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Points and lines

Topic and contents

Points and Vectors

School of Mathematics and Statistics

Points A, B, Coordinate vectors a, b

Lecture 03 Lines

MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines
Points and lines

= OB OA

Collinear points
Lines through origin
Line Segments and Rays
Cartesian form of line in R2
Cartesian form of line in R3
Geometric proof using vectors

Points and lines


Points and vectors
Parallel vectors
Lines parametric vector form
Line through two points

Session 1, 2014

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= ba

= (b1 , . . . , bn ) (a1 , . . . , an )

= (b1 a1 , . . . , bn an )

MATH1151 (Algebra)

Points and vectors

L03 Lines
Points and lines

Parallel vectors

Example (Vector from A to B)

Definition (Parallel vectors)


B = (3, 2, 3, 4, 0, 6) R6 . Find

AB

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Example (Parallel vectors)

dist(A, B)

Is u = (3, 1, 0, 2, 4) parallel to the vector joining the points


P = (2, 1, 4, 2, 4) and Q = (4, 3, 4, 6, 5)?

Solution
Vector from P to Q is

AB, the vector from A to B, is

AB = (3, 2, 3, 4, 0, 6) (3, 2, 1, 0, 4, 6)
= (6, 0, 4, 4, 4, 0) R

Session 1, 2014

Parallel vectors

Non-zero vectors u, v are parallel R, 6= 0 such that u = v

Solution
1

Works in R2 , R3 , . . .

Points and vectors cont.


Let A = (3, 2, 1, 0, 4, 6) R6 ,

rA


ba
a

r B

Vector from A to B

AB = AO + OB

A/Prof Rob Womersley

Position vectors OA= a, OB= b

MATH1151 Algebra

Points and vectors

P Q= (4, 3, 4, 6, 5) (2, 1, 4, 2, 4) = (6, 2, 0, 4, 9)

Vectors are parallel there exists a non-zero scalar such that

Distance of A from B is

dist(A, B) = | AB | =

MATH1151 (Algebra)

P Q= (6, 2, 0, 4, 9) = u = (3, 1, 0, 2, 4)

first, second and fourth components = = 2


fifth component = = 9/4 6= 2, so vectors not parallel

(6)2 + 02 + 42 + 42 + (4)2 + 02

36 + 16 + 16 + 16 = 84 = 2 21

L03 Lines

Session 1, 2014

Equality of vectors requires equality of all components.


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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

Session 1, 2014

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Points and lines

Lines parametric vector form

Points and lines

Lines parametric vector form

Line through two points

A
PP
rv
PP
q
PrP
P
PPP

a
PP r
a + v
PPP

a + v

Line

Example (Line through two points)


Find a parametric vector form of the line through the points
A (3, 0, 2, 4) and B (3, 1, 0, 2)
Solution
Vector parallel to line is vector from A to B

AB= (3, 1, 0, 2) (3, 0, 2, 4) = (0, 1, 2, 2)

Point on line is A = (3, 0, 2, 4)

through point A with position vector a


in direction v, v 6= 0

Parametric vector form of line is



x R4 : x = (3, 0, 2, 4) + (0, 1, 2, 2),

Parametric vector form of line through a in direction v


S = {x Rn : x = a + v, R}

L03 Lines
Points and lines

Session 1, 2014

Notes
Can use point B or any other point on the line

Line is a set of points generated by taking all R


Line contains a ( = 0), a + v ( = 1), a v ( = 1), . . .
Line is parallel to v
MATH1151 (Algebra)

Line through two points

Can use any vector parallel to line, eg BA


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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

Collinear points

Points and lines

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Collinear points

Collinear points

Collinear points Example

Definition (Collinear points)

Example (Collinear points)

Three points are collinear there exists a line passing through all
three points

Are the points A (3, 0, 2), B (3, 1, 4) and C (0, 1, 0) collinear?


Solution (Using line through two points)

Find a parametric vector form of the line through any two of the
points, and then show the third point does/does not lie in the line

Parametric vector form of line through A, B is


{x = (3, 0, 2) + (0, 1, 6), R}

Points A, B, C lie on the same line AB is parallel to BC


A
r

B
r
C
r

A
r

B
r

r
C

Collinear

Not collinear

Point C is on this line there exists R such that


(3, 0, 2) + (0, 1, 6) = (0, 1, 0)
Three equations (as points, line in R3 )

3 + 0 = 0 first component
0 + 1 = 1 second component
2 + 6 = 0 third component

First equation = no solution = not collinear


MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

Session 1, 2014

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

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Points and lines

Collinear points

Points and lines

Collinear points Example cont

Lines through origin

Solution (Using parallel vectors)

Non-zero vector v 6= 0
Span of v is line

Vectors joining points

AB=(3, 1, 4) (3, 0, 2) = (0, 1, 6)

S = {x Rn : x = v, R}

BC=(0, 1, 0) (3, 1, 4) = (3, 0, 4)

AB is parallel to BC there exists non-zero R

Line goes through origin as = 0 = x = 0


Line through origin in direction v

(0, 1, 6) = (3, 0, 4)

not parallel as cannot get 1 = 0


= points not collinear

r2v
rv

rv

r2v

Notes
Two vectors must have a common point (eg B in this case)

Could use AC and BC or AC and AB

MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines
Points and lines

Session 1, 2014

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

Line Segments and Rays

L03 Lines
Points and lines

Line Segments and Rays

Session 1, 2014

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Line Segments and Rays

Ray Example
= 1 Br > 1

Line through A and B

Example (Ray)

= 0 A
b
r ba

<0
a r

1
2

Give a parametric vector form of the ray starting at a = (3, 1, 0, 2) passing


through b = (1, 1, 2, 3)
Solution
Ray or half-line {a + u, 0}

O
Vector parallel to line is AB= b a
Line through A and B is {x Rn : x = a + (b a), R}

starts at a
in the direction u

= 0 x = a, = 1 x = b,
midpoint of A and B = 12 x = (a + b)/2

Vector in direction of ray is

Line segment AB

u = b a = (1, 1, 2, 3) (3, 1, 0, 2) = (4, 0, 2, 1)

{x Rn : x = a + (b a), [0, 1]}

Ray is the set




x R4 : x = (3, 1, 0, 2) + (4, 0, 2, 1), 0

Ray starting at A in direction AB


{x Rn : x = a + (b a), 0}
MATH1151 (Algebra)

Lines through origin

L03 Lines

Session 1, 2014

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

Session 1, 2014

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Points and lines

Cartesian form of line in R2

Points and lines

Cartesian form of line in R2

Cartesian form of line in R3

Cartesian form of line in R3


(x, y, z) R3

(x, y) R2
Line y = mx + d
x = (x, y) = (x, mx + d) = (0, d) + x(1, m),

Line ax + by = c, a 6= 0

x = (x, y) = ( ac ab y, y) = ( ac , 0) + y( b
, 1),
! b  a
!c 
Line through a , 0 parallel to a , 1

Line x = a + v,

a, v

R2 ,

Parametric vector form x = a + v, R

xR

x = (x, y, z) = (a1 , a2 , a3 ) + (v1 , v2 , v3 )


Three equations

yR

y = a2 + v2
z = a3 + v3

x = (x, y) = (a1 , a2 ) + (v1 , v2 )


Eliminate
x a1
x = a1 + v1 , v1 6= 0 = =
v1
y a2
y = a2 + v2 , v2 6= 0 = =
v2
x a1
y a2
=
= v2 x v1 y = a1 v2 a2 v1
v1
v2
v1 = 0, v2 6= 0 = x = a1 ,
v1 6= 0, v2 = 0 = y = a2
MATH1151 (Algebra)

x = a1 + v1

L03 Lines
Points and lines

Session 1, 2014

Cartesian form of line in R3

x a1
y a2
z a3
=
=
v1
v2
v3
y a2
z a3
v1 = 0, v2 6= 0, v3 6= 0 = x = a1 ,
=
v2
v3
Similar if just v2 = 0 or just v3 = 0
If v1 = v2 = 0 then x = a1 , y = a2 , z free
Not a line if v1 = v2 = v3 = 0
v1 6= 0, v2 6= 0, v3 6= 0 = =

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

Geometric proof using vectors

Points and lines

Geometric proof using vectors

Centroid

Example (Geometric proof)

Solution

For a triangle ABC prove that the three lines through a vertex and the
midpoint of the opposite side intersect at the common point (the centroid)
1
3 (a + b + c) where a, b, c are the position vectors of the vertices A, B, C.

Mid point of side BC is

Mid point of side AB is


a , R

! a+c


b , R

! a+b


c , R

a+b
2

Line through C, opposite mid-point: 3 () = c +

Show that there exist values of , , R all giving common point


1
3 (a + b + c)

(b+c)/2

(a+b)/2

C
c

(a+c)/2

2
3
2
3
2
3

= 1

!2
3

= 13 (a + b + c)

= 2

!2
3

= 13 (a + b + c)

= 3

!2

= 13 (a + b + c)

Harder if you were not given the common point.

MATH1151 (Algebra)

! b+c

a+c
2

Line through B, opposite mid-point: 2 () = b +


B

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b+c
2

Line through A, opposite mid-point: 1 () = a +


Mid point of side AC is

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Geometric proof using vectors

L03 Lines

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

Session 1, 2014

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