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Final Exam

3 hours
Answer any 4 out of 5 problems:
conceptual questions and calculations

Materials before Mid-term will be covered


Closed-book exam, but formulae and constants will be
provided
Show all calculation steps and units
E2-229 EIT Complex April 24 1:30 PM Seats:76-143
1

Dislocation and Plastic Deformation in Crystals

Dislocation Motion and Plastic Deformation


Edge dislocation

Screw dislocation

Dislocations move in response to applied shear stress


on the slip planes and along slip directions.
The slip direction is the same as the Burgers vector
direction
3

Stress and Slip

Applied tensile
stress: s = F/A

Resolved shear stress

R s cos cos
In general for cubic unit cells, an angle
between directions 1 and 2,
represented by [u1v1w1] and [u2v2w2],
respectively, is given by:
= cos

-1

u1u 2 v1v2 w1 w2
(u12 v12 w12 )(u 22 v22

Assignment #3, Question #4

w22 )

Stress and Slip


Applied tensile
stress: s = F/A

Resolved shear stress

R s cos cos
crss y coscos
crss
y
(cos cos ) max
Conditions for slip

R CRSS
5

Slip System
Slip System: combination of slip plane and slip direction
Slip plane - plane on which slippage occurs
Highest planar densities (and large interplanar
spacings)
Slip directions - directions of movement
Highest linear densities

Metals with FCC


and BCC crystal
structure have a
relatively large
number of slip
systems and are
ductile
HCP metals have
few active slip
systems and are
generally relatively
brittle.

Metals

Slip Plane

Slip
Direction

No. of Slip
Systems

Face Cente Cubis (FCC)


Cu, AL, Ni,
Ag, Au

{111}

110

12

Body Centre Cubic (BCC)


-Fe, W, Mo

{110}

1 11

12

-Fe, W

{211}

1 11

12

-Fe, K

{321}

1 11

24

Hexagonal Close Pack (HCP)


Cd, Zn, Mg,
Ti, Be
Ti, Mg, Zr
Ti, Mg

{0001}

101 0
101 1

1120

1120

1120

6
7

Strengthening Mechanisms

Mechanisms of strengthening in Metals


Plastic deformation

Dislocation motion

Strengthening a metal implies making dislocation


movement difficult.
Grain size reduction
Solid solution strengthening

Precipitation strengthening
Strain hardening

Four Strategies for Strengthening:


1: Reduce Grain Size

Hall-Petch Equation:

syield so k y d

1 / 2

10

Four Strategies for Strengthening:


2: Form Solid Solutions
Impurity atoms distort the lattice & generate stress.
Stress can produce a barrier to dislocation motion.
Smaller substitutional impurity

Larger substitutional impurity

11

Four Strategies for Strengthening:


3: Precipitation Strengthening

Phase boundaries are barriers to dislocation motion


12

Four Strategies for Strengthening:


4: Cold Work (Strain Hardening)
Plastic deformation at room temperature (for most metals).

Ao Ad
%CW
x 100
Ao

sy
1
sy

Strain hardening

e
13

Impact of Cold Work


As cold work is increased
Yield strength (sy)
increases.
Tensile strength (TS)
increases.
Ductility (%EL or
%AR) decreases.

low carbon steel

Adapted from Fig. 7.20,


Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

14

Effect of Heat Treating After Cold Working


TR = recrystallization
temperature

TR

Three Annealing stages:


1. Recovery
2. Recrystallization
3. Grain Growth

15

Cold Working vs. Hot Working


Hot working deformation above TR
No hardening

Cold working deformation below TR


Strain hardening

16

Failure of Engineering Materials

17

Ductile vs. Brittle Failure


Very
Ductile

Large

Moderately
Ductile

Brittle

Moderate

Small

Ductile:
%AR or %EL
Warning before
fracture

Brittle:
No
warning
18

Moderately Ductile Failure


Failure Stages:
necking
s

void growth shearing at surface


and coalescence crack propagation fracture
void
nucleation crack formation

19

Brittle Fracture Surfaces


Intergranular

(between grains)

Transgranular/Intragranular

(through grains)

20

Fatigue = failure under


dynamic (fluctuating)
applied cyclic stress.
s

S = stress amplitude

Fatigue

smax
smin

Sfat

Fatigue limit
safe

10 3

10 5
10 7
10 9
N = Cycles to failure

S
time

Fatigue failure involves 3 steps:


Crack initiation
Crack propagation
Final failure (essentially brittle-like
in nature)

S = stress amplitude

sm

unsafe

case for
steel (typ.)

unsafe

case for
Al (typ.)

safe
10 3

10 5
10 7
10 9
N = Cycles to failure
21

Creep
Sample deformation at a constant stress (s) vs. time
s,e

Primary Creep
Secondary Creep
Tertiary Creep

22

Phase Diagrams

23

Components, Phases and Micro-constituents


Components:
The elements or compounds which are
present in the alloy
(e.g., Pb and Sn)
Phases:
The physically and chemically distinct
material regions
(e.g., and b).
Micro-constituents:
The distinct microstuctures (e.g.,
primary and eutectic).

Microstructure of a Pb-Sn alloy


of composition 50 wt % Sn

primary
eutectic
eutectic b

24

Terminal solid solutions


A solid solution having composition range that extends to
either of the pure components of the system.
Example: and b solid solutions in Pb-Sn systems
Intermediate solid solution
A solid solution or phase having a composition range that
does not extend to either of the pure components of the
system
Intermetallic compounds
A compound of two metals that has a distinct chemical
formula.

25

Phase Equilibria: Solubility Limit


Solution solid, liquid, or gas solutions, single phase
Mixture more than one phase
10 0

Solubility
Limit

80
60

40

(liquid solution
i.e., syrup)

L
(liquid)
+
S
(solid
sugar)

20
40
60 65 80
100
C = Composition (wt% sugar)

Sugar

20

Water

Temperature (C)

Solubility Limit:
Maximum concentration for
which only a single phase
solution exists.

Sugar/Water Phase Diagram

26

Congruent and Incongruent Phase Transformations


Congruent: Those transformations in which there is no change in
composition e.g. melting of pure metals and intermetallic
compounds.
heating

Pure Cu

cooling

Incongruent: Those transformations in which at least one of the


phases will experience a change in composition. Examples include
eutectic, eutectoid, peritectic reactions.

cooling
heating

+ b
27

Eutectic and Eutectoid


Eutectic - liquid transforms to two solid phases
L cool + b
(For Pb-Sn, 183C, 61.9 wt% Sn)
heat

Eutectoid one solid phase transforms to two other solid


phases
intermetallic compound cementite
S1
S2+S3
cool + Fe3C (For Fe-C, 727C, 0.76 wt% C)
heat

28

Isomorphous Binary Phase Diagram


Information obtainable from
Phase diagrams
a. phases present
b. the composition of the
phases
c. percentage or fraction of the
phases
System is:
-- binary
-- isomorphous: complete
solubility of one component in
another

T(C)
1600
1500

Cu-Ni
phase
diagram

L (liquid)

1400
1300

1200

(FCC solid

1100
1000

solution)
0

20

40

60

80

100 wt% Ni

29

Rule 1: If we know T and Co, then we know:


-- which phase(s) is (are) present.
Rule 2: If we know T and C0, then we can determine:
-- the composition of each phase.
Rule 3: If we know T and C0, then can determine:
-- the weight fraction of each phase.
Cu-Ni
system
Examples:
T(C)
Consider C0 = 35 wt% Ni
tie line
L (liquid)
1300
At TB = 1250C:
B
Both and L present
TB
CL = Cliquidus( = 32 wt% Ni)

C = Csolidus ( = 43 wt% Ni) 1200


(solid)
20

3032 35

CL C0

40 4 3

50

C wt% Ni
30

The Lever Rule


T(C)

What fraction of each phase?


Think of the tie line as a lever

tie line

1300

L (liquid)
B

TB

(solid)

1200

R
20

3 0CL

C0 4 0 C

wt% Ni

WL

ML

50
Adapted from Fig. 9.3(b),
Callister & Rethwisch 8e.

C C0
ML
S


ML M R S C CL

M x S ML x R
W

C CL
R
0
R S C CL

31

Cored vs Equilibrium Structures

C changes as we solidify.
Cu-Ni case: First a to solidify has C = 46 wt% Ni.
Last a to solidify has C = 35 wt% Ni.
Slow rate of cooling:
Fast rate of cooling:
Equilibrium structure
Cored structure
Uniform C:
35 wt% Ni
First a to solidify:
46 wt% Ni
Last a to solidify:
< 35 wt% Ni

32

Binary-Eutectic Systems
In eutectic systems, there is
partial solubility in the solid
state. (Cu-Ag and Pb-Sn alloy
systems)
Eutectic point.
Eutectic temperature TE
Eutectic composition CE.

Eutectic reaction (transformation)


L(CE)

(CE) + b(CbE)

L(71.9 wt% Ag)

cooling

has a special composition


with a min. melting T.
Cu-Ag
T(C)
system
1200
L (liquid)
1000

TE 800

Liquidus

L+
Solidus 779C
8.0

E L+b
b

71.9 91.2

600
Solvus

400
200

20

+ b

40

Solvus

100
60 CE 80
C , wt% Ag

(8.0 wt% Ag) b(91.2 wt% Ag)

heating
33

Pure metals melt/solidify at a single temperature


Alloys generally melt/solidify over a range of
temperatures

Temperature C

Temperature C

Binary-Eutectic Alloy
of eutectic composition

Tm

Time

Pure metal

Melting temperature
range

Time

Alloy
34

Pb-Sn Eutectic System


Cooling of Pb-Sn Eutectic System
Region I:
L L +
: C0 wt% Sn

Region II:
L L +
+b

Pb-Sn
system

T(C)

300

Region III:
L+b
Region IV:
L L + + b

L (liquid)

200

L+
18.3

100

61.9

97.8

+ b

0
primary
eutectic
eutectic b

L+b b

183C

20

100

60
80
C, wt% Sn

35

Eutectic, Hypoeutectic & Hypereutectic


300

T(C)

200

L+

L +b b

TE

+ b

(Pb-Sn
System)

100

C, wt% Sn
0

hypoeutectic:
C0 = 50 wt% Sn

20

40

60

80

eutectic:
C0 = 61.9 wt% Sn
b
b

175 mm

100

hypereutectic:
(illustration only)
b
b b
b

160 mm
eutectic micro-constituent
36

Classification of Metallic Alloys

37

Nonferrous Alloys
Cu Alloys

Al Alloys

Brass: Zn is subst. impurity


-low r: 2.7 g/cm3
(costume jewelry, coins,
-Cu, Mg, Si, Mn, Zn additions
corrosion resistant)
-solid sol. or precip.
Bronze : Sn, Al, Si, Ni are
strengthened (struct.
subst. impurities
aircraft parts
(bushings, landing
& packaging)
gear)
NonFerrous Mg Alloys
-very low r: 1.7g/cm3
Alloys
-ignites easily
-aircraft, missiles
Ti Alloys

Refractory metals

-relatively low r: 4.5 g/cm3


-high melting Ts

Noble
metals
vs 7.9 for steel
-Nb, Mo, W, Ta
-reactive at high Ts -Ag, Au, Pt
-oxid./corr. resistant
-space applic.
38

Ferrous alloys
Metal Alloys

Ferrous
Steels
Steels
<1.4wt%C
<1.4
wt% C

Nonferrous
Cast Irons
Cast
Irons
3-4.5 wt%C
3-4.5
wt% C

T(C)
1600

1400
1200

austenite

+L
4.30

1000

800
ferrite
600
400

0
(Fe)

L+Fe3C

1148C

727C

Eutectoid:
0.76

Eutectic:

+Fe3C

Fe3C
cementite

+Fe3C
3

Iron:
Commercial pure iron
contains less than 0.008
wt. % C
Steel:
Ferrous alloy
containing between
0.008 and 2.14 wt.% C
Cast Iron:
Ferrous alloys
containing between 2.14
and 6.7 wt.% C

6.7

Co , wt% C
39

Iron-Carbon (Fe-C) Phase Diagram


T(C)

1400
1200

+L

(austenite)

1148C

+Fe3C

1000

727C = Teutectoid

800

+Fe3C

600

400

0
(Fe)

Fe3C (cementite)

Ferrite, : BCC
Austenite, : FCC
d-Ferrite: BCC
Cementite, Fe3C

1600

6.7

C, wt% C
40

EQUILIBIUM TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS


Transformations during slow cooling

41

Transformations & Undercooling


Eutectoid transf. (Fe-Fe3C system):

+ Fe3C

6.7 wt% C

0.76 wt% C
0.022 wt% C

T(C)
1600

1200
1000

L+Fe3C

1148C

+Fe3C
Equil. Cooling: Ttransf. = 727C

Eutectoid:
600
400
0
(Fe)

727C

DT
+Fe3C
Undercooling by Ttransf. < 727C

0.76

800

0.022

ferrite

+L

(austenite)

Fe C (cementite)

1400

6.7

C, wt%C
42

Eutectoid Steel (pearlite: alternating


layers of and Fe3C phases)

Classification of Steels

T(C)
1600

L
+L

(austenite)

+Fe3C

800

2.14

(Fe)

+ Fe3C
0.008

400

727C = T eutectoid

- Eutectoid (B):

600

Hyper-eutectoid Steel (pearlite


+ proeutectoid Fe3C)

L+Fe3C

1148C

1000

0.76

Hypo-eutectoid Steel (pearlite


+proeutectoid ferrite)

1200

Fe3C (cementite)

1400

+Fe3C
4

6.7

C, wt% C

43

Summary of Possible Transformations


Austenite ()

moderate
cool

slow
cool
Pearlite

Bainite
( + elong. Fe3C particles)

( + Fe3C layers + a
proeutectoid phase)

Martensite
T Martensite
bainite
fine pearlite
coarse pearlite
spheroidite
General Trends

Martensite
(BCT phase
diffusionless
transformation)

reheat
Ductility

Strength

reheat

rapid
quench

Spheroidite
( + spherical
Fe3C particles)

Tempered
Martensite
( + very fine
Fe3C particles)
44

Ceramic Materials

45

AX Crystal Structures
ZnS

(zinc blende)
Coordination# = 4

Coordination # increases with


rcation
ranion

NaCl
(Rock salt)
Coordination# = 6

CsCl
(cesium chloride)
Coordination# = 8

46

AX2 Crystal Structures

ABX3 Crystal Structures

Fluorite structure

Perovskite structure

47

Silicate Ceramics
Si4+
O2-

Crystalline SiO2

Amorphous SiO2
Na +
Si 4+
O2 -

glass
48

Polymorphic Forms of Carbon


Diamond

Graphite

Graphene

Fullerene
Carbon nanotube
49

Point Defects in Ceramics


Frenkel Defect
-- a cation vacancy-cation interstitial pair.
Shottky Defect
-- a paired set of cation and anion vacancies.
Shottky
Defect:

Frenkel
Defect

Charge balance must be maintained when impurities are present

50

Mechanical Properties
Ceramic materials are more brittle than metals.
In highly ionic solids, dislocation motion is difficult
few slip systems
resistance to motion of ions of like charge (e.g.,
anions) past one another
Mechanical properties of ceramic are usually determined
using bending
Both the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of
ceramic materials decrease with increasing volume fraction of
porosity

51

Polymers

52

Molecular characteristics

Chemistry
(repeat unit
composition)

Size
(molecular
weight)

Shape

Structure

(chain twisting,
entanglement)

Linear

Branched

Cross-linked

Network

Isomeric states

Geometrical
isomers

Stereoisomers

Isotactic

Syndiotactic

Atactic

Cis

Trans
53

Saturated hydrocarbons
H

Unsaturated hydrocarbons

H C C H

C C

Double bond

Triple bond

Polymerization
+

fr e e r a d ic a l

R C

R C

H H
mo n o me r
( e th y le n e )

in itia tio n

repeat
unit

R C

d ime r

p r o p a g a tio n

54

Homopolymer and Copolymer


Homopolymer: the
repeating units along a
chain are of the same
type.
Copolymer: The
polymer chains consist
of two or more different
monomer units.

random

alternating

block

graft
55

Conformation vs. Configuration


Relative to polymer chains
Conformation: the outline or shape of the chain
molecule,
Configuration: the arrangement of atom positions
along the chain
Not alterable except by the breaking and
reforming of primary bonds.

56

Polymer Crystallinity
Polymers rarely 100%
crystalline
Semi crystalline

crystalline
region

rc > rs > ra
Chains are more closely
packed together in
crystalline polymer

amorphous
region
57

Diffusion in Polymers
Rates of diffusion are greater through amorphous regions
than through crystalline regions.
Rate of diffusion is influenced by:
a.Foreign molecule size the smaller the size, greater the
diffusion rate
b.Chemical property of the foreign molecule molecules that
are chemically inert with the polymer diffuse faster than those
that react with the polymer

58

Crystalline polymer

Chains are closely packed


Density is relatively high
Point defects are possible
Diffusion of foreign atoms
is relatively slow

Amorphous polymer

Chains are loosely packed


Density is relatively low
Not applicable
Diffusion of foreign atoms is
relatively fast

59