond the Main

Sequence; provide a scenario by which this may have happened.

A detailed fit to the light and radial velocity curve data is needed to

establish the extent to which each star is distorted from its spherical shape; this

shows the extent to which mass-loss and mass- exchange had a role in the earlier

evolution of both stars.

Compare residuals in fits to light curves with those expected, given the

precision of the data, and deduce whether or not there is further information

which could (in principle) be extracted.

1.1

1.1.1

Period Determination

Introduction to the Experiment

The first estimate of the period is achieved by the method of inspection. We are

provided with values of magnitudes of stellar flux from the JohnsonB-band

light

F1

curves in the file B.dat. Armed with the formula x1 x2 = 2.5 log F2 (Where

x1 & x2 refer to magnitudes and F1 & F2 refer to the fluxes) we immediately

1

realize that the smaller the value of F1 the greater the value of 2.5 log F

F2 .

Thus in order to identify the minima, i.e smallest values of F1 we need to

identify the greatest magnitudes of x1 x2 . By inspection we find the Times of

the Minima (heliocentric Julian Date of observation) and in the adjacent column

we include the difference in Time between supposed minimas.

1.1.2

Table

2444606.2928

2444607.4235

2444647.1883

2444648.3210

2444664.2299

2444672.1742

2444998.1999

2444999.3302

2445015.2392

1.1.3

N/A

1.1307

39.7648

1.1327

14.7748

7.9493

326.0207

1.1303

15.909

Calculation

period. We then refine our value by finding the closest integer value of n to

which our approximate value divides into a larger Time difference. Then divide

this Time difference by that value of n. We do this step twice and the calculation

is outlined below. Using 1.1303 days as our first estimate 14.7748

1.1303 = 13.072

13. We now can gain a superior estimate of 14.7748

= 1.136523077 repeating

13

39.7648

this procedure for the largest time difference of 39.7648 yields 1.136523077

=

39.7648

34.988 35 thus an even more improved estimate of 35 = 1.136137143.

This is carried out one final time with our largest time difference of 326.0207

326.0207

326.0207

= 1.13596

1.136137143 = 286.9664103 287 giving us a final estimate of

287

to 5dp. The unwary analyst may of course be tempted to skip the first two steps

and proceed immediately to the final step. We note however that 326.0207

1.1303 =

288.4373175 which gives a refined value of 1.132016319 notably different to our

calculate value.

1.1.4

Error analysis

that there exists an exact interval time which corresponds to a complete orbit.

Let us call this time Tp and let us say that the smallest time between which we

register two minima can be written as Tp +e1 , where e1 is the error which we can

model as a symmetric distribution centered around 0. For a larger time between

minima we can write this as nTp + e2 , where n corresponds to the exact number

of revolutions of the secondary around the primary planet. We approximate n

nT +e

as Tpp+e12 = n n, where the delta represents the deviation from the actual

value of n. Now, to remove any ambiguity in the integer value of n, we need

the value of | | to be less than a 1/2. Thus we have

<e2 >+n2 <e21 >2n<e1 e2 >

e22 +n2 e21 2ne1 e2

2

1

< 2 >= T2 p +<e1 2 >+2T

= eT2pne

+e1 =

(Tp +e1 )2

p <e1 >

<e2 >+n2 <e2 >

Where we have assumed that e1 and e2 are independent.

T 2 +<e2 >4<e2 >

1

2

n2 p 4<e

2>

1

n 100.3427349 100

Where to get an estimate of the max n that would work with this method,

we assumed that our final value calculated was the True value and that our

deviations in the larger times were the root of the mean square error (i.e one STD

DEV away from the zero mean). Given the tiny values of < e21 > & < e22 >the

T2

formula can be well approximated by 4<ep2 > which gives a value of 100.3498233

1

for n (i.e essentially unchanged), much lower than the value of 288 given by the

above naive approach. It essentially comes down to the fact that our repeatedly

refined calculation shows that our best estimates indicate that for the longest

time between minimas 287 orbits as opposed to 288 in the simple calculation

have been completed.

1.2

1.2.1

Period Refinement

Introduction

The next stage was to refine the period time by the string-length method

proposed by Dworetsky (Ref[4]) using the script strphase as described in detail

in section 4.2 of Ref[1]. As proposed in the script we started by selecting the

narrow period of Tp 0.0001 days, increasing in steps of 0.000005, i.e ranging

the value from 1.13586 to 1.13606. The recorded string-length which we wish

to minimize is recorded for the values of interest (i.e surrounding the minimum)

below

1.2.2

String Length

9.694

9.327

9.028

9.142

1.2.3

Period (Days)

1.135935

1.135940

1.135945

1.135950

We thus refine our period even further by centering around 1.135945, allowing

strphase to vary in each direction by 0.000001. We get a minimum string length

value of 8.9370.205 for a Tp = 1.1359454, where the value of .205 represents one

STD DEV for the string value, thus we find the values of Tp which give a string

length of one Standard Deviation on either side of our calculated minimum and

take the average. Hence we try to find two values of Tp with a STD DEV of

9.347 and take the midpoint. Giving us

= 1.1359475 days

Timproved = 1.135939+1.135956

2

Timproved = 1.1359475 0.0000088 days

1.2.4

We repeat the same procedure with the V data. Finding that we have a minimum at 1.13594443 days which gives a string length of 8.427 .204 and by

repeating the same method of taking the mid point between the values two

standard deviations away we get a value of

= 1.1359485 0.0000085 days

TV lightcurve = 1.135940+1.135957

2

1.2.5

Averaging the two values and summing the errors in quadrature we get

Tf inal = 1.139480 0.0000122 days

1.2.6

1.2.7

Where the magnitude of the B light curve data is plotted on y against the phase

(measured in multiples of Pi radians) is plotted on x. This plot has been zoomed

in around radians to make for more accurate measurements for calculations

used in Section 2.

1.2.8

More general overview of the B Light curve, with phase measured in radians

plotted on the x axis and the magnitude plotted on the y axis.

1.2.9

Identical Plot as in 1.2.7 except this time using Johnson V-band data.

1.2.10

1.3

1.3.1

Introduction

circular orbits) to the observed radial velocity curves for both stars using dipso.

For circular orbits we expect the phase difference p to be an integer multiple of

(including 0). Completing the procedure we get two sets of results, one for

the primary star (the larger one) and one for the secondary.

1.3.2

1.3.3

From the graph above we see that for the secondary the difference between

maximum and minimum is around 375 so we get an approximate amplitude

of 187.5 which we use as our first estimate for the secondary radial velocity.

Repeating the the procedure for the Primary we get a radial velocity of about

30. We find that it seems to be centered around roughly -32 so we take that as

our systemic velocity first guess. Whilst the program is not so sensitive to phase

as it is to velocity estimates, we note that if we trace a sinusoidal curve onto

the secondary, that it roughly reaches the 0 point (i.e -32 in our approximation)

because of a design feature in the program not dealing well with an input of 0 we

give it a small non zero value (i.e 0.1). Repeating the procedure for the primary,

we note that tracing a sinusoidal curve through the points and following through

we get an inverted sine curve. Thus we take as a starting point 3.14 as our phase

offset for the primary, the justification for which is provided below.

sin(x + ) = sin(x) cos() + cos(x) sin() = sin(x)

1.3.4

We use the program bnryrvfit to carry out a non-linear least squares fit. We load

the input file binary.dat with the already preset template. We use our previously

obtained estimates for the Systemic Velocity, Radial velocity (for both primary

and secondary), the Phase offset (for both primary and secondary) and the

Period in days (Tp as calculated earlier). Included in the results are also the

10

graphical plots obtained from the fit program. For completeness, and in line

with the method above, we also quote the range which encompasses a 95%

confidence interval around the result. Initially we plot the radial phase velocity

observations for both stars. The secondary is shown in white and the primary

in red. (Fig 1.3.2)

1.3.5

Radial Velocity = 185.390930 0.659569 kms1

95% confidence interval = 183.978858 186.003002 kms1

Phase Offset = 0.0864732908 0.020116 radians

95% confidence interval = 0.0387876481 0.134158933 radians

11

1.3.6

Radial Velocity = 28.8757506 0.54489 kms1

95% confidence interval = 27.7390724 30.0124289 kms1

Phase Offset = 3.24332685 0.012718 radians

95% confidence interval = 3.21679608 3.26985762 radians

1.3.7

Comments on Results

It is interesting to note that for the primary star that, even with the 95% confidence interval the phase offset does not encompass the value (3.14..) We

are forced to conclude that the orbit is clearly not circular, but obviously the

ellipse does not have too large an eccentricity (or the value would be much more

distorted from ) so the approximation will still be of use in further calculations. The systemic velocity is not quoted with a standard deviation as it is not

particularly fundamental to our calculations. It will be allowed to vary within

the fitting programs to achieve the best fit and then lowest chi-squared value. It

is also interesting to note that a moments thought would have revealed that for

a circular orbit, the two radial velocities would have always been out of phase

with each other. Assuming we can treat the binary stars as a closed system,

quite clearly by Newtons 3rd law the Centre of mass experiences no net forces

in this closed system and hence cannot move in space with anything other than

12

a uniform velocity from our reference frame. In that frame of reference, given

that there are no net forces, the centre of mass cannot move. Thus by whatever

angle the first star has moved through, the other will have had to move through

that same angle, but in the opposite direction (i.e out of phase).

2

2.1

Estimating component masses and orbital radii

v2

1

We find that the mass ratio r = m

m 2 = v1 =

we find the variance given by

2

2 (r)

2 (r)

2 (a1 )

+ a(a2 2 ) = (6.420298214)

2 =

r2 =

a21

2

(r) = 0.1232862899

r = 6.42 0.123

2.1.1

a2

a1

185.39093

28.8875706

(0.659569)2

(185.390930)2

= 6.420298214 and

(.54489)2

(28.8757506)2

m v2

m v2

Gm1 m2

F = r11 1 = r22 2 = (r

2

1 +r2 )

where r1 and r2 specify the distance from stars 1 and 2 to the C.O.M

1 = 2 = (or centre of mass would move)

v = r

m1 r1 2 = m2 r2 2

m1

r2

v2

m2 = r1 = v1

2.1.2

Given that we know the radial velocities (calculated in section 1.3.6) and we

have an estimate for the period of the orbit we can estimate radii with the

v 1 Tp

simple relationship r1 = v1 = 2

and similarly for r2 yielding the results

(1.135948243600)(28.8757806

r1 =

) = 451050956m = 0.648527614 R}

2

r2 = 2895881646m = 4.163740685 R}

r1 + r2 = 4.812268299 R}

Where r1 &r2 signify the distances between stars 1 and 2 to the centre of

mass of the binary system.

2.1.3

independence

between the two variables) gives us a total error e of

v 2 (T )2 +T 2 (v)2

e=

2

refer to the errors in v and T respectively)

we thus get on inserting the correct values of of v, T, (T ) and (v)

e(r1 ) = 1.8870162%

e(r2 ) = 0.3557736%

13

2.1.4

Manipulating the basic circular motion algebra and remembering the definition

of r as the mass ratio/radius ratio and r1/r2 as the distance from star 1/2 from

the centre of mass, we get expressions for the masses of both stars

r 3 2 r(1+r)2

= 1.993261405 1030 kg = 1.002092105 M }

M1 = 1 G

r 3 2 (1+r 1 )2

M2 = 2 Gr

= 3.104624332 1029 kg = 0.156081863 M }

M1 + M2 = 1.158173968 M }

2.1.5

The calculation is analogous to that above except for having 3 variables. Adding

in quadrature we get an error for M1 and M2 which is best expressed in percentages

e(M1 ) = 5.29842%

e(M2 ) = 7.65355%

2.1.6

From the images 1.2.9 and 1.2.10 we make an estimate of the time in which the

secondary star is blocking the incoming light from the primary and the estimate

the time in which it does this and additionally drops outside of the field of view,

this will be clarified by the algebra below. Where we assume that the stars can

be modeled as disks and that the eclipses are short with respect to the orbital

durations and thus we can model the trajectories as linear.

2(r1 +r2 )

0.2091246306

= 3266.611692

2

v2 +v1 = long = = (

)

1.135948243600

2(r1 r2 )

v2 +v1

= short =

r1 = 1.12 R}

r2 = 0.8943 R}

2.2

2.2.1

0.02338661688

2

( 1.135948243600

)

= 365.308457

Estimating Temperatures

Primary Star Preamble

We measure the B and V magnitude from figures 1.2.8 and 1.2.9 and we calculate

B-V.

V (magnitude) = 0.31

B(M agnitude) = 0.54

B V = 0.23

2.2.2

Determination of Temperature

literature [Ref.2] we calculate the Temperature of the star

T = A + Bp + Cp2

where p = B V

14

T1 = 7393.076K

2.2.3

Unlike the primary star, assuming a synchronized binary system, the secondary

star will have one hemisphere permanently directed towards the primary. Thus

the observer would see the hot hemisphere immediately before and after the

secondary eclipse (as explained in section 6.2 of the manuscript). Thus the

secondary effective temperature requires a slightly more involved calculation

which is outlined in Appendix B [Ref.1]. Following the calculation and using

the values inferred from the figures 1.2.8 and 1.2.9 for the secondary eclipse we

get

100.4V2 + 100.4V1 = 100.4V12

100.4V2 + 100.4(0.305) = 100.4(0.54)

V2 = 3.02798623

100.4B2 = 100.4B12 100.4B1

B2 = 3.481377662

B2 V2 = 0.453391432

2.2.4

Determination of Temperature

Using a slightly different set of coefficients as we know the mass of the secondary

is much smaller than that of the sun but it still has a roughly solar radius, it

must be on the Red Giant branch, using tabulated values from Lynas and Gray

[Ref.2].

T = A1 + B 1 p + C 1 p 2

T = 4842 + 1413(0.453391432) 1426(0.453391432)2

T2 = 5190K

3

3.0.5

Nightfall

Editing the V.dat file

Following the instructions laid out in section 6.4 and 6.5 respectively we insert

the following information into the beginning of the V.dat file

#B V

This tells the program that this is the Johnson-V band data, we repeat this

procedure for the B band data replacing this with the instruction #B B

#P 1.13948

This is the refined period time which we found in section 1.2.5

#Z 2444648.3283

#N 0.25

#S 0.0

15

3.0.6

A template file called rcma.cfg will have been copied into the setup. We need

to modify all the entries with the following values (as in type in the numerical

values listed below)

MassRatio r = 6.42 (section 2.1)

Primary Temperature T2 = 5190K(section 2.2.2)

convention of program is to have the opposite convention for Primary and

Secondary as the usual one, thus we mean by this the approximate effective

temperature of the secondary (i.e cooler star)

Secondary Temperature T1 = 7393.076 section (2.2.4)

Absolute Mass M1 + M2 = 1.158173968 section (2.1.4)

Absolute Distance r1 + r2 = 4.812268299 section (2.1.2)

Absolute Period Tf inal = 1.139480 (1.2.5)

3.0.7

Where roughly S increases the width of the fit and P the depth. We get a best

fit of

2 = 12.78828

compared to a value of 10 in the manuscript

p = 0.795

s = 0.575

3.0.8

p

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.8

3.0.9

Table showing the range of P and S used and the varying ChiSquared

s

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

2

507.95

205.4

47.37902

176

153

22.33653

We try out different values of p and s for different inclination angles. Noting

that the circular motion is not a perfect but only a close fit, and the fact that

if the angle of inclination is much less than 90 degrees we would not observe

any eclipses, we try for 85, 80 and 75 degrees respectively. We also note that

we only have a component radial velocity of sin(i)v where i is the inclination

angle and v is the speed. Thus clearly if i is smaller than 90 we observe only a

portion of the velocity and thus we have underestimated the mass by a factor

of sin3 (i). Thus we divide through by this factor to get the more appropriate

larger mass. The idea is to find a value of i that gives the smallest value of 2

16

and then stick with that value of i and try to find the absolute minimum value

possible.

3.0.10

p

0.83

0.85

0.86

0.87

0.88

0.875

3.0.11

p

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.7

0.8

3.0.12

p

0.45

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

0.9

1

1

1

0.99

0.98

0.98

0.985

85 degrees

s

0.58

0.59

0.6

0.61

0.62

0.65

2

12.82385

11.74469

10.83151

10.53

10.69

10.5113

80 degrees

s

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.6

2

507

208

47.39

176.995

153

22.33653

75 degrees

s

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.61

0.61

0.605

0.605

2

883.195

638.97

395

189

48.9

43.602

16.67351

30.95197

13.791

12.791

13.39

12.9

12.885

17

3.0.13

Retry of 85 degrees

p

s

2

0.85

0.6

9.854

0.852 0.601

9.7

0.855 0.605

9.32

0.857 0.607

9.185

0.859 0.609

9.07

0.861 0.611

9.09

0.8611 .611 8.41994

We note out of interest that there is not very much difference between the

chi-squared values obtained at 85 degrees and those at 75 degrees with excessive

manipulation of the values s and p, we also note that the experiment expects a

manual adjustment of the parameters which under the time constraints of the

lab time and in general seem rather short sighted, we propose as an improvement

to the experiment that either the student or the demonstrator create a script

that systematically goes through all the values to find an absolute minimum

and is allowed to run overnight to get the job done.

3.0.14

Final results

find that value by varying each of the parameters (temperature of the secondary

star, the value p and the value s) until it reaches such a Chi-squared. This is

a 99% confidence interval. We give the results as a range of the variable for

the 99% confidence interval, quoting the Chi-Squared at each limit respectively

(which had to extracted manually as well). Gvein that this was a very laborious

process and that the chi squared was incredibly sensitive to initial conditions,

occasionally in the interests of time keeping a Chi-Squared slightly different to

the value of 19.919 was recorded.

3758 T 5611 (2 = 19.91448/19.8977)

0.887 p 0.8214 (2 = 19.91536/19.96457)

0.58624 s 0.65083 (2 = 20.11648/19.95356)

Interpretation

4.0.15

Conclusion

We find that the mass of the primary is M6} with error bars small in comparision.

However given that it has the temperature and radius of the sun we reason that

it can obviously no longer be a main sequence star. Given that the minimum

solar mass multiple required to get onto the main sequences (fusing of hydrogen

to helium) is 0.08 (and we are at about .16). We infer that it used to be a

main sequence star. At some point when the core was no longer able to burn

hydrogen into helium at a point in the core, it expanded into a shell around the

core, pushing the radius of the star outwards until it hit the point of gravitational

18

equilibrium between itself and the next star. At this point there would have

been a transfer of mass (in the form of hydrogen) from one star to another (this

depends on the roche lobe filling factor which should be around 0.99 which says

how much of this volume has been filled) explaining the observed difference in

mass.

References

List

AS33p-2 Analysis of eclipsing binary data - Oxford University Practical Management Scheme

Blackwell DE & Lynas-Gray AE, 1998 AAS 129, 505

Budding E & Butland R, 2011 MN 418, 1764

Dworetsky MM, 1983, MNRAS 203, 917

Hilditch RW, 2001, An Introduction to Close Binary Stars, Cambridge University Press.

Radhakrishnan KR & Sarma MBK, 1982, Contr. Nizamiah & Japal-Rangapur

Obs. No. 16.

Ribas I, Arenou F & Guinan EF, 2002, AJ 123, 2033

Tomkin J, 1985, ApJ 297, 250

Wichmann R, 2002, NIGHTFALL Users Guide

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