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# Lecture-1

Introductory session

R.C. Joshi
Assot. Professor
ECE Department
A.D.Patel Institute of Technology

Course Outline

## Random variable and Processes

Overview of Wireless Communication
Propagation through channel and diversity
Digital Modulation and Detection
Channel Coding

Seminar/Journal/Term Project/Assignment

## Practical exam evaluate based on three

entities
(1) Seminar/Assignment (25%)
(2) Journal(25%)
(3) Term Project (50%)

Power measurements
decibel: is a logarithmic unit or transmission
measurement unit used to express relative
Gains and Losses.
dB (decibel)
dBm (decibel pre mili watt)
dB (decibel per micro watt)
dBi (decibel per isotropic antenna)
dB-SPL (decibel Sound Pressure Level)

P
dBm = 10 log10 (
)
0.001W )

P
)
dB = 10 log10 (
0.000001

Example-1
Three stage system comprise of two
amplifiers and one filter. The input power
Pin = 0.1mW. The absolute power gains are
Ap1 = 100, Ap2 = 40, Ap3 = 0.25.
Determine
(a) the input power in dBm
(b) output power (Pout) in watts and dBm
(c) The dB gain of each of the three stages
(d) The overall gain in dB

(a) -10dBm
(b) Pout = 0.1W, 20dBm
(c) 20dB, 16dB, -6dB
(d) 30dB

Example-2
Determine the Total power when a signal
with a power level of 20dBm is combine
with a second signal with a power level of
21dBm

23.5dBm

## Bandwidth and Information Capacity

The bandwidth of an information signal is
simply the difference between the highest
and lowest frequencies contain in the
information.
Information Capacity (Shanons Equation)

I = B log 2 (1 + S N )

Noise
Electrical Noise is defined as any
undesirable electrical energy that falls
within the pass band of the signal
Noise can be divided in two general
categories:
(1) correlated
(2) uncorrelated

Uncorrelated Noise
Uncorrelated noise is present regardless
of whether there is signal present or not
Uncorrelated noise can further divided in
two categories
external Noise: noise that is generated
outside the device or circuit.
Internal Noise: is a electrical interference
generated within a device or circuit.

External Noise
Atmospheric Noise: Atmospheric noise is
commonly called as a static electricity
- lightening effect
- Explosive sounds
- Friction sounds
- Extraterrestrial Noise: Extraterrestrial noise
consist of electrical signal that originates outside
earths atmosphere
- Milky way
- Other galaxies
- Sun

## Man-Made Noise: Noise that is produced

by mankind
- Commutators in electric motors
- Automobile ignition system
- AC power generating and switching
equipments
- Fluorescent lights

Internal Noise
Shot Noise: shot noise is caused by
random arrival of carriers at the output of
the element of an electronic device like
diode, transistor etc..
- Shot noise is sometimes called as a
transistor noise and is additive with
thermal noise.

## Transit time Noise: any modification to a

stream of carrier as they pass from input to the
output of the device produce an irregular ,
random variations categorized as a transit time
noise.
Thermal Noise : Thermal noise is associated
with the rapid and random movement of
electrons within a conductor due to thermal
agitation

N = KTB

Correlated Noise
Correlated noise is a form of noise that is
mutually related with signal. Correlated
noise is also known as a nonlinear
distortion
Harmonic Distortion: Harmonic distortion
occurs
when
unwanted
harmonics
produced due to non linear amplification of
the signal.
- Harmonics are integer multiples of
fundamental frequency

%THD =

Vhigher
V fundamental

100

Vhigher = V2 + V3 + Vn
2

Example
Determine
(a) 2nd, 3rd, 12th harmonics for 1-KHz wave
(b) Percent second order, third order and
total harmonic distortion for fundamental
frequency with amplitude of 8 Vrms , a
second harmonic amplitude 0.2 Vrms ,
and third harmonic amplitude is 0.1 Vrms

(a) 2KHz, 3KHz, 12KHz
(b) 2.5%, 1.25%, 2.795%

## Intermodulation Noise: is the generation of

unwanted sum and difference frequencies
produced when two or more signals applied to
the non linear device
Sum and difference frequencies also known as
a cross product of the signals
Cross product =

mf1 nf 2

Example

## For a non linear amplifier with two input

frequencies 3KHz, 8KHz determine
(a) First three harmonics present in the
output for each fundamental frequency
(b) Cross-product frequencies produced for
values of m and n of 1 and 2

## (a) 3KHz and 8KHz, 6KHz and 16KHz,

9KHz and 24KHz
(b) 5KHz and 11KHz, 2KHz and 14KHz,
13KHz and 19KHz, 10KHz and 22KHz
(for m,n = 11,12,21,22)

## Important terms to estimate noise

effect in the system

noise floor
Signal to noise ratio
noise factor/noise figure
noise margin