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# Points and lines

## Points A, B, Coordinate vectors a, b

Lecture 03 Lines

MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines
Points and lines

= OB OA

Collinear points
Lines through origin
Line Segments and Rays
Cartesian form of line in R2
Cartesian form of line in R3
Geometric proof using vectors

## Points and lines

Points and vectors
Parallel vectors
Lines parametric vector form
Line through two points

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= ba

= (b1 , . . . , bn ) (a1 , . . . , an )

= (b1 a1 , . . . , bn an )

MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines
Points and lines

Parallel vectors

## Definition (Parallel vectors)

B = (3, 2, 3, 4, 0, 6) R6 . Find

AB

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dist(A, B)

## Is u = (3, 1, 0, 2, 4) parallel to the vector joining the points

P = (2, 1, 4, 2, 4) and Q = (4, 3, 4, 6, 5)?

Solution
Vector from P to Q is

## AB, the vector from A to B, is

AB = (3, 2, 3, 4, 0, 6) (3, 2, 1, 0, 4, 6)
= (6, 0, 4, 4, 4, 0) R

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Parallel vectors

## Non-zero vectors u, v are parallel R, 6= 0 such that u = v

Solution
1

Works in R2 , R3 , . . .

## Points and vectors cont.

Let A = (3, 2, 1, 0, 4, 6) R6 ,

rA

ba
a

r B

Vector from A to B

AB = AO + OB

MATH1151 Algebra

## Vectors are parallel there exists a non-zero scalar such that

Distance of A from B is

dist(A, B) = | AB | =

MATH1151 (Algebra)

P Q= (6, 2, 0, 4, 9) = u = (3, 1, 0, 2, 4)

## first, second and fourth components = = 2

fifth component = = 9/4 6= 2, so vectors not parallel

(6)2 + 02 + 42 + 42 + (4)2 + 02

36 + 16 + 16 + 16 = 84 = 2 21

L03 Lines

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## Equality of vectors requires equality of all components.

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

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A
PP
rv
PP
q
PrP
P
PPP

a
PP r
a + v
PPP

a + v

Line

## Example (Line through two points)

Find a parametric vector form of the line through the points
A (3, 0, 2, 4) and B (3, 1, 0, 2)
Solution
Vector parallel to line is vector from A to B

## through point A with position vector a

in direction v, v 6= 0

## Parametric vector form of line is


x R4 : x = (3, 0, 2, 4) + (0, 1, 2, 2),

## Parametric vector form of line through a in direction v

S = {x Rn : x = a + v, R}

L03 Lines
Points and lines

Session 1, 2014

Notes
Can use point B or any other point on the line

## Line is a set of points generated by taking all R

Line contains a ( = 0), a + v ( = 1), a v ( = 1), . . .
Line is parallel to v
MATH1151 (Algebra)

## Can use any vector parallel to line, eg BA

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

Collinear points

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Collinear points

Collinear points

## Example (Collinear points)

Three points are collinear there exists a line passing through all
three points

## Are the points A (3, 0, 2), B (3, 1, 4) and C (0, 1, 0) collinear?

Solution (Using line through two points)

Find a parametric vector form of the line through any two of the
points, and then show the third point does/does not lie in the line

## Parametric vector form of line through A, B is

{x = (3, 0, 2) + (0, 1, 6), R}

A
r

B
r
C
r

A
r

B
r

r
C

Collinear

Not collinear

## Point C is on this line there exists R such that

(3, 0, 2) + (0, 1, 6) = (0, 1, 0)
Three equations (as points, line in R3 )

3 + 0 = 0 first component
0 + 1 = 1 second component
2 + 6 = 0 third component

## First equation = no solution = not collinear

MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

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Collinear points

## Solution (Using parallel vectors)

Non-zero vector v 6= 0
Span of v is line

## AB=(3, 1, 4) (3, 0, 2) = (0, 1, 6)

S = {x Rn : x = v, R}

## Line goes through origin as = 0 = x = 0

Line through origin in direction v

(0, 1, 6) = (3, 0, 4)

## not parallel as cannot get 1 = 0

= points not collinear

r2v
rv

rv

r2v

Notes
Two vectors must have a common point (eg B in this case)

## Could use AC and BC or AC and AB

MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines
Points and lines

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines
Points and lines

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Ray Example
= 1 Br > 1

Example (Ray)

= 0 A
b
r ba

<0
a r

1
2

## Give a parametric vector form of the ray starting at a = (3, 1, 0, 2) passing

through b = (1, 1, 2, 3)
Solution
Ray or half-line {a + u, 0}

O
Vector parallel to line is AB= b a
Line through A and B is {x Rn : x = a + (b a), R}

starts at a
in the direction u

= 0 x = a, = 1 x = b,
midpoint of A and B = 12 x = (a + b)/2

Line segment AB

## Ray is the set



x R4 : x = (3, 1, 0, 2) + (4, 0, 2, 1), 0

## Ray starting at A in direction AB

{x Rn : x = a + (b a), 0}
MATH1151 (Algebra)

## Lines through origin

L03 Lines

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

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## Cartesian form of line in R3

(x, y, z) R3

(x, y) R2
Line y = mx + d
x = (x, y) = (x, mx + d) = (0, d) + x(1, m),

Line ax + by = c, a 6= 0

x = (x, y) = ( ac ab y, y) = ( ac , 0) + y( b
, 1),
! b  a
!c 
Line through a , 0 parallel to a , 1

Line x = a + v,

a, v

R2 ,

xR

Three equations

yR

y = a2 + v2
z = a3 + v3

## x = (x, y) = (a1 , a2 ) + (v1 , v2 )

Eliminate
x a1
x = a1 + v1 , v1 6= 0 = =
v1
y a2
y = a2 + v2 , v2 6= 0 = =
v2
x a1
y a2
=
= v2 x v1 y = a1 v2 a2 v1
v1
v2
v1 = 0, v2 6= 0 = x = a1 ,
v1 6= 0, v2 = 0 = y = a2
MATH1151 (Algebra)

x = a1 + v1

L03 Lines
Points and lines

Session 1, 2014

## Cartesian form of line in R3

x a1
y a2
z a3
=
=
v1
v2
v3
y a2
z a3
v1 = 0, v2 6= 0, v3 6= 0 = x = a1 ,
=
v2
v3
Similar if just v2 = 0 or just v3 = 0
If v1 = v2 = 0 then x = a1 , y = a2 , z free
Not a line if v1 = v2 = v3 = 0
v1 6= 0, v2 6= 0, v3 6= 0 = =

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

Centroid

## Example (Geometric proof)

Solution

For a triangle ABC prove that the three lines through a vertex and the
midpoint of the opposite side intersect at the common point (the centroid)
1
3 (a + b + c) where a, b, c are the position vectors of the vertices A, B, C.


a , R

! a+c


b , R

! a+b


c , R

a+b
2

1
3 (a + b + c)

(b+c)/2

(a+b)/2

C
c

(a+c)/2

2
3
2
3
2
3

= 1

!2
3

= 13 (a + b + c)

= 2

!2
3

= 13 (a + b + c)

= 3

!2

= 13 (a + b + c)

## Harder if you were not given the common point.

MATH1151 (Algebra)

! b+c

a+c
2

B

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b+c
2

## Line through A, opposite mid-point: 1 () = a +

Mid point of side AC is

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## Geometric proof using vectors

L03 Lines

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MATH1151 (Algebra)

L03 Lines

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