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13.

ROBITCS
13.1 SYLLABUS
UNIT I
INTRODUCTION. Automation and Robotics. An Over view of Robotics. Classification by
coordinate system and control systems. Components of the Industrial robotics: Degrees of freedomend effectors: Mechanical gripper. Magnetic. Vacuum and other types of grippers. General
consideration on gripper selection and design
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT II
Motion Analysis: Basic rotation matrices. Composite rotation matrices. Euler Angles. Equivalent
angle and Axis. Homogeneous transformation. Problems.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT III
Manipulator Kinematics : D-H notations. Joint coordinates and world coordinates. Forward and
inverse kinematics. Problems.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT IV
Differential kinematics: Differential kinematics of planar and spherical manipulators. Jacobians.
Problems.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT V
Robot Dynamics: Lagrange- Euler formulations. Newton-Euler formulations. Problems on planar
two link manipulators.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT VI
Trajectory Planning: Joint space scheme. Cubic polynomial fit. Avoidance of obstacles. Types of
motion: Slew motion, Joint interpolated motion, Straight line motion
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT-VII
Robot actuators and Feed back components : Actuators: Pneumatic and Hydraulic actuators,
Electric Actuators, DC servo motors, stepper motors. Feedback Components: Position Sensors,
Potentiometers. Resolves and encoders
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT-VIII
Robot Application in Manufacturing: Material handling. Assembly and Inspection.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TEXT BOOKS:
T1: Industrial Robotics / Groover M P/Pearson Edu.
T2: Introduction to Robotic Mechanics and Control by JJ Craig, Pearson,3rd edition.
REFERENCE BOOKS:
R1: Robotics and Control / Mittal RK & Nagrath I J/TMH

13.2 Unit wise Planner (2013-2014)


Total no. of Lectures

UNIT NO.
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII

6
9
4
6
5
8
6
5
OBJECTIVES

Identify the characteristics of a variety of types and sizes of robots.


Describe how artificial intelligence is applied to robotic systems When? How?
Identify, sketch and label all major parts of an industrial robot. (need to look at module to
see what can be drawn) When:?
Describe the basic components that allow an operator to program robots
Compare and contrast robotic applications in medicine, industrial, and entertainment
applications.
Set up and program an interactive robotics station
Identify and describe the preparation and requirements for careers related to robotics.

13.3 SESSION PLANNER


Unit
No.

Automation and Robotics.

Lecture
Number as
per the period
L1

An Over view of Robotics.

L2

S.
No.

Classification by coordinate system and control


systems
Components of the Industrial robotics: Degrees of
freedom-end effectors:
Mechanical gripper

Magnetic.

L6

Motion Analysis: Basic rotation matrices.

L7

Composite rotation matrices.

L8

Euler Angles.

L9

10

Equivalent angle and Axis.

L10

11

Homogeneous transformation.

L11

12

Problems.

L12

3
I
4

II

13
14
15

III

Topic

Review of the unit. Additional topics to be


covered
Motion Analysis:
Basic rotation matrices

L3
L4
L5

L13
L14
L15

16

CLASS TEST-1
Manipulator Kinematics : D-H notations.

17

Joint coordinates and world coordinates.

L17

18

Forward and inverse kinematics.

L18

21

Review of the unit. Additional topics to be


covered
Manipulator Kinematics : D-H notations
Differential kinematics: Differential kinematics of
planar and spherical manipulators.
Jacobians.

23

Problems.

19
20

26

Review of the unit. Additional topics to be


covered
Differential kinematics of planar and spherical
manipulators
Advantages &Applications

27

CLASS TEST-2

IV
25

L16

L19
L20
L21
L23
L25
L26
L27

Date
Planned

Remarks

28

Robot Dynamics: Lagrange- Euler formulations.

L28

29

Newton-Euler formulations.

L29

30

Problems on planar two link manipulators.

L30

33

Review of the unit. Additional topics to be


covered
Newton-Euler formulations
Principle, Applications.
Trajectory Planning: Joint space scheme.

34

Cubic polynomial fit.

L34

35

Avoidance of obstacles.

L35

36

Types of motion: Slew motion,

L36

37

Joint interpolated motion,

L37

39

Straight line motion

L39

31
32

VI

42
44
46
47
50
VII

51
53
54
55
56

VIII

Review of the unit. Additional topics to be


covered
Trajectory Planning: Joint space scheme
Class Test-3
Robot actuators and Feed back components :
Actuators: Pneumatic and Hydraulic actuators,
Electric Actuators, DC servo motors, stepper
motors.
Feedback Components: Position Sensors,
Potentiometers.
Resolves and encoders
Review of the unit. Additional topics to be
covered
Electric Actuators, DC servo motors, stepper
motors
Applications.
Robot Application in Manufacturing: Material
handling.
Assembly and Inspection

59

Review of the unit. Additional topics to be


covered
Robot Application in Manufacturing: Material
handling
Robot Application in Manufacturing: Material
handling.
Application

60

Class Test-4

57

58

L31
L32
L33

L42
L44
L46
L47
L50
L51
L53
L54
L55
L56
L57

L58
L59
L60

13.4 QUESTION BANK


UNIT-I
13.4.1.1 Subjective Questions
1.what are the advantages and disadvantages of magnetic grippers? Explain the two
categories of magnetic grippers.[Nov 2012, JNTUH]
2.Explain the degrees of freedom of a robot with sketches.[SET 2, May 2011,JNTUH ]
3.Explain the difference between hard automation, flexible automation and
robotics[SET 1, May 2011,JNTUH ]
4.Explain the various types of joints used in robotics with sketches. [SET 3, May 2011,JNTUH ]
5.Distinguish between servo and non servo grippers. What are the actuators used for such
Grippers.Explain[SET 4, May 2011,JNTUH ]
6.A vacuum gripper is to be designed to handle flat plate glass in an automobile wind shields
Plant. Each plate weighs 28lb. A single section cup will be used and the diameter of the suction
Cup is 60in. Determine the negative pressure required(compared to atmospheric pressure
of 14.7lb/sq.in) to lift each plate. Use a safety factor of 1.5 in your
computation. [SET 3, May 2010,JNTUH ]
7.Explain the Eagleburgers factor in gripper selection and design[Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
8.What is a compliant gripper? Why are compliant fingers used? [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
9.Sketch any Four of the following robots indicating the joints and degrees of freedom:
(a) Polar robot
(b) Cylindrical robot
(c) Cartesian robot
(d) SCARA robot
(e) Gantry robot
(f) Jointed arm robot. [Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
13.4.1.2 Objective Questions
1. Based on finger movement, Mechanical gripper can be classified as __________ [c]
(a) pivoting movement (b) linear or translational movement (c) a & b (d) none
2. A Spherical coordinate robot should have ________ joints [c]
(a) one revolute and two prismatic (b) three prismatic (c) two revolute and one prismatic (d)
a,b& c
3. Based on the coordinate system robots can be classified as_________ robots. [d]
(a) Cartesian (b) Spherical (c) Cylindrical (d) a,b& c
4).A manipulator with 6 DOF is ______________[ d]
a) 1-D Manipulator b)2-D Manipulator c) 3-D Manipulator d)Spatial Manipulator
5).__________ is end effectors used to grasp and hold objects. [Grippers]
6).__________ joint permit links to move in a linear relationship [Prismatic]
7). ___________ grippers can be a very feasible means of handling ferrous materials than other
grippers [Magnetic]

8).____________ transformation consists of a number of successive translations and rotations


about the fixed reference frame axes or the moving current frame axes.[Combined]
9).The term robot has the origin from Czech word ___________________[Joint link]
10). The work volume of a spherical robot is ______________[Orientation]
13.4.1.3 Assignment Questions
1) Explain Automation in Robotics?
2) Describe Robot architecture?
3) Write classification of robots by control system?
4) Explain degrees of freedom of a robot with different sketches?
5) Describe different types of Robot configuration?
6) Define end effectors? And classify the end effectors?
7) Derive the formula for Gripper force analysis?
8) What are the four types of actuation mechanisms? Explain with sketches?
13.4.1.4 Tutorial Questions
1) Explain Automation in Robotics?
2) Describe Robot architecture?
3) Write classification of robots by control system?
4) Explain degrees of freedom of a robot with different sketches?
UNIT-II
13.4.2.1 Subjective Questions
1.Explain the Eulerian angle system I? [ Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
2.What do you mean by Homogeneous co ordinates? For the point 2i-3j+7k perform the
Following operations
i)Rotation 60 about the OY axis
ii) Then translate 10 units along OZ axis . [SET 1, May 2010,JNTUH ]
3.Explain composite rotation matrices. [SET 2, May 2010,JNTUH ]
4.Explain the inverse link coordinate transformation [SET 3, May 2010,JNTUH ]
5.Draw and explain with an example the composite rotation algorithm[SET 4, May 2010,JNTUH ]
6.Determine the Homogeneous transformation matrix to represent the following sequence of
Operations.
(i) Rotation 60 about the OX axis
ii) Then translate 4 units along X- axis[Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
7. Consider a jointed-arm robot manipulator with its x, y, and x axes aligned with
a reference cartesian coordinate frame but located at (x, y) = (10 ft, -5 ft). The
end-of-arm of the robot is currently at (x, y, x) = (12 ft, 2 ft, 2.5 ft) relative to the
reference coordinate frame. An end effector of 10 in. in length is attached to the
end-of-arm and is pointing vertically down. Relative to the tip of the end effector
is a cube, with 6 in. on a side, and with its nearest corner positioned + 1 ft in the
x direction, + 2 ft in the y direction, and 0 ft in the x direction from the tip of the
end effector.
(a) Make a sketch of the workcell.
(b) Identify all transforms numerically.

(c) Show by means of the transform graph how you would solve for the transform
for the cube relative to the end effector. That is, determine all transforms
needed to and the transform of the cube relative to the end effector. [SET2,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
8.A frame UB was moved along its own n-axis a distance of 5 units and then rotated
about its o-axis an angle of 600, followed by a rotation of about the z-axis; it was
then translated about it's a-axis 3 units and finally rotated about x-axis 450.
(a) Calculate the total transformation performed
(b) What angles and movements would we have to make if we were to create the
same location and orientation using Cartesian configurations[SET3,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
13.4.2.2 Objective Questions
1. If the orientation changes without the change of position then the transformation is _____[
b]
(a) pure translation (b) pure rotation (c) combined transformation (d)none
2. Rotation of 90 degrees about the Z-axis Rot (Z, 90) is ______ [c ]

3. Pure Translation of [4 3 2] is given by Trans (4, 3, 2) =______ [ b]

4. Differential translation can be represented by __________ [ b]


5. ____________ can be considered as Differential motions of a frame. [d]
(a) differential translations (b) differential rotations (c) differential transformations (d) a, b, & c
6. The matrix representing the Euler angles orientation change is ___________ [a ]
(a) ))Rot(a,)Rot(o,Rot(a, (b) )Rot(o, (c) ))Rot(a,)Rot(a,Rot(o, (d) none
7. In RPY movements, rotation about a- axis (z-axis of the moving frame) is called _______
[Roll]
8. _______ is a sequence of three rotations about current noa,, axes respectively, which will
Orient the wrist of the robot to a desired orientation.[Roll, Pitch, Yaw]
9.In the Euler angle representation, the order of rotation is from ______________________.
[Homogeneous Transformation]

10. In robotics, second frame is rotated with respect to the first is referred as changing the
__________.[Mapping]

11. In Euler angle representation the order of rotation is from ______________.


[Homogeneous Transformation]
13.4.2.3 Assignment Questions
1)Discuss the operation of rotation about an arbitrary axis represented by a vector and derive.
The rotation matrix and give geometric interpretation?
2) The co-ordinates of a point qabc is given by (753)T which is rotated about the OX-axis of the
Reference frame OXYZ, by angle of 60 .Determine the coordinates of the point qxyz?
3) Derive the composite rotation matrix for the rotations about the Cartesian axes. Write the
rules applied in arriving at composite rotation matrix.
4) A point pabc = (2, 3, 4)T has to be translated through distance of +4 units along OX-axis and 2 units along OZ-axis. Determine the co-ordinates of the new point pxyz by homogeneous
transformation?
5) Explain the geometric interpretation of homogeneous transformations.
6) The coordinates of point Q w.r.to base reference frame is given by [4, 23, 5].Determine the
Co- ordinates of Q w.r.to mobile rotated frame of the robot. If the angle of rotation with the OX
is 60.
7) Draw any two Euler angle systems and show rotation and angles?
8) Find the rotation matrices if the end effector is rotated about
(i) x-axis by 60 (ii) y-axis by 30 (iii) z-axis by 60
13.4.2.4 Tutorial Questions
1) Explain the geometric interpretation of homogeneous transformations.
2) The coordinates of point Q w.r.to base reference frame is given by [4, 23,5].Determine the
Co- ordinates of Q w.r.to mobile rotated frame of the robot. If the angle of rotation with the OX
is 60.
3) Draw any two Euler angle systems and show rotation and angles?
4) Find the rotation matrices if the end effector is rotated about
(i) x-axis by 60 (ii) y-axis by 30 (iii) z-axis by 60
UNIT-III
13.4.3.1 Subjective Questions
1.Discussthe DH symbolic notation and explain the DH method of assignment of co-ordinate
Frames.[Nov 2012, JNTUH]
2.Using the following link parameter table find the T matrix representing the position and
Orientation of the end effector[SET 1, May 2010,JNTUH ]
Table : Link parameter table of Cylindrical Robot.
Axis
d
a

1
1
0
0
0
2
90
d2
0
+90
3
0
d3
0
+90
4
4
d4(constant)
0
0
3.For 3-DOF articulated arm, Determine the joint Displacement for known position

and orientation of the end of the arm position[Nov 2012,JNTUH ]


4.Assign coordinate frames for an articulated robot arm (3-axis) using D-H convention.
[SET3,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
5. Consider the United States Robots Maker 110 manipulator. This is a _ve-axis
spherical coordinate robot with a pitch-roll spherical wrist. Use the last half of the
D-H algorithm to _ll in the kinematic parameters for the Maker 110 in the table,
consistent with the link-coordinate diagram. Indicate which parameters are the
joint variables. [SET2,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]

6.Assign coordinate frames for an articulated robot arm (3-axis) using D-H convention. [SET1,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
7.A special three-degree-of-freedom spraying robot has been designed as shown in
figure 7.
(a) Assign the coordinate frames based on D-H representation.
(b) Fill out the parameters table.
(c) Write all the A matrices.
(d) Write the UTH matrix in terms of the A matrices. [SET4,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]

13.4.3.2 Objective Questions


1. Using ___________kinematic equations, one can calculate where the robot is at any instant If
all the robot joint variables are known [a ]
(a) inverse (b) forward (c) a & b (d) none
2.The DOF is also equal to the number of ______ in the open kinematic chain [ b]
a) Links b) joints c) instantaneous centre d) None
3.In fixed angle representation, ordering of rotation is from [ ]
a) top to bottom b) bottom to top c) left to right d) right to left

4.The rotational matrix of a point in 3D space about x axis is ____. [a ]

5.____________model of representation is a very simple way of modeling robot links and joints
that can be used for any robot configuration, regardless of its sequence or complexity.
[Denavit, Hartenberg]
6.Expand SCARA_________________________[Point itself]
7.The non-servo system is also called as ________________ loop control system.[3X3]
8.The joint parameters are ______________________[Link Twist]
9.In robotics, second frame is translated with respect to the first frame is referred as
changing the ___________[Mapping]
13.4.3.3 Assignment Questions
1) Derive the kinematic equations for the SCARA robot giving co-ordinate frame diagram and
The kinematic parameters?
2) Derive the kinematic equation for the elbow manipulator with co-ordinate frame
Diagram and kinematic parameters?
3) Explain geometric solution of inverse kinematic with an example of two-degree system
Manipulator?
4) Explain numerical solutions for a 3-DOF manipulator?
5) Discuss about direct and inverse kinematics?
6) Explain DH convention briefly?
7) Define and Illustrate the link and joint parameters Explain their uses?
8) Derive the arm matrices for a cylindrical robot. Hence obtain the kinematic equations for The
same?
13.4.3.4 Tutorial Questions
1) Explain geometric solution of inverse kinematic with an example of two-degree system
Manipulator?
2) Explain numerical solutions for a 3-DOF manipulator?
3) Discuss about direct and inverse kinematics?
4) Explain DH convention briefly?
UNIT-IV
13.4.4.1 Subjective Questions
1.What is a Geometric jacobian? Explain. [Nov 2012, JNTUH]
2.Find the jacobian matrix of a planar two link revolute jointed
manipulator.[SET 1, May 2010,JNTUH ]
3.Determine Jacobian, Singularities and Joint velocities for a 3 DOF planar area with
the revolute joints. [SET1,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
4.Explain how you solve simple inverse kinematic algorithm. [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
5.Find the manipulator jacobian matrix J(q) of the five axis Spherical coordinate robot.
[Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
6.Establish the dynamic model of a one axis robot (Inverted Pendulum) with

Lagrangian Euler formulation. [SET3,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]


7.Derive the expression for joint toques for a planar R-P robotic manipulator using
Lagrangian Euler Formulation. [SET4,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
13.4.4.2 Objective Questions
1.The manipulator Jacobian J a function of the configuration q, may become rank deficient or
Singular at certain configuration in _____________space[Cartesian]
2.The origin of the 2 frames are considered to be coincident such that only ___________rotation
is
Possible [relative]
3.Velocity vectors belonging to a class of vectors called ____________[Free vectors]
4.a single leading superscript in velocity vector will denote the ____________[Frame of
description]
5.At any instant each link of the manipulator in motion has both ___________velocities
[Linear and Angular]
6.The first three rows of Jacobian are associated with the ___________velocity of end
effector[Linear]
7.The last three rows correspond to the __________velocity of end effector[Angular]
8.The contribution of joint i to the column Ji is computed depending on whether joint i is
__________[Prismatic or Rotary]
9.Changing the description of a point (or vector) in space from one frame to another
frame is called _______________.[Remote]
10.Manipulator configuration at which J becomes noninvertible are termed as Jacobian
________
[singularities]
13.4.4.3 Assignment Questions
Explain (1) Jacobian of articulated arm.
(2) Singularities and Joint velocities of a 2DOF arm.
Determine
(3) Jacobian
4) Singularities and
5) Joint velocities for a 3-DOF planar arm with the revolute joints.
Explain (6) Prismatic Joint Jacobian.
7) Rotary Joint Jacobian.
8). What are the singularities of a manipulator? How are they classified and determined? Explain
briefly?
9). Determine the Jacobian of the 3 DOF Euler wrists?
13.4.4.4 Tutorial Questions
Explain (1) Prismatic Joint Jacobian.
2) Rotary Joint Jacobian.
3). What are the singularities of a manipulator? How are they classified and determined? Explain
briefly?
4). Determine the Jacobian of the 3 DOF Euler wrist?
UNIT-V

13.4.5.1 Subjective Questions


1.Derive the expressions for joint torques of a planar R-R manipulator by using Lagrange
Euler formulations. [Nov 2012, JNTUH]
2.Using Norton Euler forward recursive equations, determine the motion parameters of the joints
And the centre of mass of links of a planar PR robotics Manipulator. [SET1,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
3.Using Norton Euler forward recursive equations, determine the angular velocities, angular
Accelerations, linear accelerations of the joint and the linear acceleration at the center of mass
Of links of a planar RR manipulator. [SET2,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
4.Explain the REACT statement of Robot languages, which is used to monitor an incoming
signal and to responde to a change in the signal. [SET1,May 2012,JNTUH ]
5.Discuss the important characteristics of robot oriented language motion specification.
[SET2,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
6.Discuss the monitor mode commands of Robot languages[Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
7.Derive the dynamic model for the 3-DOF cylinder arm using
Lagrange Euler formulation[SET3,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
13.4.5.2 Objective Questions
1.The relation between Lagrangian function (L), total kinetic energy (K) and total potential
energy of a mechanical system is ____________ [ a]
(a) L=K-P (b) L=K+P (c) L=K/P (d) L=P/K

2.As the complexity of the system increases, the __________ method becomes relatively simpler
to use. [b]
(a) Newtonian- Euler (b) Lagrangian-Euler (c) a&b (d) none
3._________Methods can be used to derive Dynamical equations of a robotic manipulator.
[Lagrange method and Newton Method]
4. _________ method is based on differentiation of energy terms with respect to the systems
variables & time. [Lagrange Method]
5.The Newton Eular and Langrange Eular formulations of the dynamic model provide a
__________ Solution [Closed form]
6.The LE and NE presented in this chapter provide a symbolic solution to __________ dynamics
[Manipulator].
7. The LE dynamic formulation is based on a set of generalized coordinates to describe the
__________ Variables[System].
8.The left hand side of dynamic equations can be interpreted as sum of the ____________ due to
K.E and P.E present in the system.[Torques/Forces].
9. The joint torque required to cause these time dependant motions to realize a trajectory are
computed using the _______________dynamic equations of motions.[Recursive NE]
10. The robot manipulator is an open kinematic chain of rigid links connected with
_____________
Joints.[1 DOF]
13.4.5.3 Assignment Questions
1) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of Newton-Euler formulation?

2) Determine the variation of joint torques from the dynamic model of 2-DOF manipulator. Take
the following data for the manipulator.
m1 = m2 = 6kg and
L1 = L2 = 1m
The specified motion cycle is:
Both joints move from rest with equal velocity, attain max.Velocity then decelerate and
come to rest, Traversing /2 radians in 1 sec.
3) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of lagrange-Euler formulation?
4) Explain Recursive Newton-Euler formulation?andWrite the forward Iteration for NewtonEuler formulation?
5) derive the dynamic model for the 2-DOF RR manipulator using lagrange-Euler formulation?
6) Write the application of dynamic model to study the torque variations?
7).Make a comparison of NE and LE formulations and state the situation(s) when you will prefer
NE formulation and when you will prefer LE formulation.
8). Derive the dynamic model for the 2-DOF Planar manipulator using Newton Euler
formulation?
13.4.5.4 Tutorial Questions
1) Determine the variation of joint torques from the dynamic model of 2-DOF manipulator. Take
the following data for the manipulator.
m1 = m2 = 6kg and
L1 = L2 = 1m
The specified motion cycle is:
Both joints move from rest with equal velocity, attain max.Velocity then decelerate and
come to rest, Traversing /2 radians in 1 sec.
2) Describe the advantages and disadvantages of lagrange-Euler formulation?
3) Explain Recursive Newton-Euler formulation?andWrite the forward Iteration for NewtonEuler formulation?
4) derive the dynamic model for the 2-DOF RR manipulator using lagrange-Euler formulation?
UNIT-VI
13.4.6.1 Subjective Questions
1.Find expressions for the joint motion parameters by using cubic polynomial fit in joint space
Scheme.
Use the following data:0 = 20, f = 70, t= 3sec[Nov 2012, JNTUH]
2.Determine the time required for each joint of a planar R-R manipulator by using LagrangeEuler formulations.[SET 1, May 2010,JNTUH ]
3.What are the features of joint space trajectory planning algorithm?Explain. [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
4.A one degree of freedom manipulator with rotary joint is to move from 113 to 210 in 7 sec
Find the coefficients of the cubic polynomial to interpolate a smooth trajectory. [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
5.What are the features of joint space trajectory planning algorithm?
Explain. [SET 3, May 2011,JNTUH ]
6.Explain Defferent methods of splitting a joint trajectory? [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
7.List the types of manipulators employed for travelling from point to point motion types?
[SET1,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
8.Define Robot program. What is the purpose of it and what are the various methods
used for programming robots? [SET3,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
13.4.6.2 Objective Questions
1.________ schemes can be used in joint-space trajectory planning. [ c]
(a) Third- order polynomial (b) fifth- order polynomial (c) a & b (d) none

2.Third-degree polynomial can be used with __________ number of constraints. [ d]


(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4
3.___ space trajectories are computationally extensive, and require a faster processing time.[ b]
(a) Joint (b) Cartesian (c) a & b (d) none
4.The description of the motion to be made by the robot by its joint values is called ______
Description [joint space]
5.A path on which a time law is specified in terms of velocities and/or accelerations at each
point is known as _________.[Trajectory]
6. In addition to start and finish points, a specific path between them is required to be traced
By the end effector in _______________Space.[Cartesian]
7. Operations such as arc welding and plotting are examples of ___________ path motion.
[Continuous].
8.The various trajectory planning techniques fall into one of the 2 categories___________
[Joint space techniques or Cartesian space techniques].
9.The task is specified as initial and final end effector location this is called ___________
Motion.[Point-to-Point].
10. A P-degree polynomial has (P+1) coefficients and can therefore satisfy _____________
Constraints [P+1].
13.4.6.3 Assignment Questions
1) The second joint of a SCARA manipulator is required to move from =30 to 150 in 5
seconds. Find the cubic polynomial to generate the smooth trajectory for the joint. What is the
max velocity and acceleration for this trajectory?
2) Explain Joint-Space versus Cartesian space trajectory planning?
3) Explain the following terms in trajectory planning?
1. path 2. Trajectory 3.joint space trajectory planning 4.cartesion space trajectory
planning
4) write the steps in trajectory planning?
5) What are the joint space techniques? Explain?
6) Explain the use of a P-Degree polynomial as interpolation function.
7) Explain Cubic polynomial Trajectories?
8) What are the Cartesian space techniques, Explain Briefly?
13.4.6.4 Tutorial Questions
1) What are the joint space techniques? Explain?
2) Explain the use of a P-Degree polynomial as interpolation function.
3) Explain Cubic polynomial Trajectories?
4) What are the Cartesian space techniques, Explain Briefly?
UNIT-VII
13.4.7.1 Subjective Questions
1.Explain the working of DC Servo Motor. [Nov 2012, JNTUH]
2.Discuss the principle of a Resolver.[SET 1, May 2010,JNTUH ]
3.compare the pneumatic and electrical drives. [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
4.A Hydraulic rotary vane actuator is to be used for a twist joint. The power source can generate

Upto 8Mpa of pressure for delivery to the cylinder at a rate of 25 cm/sec The outer and inner
radii of vane are 62 mm and 19 mm respectively. The thickness of each vane is 5mm. Determine
the angular velocity and the torque that can be generated by the actuator. [SET3,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
5.Discuss about the sensors used in Robotic Arc welding. [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
6.Distinguish between servo and non-servo grippers. What are the actuators used of such grippers
Explain. [SET2,Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
7.What is the resolution of an absolute optical encoder that has twelve tracks? [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
1.4.7.4 Objective Questions
Pneumatic actuators have the following characteristic/s _______ [ a]
(a) low compliance (b) high accuracy (c) high stiffness (d) works at very high pressure
2._______ are the muscles of a robot [ c]
(a) sensor (b) manipulator (c) actuator (d) Reservoir
3._________ actuating systems have the highest power-to-weight ratio. [ a]
(a) hydraulic (b) pneumatic (c) electric (d) a, b, & c

4.__________ are the constraints additionally needed if we use a Fifth- degree


polynomial instead of third- degree polynomial for motion between two points [Initial
and Final acceleration]
5. High stiffness and high accuracy are the characteristics of __________ actuator system
[Hydraulic]
6. _________ is actually a transformer whose core moves along with the distance being
measured and that outputs a variable analogue voltage as a result of this displacement
[LVDT]
7. __________ are used as electric actuators.[Servo and Stepper motors]
8.____________ motor works on either AC or DC[Servo]
9.The most popular choice for actuators for robotic systems is the ______________
[Electric motor].
10. The high gear ratio linearizes the system dynamics and reduces the ___________Effects [Coupling].
13.4.7.3 Assignment Questions
1) Define Actuators? Classify the actuators briefly?
2) Write the applications of Hydraulic actuators?
3) Describe electric Actuators briefly?
4) Explain 1.binary sensors 2.Analog sensors 3.tactile sensors 4.Force and torque sensors.
5) Write the classification of robotic sensors?
6) Discuss the industrial and non-industrial applications of vision controlled robots?
Explain :
7) Incremental Encoders and Optical Encoders
8) Absolute Encoders

13.4.7.4 Tutorial Questions


1) Write the applications of Hydraulic actuators?
2) Describe electric Actuators briefly?
3) Explain 1.binary sensors 2.Analog sensors 3.tactile sensors 4.Force and torque sensors.
4) Write the classification of robotic sensors?
UNIT-VIII
13.4.8.1 Subjective Questions
1. What are the considerations of Robots in material handling?[Nov 2012, JNUH]
2. What are the features of robot in machine loading and unloading
Applications?[SET 1, May 2010,JNTUH ]
3. Explain the application of industrial Robots in Forging operation? [SET 2,May 2010,JNTUH ]
4. What will artificial skin allow the next generation of robots to do? [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
5. Explain the application of industrial Robots in die casting operation. [Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
6. What characteristics an arc - welding robotic system must have? Explain. [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
7. Discuss the robotic inspection in loading and unloading. [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
8. What are the features of Robots in Arc welding? Explain.[Sept 2011,JNTUH ]
9. What are the benefits of Robot spray painting? Explain. [Nov 2012,JNTUH ]
13.4.8.2 Objective Questions
1.Robot can be used in the field of _________. [d]
(a) welding (b) painting (c) assembly operation (d) a, b, & c
2.Robot can be used in conditions _______ [d ]
(a) Hazardous environment (b) where work is repetitive (c) where high accuracy is necessary (d) a, b,
&c
3. Robots with _______________ path capability are used for works such as spray painting, arc
welding, etc.[Continuous]
4.During work cycle in operations category. A robot performs a process with the help of some
tools as Its ___________ [End effector]
5. Palletizing is the process of ____________[Stacking or Storing the material].
6. Robots can be easily programmed to perform ________________Operation.[Palletizing]
7. To perform satisfactory welding operations, The manipulator should be capable of moving its
Tool point along a_________________in three dimensional space.[Trajectory]
8.A 5 degree of freedom manipulator can weld parts in a plane while 6 degrees of freedom are
Required for welding________________[Complex Contours].
9.Assembly means fitting two or more discrete parts together to form a ___________
[New Product].
10.Three possible misalignments or position errors between the peg and hole are___________
[Lateral, Rotational, and Axial].
13.4.8.3 Assignment Questions
1) Explain the application of Industrial robots in die-casting operation.
2) Discuss the use of industrial robots in forging and related operations?
3) What type of manipulator is generally used in welding applications?
4) Why a robot is considered as a 24/7 worker?
5) As technology advances the human worker lose jobs to robotic workers? Comment?
6) Why robots are useful in industries?

7) What do you think of future of robots?


8) Write a short note describing the factory of future. What will be the role of humans in this
factory?
13.4.8.4 Tutorial Questions
1) Discuss the use of industrial robots in forging and related operations?
2) What type of manipulator is generally used in welding applications?
3) Why a robot is considered as a 24/7 worker?
4) As technology advances the human worker lose jobs to robotic workers? Comment?