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Florian PETRESCU, Relly PETRESCU

THE CAM DESIGN FOR A BETTER EFFICIENCY

Abstract: The paper presents an original method to determine the efficiency of a mechanism with cam
and follower. The originality of this method consists in eliminate of the friction modulus. In this paper on
analyze three types of cam mechanisms: 1.The mechanism with rotary cam and plate translated follower;
2.The mechanism with rotary cam and translated follower with roll; 3.The mechanism with rotary cam
and rocking-follower with roll. In every kind of cam and follower mechanism on utilize a different method
for the best efficiency design.
Key Words: efficiency, power, cam, follower, roll, force, speed.
1. INTRODUCTION
In this paper the authors present an original method
to calculate the efficiency of the cam mechanisms.
The originality consists in the eliminating of friction
forces and friction coefficients. On determine just the
mechanical efficiency of cam mechanism.
In every kind of cam and follower mechanism on are
utilizing a different method for the design with maximal
efficiency.
In this paper on analyze three kinds of cam and
follower mechanisms.
2. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY
MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE ROTARY
CAM AND PLATE TRANSLATED FOLLOWER
The consumed motor force, Fc, perpendicular in A on
the vector rA, is dividing in two components, [1]:
1. Fm, which represents the useful force, or the motor
force reduced to the follower;
2. F, which is the sliding force between the two
profiles of cam and follower, (see the picture 1).
Pc is the consumed power and Pu represents the useful
power.
The written relations are the next:
Fm = Fc sin
(2.1)

v2 = v1 sin

(2.2)

Pu = Fm v 2 = Fc v1 sin 2

(2.3)

Pc = Fc v1

(2.4)

i =

Pu Fc v1 sin
=
=
Pc
Fc v1
2

(2.5)

= sin = cos

sin 2 =

s 2
s 2
=
2
rA ( r0 + s ) 2 + s 2

F = Fc cos
v12 = v1 cos
2

P = F v12 = Fc v1 cos

(2.6)

&
Fc

A
rA

v&2

v&1

v&12

&
F

&
Fm
E

r0

Fig. 1 Forces and speeds to the cam with plate


translated follower. Determining the efficiency.

i =

P
Pc

Fc v1 cos 2
=
Fc v1

(2.10)

= cos = sin
In the relation number (2.11) on determine the
mechanical efficiency:

= 0.5 {1

(r0 + s M ) s M

}
M [(r0 + s M ) 2 + s 2 M ]

(2.11)

3. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY


MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE ROTARY
CAM AND TRANSLATED FOLLOWER WITH
ROLL
The written relations are the next:
rB2 = e 2 + (s 0 + s) 2

(3.1)

(2.7)

rB = rB2

(3.2)

(2.8)

e
cos B sin =
rB

(3.3)

(2.9)

sin B cos =

s0 + s
rB

(3.4)

DECEMBER 2006 VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 JIDEG 33

The CAM Design for a Better Efficiency


Fu, v 2

Fn, vn

Fn, v n

Fi, vi

B
rb

F m, v m
A-

Fa, va

s0

B0

rA

rB

A0

n
0
C

A
e
r0

Fig. 2 Forces and speeds to the cam with translated follower with roll. Determining the efficiency.

The pressure angle, , is determined by the relations


(3.5-3.6):
s0 + s
cos =
(3.5)
( s 0 + s ) 2 + ( s e) 2

s e

sin =

( s 0 + s ) 2 + ( s e) 2

cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin

rA2

rB2

rb2

2 rb rB cos( + )

va = vm sin( A )

Fa = Fm sin( A )

(3.13)

vn = vm cos( A )

Fn = Fm cos( A )

(3.14)

vi = vn sin

Fi = Fn sin

(3.15)

(3.8)

v2 = vn cos = vm cos( A ) cos

Fu = Fn cos = Fm cos( A ) cos

(3.16)

(3.9)

Pu = Fu v2 = Fm vm cos 2 ( A ) cos 2 (3.17)


Pc = Fm vm
(3.18)

(3.6)
(3.7)

cos A =
=

e ( s 0 + s ) 2 + ( s e) 2 + rb ( s e)
rA ( s 0 + s ) 2 + ( s e) 2

The momentary mechanical efficiency can be


obtained by the relation (3.19):

sin A =
=

( s 0 + s ) [ ( s 0 + s ) 2 + ( s e) 2 rb ]

(3.10)

i =

rA ( s 0 + s ) 2 + ( s e) 2

cos( A ) =
( s0 + s ) s

s
=
= cos
2
2
r
A
rA ( s0 + s ) + ( s e)
s
cos( A ) cos = cos 2
rA

(3.11)

Pu
=
Pc

Fm vm cos 2 ( A ) cos 2
Fm vm

= cos 2 ( A ) cos 2 =
(3.12)

On can write the next forces and speeds (see the


picture 2):
Fm, vm, are perpendicular on the vector rA in A.
Fm is dividing in Fa (the sliding force) and Fn (the
normal force).
Fn is dividing too in Fi (the bending force) and Fu (the
useful force).

34 DECEMBER 2006 VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 JIDEG

=
(3.19)

= [cos( A ) cos ] =
=[

s
s 2
cos 2 ]2 = 2 cos 4
rA
rA

4. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY


MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE ROTARY
CAM AND ROCKING FOLLOWER WITH ROLL
The written relations are the next:

The CAM Design for a Better Efficiency


b 2 + d 2 (r0 + rb ) 2
2bd
2 = + 0
RAD =
cos 0 =

= d 2 + b 2 (1 ) 2 2bd (1 ) cos 2
d cos 2 + b b
RAD
d sin 2
cos =
RAD
rB2 = b 2 + d 2 2 b d cos 2

sin =

rB2

cos B =

d + b
2 d rB

sin B =

b sin 2
rB

sin( + 2 ) = sin cos 2 + sin 2 cos


cos( + 2 ) = cos cos 2 sin 2 sin

B = + 2 + B
2
cos B = sin( + 2 + B )
sin B = cos( + 2 + B )
cos B = sin( + 2 ) cos B +
+ sin B cos( + 2 )
sin B = sin( + 2 ) sin B
cos B cos( + 2 )

rA2 = rB2 + rb2 2 rb rB cos B

(4.1)
(4.2)
(4.3)
(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.12)
(4.13)
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)

r 2 + rB2 rb2
cos = A
2 rA rB

(4.17)

r
sin = b sin B
rA

(4.18)

A =B +
cos A = cos B cos sin B sin
sin A = sin B cos + cos B sin
= A 2
cos = cos( 2 + + A ) =
= sin( 2 + ) sin A
cos( 2 + ) cos A
b
cos =
cos
rA
b
cos cos =
cos 2
rA

(4.19)
(4.20)
(4.21)
(4.22)

Fa = Fm sin

va = vm sin
Fn = Fm cos

vn = vm cos
F = F sin
n
c
v = v sin
n
c
Fu = Fn cos = Fm cos cos

v2 = vn cos = vm cos cos

2
2
Pu = Fu v2 = Fm vm cos cos
Pc = Fm vm
P
i = u = cos 2 cos 2 =
Pc

b
= (cos cos ) 2 = (
cos 2 ) 2 =
rA
=

(4.26)

(4.27)

2 b 2
cos 4
r A2

sin( + 2 ) = sin cos 2 +


d b cos 2 (1 )
RAD
rb
rb
sin = sin B =
rA
rA
+ cos sin 2 =

(4.28)

(4.29)

[sin( + 2 ) sin B cos( + 2 ) cos B ]


cos =

rB rb cos B rB rb
=

rA
rA rA

(4.30)

[sin( + 2 ) cos B + cos( + 2 ) sin B ]

cos( + 2 ) = cos cos 2


b sin 2 (1 )
RAD
cos A = cos B cos sin B sin =
sin sin 2 =

(4.31)

rB
r
cos B b [sin( + 2 ) cos 2 B
rA
rA

+ cos( + 2 ) sin B cos B +


+ sin( + 2 ) sin 2 B

(4.23)

cos( + 2 ) sin B cos B ] =


=

1
[rB cos B rb sin( + 2 )] =
rA

1
[d b cos 2 rb sin( + 2 )] =
rA

1
[d b cos 2
rA

(4.24)
(4.25)

Forces and speeds are writhing in the relations (4.26)


and the efficiency is writhen in the relation (4.27):
On demonstrate now the mode of deduction for the
relation (4.24). On can see now a very difficult algorithm
for the obtained of this relation (4.24):

rb

(4.32)

d b cos 2 (1 )
]
RAD

DECEMBER 2006 VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 JIDEG 35

The CAM Design for a Better Efficiency


picture 3):
Fm, vm, are perpendicular on the vector rA in A.
Fm is dividing in Fa (the sliding force) and Fn (the
normal force).
Fn is dividing too in Fc (the compressed force) and Fu
(the useful force).
For the mechanisms, with rotary cam and diverse kind
of followers, on must utilize different methods for
realizing the design with maximal efficiency to every
type of follower.
cos = sin( 2 + ) sin A cos( 2 + ) cos A =

Fig. 3 Forces and speeds to the cam with rocking


follower with roll. Determining the efficiency.

rB
r
sin B b [cos( + 2 ) sin 2 B
rA
rA

+ sin( + 2 ) sin B cos B

r
r
= B sin B b cos( + 2 ) =
rA
rA
=

(4.33)

b
r
sin 2 b cos( + 2 ) =
rA
rA

d b cos 2 (1 )
(4.34)
RAD
b sin 2 (1 )
cos( 2 + ) =
(4.35)
RAD
1
r b sin 2 (1 )
sin A = [b sin 2 b
] (4.36)
rA
RAD
sin( 2 + ) =

r b cos 2 (1 ) rb d
+ b
]
RAD

(4.38)

rb b 2 sin 2 cos 2 (1 ) 2
+
RAD
r b d sin 2 (1 )
+ b
]=
RAD
b d sin 2 b d sin 2 b
=
=

=
cos
rA RAD
rA
RAD
rA

5. CONCLUSION

1
b sin 2 (1 )
= [b sin 2 rb
]
rA
RAD

1
cos A = [d b cos 2 +
rA

rb b d sin 2 (1 )
+
RAD
r b 2 sin 2 cos 2 (1 ) 2
+ b

RAD
b d sin 2 (1 ) + b 2 sin 2 cos 2 (1 )

sin( + 2 ) sin B cos B +


+ cos( + 2 ) cos 2 B ] =

1
[b d sin 2 b 2 sin 2 cos 2 (1 )
rA RAD

sin A = sin B cos + cos B sin =


=

(4.37)

In figure number three, on can see the forces and the


speeds of the mechanism with rotary cam and rocking
follower with roll.
The cam and the follower are represented in two
positions, successively.
The distance between the two rotary centers is noted
by d. The radius of follower is b.
The movement laws are known: , , , .

On can write the next forces and speeds (see the


36 DECEMBER 2006 VOLUME 1 NUMBER 2 JIDEG

The follower with roll, make input-force, to be


divided in more components. This is the motive for that,
the dynamic and the precisely-kinematics of mechanism
with rotary cam and follower with roll, are more different
and difficult.
6. REFERENCES
[1] Petrescu, R., Petrescu, F. The gear synthesis with the
best efficiency. ESFA 03, Bucharest, Romania, 2003,
Vol. 2, pp. 63-70.
[2] Antonescu P., Oprean M., Petrescu, Fl., La projection
de la came oscillante chez les mechanismes a
distribution variable. CONAT MATMA 85, BUDRY
Romania, 1985.
Authors:
Eng. Florian-Ion PETRESCU, associate
professor, University POLITEHNICA of
Bucureti;
Eng.
Relly-Victoria
PETRESCU,
Ph.D.,
lecturer, University POLITEHNICA of Bucureti.