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INTRODUCTION

AFRICOMs core network is based on Soft Switch (A softswitch, short for software switch, is a
central device in a telecommunications network which connects telephone calls from one phone line
to another, across a telecommunication network or the public Internet, entirely by means of software
running on a general-purpose computer system) architecture of HUAWEI CDMA2000 1x system and
comprises of the following circuit switched core nodes :
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

HLR /AUC ( Home Location Register / Authentication Centre) => HLR9820


MSC/VLR (Mobile Switching Centre / Visitor Location Register) => CSOFTX3000
MGW (Media Gateway ) => UMG8900
MC (SMS Message Centre)

And packet switched core node :


v)

PDSN (Packet Data Switching Network comprising SGSN and GGSN) =>PDSN9660 .

See below diagram for the network connectivity of the core nodes:

CDMA network layout.

The network provides for both voice and data services

Core node functions and O&M tasks


O&M tasks are performed using Huawei LMTs and iManager M2000 system which
supports centralised operation and maintenance for all Core Network, PDSN and CDMA
BSS products . The interface for access to the core systems is called BAM (Back
Administration Module ) and every core node has one .It is the communication bridge
between the LMT and the host.
The BAM does the following functions:
i)
ii)
iii)

The LMT sends request messages to the BAM through MML commands.
It also stores and forwards alarms and performance measurement results.
The functional modules of the BAM consist of the BAM Manager, BAM Service,
Exchange Server, MML Server, service processes of the BAM, and databases.

HLR
It is a database located in the users home system that stores the master copy of the users
service profile.
It is shared by the Circuit Switched (CS) domain and Packet Switched (PS) domain in the
CDMA network .
The system works in redundancy mode (active and standby modes of system modules) .
The major functional units for the HLR are the SAU (Signalling Access Unit) ,HDU
(HLR Database Unit) and SMU (Subscriber Management Unit ).

The service profile consists of ,for example , forbidden roaming areas, and
Supplementary services as call waiting, call forwarding and call forwarded number .
It is created when a new user subscribes to the system .This process involves allocation of
a MDN/MSISDN linked to a MIN/IMSI which is stored in an AC (Authentication Centre)
and on the SIM/RUIM card ..
HLR stores the MS location information on the level of MSC/VLR and SGSN .

O&M tasks for the HLR involve health checks on the node hardware and system
configurations.
For subscriber queries and faults the LMT provides for various traces as User interface,
MTP and SCCP .
CP state / usage
DSP CPUR (should be less than 80%)
System clock
DSP TIME
Signalling link / route state LST N7LNK,DSP N7LNK,LST M3LNK,DSP M3LNK,
DSP M3RT,DSP N7RT
System device state
On HLR LMT select device panel
Redundancy state
LST REDUNDANCY
Backup check
Check BAM.dat files in path F:\HLR9820Back
Check for alarms
LST ALMLOG ,Browse alarms on LMT and look for critical
States.

MSC/VLR
It is the switch (MSC) and dynamic database (VLR) that serves the MS (Mobile Station)
in its current location for circuit switched services.
The system works in redundancy as well as load sharing modes.
The MSC comprises the following five modules : SSM (System Support Module for
software and data loading plus device management) ,LIM (Line Interface Module for
E1,ATM,Frame Ethernet connections) ,BL-SPM (Bottom-layer Signalling Processing
Module for MTP2 level signalling) , SPM (Service Processing Module for layer
3signalling) and O&M Module for MML and NMS interface.

The MSC function is used for call control and switching of CS transactions.
The VLR function holds a copy of the visiting users service profile, as well as more
precise information on the location of the MS within the serving system.
Provides interfaces to interwork with RAN , PSTN or ISDN.
The MSC can serve as the GMSC,VMSC ,SSP (Switching Service Point) .
Performs access control of the MGW and resource allocation .
Performs service routing , signalling processing ,authorisation and charging .

Position of CSOFTX3000 in a CDMA network

O&M tasks involve health checks on the node via LMTs and M2000.

For subscriber queries and faults the LMT provides for various traces as User interface,
MTP and SCCP .

CP state / usage
System clock
Signalling link / route state

DSP CPUR (should be less than 80%)


DSP TIME
LST N7LKS, DSP N7LNK , DSP N7RT ,
DSP M3RT
M3UA , SCCP states
LST M3LKS, DSP M3LKS ,DSP SCCPDSP,DSP
N7DSP
Routes
DSP M3RT ,LST TKC ,DSP TKC ,DSP OFTKC
Charging / Billing checks
DSP BLL, DSP BILLPOOL
System device state
ON LMT SELECT DEVICE PANEL
Backup
Check if the BamYYYYMMDD.dat and
BamMonthBak.dat files in the path F:\CSOFTX3000
Alarms
BROWSE ALARMS ON LMT ,LOOK FOR
CRITICAL STATES

MGW
The UMG8900 MGW implements the function of speech bearer switch, such as the
switch between different PS bearers and the switch between PS bearer and CS bearer.
The UMG8900 connects to base station controllers (BSCs)/TMSCs/GMSCs or PSTN
switches in TDM mode to connect and switch narrowband voice and data services
The main units in the MGW are : MPU (Main Processing Unit manages boards in the
hardware frame) ,VPD (Voice Processing Unit D provides transcoding and echo
cancelling functions for voice service streams ,announcements) ,SPF (Front Signalling
Processing Unit performs signalling adaptation and transfer) and OMB (O&M Unit
manages all the frames in MGW ,provides external interfaces including console interface)

Converts analog voice signals to digitally encoded versions


Voice quality assurance technologies such as echo cancellation (EC), voice activity
detection (VAD), comfort noise generation (CNG), and packet loss concealment (PLC)
Announcement playing, digit collecting and sending, tone file loading, and announcement
resource providing
Embedded signalling gateway (SG) function, adapting and forwarding signalling from the
time division multiplexing (TDM) bearer to the Internet Protocol (IP) bearer and reducing
the networking complexity.

Network diagram showing MGW position

O&M tasks involve health checks on the node via LMTs and M2000.

CP state / usage
System clock
Signalling link
SCTPRUN:BT=PPU,LT=H248;

System device state

Service bearer and media resources

Performance system task state


Alarms

DSP CPUR (should be less than 80%)


DSP CLK ,DSP NETCLKSIG
DSP M3LNK , DSP
DSP L2UALNK , DSP H248LNK,DSP N7DSP
DSP BRD , LST BRD .OPEN THE DEVICE
PANEL FOR A VIEW OF THE BOARDS.
DSP VMGWRSC,
DSP GWADDR:BN=0;
DSP MEDIARES
LST TSK
BROWSE ALARMS ON LMT ,LOOK FOR
CRITICAL STATES