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TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ-NAPOCA


ACTA TECHNICA NAPOCENSIS

International Conference on Engineering Graphics and Design


12-13 June 2009

CAM GEAR DESIGN


Narcisa POPESCU, Relly Victoria PETRESCU, Florian Ion PETRESCU
Abstract: The paper presents an original method to determine the efficiency of a mechanism with cam
and follower. One analyzes four types of cam mechanisms: 1.The mechanism with rotary cam and plate
translated follower; 2.The mechanism with rotary cam and translated follower with roll; 3.The
mechanism with rotary cam and rocking-follower with roll; 4.The mechanism with rotary cam and plate
rocking-follower. One takes into account the cams mechanism (distribution mechanism), which is the
second mechanism from the internal-combustion engines. The optimizing of this mechanism (the
distribution mechanism), can improve the functionality of the engine and may increase the comfort of the
vehicle as well. Key words: Efficiency, force, power, cam, follower, roll, plate, force, speed.

1. INTRODUCTION
In this paper the authors present an
original method to calculate the efficiency of
the cams mechanisms.
One analyzes four kinds of cams and followers
mechanisms: 1. A mechanism with rotary cam
and plate translated follower; 2. A mechanism
with rotary cam and translated follower with
roll; 3. A mechanism with rotary cam and
rocking-follower with roll; 4. A mechanism
with rotary cam and plate rocking-follower. For
every kind of cams and followers mechanism,
one has utilizing a different method for the
cams design with a better efficiency.
The dynamic velocities follow the same
direction like forces. The dynamic efficiency
uses the dynamic velocity. The normal
(mechanical) velocities (known by kinematics)
have the direction imposed by the linkage, and
with this velocity one calculates the mechanical
efficiency. When the kinematics (mechanical)
velocity coincide with the dynamic velocity
(the velocity has the same direction like the
force), one can say that the linkage (couple or
joint) is dynamically normal (natural). See the
geared transmissions, or the cam with plate
followers.

2. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY


DYNAMIC
(MECHANICAL)
EFFICIENCY OF THE ROTARY CAM
AND PLATE TRANSLATED FOLLOWER
The
consumed
motor
force,
Fc,
perpendicular in A on the vector rA, is divided
in two components, [11-15]: a) Fm, which
represents the useful force, or the motor force
reduced to the follower; b) F, which is the
sliding force between the two profiles of cam
and follower, (see the picture 1). See the
written relations (2.1-2.10):
Fm = Fc sin

(2.1)

v 2D = v 2 = v1 sin

(2.2)

PuD = Pu = Fm v 2 = Fc v1 sin 2

(2.3)

Pc = Fc v1

(2.4)

Pu Fc v1 sin 2
=
=
Pc
Fc v1

(2.5)

iD = i =

= sin 2 = cos 2
sin 2 =

s '2
rA2

s '2
(r0 + s) 2 + s'2

(2.6)

216

r
Fc

2002 Florian PETRESCU


The Copyright-Law
Of March, 01, 1989
U.S. Copyright Office
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20559-6000
202-707-3000

r
v1
A

rA

r
Fm

r
v2

r
F

r
v12

sin =

s'e

(3.6)

( s0 + s ) 2 + ( s'e) 2

cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin

(3.7)

E
s

rA2 = rB2 + rb2 2 rb rB cos( + )

(3.8)

r0
O

cos A =

Fig. 1. Forces and speeds to the cam with plate


translated follower. Determining the efficiency of the
cams mechanism

F = Fc cos

(2.7)

P = F v12 = Fc v1 cos2
P
Pc

Fc v1 cos 2
= cos 2 = sin 2
Fc v1

(2.9)
(2.10)

3. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY


DYNAMIC
AND
MECHANICAL
EFFICIENCY OF THE ROTARY CAM
AND TRANSLATED FOLLOWER WITH
ROLL
The pressure angle, , is determined by the
relations (3.5-3.6), [2, 4, 6, 7]; The written
relations are the following:
rB2 = e 2 + (s0 + s) 2
rB = rB2

cos =

( s0 + s) [ ( s0 + s ) 2 + ( s'e) 2 rb ]
rA ( s0 + s) 2 + ( s 'e) 2
( s0 + s) s'
2

rA ( s0 + s) + ( s'e)

s'
cos
rA

(3.9)

(3.10)

(3.11)

e
rB

(3.3)

s0 + s
rB

(3.4)

s0 + s
( s0 + s) 2 + ( s'e) 2

cos( A ) cos =

s'
cos 2
rA

(3.12)

One can write the next forces, speeds and


powers (3.13-3.20) (see the picture 2): Fm, vm,
are perpendicular on the vector rA in A. Fm is
divided in Fa (the sliding force) and Fn (the
normal force). Fn is divided too, in Fi (the
bending force) and Fu (the useful force). The
momentary dynamic efficiency can be obtained
from the relation (3.18), [11-15]:
va = vm sin( A )

Fa = Fm sin( A )
vn = vm cos( A )

Fn = Fm cos( A )

(3.13)

(3.14)

(3.1)
(3.2)

cos B sin =

sin B cos =

cos( A ) =

rA ( s0 + s) 2 + ( s'e) 2

(2.8)

v12 = v1 cos

i =

sin A =

e ( s0 + s) 2 + ( s'e) 2 + rb ( s'e)

(3.5)

vi = vn sin

Fi = Fn sin

v 2D = v n cos = v m cos( A ) cos

s'

2
2
= v m cos = v 2 cos
r
A

Fu = Fn cos = Fm cos( A ) cos

(3.15)

(3.16)

2002 Florian PETRESCU


The Copyright-Law
Of March, 01, 1989
U.S. Copyright Office
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20559-6000
202-707-3000

217
4.
DETERMINING
THE
MOMENTARY
DYNAMIC
AND
MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE
ROTARY
CAM
AND
ROCKING
FOLLOWER WITH ROLL

Fn, vn

Fu, v2

Fn, vn

Fi, vi

Fm, vm

rb

A-

Fa, va
rB
rA

s0

B0

A0

n
0
C

The written relations are the following [1115]:

A
e
O

cos 0 =

r0

Fig. 2. Forces and speeds to the cam with translated


follower with roll

P = Fu v =

2
2
= Fm v m cos ( A ) cos
P = F v
m
m
c
D
u

(4.2)

RAD = d 2 + b 2 (1 ' ) 2 2bd (1 ' ) cos 2

(4.3)

sin =

d cos 2 + b 'b
RAD
cos =

iD =

PuD Fm vm cos 2 ( A ) cos 2


=
=
Pc
Fm vm

[cos( A ) cos ]2 = [

s'
s' 2
cos 2 ]2 = 2 cos 4
rA
rA

s'
v 2 = v m
rA

P = F v =
u
2
u
s'

= Fm v m cos( A ) cos =
rA

s' 2
= Fm v m 2 cos 2
rA

P = F v
m
m
c

s'2
Fm vm 2 cos2
P
rA
i = u =
=
Pc
Fm vm
s'2
= 2 cos2
rA

(3.18)

d sin 2
RAD

rB2 = b 2 + d 2 2 b d cos 2
cos B =

d 2 + rB2 b 2
2 d rB

sin B =

(3.19)

(4.1)

2 = + 0

D
2

(3.17)

b 2 + d 2 ( r0 + rb ) 2
2bd

b sin 2
rB

(4.4)
(4.5)
(4.6)
(4.7)

(4.8)

sin( + 2 ) = sin cos 2 + sin 2 cos

(4.9)

cos( + 2 ) = cos cos 2 sin 2 sin

(4.10)

B = + 2 + B

(4.11)

cos B = sin( + 2 + B )

(4.12)

sin B = cos( + 2 + B )

(4.13)

cos B = sin( + 2 ) cos B + sin B cos( + 2 )

(4.14)

sin B = sin( + 2 ) sin B cos B cos( + 2 )

(4.15)

(3.20)

rA2 = rB2 + rb2 2 rb rB cos B

(4.16)

218

r2 + r2 r2
cos = A B b
2 rA rB

(4.17)

r
sin = b sin B
rA

(4.18)

A = B +

(4.19)

cos A = cos B cos sin B sin

(4.20)

sin A = sin B cos + cos B sin

(4.21)

= A 2

(4.22)

cos = cos( 2 + + A ) =
= sin( 2 + ) sin A cos( 2 + ) cos A
cos =

'b
rA

cos

(4.23)

PuD
= cos 2 cos 2 = (cos cos ) 2 =
Pc
(4.31)
2
2
b
'b

'

=(
cos 2 ) 2 =
cos 4
rA
rA2

iD =

'b

Pu = Fu v 2 = Fm v m cos cos
rA (4.32)

P = F v
m
m
c

i =

Pu
'b
= cos cos
=
Pc
rA

'b

=(

rA

cos ) =
2

' 2 b 2
rA2

(4.24)
A

cos cos =

rA

cos

(4.25)

Fn, vn B

Fa = Fm sin

va = vm sin

(4.26)

Fn = Fm cos

vn = vm cos

(4.27)

Fc = Fn sin

vc = vn sin

(4.28)

PuD = Fu v 2D = Fm v m cos 2 cos 2

Pc = Fm v m

rB
Fa, va

F u, v 2

Fn, vn

B F c , vc

(4.29)

(4.30)

A0
0

r0
A

rb

Fm, vm
2

B B
0
A

The forces, velocities and powers are written


in the relations (4.26-4.33) and the efficiency is
written in the relations (4.31, 4.33), see the
figure 3 [11-15]:

Fu = Fn cos = Fm cos cos


D
v 2 = v n cos = v m cos cos =

'b
= v m
cos 2 = v 2 cos 2

rA

cos

2002 Florian PETRESCU


The Copyright-Law
Of March, 01, 1989
U.S. Copyright Office
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20559-6000
202-707-3000

rA

'b

(4.33)
2

b
d

0
D

Fig. 3. Forces and speeds at the rotary cam and rocking


follower with roll

Fm, vm, are perpendicular on the vector rA in


A. Fm is divided in Fa (the sliding force) and Fn
(the normal force). Fn is divided too in Fc (the
compressed force) and Fu (the useful force). For
the mechanisms, with rotary cam and diverse
kind of followers, one must use different
methods in creating the design with maximal
efficiency for every type of follower [11-15].
5. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY
DYNAMIC
(MECHANICAL)
EFFICIENCY OF THE ROTARY CAM
AND GENERAL PLATE ROCKING
FOLLOWER

The written relations are the following, (5.15.6), see the picture number four [11-15]:

6. CONCLUSION

AH = [ d 2 (r0 b) 2

' (5.1)
cos (r0 b) sin ]
1 '
OH = b + (r0 b) cos +

(5.2)

+ d 2 (r0 b) 2 sin
r 2 = AH 2 + OH 2

2002 Florian PETRESCU


The Copyright-Law
Of March, 01, 1989
U.S. Copyright Office
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20559-6000
202-707-3000

(5.3)

Fn;vn

Fm;vm

l.
r

Fa;va

A0

G0

r0

B0
x

D
1

Fig. 4. Forces and speeds at the rotary cam and general


plate rocking follower

AH
;
r
AH 2
AH 2
sin 2 = 2 =
r
AH 2 + OH 2
sin =

Fn = Fm cos = Fm sin ;
v n = v m cos = v m sin

iD = i =
=

(5.5)

Pn
F v
= n n =
Pc Fm v m

Fm v m sin 2
=
Fm v m

= sin 2 =

(5.4)

AH 2
AH 2 + OH 2

(5.6)

219

The follower with roll determines the inputforce, to be divided in more components. This
is the reason for that, the dynamic and the
precisely-kinematics (the dynamic-kinematics
[16]) of mechanism with rotary cam and
follower with roll, are more different and
difficult [17]. The presented dynamic efficiency
of followers with roll is not the same like the
classical-mechanical efficiency [11-15]. For the
plate followers the dynamic and the mechanical
efficiency are the same [14, 15]. This is the
greater advantage of the plate followers, but the
dynamic efficiency in this conception results
just with the velocity which follows the force
direction (not the linkage imposed direction),
and in reality the dynamic velocity is more
different because the angular velocity isnt
constant. The influence of the real variable
angular velocity in dynamics is important, but it
hasnt any influence to the efficiency (dynamic
or mechanical) determination, because the
angular velocity intervenes in the utile and
consumed power as well.
7. REFERENCES

[1] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., Contribuii la


optimizarea legilor polynomiale, de micare
a tachetului de la mecanismele de distribuie
ale motoarelor cu ardere intern,
Proceeding of 5th Conference, ESFA,
Bucureti, Vol. I, p. 249-256, 1995.
[2] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., Contribuii la
sinteza mecanismelor de distribuie ale
motoarelor cu ardere intern, Proceeding of
5th Conference, ESFA, Bucureti, Vol. I, p.
257-264, 1995.
[3] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., Dinamica
mecanismelor cu came (exemplificat pe
mecanismul
clasic
de
distribuie),
Proceeding of 7th International Symposium
SYROM, Bucharest, Vol. 3, p. 353-358,
1997.
[4] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., Antonescu, O.,
Contribuii
la
maximizarea
legilor
polinomiale pentru cursa activ a
mecanismului de distribuie de la motoarele

220

cu ardere intern, Proceeding of 7th


International
Symposium
SYROM,
Bucharest, Vol. 3, p. 365-370, 1997.
[5] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., Antonescu, O.,
Contribuii la sinteza mecanismelor de
distribuie, ale motoarelor cu ardere
intern,
cu
metoda
coordonatelor
carteziene, Proceeding of 7th International
Symposium SYROM, Bucharest, Vol. 3, p.
359-364, 1997.
[6] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, V., Sinteza
mecanismelor de distribuie prin metoda
coordonatelor rectangulare (carteziene),
Proceeding of 7th National Conference,
GRAFICA, Craiova, p. 297-302, 2000.
[7] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., Legi de micare
pentru mecanismele cu came, Proceeding of
7th National Symposium PRASIC, Braov,
Vol. I, p. 321-326, 2002.
[8] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., Elemente de
dinamica mecanismelor cu came Proceeding
of 7th National Symposium PRASIC,
Braov, Vol. I, p. 327-332, 2002.
[9] Petrescu, I., Petrescu, V., Ocnrescu, C.,
The cam synthesis with maximal efficiency,
Proceeding of 7th National Symposium
PRASIC, Braov, Vol. I, p. 339-344, 2002.
[10] Petrescu, F., Petrescu, R., The Cam Design
for a Better Efficiency, Proceeding of
International Conference ICEGD, Bucharest,
Vol. I, p. 245-248, 2005.
[11] Petrescu, F.I., Petrescu, R.V., Determining
the dynamic efficiency of cams, Proceeding

of 9th International Symposium SYROM,


Bucharest, Vol. I, p. 129-134, 2005.
[12] Petrescu, F.I., Petrescu, R.V., Popescu, N.,
The efficiency of cams, Proceedings of 2th
International Conference MME, Sofia, Vol.
II, p. 237-243, 2005.
[13] Petrescu, F.I., Comnescu, A., Grecu, B.,
Ocnrescu, C., Petrescu, R.V., Determinarea
randamentului la mecanismele cu cam,
Proceeding of 3th National Seminar SNM,
Craiova, p. 309-318, ISBN 978-973-746910-6, 2008.
[14] Petrescu, F.I., Comnescu, A., Grecu, B.,
Ocnrescu, C., Petrescu, R.V., Cams
Dynamic Efficiency Determination, In NEW
TRENDS
IN
MECHANISMS,
Ed.
Academica Greifswald, ISBN 978-3-940237-10-1, 2008.
[15] Petrescu, R.V., Comnescu, A., Petrescu,
F.I., Cam Gears Dynamics illustrated in the
Classic Distribution, In NEW TRENDS IN
MECHANISMS,
Ed.
Academica

Greifswald, ISBN 978-3-9402-37-10-1,


2008.
[16] Petrescu, R.V., Comnescu, A., Petrescu,
F.I., Antonescu, O., Cam Gears Dynamics in
the Module B (with Translated Follower
with Roll), In NEW TRENDS IN
MECHANISMS,
Ed.
Academica

Greifswald, ISBN 978-3-9402-37-10-1,


2008.

DESIGNUL MECANISMELOR CU CAM


Rezumat: Lucrarea prezint o metod original pentru determinarea randamentului unui mecanism cu cam i tachet.
Se analizeaz 4 tipuri de mecanisme cu cam rotativ: 1. Cu tachet translant plat; 2. Cu tachet translant cu rol; 3. Cu
tachet rotativ cu rol; 4. Cu tachet rotativ plat. S-a considerat n mod special posibilitatea utilizrii acestor mecanisme la
distribuia motoarelor autovehiculelor, distribuia reprezentnd al doilea mecanism al unui motor (ca importan).
Optimizarea acestui mecanism poate mbunti funcionarea motorului, crescnd astfel i confortul vehiculului.

Narcisa Popescu, PhD. Eng., Associate Professor at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, GDGI
Department (Department of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics),
narcipop@yahoo.com, 0214029136;
Relly Victoria Petrescu, PhD. Eng., Lecturer at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, GDGI
Department (Department of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics),
petrescurelly@yahoo.com, 0214029136;
Florian Ion Petrescu, PhD. Eng., Assistant Professor at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, TMR
Department (Theory of Mechanisms and Robots Department), petrescuflorian@yahoo.com,
0214029632.