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POWER PLANT ENGINEERING

REVIEWER
(LECTURE)
Revision 0
2012

Prepared By:
Agerico U. Llovido PME

CONTENTS
A. VARIABLE LOAD
B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION
C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT
D. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT
E. STEAM POWER PLANT
F. CHIMNEYS AND STACKS
G. GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT
H. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT
I. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
J. NONE-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES

A. VARIABLE LOAD - LECTURE


1. Terms and Factors
Reserve over peak is the plant capacity less the peak load.
Average load is the ratio of the kilowatt-hours of energy to the period covered.
Diversity factor is the ratio of the sum of the individual maximum demands of the various subdivisions of a system,
or part of a system, to the maximum demand of the whole system, or part, under consideration.
Demand factor is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total connected load
of the system, or part of the system, under consideration.
Load factor is the ratio of the average load over a designated period of time to the peak load occurring in that
period. The average load may be determined for any specified length of time such as day, month, or year.
Capacity factor is the ratio of the average load on a machine or equipment, for the period of time considered, to
the rating of the machine or equipment. When applied to a plant, this factor is called plant factor or plant-capacity
factor.
Output factor, or use factor is the ratio of the actual energy output, in the period of time considered, to the energy
output which would have occurred if the machine or equipment had been operating at its full rating throughout its
actual hours of service during the period.
Load curve is a curve of power versus time, showing the value of a specific load for each unit of the period
covered. The abscissa is usually time in hours, days, weeks, months, or years, and the ordinate is kilowatts
generated.
Monthly load curve is the average of the daily load curves over a one-month period that is used in establishing
rates.
Annual load curve is the average of the daily load curves over a period of one year that is used in determining the
annual load factor.
Load duration curve is a curve showing the total time, within a specified period, during which the load equaled or
exceeded the power values shown. Kilowatts are used as the ordinate, and normally, the 8760 hr of the year is the
abscissa.
Peak load - is the maximum load consumed or produced by a unit or group of units in a stated period of time. It may
be the maximum instantaneous load or the maximum average load over a designated interval of time.
Utilization factor - is the ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the rated capacity of the
system, or part of the system, under consideration.
1

A. VARIABLE LOAD - LECTURE

Connected load on a system, or part of a system is the sum of the continuous ratings of the load-consuming
apparatus connected to the system, or part of the system, under consideration.
Operation factor is the ratio of the duration of the actual service of a machine or equipment to the total duration
of the actual service of a machine or equipment to the total duration of the period of time considered.
Dump power is hydro power in excess of load requirements that is made available by surplus water.
Firm power is the power intended to be always available even under emergency conditions.
Prime power is the maximum potential power (chemical, mechanical, or hydraulic) constantly available for
transformation into electric power.
Cold reserve is that reserve generating capacity available for service but not in operation.
Hot reserve is that reserve generating capacity in operation but not in service.
Reserve equipment is the installed equipment in excess of that required to carry peak load. Reserve equipment
not in operation is sometimes referred to as standby equipment.
Spinning reserve is that reserve generating capacity connected to the bus and ready to take load. System reserve is
the capacity, in equipment and conductors, installed on the system in excess of that required to carry the peak load.
Run-of-river station is a hydroelectric generating station which utilizes the stream flow without storage.
Spare equipment is equipment complete or in parts, on hand for repair or replacement.
Generating station auxiliary power is the power required for operation.
House turbine is a turbine installed to provide a source of auxiliary power.
Base-load power plants include steam, hydroelectric, and geothermal power plants.
Peak-load power plants include diesel-electric and gas turbine power plants.
2. Equations
Reserve over peak = plant capacity peak load

Average load =
Load factor =

kw hrs energy
no. of hours

average load
peak load
2

A. VARIABLE LOAD - LECTURE


Capacity factor =

actual energy produced


maximum possible energy

Annual capacity factor =


Use factor =

annual kw hrs
kw plant capacity 8760

annual kw hrs
kw plant capacity no. of hrs operation

Demand factor =

actual maximum demand


connected load

Diversity factor =

sum of individual maximum demands


maximum simultaneous demand

Plant factor =

average load
rating of equipment supplying the load

Utilization factor =

maximum demand of system


rated capacity of system

Operation factor =

duration of actual service


total duration of the period of time considered

3. Elements of an Electric Power System


3.1 Power Plant
3.2 Substations
3.3 Feeders
3.4 Distribution transformers
3.5 Customers domestic, industrial, business, etc.
-

End -

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


1. Definitions
Fuel is composed of chemical elements which, in rapid chemical union with oxygen, produce combustion.
Combustion is that rapid chemical union with oxygen of an element whose exothermic heat of reaction is
sufficiently great and whose rate of reaction is sufficiently fast that useful quantities of heat are liberated at elevated
temperatures.
2. Classification of Fuels
2.1 Solid including coal, coke, peat, briquettes, wood, charcoal, and waste products
2.2 Liquid including petroleum and its derivatives, synthetic liquid fuels manufactured from natural gas and coal,
shale oil, coal by-products (including tars and light oil), and alcohols.
2.3 Gaseous including natural gas, manufactured and industrial by-product gases, and the propane and butane or,
liquefied petroleum (LP) gases that are stored and delivered as liquids under pressure but used in gaseous form.
3. Coal Classification
3.1 Classification by rank degree of metamorphism, or progressive alteration, in the natural series from lignite to
anthracite (lignite, subbituminous, semibituminous, bituminous, semianthracite, anthracite, superanthracite).
Probably the most universally applicable method of classification in which coals are arranged according to fixed
carbon content and calorific value, in Btu, calculated on the mineral-matter-free basis.
3.2 Classification by grade quality determined by size designation, calorific value, ash, ash-softening temperature,
and sulfur. The size designation is given first in accordance with the standard screen analysis method followed
by calorific value, and symbols representing ash, ash-softening temperature, and sulfur.
3.3 Classification by type or variety determined by nature of the original plant material and subsequent thereof.
4. Burners for Pulverized Coal
4.1 Vertical firing with all the secondary air admitted around the burner nozzle so that it mixes quickly with coal
primary air mixture from the burner nozzle.
4.2 Impact firing a form of vertical firing, consists of burners located in an arch low in the furnace or in the side
walls and directed toward the furnace door, with high velocities of both primary and secondary air. This type of
firing is used exclusively in wet-bottom or slagging type.
4.3 Horizontal firing employs a turbulent burner, which consists of a circular nozzle within a housing provided with
adjustable valves, the unit being located in the front or rear wall.
4.4 Corner or tangential firing is characterized by burners located in each corner of the furnace and directed
tangent to a horizontal, imaginary circle in the middle of the furnace, thereby making the furnace the burner in
effect, since turbulence and intensive mixing occur where the streams met.
5. Coke
Coke is the solid, infusible, cellular residue left after fusible bituminous coals are heated, in the absence of air,
above temperatures at which active thermal decomposition of the coal occurs.
Pitch coke or petroleum coke are obtained by similar heating of coal-tar pitch and petroleum residues.
High temperature coke is made from coal at temperature ranging from 815 C to 1093 C.
Low temperature coke is formed at temperatures below 704 C. The residue, if made from a non-cooking coal, is
known as char.

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


6. Charcoal
Charcoal is produced by partial combustion of wood at about 400 C and with limited air.
7. Liquid Fuels
Fuel Oil is defined as any liquid or liquefiable petroleum products burned for the generation of heat in a furnace of
firebox, of the generation of power in an engine, exclusive of oils with a flash point below 37.7 C.
Four Classes of Fuel Oils in common uses
a. Residual oils which are topped crude petroleums or viscous residuum obtained in refinery operations.
b. Distillate fuel oils which are distillates derived directly or indirectly from crude petroleum.
c. Crude petroleums and weathered crude petroleums of relatively low commercial value.
d. Blended fuels which are mixture of two or more of the preceding classes.
Commercial Fuel Oil Specifications
a. Grade no. 1 a distillate oil intended for vaporizing pot-type burners and other burners requiring this grade of
fuel.
b. Grade no. 2 a distillate oil for general purpose domestic heating in burners not requiring no. 1 fuel oil.
c. Grade no. 4 an oil for burner installation not equipped with pre-heating facilities.
d. Grade no. 5 a residual type oil for burner installation equipped with pre-heating facilities.
e. Grade no. 6 an oil for burners equipped with pre-heaters permitting a high-viscosity fuel.
8. Gasoline
Gasoline is defined as a refined petroleum naphtha which by its composition is suitable for use as a carburetant in
internal combustion engines.
Motor Gasoline is a mixture of hydrocarbons distilling in the range of 37.7 C to 204.4 C by the standard method of
test.
9. Kerosene
Kerosene is defined as a petroleum distillate having a flash point not below 22.8 C as determined by the Abel
tester and suitable as an illuminant when burned in a wick lamp.
10. Coal Tar
Coal Tar is a product of the destructive distillation of bituminous coal carried out at high temperature.
11. Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) are mixtures of hydrocarbons liquefied under pressure for efficient
transportation, storage, and use. They are generally composed of ethylene, propane, propylene, butane, isobutene,
and butylenes. Commercially, they are classed as propane, propane-butane mixtures, and butane. They are odorless,
colorless, and non-toxic.
12. Diesel Fuel Oils
Refiners grade fuels classified according to methods of production.
a. Distillate fuels are produced by distillation of crudes.
b. Residual fuels are those left after the distillation process.
c. Blended fuels are mixtures of straight distillate fuels with cracked fuel stocks.

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


Cracked stocks are residual of fuels which have been treated thermally or catalytically to obtain yields of lightergrade fuels or gasoline.
Lightest grade distillates classed as kerosene or No. 1 fuel oil, may have an initial boiling point of 176.6 C and end
point of 260 C.
Heaviest grades of distillates classed as No. 3 or 4 fuel oil, may have an initial boiling point of 232 C to 260 C and
end point of 343 C to 371 C.
Residual fuels, No. 4 or No. 5 are suitable only for the slower-speed diesel.
13. Gaseous Fuels
Gaseous fuels are commonly used in industry, whether distributed by public utilities or produced in isolated plants,
are composed of one or more simple gases in varying proportions.
14. Diesel Lubricating Oils
Crude oils are frequently described as paraffinic, napththenic, or mixed based according to the physical
characteristics of the crude.
Two broad types of oil
a. Straight oils are produced entirely from the crudes chosen through elimination of undesired constituents by
suitable refining processes.
b. Additive oils are produced by adding to straight mineral oils certain oil-soluble compounds that enhance the
lubricating oil properties for use in a diesel engine.
Additives are used principally to inhibit or slow down oxidation, to increase film strength, to keep solids in finely
divided state and to hold them in suspension, to improve the viscosity index, to lower the pour point, to decrease
friction and wear under extreme pressure conditions, to reduce foaming, and as rust or corrosion inhibitors.
SAE Three Types of Lubricating Oils
a. Regular type suitable for moderate operating conditions.
b. Premium type having oxidation stability and bearing corrosion preventive properties making it generally
suitable for more severe service than regular duty type.
c. Heavy duty type has oxidation stability, being corrosion-preventive properties, and detergent-dispersant
characteristics for use under heavy-duty service conditions.
SAE Numbers are a means of coordinating and standardizing the products of oil companies and the
recommendations by the oil companies. The system of SAE motor classification is a system based entirely on
viscosity and is totally unrelated the other qualities of a lubricating oil.
15. Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity a dimensionless parameter, it is the ratio of the mass of a unit volume of fuel to the mass of the
same volume of a standard substance at a specified temperature.
density of liquid fuel
SG =
density of water
density of gaseous fuel
SG =
density of air
3

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


In reporting SG data the 15.6 C or 60 F standard is common, that is, the oil is at 15.6 C or 60 F and is referred to the
density of water taken at 15.6 C or 60 F. Specific gravity at other temperature with correction factor,
SGt = SG15 .6o C [1 0.0007(t 15.6 )] in SI units
SGt = SG60 o F [1 0.0004(t 60)] in English units

American Petroleum Institute Gravity Unit, oAPI


- Is the accepted standard by the petroleum and oil industry, it was drawn up to correct vales measured by
incorrectly calibrated hydrometers.
141.5
o
131.5
API =
SG at 15.6o C

Baume Gravity Unit, oBaume or oBe


- Another standard commonly associated with brine.
140
o
Baume =
130
SG at 15.6 o C
16. Viscosity
Viscosity is measure of resistance to flow.
Absolute Viscosity is defined as that unit force required to move one layer of a fluid at unit relative velocity to
another layer of the fluid which is at unit distance from the first.
Kinematic Viscosity is defined as the ratio of absolute viscosity divided by density.
Units of viscosity:
Absolute viscosity,
1 reyn = 1 kb-sec / in2
1 poise 1 dyne-se/cm2 = 0.1 Pa-sec
Kinematic Viscosity,
1 stoke = 1 cm2/sec = 0.0001 m2/sec
Centipoises and centistokes are more commonly used.
Saybolt viscosimeter measures the time required for a given quantity of oil at standard temperature to flow
through a specified tube.
SSU (Saybolt Second Universal) is obtained by timing the interval required for 60 cc of oil to flow through tube or
pass through a standard orifice.
For 30 to 45 SSU at 37.8 C, Centistokes = 0.308(SSU 26)
180
Or = 0.22SSU
centistokes
SSU
SSF (Saybolt Second Furol) unit used for very viscous liquids using a relatively large orifice.
62 SSF = 600 SSU

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


17. Other Properties
Flash point is the temperature at which oil gives off vapor that burns temporarily when ignited.
Flash point is the temperature to which oil must be heated to give off sufficient vapor to form an inflammable
mixture with air.
Flash point is the temperature at which ignition of the fuel vapors rising above the heated oil will occur when
exposed to an open flame.
Fire point is the temperature at which oil gives off vapor that burns continuously when ignited.
Pour point is the temperature at which oil will no longer pour freely or the temperature at which oil will solidify.
Dropping point is the temperature at which grease melts.
Cloud point is the temperature at which the paraffin elements separate from oil.
Conradson number (carbon residue) is the carbonaceous residue remaining after destructive distillation, expressed
in percentage by weight of the original sample.
Viscosity index indicates the relative change in viscosity of an oil for a given temperature change.
Octane number the ignition quality rating of gasoline, which is the percentage by volume of iso-octane in a mixture
of iso-octane and heptanes that matches the gasoline in anti-knock quality.
Cetane number the ignition quality rating of diesel, which is the percent of cetane in the standard fuel.
Aniline point is that temperature where equal parts if oil and aniline will dissolve in each other.
Volatility is the ability of a liquid fuel to change into vapor which is manifested in the temperature range at which
various portions of the fuel are vaporized.
18. Composition of Fuels
a. Paraffins, CnH2n+2 saturated hydrocarbons, very stable in characters
b. Olefins, CnH2n unsaturated hydrocarbons, characterized by the presence of a double bond between carbon
atoms.
c. Diiolefins, CnH2n-2 less saturated than olefins, characterized by the presence of two double bonds.
19. Analysis of Composition
19.1 Proximate analysis is made by heating the coal until it decomposes successively into three of the four
complex items of proximate analysis. The fourth is found by the difference. A typical proximate analysis of
coal determines the percentage of moisture, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash.
a.
Moisture is determined by subjecting a 1-g sample of the coal to a temperature of 220 F to 230 F
for a period of exactly 1 hr.
b.
Volatile matter consists of hydrogen and certain hydrogen-carbon compounds that can be
removed from the coal merely by heating it.
c.
Ash is performed by heating the sample of coal used in the moisture determination to a
temperature of 1290 F to 1380 F in an uncovered crucible, with good air circulation, until the coal is
completely burned.
5

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


Fixed Carbon is the difference between 100 % and the sum of the percentages of moisture, ash,
and volatile matter.
Ultimate analysis analysis of composition of fuel which gives, on mass basis, the relative amounts of
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, ash, and moisture.
d.

19.2

20. Basis of Reporting Analysis


a. As received or as fired
b. Dry or moisture free
c. Moisture and ash free or combustible
d. Moisture, ash, and sulfur free
21. Heating Values of Fuels or Calorific Value
a. Higher heating value (gross calorific value), HHV is the heating value obtained when the water in the products
of combustion is in the liquid state.
b. Lower heating value (net calorific value), LHV is the heating value obtained when the water in the products of
combustion is in the vapor state.
22. Methods of Determining Heating Values
22.1
Laboratory experiment
22.1.1 Bomb calorimeter for solid and liquid fuels
22.1.2 Gas calorimeter for gaseous fuels
22.2
Empirical formulas
22.2.1 Dulongs formula for solid fuels of known ultimate analysis.
O

HHV = 33,820 + 144,212 H + 9,304 S kJ kg


8

HHV = 14,600 + 62,000 H + 4050S Btu lb


8

22.2.2 ASME Formula for petroleum products


HHV = 41,130 + 139.6 o API kJ kg

HHV = 17,680 + 60 API Btu lb


22.2.3 Bureau of Standard formula
HHV = 51,716 8 ,793.8(SG )2 kJ kg
HHV = 22,230 3780(SG )2 Btu lb

Difference between higher and lower heating values


HHV LHV = 9H2(2442) in SI units
HHV - LHV = 9H2(1050) in English units
Where:
9H2 = lbs or kg of water formed per lb or kg of fuel burned.
2442 kJ/kg or 1050 Btu/lb latent heat of vaporization of water.
Also H2 = 26-15(SG), percent by weight.
23. Fuel Production Process
a. Fractional distillation the primary method of crude oil refining.
6

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


b. Thermal cracking changing heavy oil into gasoline by means of high pressure, high temperature and longer
exposure time.
c. Catalytic cracking subjects oil to high pressure and high temperature in the presence of a catalyst; permit
accurate control of the compounds formed and produces a gasoline of higher octane number than the one
produced in thermal cracking.
d. Hydrogenation process of catalytic cracking in a hydrogen atmosphere; obtained are more saturated products
than those from cracking process alone.
e. Isomerization process by which the atoms of carbon and hydrogen in normal hydrocarbons are rearranged to
produce a more complex structure of higher anti-knock value.
f. Polymerization makes use of high pressure, high temperature and a catalyst to combine light and volatile gases
into gasoline.
g. Alkylation process of combining an isoparaffin usually iso-butane, with an olefin, usually butane or propane, to
form a large isoparaffin molecule, usually iso-octane or iso-heptane, having a very high octane number.
h. Reforming used to obtain fuels with substantially higher than 100 octane number; currently used to process
about forty percent of motor gasoline.
i. Hydrodesulfurization process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated hydrocarbons and reducing the sulfur
content of the resulting fuel oil.
24. Combustion
Combustion a chemical reaction between fuel and oxygen (air) which is accompanied by heat and light.
25. Composition of Air and Molecular Weights
a. Composition by weight
76.8 % nitrogen, 23.2 % oxygen
Or 76.8 / 23.2 = 3.3 lb of nitrogen per lb of oxygen.
b. Composition by volume
79.0 % nitrogen, 21.0 % oxygen
Or 79.0/21.0 = 3.76 moles of nitrogen per moles of oxygen
c. Molecular weights
Air = 28.97 kg/kgmole
C = 12 kg/kgmole
H2 = 2 kg/kgmole
O2 = 32 kg/kgmole
N2 = 28 kg/kgmole
S = 32 kg/kgmole
26. Air Fuel Ratio
Theoretical air-fuel ratio, Wta is the exact theoretical amount, as determined from the combustion reaction, of air
needed to burn a unit amount of fuel, kg air per kg fuel or lb air per lb fuel.
O

Wta = 11.53C + 34.36 H2 2 + 4.32 S


8

where:
Wta = theoretical air, lb per lb fuel
C = carbon, lb per lb fuel
H2 = hydrogen, lb per lb fuel
O2 = oxygen, lb per lb fuel
S = sulfur, lb per lb fuel
7

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


Actual air-fuel ratio, Waa is determined by the presence of excess air which is defined as the amount of air supplied
over and above the theoretical air.
Waa = (1+ e)Wta
W Wta
e = aa
Wta
where e is the excess air in decimal.
27. Typical Combustion Reaction
Fuel + Air = Product of Combustion
C nHm + (n + 0.25m)O2 + 3.76(n + 0.25m)N2 nCO2 + 0.5mH2O + 3.76(n + 0.25m)N2
Wta =

(n + 0.25m)(32 + 3.76 28)


12n + m

137.28(n + 0.25m )
12n + m

28. Classification of combustion reaction


a. Combustion reaction with chemically-correct or stoichiometric condition general chemical formula of the fuel is
CnHm.
b. Combustion reaction with greater amount of theoretical air, or having a fuel-lean mixture.
c. Combustion reaction with lesser amount of theoretical air, or having a fuel-rich mixture.
29. Equivalence ratio for a given mass of air, .
W
= ta
Waa
Note:
= 1, for stoichiometric mixture.
< 1, for fuel-lean mixture.
> 1, for fuel-rich mixture.
30. Orsat Analyzer
Orsat analyzer is a convenient portable apparatus for determining the volumetric percentage of CO2, O2, and CO in
the dry flue gas.
31. Dry Flue Gases from Actual Combustion
4CO2 + O2 + 700
Wdg =
C ab
3(CO2 + CO )
Boiler test code formula corrected to account for the SO2.
11CO2 + 8O2 + 7(CO + N2 )
3 5
Wdg =
C ab + S + S

3(CO2 + CO )
8 8

where:
CO2, O2, CO, and N2 are volumetric Orsat analysis
Cab and S are decimal fractions by weight.
32. Weight of dry refuse from the coal analysis
A
Wr =
1 Cr
8

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


where:
Wr = dry refuse per lb coal as fired, lb
A = ash in coal, lb
Cr = combustible In 1 lb of refuse.
33. Carbon Actually Burned
Cab = C Wr + A
Or
HVr
C ab = C Wr
14,600
where:
Cab = carbon actually burned per lb of fuel, lb
C = carbon in 1 lb of fuel, lb
HVr = heating value of the dry refuse, Btu per lb.

34. Carbon burned to CO due to incomplete combustion.


CO
Ci =
C ab
CO2 + CO
where Ci is the pounds of carbon the CO per pound of fuel burned.
35. Air Actually Used During Combustion
O

Waa = Wdg + 8 H2 2 C ab S N2
8

Values of H2, O2, S, and N2 are obtained from the ultimate analysis of the fuel and all values are expressed as
decimals.
36. Boiler Heat Balance
Consist of percentage energy absorbed by boiler fluid, energy loss due to dry flue gases, energy loss due to moisture
in fuel, energy loss due to evaporating and superheating moisture formed by combustion of hydrogen, energy loss
due to incomplete combustion of carbon to CO, energy loss due to combustible in the refuse, and energy loss due to
radiation and unaccounted for totaling to higher heating value as 100%.
a. Energy absorbed by boiler fluid.
The useful output of the steam generator is the heat transferred to the fluid.
W (h h )
Q1 = w 2 1
Wf
in which
Ww = weight of fluid flowing through the boiler during the test, lb
h1 and h2 = fluid enthalpies entering and leaving the boiler, respectively, Btu per lb
Wf = weight of fuel burned during test, lb
Q1 expressed as a percentage of the higher heating value of the fuel is the boiler efficiency.

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


b. Energy loss due to dry flue gas.
This loss is the greatest of any of the boiler losses for a properly operated unit.
Q2 = 0.24Wdg (t g t a )
in which
0.24 = specific heat of the flue gas at constant pressure, Btu per lb per deg F.
tg = temperature of the gas leaving the boiler, F
ta = temperature of the air entering the boiler, F
c. Energy loss due to evaporating and superheating moisture in fuel.
Moisture entering the boiler with the fuel leaves as a superheated vapor in the same way as does moisture
from the combustion of hydrogen.
Q3 = M f (1089 + 0.46t g t f ), when t g < 575 F
Q3 = M f (1066 + 0.5t g t f ), when t g > 575 F

where
Mf = moisture in fuel, lb per lb of fuel
tf = temperature of fuel, F
d. Energy loss due to evaporating and superheating moisture formed by combustion of hydrogen.
This loss is higher for gaseous fuels containing relatively large percentages of hydrogen than for the average lowhydrogen coal.
Q4 = 9H 2 (h h ff )
where:
h2 = weight of hydrogen in the fuel, lb per lb fuel
h = enthalpy of superheated vapor, Btu per lb
hff = enthalpy of liquid at the incoming fuel temperature
or
Q4 = 9H 2 (1089 + 0.46t g t f ), when t g < 575 F
Q4 = 9H 2 (1066 + 0.5t g t f ), when t g > 575 F

The proper value of H2 to be used in the equation is the amount of hydrogen in the fuel that is available for
combustion. To obtain the value of H2, deduct from the value of H2 in ultimate analysis one ninth of the weight
of moisture from the proximate analysis.
e. Energy loss due to incomplete combustion.
Products formed by incomplete combustion may be mixed with oxygen and burned again with a further release
of energy.
CO
Q5 = 10,160C i = 10,160C ab
Btu lb
CO2 + CO
f.

Energy loss due to unconsumed carbon.


All combustible in the refuse may be assumed to be carbon, since the other combustible parts of coal would
probably be distilled out of the fuel before live embers would drop into ash pit.
10

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE


Q6 = 14,600(C C ab ) Btu lb

or
Q6 = Wr HVr
g. Unaccounted-for and radiation loss.
This loss is due to radiation, incomplete combustion resulting in hydrogen and hydrocarbons in the flue gas, and
unaccounted-for losses.
Q7 = HHV Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6
h. Boiler Heat Balance Tabulation
Item
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
HHV

Energy, Btu per lb fuel

Percentage

100%

End -

11

B. FUELS AND COMBUSTION - LECTURE

12

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


1. Definitions
Propulsion system is a system which changes the momentum of a driven body; it covers system that drives
vehicles and major pieces of industrial equipment.
Heat engines are machines that convert heat into work or mechanical energy; heat supplied comes from the
combustion of a certain amount of fuel in oxygen (air); a working fluid absorbs the heat supplied in order to drive
the linkages that produce the mechanical energy.
2. Classification of Heat Engines
External combustion engine (ECE) an engine where the generation of heat is effected outside the work-producing
unit; combustor is distinct and separate from the work-producing unit; typical example includes steam engine.
Internal-combustion engine (ICE) an engine where the generation of heat is effected inside the work-producing
unit; combustor and work-producing unit are the same; products of combustion eventually become the working
fluid.
3. Comparison of Heat Engine Types
External combustion engine (ECE)
a. Less vibration
b. High starting torque
c. Cheaper fuel
d. In large units, advantage in space requirement and weight dimension
Internal combustion engine (ICE)
a. Higher over-all efficiency
b. Lower combustion energy lost to cooling system
c. Less weight and bulk per unit maximum output
d. Mechanical simplicity
4. Classification of Internal Combustion Engines according to:
4.1 Manner of ignition
4.1.1 Spark-ignition engine (SI engine)
- Accepts air-fuel mixture upon intake; fuel used is gasoline; ignition energy supplied by spark plug.
4.1.2 Compression-ignition engine (CI engine)
- Accepts only air upon intake; fuel is sprayed through a nozzle inside engine cylinder upon reaching
its auto-ignition temperature; fuel used is diesel; ignition energy supplied by heat of compression.
4.2 Work-producing motion
4.2.1 Reciprocating as in the case of piston engines
4.2.2 Rotary as in the case of the Wanker rotor
4.3 Intake pressure or manner of aspiration
4.3.1 Naturally-aspired
4.3.2 Supercharged
1

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


4.3.3 Turbo-charged
4.4 Number of strokes per cycle
4.4.1 Four-stroke cycle
4.4.2 Two-stroke cycle
4.5 Location of the cam(s)
4.5.1 Overhead
4.5.2 In-block
4.6 Method of cooling
4.6.1 Water-cooled
4.6.2 Air-cooled
4.7 Number of cylinders
4.7.1 Single-cylinder
4.7.2 Two-cylinder
4.7.3 Three-cylinder, etc.
4.8 Position of cylinders
4.8.1 Vertical
4.8.2 Horizontal
4.8.3 Incline
4.9 Arrangement of cylinders
4.9.1 In-line
4.9.2 Radial
4.9.3 Opposed cylinder
4.9.4 Opposed piston
4.9.5 V-type
4.10 Number of piston sides working
4.10.1 Single-acting
4.10.2 Double-acting
4.11 Method of starting
4.11.1 Manual: crank, rope, kick
4.11.2 Electric: battery
4.11.3 Compressed air
4.11.4 Using other engines
4.12 Application
4.12.1 Automotive
4.12.2 Marine
4.12.3 Industrial
4.12.4 Stationary power
4.12.5 Locomotive
4.12.6 Aircraft

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


5. Ideal or Air Standard Cycles
5.1 Otto Cycle is the ideal prototype of spark-ignition (SI) engines commonly known as gasoline engine.
Cycle Analysis of 4-stroke Gasoline Engine

0-1
1-2
2-3
3-4
4-1
1-0

intake stroke
isentropic compression
isometric heat intake
isentropic expansion
isometric heat release
exhaust stroke

Heat Added, QA = mcv (T3 T2 )


Heat Rejected, QR = mcv (T4 T1 )
Net Work, Wnet = QA QR

p2V2 p1V1 p4V4 p3V3


+
1 k
1 k
W
Q QR
Cycle Efficiency = e = net = A
QA
QA

Net Work, Wnet = pdV =

Cycle Efficiency = e = 1

1
rkk 1

Specific heat ratio, k = 1.4 for air standard.


Clearance volume, Vc = V3 = V2
V V 1+ c
Compression ratio, rk = 1 = 4 =
V2 V3
c
Clearance ratio, c =

V2
V2
=
VD V1 V2

where VD = piston volume displacement


Other relationship,
V3 = V2 and V4 = V1

V
T4 = T3 3
V4

k 1

T3
rkk 1

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


V
T1 = T2 2
V1

k 1

T2
rkk 1

Mean effective pressure, Cut-off ratio, pm =

Wnet
VD

Cycle Analysis of 2-stroke Gasoline Engine

5.2 Diesel Cycle is the ideal prototype of compression-ignition (CI) engines.


Cycle Analysis of 4-stroke Diesel Engine

0-1
1-2
2-3
3-4
4-1

intake stroke
isentropic compression
isobaric heat intake
isentropic expansion
isometric heat release

Heat Added, QA = mc p (T3 T2 )


Heat Rejected, QR = mcv (T4 T1 )
Net Work, Wnet = QA QR
Cycle Efficiency = e =

Wnet QA QR
=
QA
QA

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


1 rck 1

rkk 1 k (rc 1)
V 1+ c
Compression ratio, rk = 1 =
V2
c

Cycle Efficiency = e = 1

Cut-off ratio, rc =

V3 T3
=
V2 T2

Specific heat ratio, k = 1.4 for air standard.


V
V2
Clearance ratio, c = 2 =
VD V1 V2
Other relationship,

V
T2 = T1 1
V2

k 1

V
T3 = T2 3
V2

= T1rkk 1
k 1

= T1rkk 1rc

T4 = T1rck

Mean effective pressure, Cut-off ratio, pm =

Wnet
VD

Cycle Analysis of 2-stroke Diesel Engine

5.3 Dual Combustion Cycle (Limited Pressure Cycle or Mixed Cycle)

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


0-1
1-2
2-3
3-4
4-1

intake heat stroke


isentropic compression
isobaric heat intake
isentropic expansion
isometric heat release

rp rck 1 1
1
Cycle Efficiency = e = 1 k 1

rk rp 1 + rp k (rc 1)
Pressure ratio during constant volume process 2-3, rp =
Cut-off ratio, rc =

p3
p2

V4
V3

Mean effective pressure, Cut-off ratio, pm =

Wnet
VD

6. Diesel Power Plant

6.1 Basic Elements in Plant Design


6.1.1 Stationary diesel engine
6.1.1.1 Structural parts: bed plate, frame, liners, heads
6.1.1.2 Major moving parts: piston,, connecting rods, crankshaft, and their bearings
6.1.1.3 Arrangements for getting air in and exhaust out: valves, valve mechanisms, manifold, scavenging
and supercharging systems, and
6.1.1.4 Fuel-injection system: pumps, nozzles, control devices.
6.1.2 Fuel system
Fuel storage tank, fuel filter, fuel pump, transfer pump, day tank
6.1.3 Lubrication system
Lube oil tank, lube oil pump, oil filter, oil cooler, lubricators
6.1.4 Cooling system
Cooling water pump, heat exchanger, cooling tower, surge tank
6.1.5 Intake and exhaust systems
Air filter, supercharger, intake pipe, exhaust pipe, exhaust silencer (to minimize exhaust noise)
6

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


6.1.6

Starting system
Air compressor, air storage tank
Governing system

6.1.7

7. The Diesel Engine


Diesel engine is an excellent prime mover for electric power generation in capacities of 101 hp to 5070 hp which
makes it widely-used in hotels, utility companies, municipalities, and private industries.
Advantages of the Diesel engine:
a. Low fuel cost.
b. No long warming-up period.
c. No standby losses.
d. Uniformly high efficiency of all sizes.
e. Simple plant layout.
f. Needs no large water supply.
8. Typical Full-Load Heat Balances (%) based on heating value of fuel.

a.
b.
c.
d.

Useful work
Cooling
Exhaust
Friction, radiation, and
unaccounted
Input; heating value of fuel

Otto Cycle Spark Ignition


25
30
37
8
100

9. Performance of Diesel Generating Set


9.1 Heat generated (fuel)
QA = m f HV kw
where:
mf = fuel consumption, kg/s
HV = heating value of fuel, kJ/kg
9.2 Volume displacement

D 2 LN pNc m3/sec
4
where:
D = bore, m
L = length of stroke, m
Np = speed, rev/sec (for 2-stroke)
Np = speed/2, rev/sec (for 4-stroke)
Nc = number of cylinders
VD =

Diesel Cycle Compression Engine


34
30
26
10
100

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


9.3 Piston Speed
Piston Speed = 2LN, m/s
where 2L = distance travelled by piston in one revolution
9.4 Indicated power (IP)
Indicated power power developed inside the cylinder
IP = pmiVD kw
where:
pmi = indicated mean effective pressure
AS
pmi = c c
Lc

VD = piston volume displacement, m3/sec.


Ac = area of indicator card diagram.
Sc = spring scale.
Lc = length of indicator card diagram.
or
IP = pmi LAN pNc kw
where A = is the area of bore or net piston area.
If working cylinder (wc) and crankcase (cc) are to be considered
A S
A S
pmi = wc wc cc cc
Lwc
Lcc
Note: crankcase compression is used for scavenging.
9.5 Brake power (BP)
BP = pmbLAN p Nc
Where:
pmb = brake mean effective pressure.
Calculating brake power using either prony brake or dynamometer
BP = 2Tn
where:
T = brake torque, measured by dynamometer.
n = engine rotative speed
Also

T = Fr
where:
F = brake force or brake load.
r = brake arm or torque arm.

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


9.6 Frictional power (FP)
FP = IP BP
Morse test as a method of determining friction power. Applicability of test is for multi-cylinder engines.
Consider a six-cylinder engine,
IP6 = BP6 + FP, all six cylinders are firing
IP5 = BP5 + FP, only five cylinder firing
===========
IP1 = BP6 BP5, for one cylinder cut-out
Friction power, FP, is constant no matter how many cylinders are firing.
Total engine indicated power, IP, for equal cylinder IP1, IP2, IP3 . . .
IP = IP6 = 6(IP1) = 6(BP6 BP5)
For not equal cylinder IPs
IP = IP1 + IP2 + IP3 + IP4 + IP5 + IP6
where:
IP1 = BP6 BP5,1, for cylinder no. 1 cut-out
IP2 = BP6 BP5,2, for cylinder no. 2 cut-out
IP3 = BP6 BP5,3, for cylinder no. 3 cut-out
IP4 = BP6 BP5,4, for cylinder no. 4 cut-out
IP5 = BP6 BP5,5, for cylinder no. 5 cut-out
IP5 = BP6 BP5,6, for cylinder no. 6 cut-out

FP = IP BP = IP BP6
9.7 Engine efficiencies based on power developed
9.7.1 Mechanical efficiency, m
brake power , BP
p
= mb
m =
indicated power , IP pmi
9.7.2

Electrical or generator efficiency, he


electrical output , EP
o =
brake power , BP

9.7.3

Over-all efficiency, o
electrical output , EP
o =
= m e
indicated power , IP

9.8 Thermal efficiencies


9.8.1 Indicated thermal efficiency, ei,
indicated power
IP
ei =
=
heat supplied by fuel m f HV

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


9.8.2

Brake thermal efficiency, eb.


brake power
BP
eb =
=
heat supplied by fuel m f HV

9.8.3

Combined thermal efficiency, ek,


electrical power
Wk
ek =
=
heat supplied by fuel m f HV
where:
mf = mass of fuel burned
HV = heating value of fuel
Wk = combined work

9.9 Engine efficiencies


9.9.1 Indicated engine efficiency, i
e
i = i
e
9.9.2 Brake engine efficiency, b
e
b = b
e
9.9.3 Combined engine efficiency, k
e
k = k
e
where:
e = ideal thermal efficiency = net work/heat added = Wnet / QA
9.10

Specific fuel consumption, kg/kW-hr


9.10.1 Indicated specific fuel consumption, mi.
3600m f
mi =
IP
9.10.2 Brake specific fuel consumption, mb.
3600m f
mb =
BP
9.10.3 Combined or over-all specific fuel consumption, mk.
3600m f
mk =
EP
Note: mass of fuel burned mf is expressed in kg/s.
For other units change 3600 kJ/kW-hr to 2544 Btu/hp-hr or 3412 Btu/kW-hr

9.11

Heat rate, kJ/kW-hr


9.11.1 Indicated heat rate, HRi.
HRi = mi HV

10

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


9.11.2 Brake heat rate, HRb
HRb = mbHV
9.11.3 Combined heat rate, HRk
HRk = mk HV
9.12

Volumetric efficiency, hv
Actual volume of air entering VA
v =
=
Piston displacement
VD
m RT
VA = A
p
VD = LAN p Nc

9.13

Speed Data
9.13.1 Piston speed, PS
PS = 2Ln. m/s
9.13.2 Generator speed, N
120 f
N=
rpm
n
where:
f = frequency, usually 60 Hz
p = number of even poles

10. Power developed at an altitude, P


B T
P = Ps

29.92 520
where:
Ps = standard power or power at sea level.
B = barometric pressure at a given altitude, in. Hg. (decrease in pressure, approx. 1 in. Hg per 1000 ft)
T = absolute temperature at a given altitude, R. (decrease in temperature, approx. 3.6 F per 1000 ft).
29.92 in. Hg = standard atmospheric pressure.
520 R = temperature at sea level.
11. Supercharging
Supercharging an admittance into the cylinder of an air charge with density higher than that of the surrounding air.
Reason for supercharging:
a. To reduce the weight-to-power ratio.
b. To compensate for power loss due to high altitude.
Types of superchargers:
a. Engine-driven compressor.
b. Exhaust-driven compressor (turbo-charger).
c. Separately-driven compressor.

11

C. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


12. Waste heat recovery boiler utilizing diesel engine exhaust.

By Heat Balance in Boiler:


mg c pg (t1 t 2 ) = ms (hs h f )
where:
cpg = specific heat of exhaust gas.
-

12

End -

D. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


1. Definition
Gas Turbine is a type of prime mover that derives its energy from heat, commonly supplied by combustion. The
products of combustion form the working medium, but the combustion region is external to the prime mover.
2. Basic Elements in Plant Design
Schematic diagram open cycle gas turbine power plant (direct mixing of air and fuel).

a. Air compressor, ac
Axial-type or centrifugal
b. Combustor or combustor chamber, cc
c. Gas turbine, gt
Reaction-type
d. Electric generator, eg
e. Gas turbine auxiliaries
1. Starting motor or engine, sm
2. Fuel system
3. Lubrication system
4. Speed control or governing system

3. Classes of application of Gas Turbine


3.1 As a means of increasing the capacity and decreasing the heat rate of steam generating plant.
3.2 As an independent source of electrical energy in direct competition with other prime movers.
3.3 As a peak-load or back-up unit.

4. Applications of the Gas Turbine to utility electric generation


4.1 Peaking power
4.2 Mechanical drives for auxiliaries
4.3 Supercharged boilers
4.4 Exhaust heat recovery

D. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


5. Gas-Turbine Cycle
Brayton cycle is the theoretical cycle for the gas turbine which is composed of isentropic compression, constantpressure heat addition, isentropic expansion, and constant-pressure heat rejection. This is known as the simple cycle
gas turbine.
Air Standard Ideal Brayton Cycle

1-2
2-3
3-4
4-1

isentropic compression
isobaric heat addition
isentropic expansion
isobaric heat rejection

Isentropic compression Process 1-2


s1 = s2 , p1V1k = p2V2k
k 1

k 1

T2 p 2 k V1
= =
T1 p1
V2
Compressor Work
Wc = m(h2 h1 ) = mc p (T2 T1 )

where cp = 1.0 kJ/kg-K for air

p 2 p3
=
p1 p4
V
Compression ratio = rk = 1
V2
Heat addition isobaric process 2- 3 in the combustor
QA = mc p (T3 T2 ) = m(h3 h2 )
Pressure ratio = rp =

Turbine isentropic expansion Process 3-4


s3 = s4 , p3V3k = p4V4k
k 1

k 1

T3 p 3 k V4
= =
T4 p4
V3
Turbine work
Wt = m(h3 h4 ) = mc p (T3 T4 )

D. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Net Work
Wnet = Wt Wc
Heat rejection isobaric process 4-1
QR = mc p (T4 T1 ) = m(h4 h1 )
Note:
1. If mass of fuel, mf is considered
For process 1-2, m = mass of air, ma
For process 2-3, 3-4 and 4-1, m = ma + mf
2. If basis is air-standard cycle
For all processes, m = ma
3. For closed cycle, m = ma
Thermal efficiency
W
W Wc QA QR
e = net = t
=
QA
QA
QA
In terms of enthalpy
h h
e =1 4 1
h3 h2
In terms of temperature
T T
e =1 4 1
T3 T2
In terms of compression ratio, rk
1
e = 1 k 1 = 1 rk1k
rk
In terms of pressure ratio, rp

e =1

1 k

1
k 1

= 1 rp k

rp k
Closed Cycle Gas Turbine

Intermediate temperature for maximum work


1

T2 = (T1T3 )2

D. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Considering irreversibilities

Isentropic or adiabatic compressor efficiency (compressor internal efficiency), c.


ideal compressor work ,Wc
h h T T
c =
= 2 1 = 2 1
actual compressor work ,Wc h2 h1 T2 T1
Isentropic turbine efficiency (turbine internal efficiency)
ideal turbine work ,Wt h3 h4 T3 T4
t =
=
=
actual turbine work ,Wt h3 h4 T3 T4
Actual heat added in the combustor
QA = m(h3 h2 ) = mc p (T3 T2 )

Actual thermal efficiency


h h
T T
e = 1 4 1 = 1 4 1
h3 h2
T3 T2

e=

k 1

p4 k T1

tT3 1
p3 c

k 1

p2 k
1

p1

k 1

p
2 k 1
p

T3 T1 1 + 1
c

k 1

T1rp k

t T3

1
c

e=
1 k 1

k 1
rp k 1 rp k

3 1 1

Combustor efficiency
heat absorbed by air
ecc =
heat supplied by fuel

D. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


6. Performance of Actual Cycle

Ideal compressor work


Wc = ma c pa (T2 T1 )
Actual compressor work
Ideal compressor work Wc
=
Wc =
Compressor efficiency c
m c (T T )
Wc = ma c pa (T2 T1 ) = a pa 2 1

where
cpa = specific heat of air = 1.0 kJ/kg-K
Ideal turbine work
Wt = (ma + m f )c pg (T3 T4 )
Wt = ma (+ r f )c pg (T3 T4 )

Wt = actual turbinework = ideal turbinework turbine efficiency


Wt = ma (1 + r f )c pg (T3 T4 ) = ma (1 + rf )c pg (T3 T4 )t
where
cpg = specific heat of gas
rf = fuel to air ratio

D. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Heat generated by fuel
QA = (ma rf )HV = m f HV
where:
HV = heating value of fuel
Actual net work
= Wt Wc Waux
Wnet

Wt Wc Waux
QA
Generator output
Overall thermal efficiency =
QA
Heat absorbed by air
Combustion Efficiency =
Heat supplied byfuel
Thermal efficiency =

7. Ideal Gas Turbine Cycle with Regenerator


Regenerator is a heat exchange used to provide heat transfer between the exhaust gases and the air prior to its
entrance to the combustion chamber the purpose of which is to increase thermal efficiency.

Head added in combustor


QA = mc p (T3 Tx )
Heat balance in regenerator
mc p (Tx T2 ) = mc p (T4 Ty )
Tx T2 = T4 Ty

D. GAS TURBINE POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Effectiveness of the regenerator is defined as the ratio of actual amount of heat transferred to the amount of that
could be transferred reversibly.
actual amount of heat transferred
r =
amount that could be transferred reversibly
T T
r = x 2
T4 T 2
For 100% regenerator efficiency, Tx = T4
k 1

e = 1

T2 T1
T
= 1 1 rp k
T3 T4
T3

8. Thermal refinement of the Gas Turbine Cycle


8.1 Regeneration is the transfer of heat energy from exhaust gases to compressed air flowing between the
compressor and combustion chamber. A surface heater called the regenerator is required.
8.2 Intercooling is the removal of heat from compressed air between stages of compression.
8.3 Reheating is the increase in temperature of partially expanded gas by burning more fuel in it.
-

End -

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


1. Basic Elements of Plant Design
1.1 Steam Generator is a combination of apparatus for producing, furnishing, or recovering heat, together with
apparatus for transferring to a working fluid the heat thus made available. It indicates the furnace, boiler,
waterwalls, water floor, water screen, superheater, reheater, economizer, air preheater, and fuel-burning
equipment. The term boiler has been used for such a long period of time that the two terms are used
interchangeably.
1.2 Steam Turbine is the most versatile prime mover capable of an almost endless variety of application. It is a
practical power source when built in as small as 5 hp or as large as 100,000. It is relatively quiet and smooth in
operation.
1.3 Condenser a heat exchanger where steam enters the top and the condensate is collected in the hot well at the
bottom while cooling water flows through the tubes.
1.4 Boiler Feed Pump or Feedwater Pumps its function is to increase the pressure existing on a liquid an increment
sufficient to the required service.
2. Rankine Cycle
Rankine cycle is the ideal steam power cycle. This ideal plant consist of a steam generator which receives
feedwater under pressure from a pump, a prime mover in which to obtain the working expansion, and a condenser
to reduce the exhaust steam to liquid, ready for pumping.

1-2
2-3
3-4
4-5

isentropic (or reversible adiabatic) expansion


isobaric (or reversible constant-pressure) heat rejection
isentropic (or reversible adiabatic) compression
isobaric (or reversible constant-pressure) heat addition

Turbine Work
Wt = m(h1 h2 )
1

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Actual turbine work
Wt = m(h1 h2 ) = m(h1 h2 )t
Heat rejected in condenser
QR = m(h2 h3 )
Actual heat rejected in condenser
QR = m(h2 h3 )
Pump work
Wp = m(h4 h3 )
Wp mv3 (p4 p3 )

Actual pump work


m(h4 h3 )
Wp =

Wp

mv 3 (p4 p3 )

Head added to boiler


QA = m(h1 h4 )
Actual heat added to boiler
m(h1 h4 )
QA =

where:
t = turbine efficiency
p = pump efficiency
b = boiler efficiency
Boiler efficiency is meant the measure of ability of a boiler or steam generator to transfer the heat given it by the
furnace to the water and steam.
Thermal Cycle Efficiency
For Rankine Cycle
Wt Wp (h1 h2 ) Wp (h1 h2 ) (h4 h3 )
=
ecycle =
=
(h1 h3 ) Wp
Qb
h1 h4
For Rankine engine or turbine (combination with condenser)
h h
eengine = 1 2
h1 h3
For plant thermal efficiency
electrical power output
EP
ep =
=
heat supplied by fuel
m f HV
3. Methods used in increasing the thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle
a. For the same throttle pressure and condenser pressure, increase the throttle temperature.
b. For the same throttle temperature and condenser pressure, increase the throttle pressure.
c. For the same throttle temperature and pressure, decrease the condenser pressure.
d. Using reheat cycle
e. Using regenerative cycle
f. Using reheat-regenerative cycle
2

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


4. Reheat Cycle
Reheat cycle- to increase turbine power, increase thermal efficiency

Turbine work
Wt = m(h1 h2 ) + m(h3 h 4 )
Heat added in the boiler
QAb = m(h1 h6 )
Heat added in the reheater
QArh = m(h3 h2 )
Pump work
Wp = m(h6 h5 ) mv 5 (p6 p5 )
Heat rejected in the condenser
QR = m(h4 h5 )
Thermal efficiency of reheat cycle
W Wp
W Wp
ecycle = t
= t
QA
QAb + QArh
5. Regenerative Cycle
Regenerative cycle to improve the cycle efficiency, decrease turbine power, decrease heat addition.

Turbine work
Wt = m(h1 h2 ) + (m m1 )(h2 h 3 )
3

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Heat added in the boiler
QA = m(h1 h7 )
Pump work 1
Wp1 = (m m1 )(h5 h4 ) (m m1 )v 4 (p5 p4 )
Pump work 2
Wp 2 = m(h7 h6 ) mv 6 (p7 p6 )
Heat rejected in the condenser
QR = (m m1 )(h3 h4 )
Heat balance in regenerative heater (feedwater heater or deaerator)
m1h2 + (m m1 )h5 = mh6
Thermal efficiency of reheat cycle
W (Wp1 + Wp 2 ) Wt (Wp1 + Wp2 )
=
ecycle = t
QA
QA
6. Reheat-Regenerative Cycle

7. Steam Generators (Boilers)


Steam generators commonly referred to as boiler is an integrated assembly of several essential components the
function of which is to produce steam at a predetermined pressure and temperature.

8. Boiler Types
8.1 Classification according to the contents of the tubular heating surface.
8.1.1 Fire-tube boilers
Fire-tube boilers are those in which the products of combustion pass through the tubes and the water
lies around the outside of them.
a. Horizontal or vertical axes
b. External or internal furnaces
c. Fully cylindrical or partially cylindrical shells
4

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


8.1.2

Water-tube boilers
Water-tube boilers are those in which the water is inside the tubes while the products of combustion
surrounds the tubes.
Classification according to:
a. Shape of the tubes
1. Straight tube - have a parallel group of straight equal-length tubes, arranged in a uniform
pattern and joined at either end to headers.
Classification of headers
a. Box headers
b. Sectional headers
2. Bent-tube - are header less. The drum serve the same function as the headers.
b. Drum position
1. Longitudinal
2. Cross
c. Method of Water Circulation
1. Forced
2. Natural
d. Number of Drums
1. Drum and-a-half a long upper drum is paralleled by a shorted drum.
2. Two-Drum two parallel horizontal drums of equal length but not necessarily equal diameter
are set on one above the other and joined by multiple rows of bent tubes.
3. Three-Drum two upper drums and one lower drums are arranged so that one upper drum
carries the water level and the other, being lower, really acts as a header.
e. Service
1. Marine
2. Stationary
f. Capacity
g. Thermal Conditions

9. Parts of Steam Generator


9.1 Pressure parts
9.1.1 Boiler heating surface tubes with attached drums or shells for storage of water and steam.
9.1.2 Superheated surface provides more heating surface through which the steam must pass after leaving
the boiler if a final superheated state is desired.
9.1.3 Economizer is a feedwater pre-heating device which utilizes steam mixed with the feedwater.
9.2 Enclosure or setting
9.2.1 Water walls water tubes installed in the furnace to protect furnace against high temperature.
9.2.2 Furnace encloses the combustion equipment to utilize effectively the heat generated.
9.2.2.1 Factors to be considered in furnace design
a. Air supply
b. Character of fuel used
c. Degree of pre-heating
d. Draft equipment available
9.2.2.2 Types of furnace walls
a. Air-cooled masonry walls
b. Partially water-cooled walls
c. Solid masonry
d. Water-jacketed furnace
5

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


9.2.3

9.2.4

Combustion equipment
a. Burner used in fire-tube boilers for firing liquid and gaseous fuels.
b. Stoker used in water-tube boilers for firing solid fuels
Auxiliaries and accessories
a. Air preheater a heat exchanger utilizing the heat of the flue gases to pre-heat the air needed for
combustion.
b. Forced-draft fan forces air inside to support fuel combustion
c. Induced-draft fan usually situated at the bottom of the chimney or smokestack, it is responsible in
extracting flue gases out.
d. Soot blower removes soot around steam pipes developed as a result of combustion, employs the
use of extracted steam from the main steam line.
e. Blowdown valve valve through which the impurities that settle in the mud drum are removed; also
called blow-off valve.
f. Breeching duct connecting boiler to chimney.
g. Baffles direct the flow of the hot gases to effect efficient heat transfer between the hot gases and
the heated water.
h. Fusible plug a metal plug with a definite melting point through which the steam is released in case
of excessive temperature which is usually caused by low water level.
i. Safety valve a safety device which automatically releases the steam in case of over-pressure.

10. Definitions from PSME Code 2008


Boiler or Steam Generator a closed vessel intended for use in heating water or for application of heat to generate
steam or other vapor to be used externally to itself.
Coal-Fired Boiler used stoketed water temperature coal or pulverized coal for water-tube.
Condemned Boiler Unfired Pressure Vessel a boiler or unfired pressure vessel that has been inspected and
declared unsafe to operate or disqualified, stamped and marked indicating its rejection by qualified inspecting
authority.
Existing Installations any boiler or unfired pressure vessel constructed, installed, placed in operation but subject to
periodic inspection.
External Inspection an inspection made on the external parts, accessories and/or component even when a boiler
or unfired pressure vessel is in operation.
Fire Tube Boiler a boiler where heat is applied inside the tube.
Fusion Welding a process of welding metals in a molten and vaporous state, without the application of mechanical
pressure or blows.
Gas-Fired Boiler uses natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for heating boiler, fire tube or water-tube.
Heat-Recovery Steam Generator unfired pressure vessel that uses flue gas heat.
Internal Inspection an inspection made when a boiler or unfired pressure vessel is shut-down and handholes,
manholes, or other inspection openings are opened or removed for inspection of the interior.
6

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Locomotive Boiler a boiler mounted on a self-propelled track locomotive and used to furnish motivating power for
traveling on rails.
Low Pressure Heating Boiler a boiler operated at a pressure not exceeding 1.055 kg/cm2 gage steam water
temperature not exceeding 121 C.
Medium Pressure Heating Boiler a boiler operated at a pressure not exceeding 103.5 MPa gage steam, or water
temperature not exceeding 130 C.
Miniature Boiler as used in this Code herein mean any boiler which does not exceed any of the following limits:
405 mm inside diameter, 1065 mm overall length of outside of heads at center, 1.85 m2 of water heating surface,
7.03 kg/cm2 maximum allowable working pressure.
New Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel Installation include all boilers and unfired pressure vessels constructed,
installed, placed in operation or constructed for.
Oil-fired Boiler uses Bunker C as fuel for heating boiler and power boiler.
Portable Boiler an internally fired boiler which is self-contained and primarily intended for temporary location and
the construction and usage is obviously portable.
Power Boiler a closed vessel in which steam or other vapor (to be used externally to itself) is generated at a
pressure of more than 1.055 kg/cm2 gage by the direct application of heat.
ASME Boiler Construction Code the term, ASME Boiler Construction Code of the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers with amendments and interpretations thereto made and approved by the Council of the Society.
Reinstalled Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel a boiler or unfired pressure vessel removed from its original setting
and re-erected at the same location or erected at a location without change of ownership.
Second Hand Boiler or Unfired Pressure Vessel as used herein shall mean a boiler or unfired pressure vessel of
which both the location and ownership have been changed after primary use.
Unfired Pressure Vessel a vessel in which pressure is obtained from an external source, or from an indirect
application of heat.
Waste-Heat Boiler unfired pressure vessel that uses flue gas heat from waste incinerator.
Waste Tube Boiler a boiler where heat is applied outside the tube.

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


11. Performance of Boilers

11.1

Factor of Evaporation, FE
h s h fw
FE =
h fg
where:
hfg = latent heat of vaporization or evaporation at standard atmospheric conditions.
hfg = 970.3 Btu/lb or
hfg = 2257 Btu/lb or
hfg = 539 kcal/kg

11.2

Equivalent Evaporation, EE
EE = ms FE
where:
ms = amount of steam generated.

11.3

Equivalent Specific Evaporation, ESE


m
EE
ESE = s FE =
mf
mf
where:
mf = amount of fuel burned in the furnace.

11.4

ASME Evaporation unit, ASME EU


ASME EU = ms (hs h fw )

11.5

Rated Boiler Horsepower (Rated Bo Hp)


Rated Bo Hp = Total Heating Surface / k
where:
k = 12 sq ft = 1.1 sq m for fire-tube boilers
k = 10 sq ft = 0.91 sq m for water-tube boilers
Also Package Fire-Tube Boiler have a heating surface of 5 sq ft per boiler horsepower.

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


11.6

Developed Boiler Horsepower (Dev Bo Hp)


ms (hs h fw ) ASME EU
Dev Bo Hp =
=
c
c
where:
c = 33,475 Btu/hr = 35,316 kJ/hr = 8,433 kcal/hr

11.7

Percent Rating Developed (% Rating Dev)


Dev Bo Hp
% Rating Dev =
100
Rated Bo Hp

11.8

Over-all Boiler Efficiency or Steam Generator Efficiency, eo.


ms (hs h fw ) + mrs (hro hri ) + mbo (hbo h fw )
eo =
m f HHV
where:
mrs = amount of steam reheated
hro = enthalpy of steam leaving reheater
hri = enthalpy of steam entering reheater
mbo = amount of water blowdown at boiler pressure
hbo = enthalpy of saturated liquid at boiler pressure
if there is no reheater and no boiler blowdown.
ms (hs h fw )
eo =
m f HHV

11.9

Boiler and Furnace Efficiency, ebf


ms (hs h fw )
ebf =
m f HHV mr HVr
where:
mf = amount of ash refired
HVr = heating value of ash

11.10 Net Efficiency of Steam Generating Unit, enet


(ms maux )(hs hfw )
enet =
m f HHV
where:
maux = amount of steam used for SGU auxiliaries.
11.11 Gross Station (Power Plant) Heat Rate, GSHR
- Defined as the amount of heat required per unit power developed .
Gross heat supplied by fuel
GSHR =
Gross work output
11.12 Net Station (Power Plant) Heat Rate, NSHR
Heat supplied by fuel , m f HHV
NSHR =
(kW hr generated) (kW hr used by auxiliaries )
9

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


11.13 Over-all (Gross) Station Efficiency, o
kW output at generator terminals
o =
Heat supplied by fuel
11.14 Grate Efficiency, egr
m HV
egr = 1 c r
m f HHV
where:
mc = amount of carbon in refuse or ash
HVc = heating value of combustible in refuse or ash
12. Steam Turbines
The operation of the steam turbine generator involves the expansion of steam through numerous stages in the
turbine, causing the turbine rotor to turn the generator rotor. The generator rotor is magnetized, and its rotation
generates the electrical power in the generator stator.
12.1
Principal Parts
a. Rotor is the main moving element of a turbine.
b. Casing is the principal stationary element, often called the cylinder. It surrounds the rotor and
holds, internally, any nozzles, blades, and diaphragms that may be necessary to control the path and
physical state of the expanding steam.
c. Bearings this the main bearings of a single-cylinder turbine which are two in number and are
placed outboard of the shaft seal.
d. Shaft seals to prevent outflow at the high-pressure end and air inflow at the vacuum end.
e. Steam control regulate the flow of steam through a stationary turbine to produce constant
rotative speed in the presence of variable power demand.
f. Oil system is required for lubricating the bearings.
12.2
Classification of Steam Turbine
12.2.1 Types of Blades
a. Impulse Stages - consists of a stationary nozzle with rotating buckets or blades. The steam
expands through the nozzle, increasing in velocity as a result of the decrease in pressure.
The steam then strikes the rotating buckets and performs work on the rotating buckets,
which in turn decreases the steam velocity.
1. Velocity compound stage involves a stationary nozzle followed by several rotating and
stationary buckets. The nozzle has a large pressure drop with a resulting increase in
velocity. The velocity compound stage is also called a Curtis stage.
2. Pressure compound stages involve several sets of nozzles with small pressure drops
through each set of nozzles and complete velocity dissipation in each row of rotating
buckets. The pressure compound stages are also called Rateau impulse stages.
b. Reaction Stages are composed of one stationary row of blades and one rotating row of
blades with a pressure drop occurring in each stationary and rotating row.
12.2.2 Cylinder Arrangement
a. Single cylinder
- With all rotating blades attached to one shaft and the steam flow all in one direction.
b. Double flow units
- Single cylinder units with steam entering in the center and flowing in two equal
quantities, but in opposite directions along the shaft.
c. Tandem-compound units
10

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE

12.2.3
12.2.4

12.2.5

12.2.6

d. Cross-compound units
- Differ from tandem-compound units only in that the high- and low-pressure ends are
not on the same shaft.
e. Steeple- or vertical-compound units
Back Pressure
Initial Temperature and Pressure
High Pressure 1800 to 2400 psig range.
Supercritical Pressure Above 3206 psig.
Low Pressure 200 to 400 psig range.
High Temperature Inlet temperature above 900 F.
Reheat
Reheat turbine when steam is extracted from the turbine and its temperature increased
(usually in the steam generator) before being returned to the turbine.
Other Methods
a. Single-stage or multistage units
b. Mixed-pressure units
c. High or low speed turbines
d. Nonextraction or extraction turbines
e. Uses stationary, marine, or mechanical-drive turbines.

13. Power Rating


Mechanical drive turbines are rated in horsepower; turbine-generator units, in kilowatts.
Internal power is the product of torque and rotor speed.
Nominal rating is a declared power capacity expected to be the maximum load.
Capability is the manufacturers guaranteed maximum continuous output for a clean turbine, operating under
specific throttle and exhaust conditions, with full extraction at any openings, if provided.
Overload capacity is the difference between capability and rating.
14. Willans Line
Willans line is a straighlt line which shows the relation between the steam consumption in lb per hr and the load
in kW of a steam turbine generator unit.

11

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Note that the Willans line for throttle governing and for an infinite number of governor valves is a straight line
and will conform to the general equation
y = a + bx
Where

y = throttle steam flow, lb per hr


a = no-load steam consumption, lb per hr
b = slope of the curve, lb per kwhr
x = load, kw

15. Performance of Steam Turbines

15.1

Ideal Turbine Work


Wt = ms (h1 h2 )
where:

h1 = enthalpy of steam entering


h2 = enthalpy of steam after ideal (isentropic) expansion
15.2

Actual Turbine Work


Wt = ms (h1 h2a ) = ms (h1 h2 )st
where:
h2a = enthalpy of steam after actual expansion
hst = stage efficiency

15.3

Turbine Power Output


Wt = ms (h1 h2 )t = ms (h1 h2 )stm
where:
t = turbine efficiency = st x m
m = mechanical efficiency

15.4

15.4

Electrical or Generator Efficiency


Generator output
e =
Turbine output
Generator output = Turbine Output x e = ms(h1 h2)te
12

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


15.5

Thermal Efficiency
15.5.1 Brake thermal efficiency
Turbine output
eb =
ms (h1 h f 2 )
15.5.2 Combined or overall thermal efficiency
Generator output
ec =
ms (h1 h f 2 )
15.5.3 Ideal Rankine thermal efficiency
h h
er = 1 2
h1 h f 2

15.6

Engine Efficiency of Turbine


15.6.1 Brake engine efficiency
Brake power
eb =
ms (h1 h2 )
15.6.2 Combined or Overall engine efficiency
Generator output
ec =
ms (h1 h2 )

16. Steam Condensers


Steam condenser a heat exchanger where steam enters at the top and the condensate is collected in the hot well
at the bottom while cooling water flows through the tubes.
17. Functions of Steam Condenser
a. To convert steam to liquid before entering the steam-generating unit.
b. To create a vacuum at turbine exhaust thereby increasing turbine power.
18. Classification of steam condensers
a. Surface condenser where steam and cooling water are not allowed to mix; commonly shell and tube design.

13

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


b. Direct-contact condenser (mixing) also called jet condensers , where steam and cooling water are allowed to
mix.

19. Heat Balance in Condenser

mw c p (t 2 t1 ) = ms (hs h f )E

where:
cp = 4.187 kJ/kg-C or 1.0 Btu/lb-F
E = heat extraction factor

20. Vacuum Efficiency, hvac


p p
vac = atm cond
patm psat
where:
patm atmospheric pressure
pcond absolute condenser pressure
psat saturation pressure
21. Feedwater Heater
Terminal difference is the difference between the saturation temperature of the steam in the heater and the
temperature of the water leaving the heater.
Subcooling the reduction below saturation temperature.
14

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Open heaters or Contact heaters are feedwater heaters that function by mixing steam with the feedwater.
Deaerator a contact heater especially designed to remove the noncondensable gases.
22. Feedwater Pumps and Boiler Feed Pump
Boiler feed pump whose function is to increase the pressure existing on a liquid an increment sufficient to the
required service.

Pump Work = m(h2 h1 )


Pump Work mv1 (p2 p1 )
Pump Work = mgH
where:
m = mass flow rate, kg/s
v1 = specific volume, m3/kg
p1 = entrance pressure, kPa
p2 = exit pressure, kPa
H = head, m

Pump input power (Brake power of the pump) =

Pump Work
Pump Efficiency

23. Steam Engines


Steam engines where steam is admitted to the engine cylinder at throttle pressure during the first part of the
working stroke, then cut off by closure of the steam valve. The steam so trapped in the cylinder expands
adiabatically to the release pressure, then is exhausted from the cylinder during part of the return stroke. Steam
engines are double-acting and the process is isentropic.

15

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


23.1

Ideal p-V Diagram

23.2

Piston Volume Displacement


Piston rod neglected:

VD = 2 D 2 LN
4
Piston rod considered:


VD = D 2 LN + D 2 d 2 LN
4
4
Indicated Power
IP = pmiVD
pmi = indicated mean effective pressure
Area of Diagram
pmi =
Spring Scale
Length of Diagram

23.3

23.4

Brake Power
BP = 2TN
where:
T = torque, kN-m
N = speed, rev/s
Using brake mean effective pressure, pmb
BP = pmbVD

23.5

Friction Power
Friction Power = Indicated Power Brake Power
FP = IP BP

23.6

Mechanical Efficiency
Brake Power
m =
Indicated Power

16

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


23.7

Thermal Efficiency
a. Indicated thermal efficiency
Indicated Power
ei =
ms (h1 h f 2 )
b. Brake thermal efficiency
Brake Power
eb =
ms (h1 hf 2 )

23.8

Engine Efficiency
a. Indicated engine efficiency
Indicated Power
i =
ms (h1 h2 )
b. Brake engine efficiency
Brake Power
b =
ms (h1 h2 )

23.9

Efficiency of Equivalent Rankine Cycle


h h
er = 1 2
h1 h f 2

24. Combined Cycle Power Plant


Combined gas turbine-steam cycle is employed to transfer heat carried by the flue gas in the gas turbine cycle to
the feedwater in the steam cycle; the heat exchanger performs the function of a boiler.

Schematic Diagram

17

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE

Gas Turbine Cycle:


Net Work of the Cycle,
Wnet = ma [(hc hd ) (hb ha )] = ma c p [(Tc Td ) (Tb Ta )]
Heat Added in the Combustion Chamber,
QA = ma (hc hb ) = ma c p (Tc Tb )
Heat Loss in the Heat Exchanger,
QL = ma (hd hc ) = ma c p (Td Tc )
Steam Cycle:
Net Work of the Cycle,
Wnet = ms [(h1 h2 ) v 3 (p4 p3 )]
Heat Gained in the Heat Exchanger,
QG = m fw (h1 h4 ) = ms (h1 h4 )

Thermal Efficiency of the Combined Cycle,


W
W + WnetS
ek = net = netG
QA
QA
Energy balance in the heat exchanger,
Heat lost by exhaust gases = heat gained by feedwater
ma c p (Td Tc ) = ms (h1 h4 )

ms =

ma c p (Td Tc )
h1 h4

where:
ms = steam mass flow rate
ma = air mass flow rate

25. Binary Mercury-Steam Cycle Power Plant


Binary mercury-steam cycle - is employed to transfer heat carried by the mercury in the mercury vapor cycle to the
feedwater in the steam cycle; the heat exchanger performs the function of a boiler.

18

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE

Schematic Diagram

Overall Turbine Work,


Wt = Whgt + Wst = mhg (ha hb ) + ms (h1 h2 )
Overall Pump Work,
Wp = Whgp + Wsp = mhg (hd hc ) + ms (h4 h3 )
Wp = mhg v c (pd pc ) + ms v 3 (p4 p3 )

Heat Added in the Mercury Boiler,


QA = mhg (ha hd )
Thermal Efficiency of Binary Cycle,
W Wp
W
eb = net = t
QA
QA

Energy Balance in the Heat Exchanger,


Heat lost by the mercury heat gained by water
mhg (hb hc ) = m fw (h1 h4 )
m fw = ms

Thus,

mhg =

m fw (h1 h4 )
hb hc

where:
ms = steam mass flow rate
mfw = feedwater flow rate
mhg = mercury flow rate

19

E. STEAM POWER PLANT - LECTURE


26. Cogeneration Steam Power Plant
The terms cogeneration and CHP are used interchangeably paper and are defined as the combined simultaneous
generation of heat and electrical energy with a common source of fuel. Common examples of cogeneration
applications include pulp and paper mills, steel mills, food and chemical processing plants, and District Heating (DH)
applications.
Schematic Diagram

End -

20

F. CHIMNEYS AND STACKS - LECTURE


1. Definition
Chimneys and stacks are used to dispose the exhaust gases at a considerable height and produce the necessary
draft for the flow of the gases. Chimneys indicating brick or concrete construction and stacks designating steel
construction.
2. Functions of Chimney
a. To dispose the exhaust gases at suitable height so that no pollution will occur in the vicinity.
b. To produce the necessary draft required for the flow of the gases.
3. Calculation of Chimney Diameter and Height

Let
D = internal diameter of chimney, meters (for tapered chimney, D is the internal diameter at the top).
H = height of chimney, meters.
Ta = temperature of air, K .
Tg = average temperature of flue gases, K.
Ra = gas constant of air = 0.287 kJ/kg-K
Rg = gas constant of flue gas = 8.3143/MWfluegas ( same as for air if MW not given)
P = barometric pressure, kPa = 101.325 kPa
Height:
pt = draft pressure = H ( a g )g , Pa
p
, kg/m3
RaTa
p
g = density of flue gases =
, kg/m3
RgTg

a = density of air =

Tg = average temperature flue gases =

H=

T1 + T2
,K
2

pt
(a g )g , meters

For purposes of stack design it is customary to assume that the barometric pressure decreases 0.1 in. Hg for each
one hundred-foot rise in elevation.
1

F. CHIMNEYS AND STACKS - LECTURE

Diameter:
Volume flow of flue gases
Qg = AV =
Qg =

4
mg RgTg

D 2V

, m3/s

p
Theoretical Velocity of flue gas in chimney
p
Vt = 2 t , m/s

Actual velocity of flue gases in chimney is only 30% to 50% of theoretical velocity, thus to get the actual velocity,
multiple the theoretical velocity by a velocity coefficient of 0.30 to 0.50. Usual assumption is 0.40 for Cv.
V = C vVt
Then,
4Qg
D=
V

End -

G. GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT - LECTURE


1. Definitions:
Magma molten metal within the earth which is basically nickel-iron in composition whose stored energy heats the
surrounding water thereby producing steam or hot water.
Well-bore product the effluent coming out from the geothermal well as produced after drilling. This can be purely
steam or hot water, or a mixture of both.
Steam-dominated geothermal field (Vapor dominated) refers to a geothermal plant with its well producing all
steam as the well-bore product.
Liquid-dominated geothermal field (Hot Water dominated) the well-bore product for this type of field is practically
all hot water, pressurized.
Sources of Geothermal Energy
a. Hot spring
b. Steam vent
c. Geyser
Fumarole a crack in the earth through which the geothermal substances passes.
2. Geothermal Sources
2.1 Hydrothermal fluids
Hydrothermal fluids basically made up of hot water, steam and minerals. It is the only form of energy currently
being tapped for significant commercial heat and electric energy supply.
2.2 Geopressurized brines
Geopressurized brines represents a special subject of hydrothermal fluids typically found in depths exceeding
3 km and is characterized as hot water existing at pressures above the normal hydrostatic gradient and
containing dissolved methane.
2.3 Hot dry rock
Hot dry rock is a water-free, impermeable rock at high temperature and practically drilling depth to extract
energy, high-pressure water may be injected through one or more wells to create new or to enhance existing
natural fracture system with limited access to ground water flow.
2.4 Magma
Magma is characterized by motion or partially molten rock with temperature reaching as high 1200 C.
3. Applications of Geothermal Energy
3.1 Electric power generation
Geothermal energy available at temperature above 150 C is most suitable for electricity production.
3.2 Space heating and cooling
3.3 Industrial applications includes preheating, washing, cooking, blanching, peeling, evaporating, drying and
refrigeration.
3.4 Agricultural applications includes greenhousing, aquaculture, soil warming and biogas generation.
3.5 By-products certain compounds such as boron and calcium chloride can be recovered from geothermal fluids
as by-products.

G. GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT - LECTURE


4. Types of Geothermal Power Plants
4.1 Dry or superheated steam
Dry or superheated steam geothermal source is vapor-dominated (characterized by dry or superheated
steam); steam directly runs the turbine.

4.2 Separated steam or single-flashed


Separated steam or single-flashed geothermal source is hot water-dominated (characterized by mixture of
steam and hotwater); employs the use of steam separator; re-injects hot water, steam goes to turbine.

4.3 Separated steam/hot water-flashed or double flashed


Separated steam/hot water-flashed or double flashed where flasher is employed and located at the hot waterend of the steam separator; purpose is to further extract the steam which were not extracted in the separator;
such steam is then directed to the turbines low-pressure side.

G. GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT - LECTURE


4.4 Single-flashed with pumped well
Single-flashed with pumped well employs down-hole pump in production wells for better steam recovery.

4.5 Binary geothermal plant


Binary geothermal plant like the binary mercury-steam cycle, it uses two working fluids, one is the steam from
the production well, the other is feedwater; the heat exchanger serves the function of the boiler.

5. Performance of Flashed-Steam Geothermal Plant

T-s Diagram

G. GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT - LECTURE


Mass flow rate of steam entering the turbine, ms:
Throttling process 1-2
h1 = h2 = h f 2 + x 2 h fg 2
ms = x 2 mg

where:
x2 = quality of steam after throttling
mg = mass flow rate of ground water from wells
Turbine Work, Wt:
Wt = ms (h3 h4 )t
where:
t = turbine isentropic efficiency
Generator power output, EP
EP = Wt e
where:
e = generator efficiency
Heat rejected in condenser, QR
QR = ms (h4 h5 )
Overall plant efficiency, eo
W
eo = t
mg h1
6. Installed and fully operational geothermal power plants in the Philippines
a. Tiwi Geothermal Power Plant, 330 MW. Location: Albay.
b. Makiling-Banahaw (Mak-Ban) Geothermal Power Plant, 3309 MW. Location: Los Banos, Laguna.
c. Tongonan Geothermal Power Plant, 112.5 MW. Location: Leyte.
d. Palimpinon-Dauin Geothermal Power Plant, 112.5 MW. Location: Negros Oriental
-

End -

H. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT - LECTURE


1. Basic Elements in Hydro-Electric Power Plant.

1.1 Storage Reservoir or Reservoir


Reservoir used to store water during rainy days and supply the same during the dry season. Also stores the
water coming from the upper river or water falls.
1.2 Spillway
Spillway a weir in the reservoir which discharges excess water so that the head of the plant will be maintained.
1.3 Dam
Dam - the concrete structure that encloses the reservoir used for impounding the water for storage and for
creating head for the power plant.
1.4 Intake Structure or Equipment
Intake structure consists of racks or screens to prevent trash or entry of debris into the turbine runners.
1.4.1 Silt Sluice a chamber used to collect and discharge mud.
1.4.2 Trash rack a screen which prevents leaves, twigs, branches and other water contaminants to enter the
penstock.
1.5 Water way
1.5.1 Open channel
1.5.2 Penstock a pressure conduit which leads water from reservoir to turbine.
1.5.3 Tailrace a channel which leads water from turbine to tailwater.
1.6 Surge Tank or Chamber
1.6.1 Surge Tank - is used to reduce the water hammer during decrease in turbine load.
1.6.2 Surge Chamber a standpipe connected to the atmosphere and attached to the penstock so that the
water will be at atmospheric.

H. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT - LECTURE


1.7 Powerhouse
Powerhouse consists of building structure of hydraulic and electrical equipment which includes the following:
a. Hydraulic turbines
b. Speed governors
c. Generators
d. Switchgears
e. Pressure relief valves
f. Isolation valves
g. Transformers
1.8 Draft Tube
Draft tube an integral part of reaction turbine used to recover energy head. It connects the turbine outlet to
the tailwater so that the turbine can be set above the tailwater level.
1.9 Forebay
1.10
Turbine converts the energy of the water into mechanical energy.
1.11
Generator converts the mechanical energy of the turbine into electric energy output.
1.12
Tailwater the water that is discharged from the turbine.
2. Types of Hydraulic Turbines
2.1 Impulse (Pelton) Turbine is also known as tangential wheel or Pelton wheel, it utilizes kinetic energy of high
velocity jet which acts upon a small part of the circumference at an instant.

2.2 Reaction turbine develops power from the combined action of pressure and velocity of the water that
completely fills the runner and water passages.
2.2.1 Francis Turbine low head and high efficiency.

2.2.2

Propeller-Type(Axial Flow) very low head and efficiency is lower than Francis
a. Fixed Blade
b. Adjustable blade or Kaplan
2

H. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT - LECTURE

3. Classification of Hydro-Electric Power Plants according to the:


3.1 Available head for power generation.
a. Low head 6 m to 30 m
b. Medium head 30 m to 150 m
c. High head 150 m and above
3.2 Nature of load or function.
a. Base-load plant
b. Peak-load plant
3.3 Quantity of water available for power generation.
a. Run-of-river plant without pondage
b. Run-of-river plant with pondage
c. Storage reservoir hydro plant (most common in RP)
d. Pumped storage hydro plant

4. Run-of-the River (Low Head) Hydro-Electric Power Plant

Pondage the water behind the dam of a run-of-the-river hydro-electric plant.


5. Pumped Storage Hydro-Electric Plant or Hydraulic Accumulator
Pumped storage plant is a hydro-electric plant which involves the use of off-peak energy to store water and to use
the stored water to generate extra energy to cope with the peak load.

H. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT - LECTURE

6. Performance of Hydro-Electric Power Plant.


6.1 Gross head, hg
Gross head, hg is the difference between the head water and tailwater elevation.
6.2 Friction head loss, hf
hf = f

L V2
- Darcy Equation
D 2g

where:
f = coefficient of friction.
L = total length of pipe, in meters
V = velocity, m/s
g =9.81 m/s2
D = inside diameter, meters
(Friction head loss is usually expressed as a percentage of the gross head).
6.3 Net head or effective head, h
h = hg h f
6.4 Penstock efficiency or pipeline efficiency, ep
effective head on impulse turbine
ep =
gross head on impulse turbine
ep =

h
hg

6.5 General flow equation


Q = AV
where:
Q = volume flow rate, m3/s
A = cross-sectional area, m2
V = velocity, m/s
4

H. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT - LECTURE


6.6 Water power, WP
WP = Qh = gQh kW
Where:
= specific weight of water = 9.81 kN/m3
= density of water = 1000 kg/m3
6.7 Turbine output, Wt
Wt = Qht = gQht kW
Where:
t = turbine efficiency
6.8 Generator output, EP
EP = Qht e = gQhte kW
Where:
e = electrical or generator efficiency
6.9 Generator speed, N
120 f
N=
p
where:
N = speed, rpm
f = frequency (usually 60 Hz)
p = number of poles (even number)
6.10

Utilized head
hw = hh
where:
h = hydraulic efficiency

6.11

Head of Pelton (impulse) turbine

h=

p V2
+
2g

where:
V = velocity of jet
p = inlet gage pressure
g = 9.81 m/s2
6.12

Head of Reaction (Francis and Kaplan) turbine

h=

+Z+

VA2 VB2
2g
5

H. HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER PLANT - LECTURE

6.13

Peripheral coefficient (relative speed or speed ratio),


Peripheral Velocity DN
=
=
Velocity of Jet
2gh
where:
D = diameter of runner, meters
N = speed of runner, rev/sec
g = 9.81 m/s2
h = net head, meters

6.14

Specific speed, Ns
Specific speed defined as the number of revolutions per minute at which a given runner would revolve if it
were so reduced in proportions that it would develop 1 hp under one foot head; it serves to classify a
hydraulic turbine and to indicate its type.
N HP
H5 4
where:
N = turbine runner rotative speed, rpm
HP = horsepower output per runner
H = available head acting on turbine per stage in feet.
Ns =

7. Identification of hydraulic turbine type based on available head and specific speed.
Hydraulic Turbine Type
Available Head, m
Impulse
800 and up
Reaction (Francis)
50 to 800
Reaction (Propeller Kaplan)
15 to 100
-

End -

Specific Speed
5.5 to 80
22 to 80
85 to 170

I.

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT - LECTURE

1. Typical Nuclear Power Plant

2. Definitions
Isotopes are forms of an element that have the same chemical properties but different atomic weights because of
different numbers of neutrons in the atom.
Alpha particles carry a positive charge and have a mass of 4. They are composed of two protons and two neutrons;
thus, they are the nucleus of the helium atom.
Beta particles are electrons emitted from the nucleus of an atom.
Gamma rays are similar to X-rays in that they are electromagnetic.
Fusion process is the combination of light elements into heavier elements.
Fuel core are radioactive materials, U235 with U238, which is the source of energy.
Moderator slows down the neutrons to thermal energy, made of carbon and beryllium.
Control rods are boron coated steel rods used to control the reactor, also called neutron-absorbers.
Reflector made of lead or carbon which surrounds the core to bounce back any leakage of neutrons.
Thermal shield prevents escape of radiation from reactor vessel.
Reactor drum encloses the fuel core and components.

I.

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT - LECTURE

Biological shield concrete or lead which absorbs any leakage of radiation and protects operators from exposure to
radioactivity.
Control crucible contains the meters that show the operating quantities in the reactor.
Containment vessel prevents spread of radiation in case of a major explosion, made of concrete.
Coolant absorbs the heat from the fuel core and then release the heat to the water in the steam generator.
Coolant pump circulates the coolant.
Turbine-generator generates electric power.
Condenser converts steam coming from the turbine into liquid.
Feedwater pump delivers the feedwater to the steam generator.
3. Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear reactors are assemblies of fissionable and other materials so arranged and in sufficient quantities so as to
be capable of supporting a chain reaction.
4. Nuclear Reactor Materials
4.1 Fissionable material or fuel
Uranium 92U235, 92U233
Plutonium 94Pu239
4.2 Fertile materials
Uranium 92U238
Thorium 90Th232
4.3 Coolant
4.4 Moderator
4.5 Structure (including reflectors, container, and shielding material).
5. Types of Reactors
5.1 Pressurized water reactor (PWR) where there is primary coolant circuit containing water at high temperature
and pressure, typically 270 C and 2000 psi. Attached to this is a steam-generating unit which then supplied the
turbine. This type of reactor uses high pressure light or heavy water as both moderator and coolant. This is the
type constructed in Morong, Bataan with a capacity of 620 MW and intended to supply power to the Luzon area.
5.2 Boiling water reactor (BWR) this is the simplest form of nuclear reactor. The feedwater from the power turbine
goes directly into the reactor and picks up the heat from the fuel core. Thus the feedwater serves as the coolant.
The first experimental reactor installed in Diliman, Quezon City is of this type. It has a capacity of 1 MW.
5.3 Heavy water reactor (HWR) This is the first alternative to the light-water types as it is still liquid-cooled and can
either be pressurized-coolant or boiling-coolant type. It uses heavy water or deuterium as coolant.
2

I.

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT - LECTURE

5.4 Gas-cooled Reactors (GCR) these were suggested as far back as 1943 but were discarded in favor of watercooled types for fear regarding the leakage of the chosen coolant, helium.
5.5 Fast reactors a reactor containing no moderator and employ fast or high-energy neutrons.
5.6 Thermal reactor wherein the neutrons have been slowed down.
5.7 Intermediate reactors employ neutrons having an energy somewhere between fast and thermal reactors.
5.8 Heterogeneous reactors where fissionable material for a reactor is in the form of a lump.
5.9 Homogeneous reactors where the fuel may be in a liquid form. The fuel is a salt, such as uranium sulfate, and
is mixed with moderator, which is water.
-

End -

J. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - LECTURE


1. Non-conventional Energy Sources
Non-conventional Energy Sources also referred to as renewable energy sources, these are actually energy flows
which are replenished as they are used, hence, the use of the term renewable. These are characterized by a
maximum theoretical rate at which energy may be extracted in a renewable mode, that is, the rate at which new
energy is arriving or flowing into the reservoirs associated with many of the renewable energy flows. All forms of
energy sources with the exception of geothermal energy, salinity gradient and tidal energy are indirect
manifestations of solar energy.
2. Solar Energy
There are many applications for the direct use of solar thermal energy, space heating and cooling, water heating,
crop drying and solar cooking.
Solar Constant = 1353 W/m2
Useful energy from the sun is between 10 AM 2 PM = 1000 W/m2
3. Solar Radiation Phenomena
a. Atmospheric scattering by air molecules, water vapor, dust.
b. Atmospheric absorption by O3 (ozone), H2O, CO2.
4. Forms of Solar Radiation
a. Beam or direct radiation without having beam scattered by the atmosphere.
b. Diffuse radiation direction is changed by scattering.
c. Total or global solar radiation the sum of beam and diffuse radiation.
5. Pyranometer
Pyranometer is the instrument used to measure the total solar radiation.
6. Photovoltaic Cell
Photovoltaic cell is a device which converts solar energy to electrical energy.
7. Solar Collectors
Solar Collectors whose ideal characteristics are high absorptivity and low emissivity.
7.1 Flat Plate Collectors (FPC)
a. Area absorbing solar radiation is the same as the area intercepting solar radiation.
b. Uses both beam and diffuse radiation.
c. Does not require orientation.
d. Little maintenance.
e. Working fluid is either air or water.
f. Measure of performance is by means of collection efficiency.
Collection efficiency = useful gain / incident solar radiation.
7.2 Focusing or concentrating collectors
a. Utilize optical systems, either reflectors or refractors.
b. Uses beam radiation only.
c. Needs tracking.
1. Total or full-tracking.
2. Fixed-reflector, tracking-receiver.
3. Fixed-reflector, tracking-reflector.
1

J. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - LECTURE


d. Measure of performance is by means of concentration ratio.
Concentration ratio = aperture area / receiver area
e. Classifications
1. Plane receiver, plane reflectors
2. Parabolic concentrators.
3. Fresnel reflectors or refractors
4. Array or heliostat (reflectors)
f. Concentrator types.
The purpose of concentrator is to increase the flux of radiation n receiver.
1. Cylindrical: focus on a line.
2. Circular: photovoltaic cell.
8. Conversion and Applications of Solar Energy
8.1 Solar water heating systems (swsh).
a. Flat plate collector, storage tank, auxiliary heating equipment.
b. Classifications:
1. Natural circulation system tank is located above collector, no circulation at night, auxiliary equipment
may be needed.
2. Forced circulation system requires a pump to circulate water, tank may not be located above collector,
employs check valve whose purpose is to prevent reverse circulation of water and to prevent nighttime
thermal losses from the collector.
8.2 Solar space heating.
a. Ho t air systems
b. Hot water systems
8.3 Solar space cooling.
a. Continuous
1. Closed
a. Absorption system
b. Solar vapor-compression system.
e.g. lithium bromide (LiBr) water.
2. Open
a. Liquid desiccant
b. Solid desiccant
b. Intermittent
1. Liquid absorbent
2. Solid absorbent
8.4 Solar power conversion
a. Photovoltaic (PV) devices or solar cells
1. Single crystal silicon most widely-used and technically-developed.
2. Cadmium-sulfide (CdS).
3. Gallium arsenide
4. Thermoelectric and thermionic
b. Solar thermal electric power (STEP).

J. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - LECTURE


9. Wind Power
Winds are a result of air motion caused by uneven heating of the earths surface by the sun and rotation of the
earth.
10. Typical uses of wind power.
a. To drive water pumps.
b. To drive rice and corn mills.
c. To charge batteries.
d. To generate power.
11. Types of windmills.
a. Turbine type
b. Rotor type
c. Propeller type
d. Dutch sail type
e. Panemone type
12. Types of wind energy collectors
a. Horizontal-axis rotors axis of rotation is parallel to the direction of the wind; can be either lift or drag-type;
yaw-active, meaning it changes position depending on wind direction.
b. Vertical-axis rotors do not have to be turned into the wind as wind stream direction changes, design is simplet.
1. Savonius rotors employ S-shaped blades and are primarily drag devices.
2. Darrieus rotors
c. Cross-wind horizontal-axis rotors
13. Conversion and Applications of Wind Energy
a. Water pumping which could be used directly for irrigation.
b. Used to compress air for use in a variety of applications including operating electricity during peak demand
periods of a public utility system.
c. Used in centralized utility applications to drive synchronous AC electrical generators.
d. Used for direct heat applications.
e. Used in the production of hydrogen by electrolysis of seawater (in the case of off-shore winds).
14. Wind Energy Storage Systems
a. Batteries in the form of chemical energy.
b. Pumped-hydro storage energy.
c. Compressed air storage systems.
d. Hydrogen gas produced from pyrolysis of water.
e. Thermal energy storage systems.
f. Flywheel
15. Site selection
Wind power is proportional to the cube of the wind velocity.
Factors to be considered
a. Windshear.
b. Turbulence, or rapid change in speed and/or direction.
c. Acceleration or retardation.

J. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - LECTURE


16. Wind Power Performance
Betzs law is a theory about the maximum possible energy to be derived from a wind turbine. The ideal or
maximum theoretical efficiency, also called power coefficient, of a wind turbine is the ratio of maximum power from
the wind to the total power available in the wind. The factor 0.593 is known as Betzs coefficient. It is the maximum
fraction of the power in a wind stream that can be extracted.
Total power available from the wind
1
Ptotal = AV 3
2
Maximum available power from the windmill
1
Pmax = AV 3 c
2
where:
= wind density
A = swept area =

2
D
4

V = wind velocity
D = blade diameter
17. Bio-Energy or Bio-mass
Biogas is a good fuel. Have you thought how this is formed? Biomass like animal excreta, vegetable wastes and
weeds undergo decomposition in the absence of oxygen in a biogas plant and form a mixture of gases. This mixture
is the biogas. Its main constituent is methane. This is used as a fuel for cooking and Lighting.
18. Aerobic and anaerobic bio-conversion process
a. Bioproducts: Converting biomass into chemicals for making products that typically are made from petroleum.
b. Biofuels: Converting biomass into liquid fuels for transportation.
c. Biopower: Burning biomass directly, or converting it into a gaseous fuel or oil, to generate electricity.
19. Bio-mass source
a. Manure
b. Crop residues
c. Fuel wood
d. Sugar crops
e. Urban refuse: paper, yard and food wastes
f. Municipal sewage-sewage sludge: 0.02 0.03% solids, above 99% water
g. Aquatic plants: water hyacinth
h. Energy farming: denthrothermal or energy crops
1. Fast-growing trees: ipil-ipil
2. Sugar and starch crops: cassava in ethanol production
3. Oil and hydrocarbon crops: coconut oil
4. Herbaceous crops

J. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - LECTURE


20. Bio-mass Conversion Processes
a. Biochemical: introduction of microorganisms
1. Ethanol fermentation
2. Anaerobic digestion
b. Thermochemical
1. Pyrolysis an irreversible chemical change caused by the action of heat in the absence of oxygen.
2. Combustion/gasificiation
Gasification is the conversion of a solid fuel to a combustible gas as a means of thermochemical reaction.
Complete combustion takes place with excess oxygen or at least 100% theoretical oxygen, whereas
gasification takes pace with an oxygen deficit.
21. Advantages
a. Inexpensive
b. Low sulfur content
c. Reduces environmental hazard
d. Convertible to gaseous/liquid fuels
e. Less CO2 build-up
f. Generates additional employment
g. Simple to store
22. Disadvantages
a. Low thermal content, only about 20 MJ/kg
b. High moisture content, approximately 50%
c. Low bulk density
d. Transpo uneconomical
e. Rarely homogeneous
f. Low concentration
23. Tidal Power
Tidal power is basically hydro-electric power utilizing the difference in elevation between high and low tide to
produce energy. A basin is required to catch the sea water during high tide while the water drives the turbine.
In the Philippines, commercialization is not full-scale since it is found that the average difference is only about 6
meters.
24. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
This is otherwise known as low thermal head plant, it utilizes the temperature difference between the ocean surface
water and the water at the sea bottom. Surface water which is at relatively high temperature is pumped to an
evaporator where the water evaporates into saturated steam. This steam drives a single stage turbine thereby
producing electricity, and exhaust to a jet condenser maintained at the saturation pressure of the subsurface water
temperature pumped from the sea bottom.
5

J. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES - LECTURE


In the Philippines, full-scale commercialization is also not economically-viable because of the small temperature
difference out waters have.
25. Magneto Hydrodynamic Plant
Magneto hydrodynamic generator where combustion gases produced in a combustion chamber at high pressure
and temperature and seeded with metal vapor to increase its electrical conductivity, is passed through an expansion
tube lined with a strong magnetic field. This induces an electric voltage in the gas conductor and effect the flow of
electrons through the electrodes along the magnetic field, thereby generating electricity.
26. Thermionic Converter
Thermionic converter is a device which converts heat energy directly to electrical energy. All metals and some
oxides have free electrons which are released on heating. These electrons can travel through a space and collected
on a cooled metal. These electrons can return to hot metal through an external load thereby producing electrical
power.
27. Fuel Cell
Fuel cell is a device which converts chemical energy to electrical energy. Fuel cells produce electricity from an
electrochemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. Fuel cells are efficient, environmentally benign and reliable
for power production. The use of fuel cells has been demonstrated for stationary/portable power generation and
other applications.
-

End -