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529

TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ-NAPOCA

ACTA TECHNICA NAPOCENSIS

International Conference on Engineering Graphics and Design

12-13 June 2009

MF1 DESIGN
Florian Ion PETRESCU, Relly Victoria PETRESCU
Abstract: The paper presents a new and original internal-combustion engine. It is presenting a method in
determining the kinematics and the efficiency of a new mechanism, MF1, proposed (designed) to work
and be tested like an internal-combustion engine. One determines the mechanical momentary efficiency,
when the mechanism works like a steam roller and when the mechanism works like a motor. The
determined efficiency is different in the two described situations. One presents an original way to
determine the dynamic efficiency too. The dynamic momentary efficiency is the same in the two
situations: when the mechanism works like a steam roller and when it works like a motor. One
determines the efficiency without friction, but one can anytime add the effect of friction modulus. One
presents the dynamic kinematics of this mechanism too: the dynamic velocity and the dynamic
acceleration. When the constructive parameters are normal, the dynamic velocities take the same values
like the classical speeds and the dynamic accelerations take the same values like the classical
accelerations.
Key words: Efficiency, force, piston, crank, connecting-rod, motor, stroke, bore, dynamic-velocity,
dynamic-acceleration, dynamic-efficiency.

1. INTRODUCTION
The paper presents shortly a new and
original internal-combustion engine, MF1. The
originality consists in the way of determining
the mechanical and dynamic efficiency and in
the way of determining the dynamic velocities
and accelerations. In this paper one determines
the efficiency of piston mechanism in two
ways: 1.When the piston mechanism works like
a motor; 2.When the piston mechanism works
like a steam roller.
2. PRESENTING THE KINEMATICS OF
MF1
In the picture number 1, one can see the
kinematics outline of the new presented motor
mechanism (Motor, Florio 1), .
The first modification of this model, having
in view the classical model (Otto engine
mechanism), is the use of two connecting-rod,
(2 and 3) and the use of B couple, a dual
couple: of rotation and translation.

This motor mechanism is a new mechanism

and his functionality will be different from the
classical mechanisms functionality. The great
advantage of this mechanism is that it can be
regulated to have a bigger zone with constant
acceleration at the piston (the element number
five). The efficiency of this mechanism is the
same like the Otto mechanism. The structural
group 2-4 (a dyad) can improve the motor
functionality without damage of power. The
kinematics relations are the following (1-11):
a 2 = l 02 + l12 2 l 0 l1 sin 1
l cos 1
cos 2 = 1
a
e l1 cos 1 l 2 cos 2
cos 3 =
l3
y D = l1 sin 1 + l 2 sin 2 + l 3 sin 3
l cos( 1 2 )
2 = 1
1
a
l l cos 1
a& = 0 1 1
a

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

530

3 =

l1 1
[l 0 cos 1 sin( 3 2 ) +
a l3

+ b cos(1 2 ) cos( 3 2 )]

(7)

y& D = 1 l1 cos 1 +

(8)

+ 2 l 2 cos 2 + 3 l 3 cos 3
y

MOTOR FLORIO1-MF1
2003 Florian PETRESCU
Of March, 01, 1989
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20559-6000
202-707-3000

5
D

a
Fm cos( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 ) =
b
= Fm [sin( 2 1 ) cos( 2 3 ) +
+

C
e
yD

B
4
0

a
l0
O

l2
l1

(13)
(14)

= Fm sin( 2 1 ) cos( 2 3 ) +

3
b

(12)

+ F C sin( 2 3 ) =

l3

Fn = Fm sin( 2 1 )

F A = Fm cos( 2 1 )
a
a
F C = F A = Fm cos( 2 1 )
b
b
I
Fn = Fn cos( 2 3 )
I
F C = F C sin( 2 3 )
FT = FnI + F IC = Fn cos( 2 3 ) +

Fig. 1. The MF1 kinematics outline

(16)

FU = Fm sin 3 [sin( 2 1 )

l1 1 (1 2 ) sin( 1 2 ) 2 a&
(9)
a
l
3 = 1 1 [l 0 1 sin 1 sin( 3 2 ) +
a l3
+ l 0 ( 3 2 ) cos 1 cos( 3 2 )
b (1 2 ) sin(1 2 ) cos( 3 2 ) (10)
b ( 3 2 ) cos(1 2 ) sin( 3 2 )]
a&
3
a
&y&D = 12 l1 sin 1 22 l 2 sin 2 +

2 =

+ 2 l 2 cos 2 32 l 3 sin 3 +

a
cos( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 )]
b
FU = FT sin 3

FR = FT cos 3

(15)

cos( 2 3 ) +
+

a
cos( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 )]
b
FU

3. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY

MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY
WHEN THE MECHANISM WORKS LIKE
A STEAM ROLLER
One can determine the momentary
mechanical efficiency, when the mechanism
works like a steam roller, if one determines the
distribution of forces, from the crank to the
piston (figure 2); relations (12-19) :

FT

2
2-3

Fn
C

FR

3
0

B
Fn
2-1
a

Fm
MOTOR FLORIO1-MF1
2003 Florian PETRESCU
Of March, 01, 1989
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20559-6000
202-707-3000

FC

(11)

+ 3 l 3 cos 3

(17)

FA

2
A
1

Fig. 2. The MF1 distribution of forces, when the

mechanism works like a steam roller
l2 cos 2 cos(1 2 )
+
a
l0 cos 1 sin(3 2 ) + b cos(1 2 ) cos(3 2 ) (18)
a
cos 3 ]
vU = vm [cos 1

iC

Fu = Fu1 + Fu 2 = Fm sin 3

F v
= U U = sin 3 [sin( 2 1 ) cos( 2 3 ) +
Fm v m

a
cos( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 )]
b
(19)
l cos 2 cos(1 2 )
[cos 1 2
+
a
l 0 cos 1 sin( 3 2 ) + b cos(1 2 ) cos( 3 2 )
a
cos 3 ]

[cos( 2 3 ) sin(1 2 )

4. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY

MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY
WHEN THE MECHANISM WORKS LIKE
A MOTOR
One can determine the momentary
mechanical efficiency, when the mechanism
works like a motor, if one determines the
distribution of forces, from the piston to the
crank (figure 3); relations (20-25) :
MOTOR FLORIO1-MF1
2003 Florian PETRESCU
Of March, 01, 1989
Library of Congress
Washington, DC 20559-6000
202-707-3000

D
2-3

FC

FN
3

FR

Fm

FN
B
A

Fn

2
1

Fu2

FA
1-2

Fu1

Fn

1
O

Fig. 3. The MF1 distribution of forces, when the

mechanism works like a motor

FN = Fm sin 3
(20)

FR = Fm cos 3
Fn = FN cos( 2 3 )
(21)

F C = FN sin( 2 3 )
b
b
F A = F C = Fm sin 3 sin( 2 3 ) (22)
a
a
Fu1 = Fn sin(1 2 )
(23)

F
F

cos(

)
u
2

1
2
A

531

b
sin( 2 3 ) cos(1 2 )]
a

(24)
N = sin 3 [cos( 2 3 ) sin(1 2 )
b
sin( 2 3 ) cos(1 2 )]
a
n = cos + cos
1
3
(25)

l 0 cos 1 sin( 3 2 ) + b cos(1 2 ) cos( 3 2 )

l 2 cos 2 cos(1 2 )

N
iM =
n

5. DETERMINING THE MOMENTARY

DYNAMIC EFFICIENCY
The dynamic efficiency of the mechanism is
the same, anytime (when the mechanism works
like a steam roller and when its working like a
motor). It can be determined approximately
with the relation (26):
D
iD = iM
= iCD = sin 2 3 sin 2

(26)

with
:

=
2

2
1
3
One can determine the exactly momentary
dynamic efficiency of the mechanism, if one
takes in calculation the dynamic velocities (in
this case the speeds distribution is the same like
the forces distribution), see the relations (2729):
Fu
= sin 3 [sin( 2 1 ) cos( 2 3 )
Fm

(27)

b
+ sin( 2 3 ) cos( 2 1 )]
a
v
u = sin 3 [sin( 2 1 ) cos( 2 3 )
vm

(28)

a
+ sin( 2 3 ) cos( 2 1 )]
b
D
i = sin 2 3 {sin 2 ( 2 1 ) cos 2 ( 2 3 ) +
+ sin 2 ( 2 3 ) cos 2 ( 2 1 ) +
+

a2 + b2
sin[ 2 ( 2 1 )] sin[ 2 ( 2 3 )]}
4a b

(29)

532
6. THE DYNAMIC KINEMATICS OF THE
MECHANISM
One can determine now the dynamic
velocity (30) and the dynamic acceleration of
the piston (31):

classical kinematics values (8-11), see the

pictures number (4 and 5):

n=5 000 [ro t/min];l1= 0.0 8;l2= 0.3 ;l3= 0.5;l 0=0 .1 5;e =0

50000

0
0

100

200

300

400

-50000

v DDin = l1 1 sin 3 [sin( 2 1 ) cos( 2 3 )

+
a

a
sin( 2 3 ) cos( 2 1 )]
b

Din
D

-100000

(30)

-150000

-200000

= { 3 cos 3 [sin( 2 1 ) cos( 2 3 ) +

a
cos( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 )] + sin 3 [cos( 2 1 )
b
cos( 2 3 ) ( 2 1 ) sin( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 )
( 2 3 )

(31)

a
sin( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 ) ( 2 1 ) +
b

7. DISCUTION
n=5000[rot/min];l1=0.08;l2=0.3;l3=0.5;l0=0.15;e=0

V(Din)/(l1.w)
V(Cin)/(l1.w)

1
0.5

9. REFERENCES

0
-0.5 0

8. CONCLUSION
Some mechanisms have the same parameters
for the classical and for the dynamic kinematics
(gears, cams with plate followers). At the
presented mechanism, the dynamic-kinematics
is different from the classical-kinematics, but, if
the constructive parameters are normal, the
dynamic velocities and accelerations practically
take the same values like the classical speeds
and accelerations.

a
cos( 2 1 ) cos( 2 3 ) ( 2 3 ) +
b
a&
+ cos( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 ) +
b
a a&
+ 2 cos( 2 1 ) sin( 2 3 )]} l1 1
b
+

1.5

100

200

300

400

-1
-1.5
-2

When the values of the constructive

parameters are different from the normal, the
dynamic speeds and the dynamic acceleration
of the piston (30-31), are not the same like the

 Pelecudi, Chr., s.a. Mecanisme, E.D.P.,

Bucuresti, 1985.
 Petrescu, F.I., Petrescu, R.V., An original
internal combustion engine, Proceedings of
9th International Symposium SYROM, Vol.
I, p. 135-140, Bucharest, 2005.

DESIGNUL MOTOARELOR MF1

Rezumat: Lucrarea prezint un nou motor cu ardere intern de tip Otto. Se prezint cinematica i randamentul noului
motor cnd mecanismul principal lucreaz n regim de compresor i de motor. Se determin deasemenea randamentul
dynamic, viteza i acceleraia dinamic.

Florian Ion Petrescu, PhD. Eng. Assistant Professor at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, TMR
Department (Theory of Mechanisms and Robots Department), petrescuflorian@yahoo.com,
0214029632.
Relly Victoria Petrescu, PhD. Eng., Lecturer at Polytechnic University of Bucharest, GDGI
Department (Department of Descriptive Geometry and Engineering Graphics),
petrescurelly@yahoo.com, 0214029136.