Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 164

INSTRUCTION MANUAL

FOR

ATLAS COPCO
ROTORFLOW, INC.

14013
SERIAL NUMBER

P.O. Box 8447


Mankato, MN 56002-8447
(507) 625-4011
Fax (507) 345-2798

SERIAL NUMBER
14013
CIRCULATING OIL LUBRICATION
LUBRICATE BEARING WITH A CIRCULATING LUBE OIL
SYSTEM WHICH MAINTAINS OIL LEVEL AT
THE CENTER OF THE SITE GLASS
USE A HIGH QUALITY, DOUBLE INHIBITED MINERAL OIL
WITH VISCOSITY, PRESSURE AND FLOW RATES INDICATED
BELOW. THE OIL SHOULD CONTAIN OXIDATION AND RUST
INHIBITORS AND DEFOAMANTS
OPPOSTE DRIVE
END

DRIVE END
BEARING NUMBER

012-69329-63

012-69329-56

SUMP CAPACITY

1.6 GAL.

1.6 GAL.
OIL VISCOSITY

ISO VG 32

ISO VG 32
1.3-1.6 GPM

1.3-1.6 GPM
OIL PRESSURE

10 PSIG

10 PSIG

Kato Engineering

157-00128-00

OIL FLOW RATE (GPM)

Publication 350-05009-00A

March 2002

Instructions for Installation of


Renk Sleeve Bearings Type EM
and EF Flange Mounted Bearings
Equipped With Loose Oil Ring

These instructions contain only specific information relating to the bearing models listed below.
Bearing Code Definition:
E

Type
electric machines

F
M

Housing
finned, flange-mounted
finned, flange-mounted

N
Z
ing

Heat dissipation
natural cooling
lubrication by oil circulation with external oil cool-

Shape of bore and type of lubrication


plain cylindrical bore, loose oil ring lubrication

B
K
Q

Thrust surface
plain white-metal lined shoulders with oil grooves
white-metal lined shoulders with taper land faces
no thrust capability

Figure 1
Oil inlet & Outlet

Example: E F N L 0 14-160
Slide bearing type E with finned housing, flange mounted,
natural cooling, plain cylindrical bore, loose oil ring lubrication, non-locating bearing, housing size 14,160 mm shaft
diameter.

INTRODUCTION
Sleeve bearing performance is dependent on proper
installation, lubrication and maintenance. Before assembling the bearing carefully read all instructions contained
herein to become familiar with the complete bearing
assembly procedure.
Threaded holes for connecting the RTEs, Temperature
Bulbs, oil sight glass, oil inlet, and oil outlet are provided
on either side, so that all connections can be made on
the right or left side of the bearing housing as required.
Refer to the generator dimensional drawing and reference
drawings for proper location. The oil filler plug for EM
type bearings can be found on the housing cap. The oil
drain plug is located centrally in the underside of the
bearing housing. In the case of circulating oil lubrication,
the outlet connection can be screwed into the threaded
hole of an oil sight glass.

Figure 2
RTE & Sight Glass
The EM type bearing is furnished with an additional air
seal to prevent oil from being drawn out of the inboard
end of the bearing by a low-pressure zone generated by
the rotor movement. Atmospheric equalization is accomplished by dual heat-resistant hoses.
Bearing liners sizes 18 to 28 are provided with M16
threads, where lifting eyebolts may be temporarily
attached.
For the transport of a completely assembled bearing, Lifting eyes are provided in the upper half of the bearing
housing. For safety reason special care should be taken
that the threads of these eyebolts are subjected only to
tensile stress and not to bending stress.

If the bearing is electrically insulated by RENK, the spherical liner seat surfaces in the housing are lined with a
nonconducting material.

CAUTION. Under no circumstances may the bearings


be connected to the piping while the lubrication
system is being purged

NOTE: Do not remove this lining.

BEARING INSTALLATION

The anti-rotation pin is also insulated and the shaft seals


are manufactured from a special non-conducting material.

1.

Temperature monitoring instruments with contact to the


bearing liner should be insulated appropriately (i.e., insulated protection tubes, synthetic fittings, etc.)
PRE - INSTALLATION
The EF type bearing requires the installation of the
machine seal over the shaft before installing the bearing
bracket. Install mounting screws and tighten to rated
torque after the bearing bracket is installed.
Check the contact face and mounting recess of the
bracket making sure it is clean and properly machined.
Inspect the shaft to ensure it is smooth (R, 1/4 0.4,
equivalent to 32 micro-inch finish, or better.)
After removing the upper part of the housing and the
bearing liner the interior of the housing and the running
surfaces of the liner are to be cleaned thoroughly and
checked for any damage caused in transit.
Look for signs of sealant on all plugs and sight glasses.
If it does not appear that sealant was used on the plugs
or sight glasses, remove the plugs or sight glasses, clean
the threads of the plugs or sight glasses and threaded
holes and reseal with Teflon nine sealant

Clean Bearing Parts.

a. Remove grease, oil, preservatives or other deposits


from all surfaces using a brush moistened with solvent.
Remove grease, oil, preservatives or other deposits from
all recesses and mounting surfaces on the generator and
bearing.
b. Threaded fasteners and threaded hole must be clean
(use Loctite Cleaning Solvent or equivalent) and dry
before using Loctite 242.
2.
Assemble the bearing as described in the following steps.
CAUTION: Bearing brackets, housings, seals and liners may
be interchanged as complete assemblies only. Individual
halves are not interchangeable.

a. Install the bottom bearing housing half to the bearing


bracket. Tighten mounting screws alternating
b. Remove the protective covering from the shaft and
clean the shaft. Apply oil to the spherical seats in the
housing and the shaft (Figure 3 & Figure 4).
CAUTION: Care must be taken to avoid damage to the
axial surfaces of the locating bearing.

The oil drain plug located at the bottom of the bearing


housing has a copper washer. This copper washer can
not be reused. Discard the washer and replace it with a
new one if the plug is removed for any reason.
The bearings used for oil circulation systems have a
pipe nipple with a lock nut installed. The pipe nipple
replaces one of the sight glasses. Clean the threads and
the threaded hole with a cleaning solvent and dry. Apply
Teflon pipe compound to the threads of the nipple before
installation. The pipe nipple has a dam welded into one
end of the nipple. This dam must be away from the
housing and rotated to the bottom during installation. Do
not allow the pipe nipple to rotate when drain lines are
connected.
Welded, hot bent, rusted or contaminated pipes and tubes
must be pickled before use. After installation, all pipes
must be purged to avoid damage to the bearing due to
contamination. Use kerosene, flushing oil or solvent for
this purpose. During the cleaning procedure disconnect
all measuring instruments and seal the connection. All
cleaning fluid must be removed and all instruments etc.
reconnected before start-up.

Figure 3
Applying oil to housing spherical seat

CAUTION. The oil ring must be handled with care as


safe operation of the bearing is dependent on proper
functioning of the oil ring.
e. Disassemble the oil ring and clean. Clean threaded holes
and screws with cleaning solvent. Reassemble the oil ring
in the bearing, carefully engaging the dowels holding the oil
ring halves together. Install and tighten the screws at the
split line of the oil ring (Figure 6).

Figure 4
Applying oil to shaft journal surface
c. Lower the liner bottom half onto the top of the shaft.
(Remove the lifting eyebolts, if used). Rotate the liner
bottom half into position by raising the shaft to allow clearance for the liner (Figure 5).
CAUTION - Do not strike the liner with any object.

Figure 6
Installing oil ring
CAUTION: The outside of the two liner halves is
stamped with identification numbers or marks near the
split line. Make sure that these marks align when placing the top liner half into position. Incorrect fitting may
result in damage to the shaft, housing and liner.
f. Check the position of the alignment pins. They should
extend at least 5/16 out of the liner half split face. Lower
the top liner half into position. (Remove the lifting eyebolts, if
used). Check to ensure that the loose oil ring can still rotate
freely on the shaft.
CAUTION: The two halves of the floating labyrinth seal are
held together by a garter spring. They must be inserted
into the groove of the carrier ring in such a way that
the stop pin is always in the corresponding recess in the
upper half of the housing or carrier ring. Incorrect installation destroys the seal.

Figure 5
Installing liner bottom half
d. Align the split faces of the housing and liner. Lower the
shaft into place. Strike the housing bottom halt with a slight
hammer blow to seat the liner.

g. Verify that the contact faces of the seal to the housing are
clean and free of grease, rust, etc. Disassemble the seal.
Reassemble the seal in the bearing housing as follows.
Apply a 3/16 bead of non-hardening sealant (Curil T) to
the seal faces that contact the housing groove. (The oil
drain holes of the seal bottom half must be free of sealant,
Figures 7 & 8). Turn the seal bottom half (it has the oil drain
holes) into the housing. Feed the garter spring through the
seal bottom half (Figure 9). Set the seal top half into place.

Twist the ends of the garter spring together to close making


sure that the anti-rotation pin is in the correct position
(Figure 10). The seal must move freely in the housing.

Figure 10
Twist the ends of the garter spring together
Figure 7
Applying sealant

h. Clean the housing half split faces of all grease and oil
with a cleaning solvent. Apply a thin (1/32 or less) coating
of Loctite Ultrablue sealant on the dry lower housing half
split face.
CAUTION. Verify that the anti-rotation pin is installed
and seated in the top housing half before and after
installation.
CAUTION. Verify that the seal anti-rotation pin Is in the
correct position. Make sure that the seal fits properly
into the groove.
i. Check the position of the alignment pins in the housing
half. The alignment pins must extend at least 5/16 out of
the housing half split face. Lower the top housing half into
place (Figure 11). Verify that the anti-rotation pin in the
top bearing housing half is still in place and has not been
pushed up. If the pin has moved up, remove the top housing
half and reinstall.

Figure 8
Oil drain holes must be free of sealant

Figure 9
Feed garter spring through seal bottom half

Figure 11
Install top bearing housing. Note lifting fixture

CAUTION: The socket head screws and the flange


screws must be tightened in a diagonal pattern to rated
torque to prevent loss of off through the split line.
j. Clean the threaded holes and screws of grease and oil
with cleaning solvent. Dry the threaded holes and screws.
Place (4) drops of Loctite 242 on each screw. Install the
four screws holding the housing halves together tightening
to rated torque in a diagonal pattern. Tighten to rated torque
the screws holding the bottom housing half to the bearing
bracket.
k. Clean the seal carrier mounting bolts and threaded holes
of grease and oil with cleaning solvent. Dry the threaded
holes and bolts. Apply a light coating of sealing compound
(HI-TAC) on the seal side of a new seal gasket. Place the
gasket in a clean location for 15 minutes to let the sealing
compound become tacky. Install the seal gasket around the
shaft inside the generator using the sealing compound to
hold the gasket to the bearing housing.

q. Install temperature monitoring devices located on either


side of the bearing housing bottom half as follows.
Refer to generator dimensional and instruction drawing for
location.
3. INSTALL BEARING RTE (if required).
The RTE is assembled by following the procedure given
below.
a. Apply teflon pipe sealant to the holder mounting threads
and install in the bearing housing.
b. Pull the knurled knob on the holder out, rotate clockwise
and push in to allow insertion of the probe.
c. Push the probe through until it contacts the bearing liner.
Pull the knob out, rotate counterclockwise and release. The
probe is now properly spring loaded.

CAUTION. The two halves of the floating labyrinth seat


are held together by a garter spring. They must be
inserted into the groove of the carrier ring in such a
way that the stop pin is always in the corresponding
recess in the upper half of the housing or carrier ring.
Incorrect installation destroys the seal.
l. Verify that the contact faces of the seal to the seal carrier
are clean and free of grease, rust, etc. Disassemble the
seal. Reassemble the seal around the shaft near the bearing housing. Place the seal bottom half (it has the oil drain
holes) under the shaft and the seal top half on to the
shaft. Feed the garter spring around the seal bottom and
top halves. Twist the ends of the garter spring together to
close making sure that the anti-rotation pin is in the correct
position.
m. Apply at least a 1/8 bead of non-hardening sealant
(Curil T) to the seal faces that contact the carrier groove.
(The oil drain holes of the seal bottom half must be free
of sealant).
n. Apply a thin (1/32 or less) coating of Loctite Ultrablue
sealant to the seal carrier top half split face. Place the seal
carrier bottom half (including labyrinth seal) onto the shaft
near the bearing housing. Place the seal carrier top half into
position on the seal bottom half. The labyrinth seal must
move freely in the housing. Install the assembly into the
bearing housing against the gasket.
o. Verify that the threaded holes and bolts are clean and
dry. Place (2) drops of Loctite 242 on each screw. Install
mounting screws in place and tighten finger tight.
p. Apply a slight upward pressure on the seal bottom
half while tightening the seal mounting screws. Tighten the
screws in a diagonal pattern to rated torque.

Figure 12
Installing RTE

Bearing s ize

9 EM

9 EF

11

14

18

22

28

Flange
Mounting
Bolts

66
M12

66

66

159

311

537

1073

Bearing
Hous ing
S plit line
Bolts

38
M10

66

66

159

311

537

S eal
Mounting
Bolts

84*
M6

84*

84*

84*

216*

216*

216*

Bolt S ize

M12
M10

M12

M12

M16

M20

M24

M30

1073

Table 1
Recommended torque values

Des cription

Kato Part Number

Renk Bearing S ealant Kit- All sealants listed below ,


necessary for one set of bearings

153-01592-00

Loctite #24200 Blue, 20 Fl oz.

991-50195-14

Permatex Ultra blue, 3. 35 oz. Tube

991-50735-13

G asket S ealant, Liquid, 4 oz. Bottle

991-50195-15

Curil T, Nonhardening, 75 ml.

991-50725-12

Table 2
Description & Nomenclature

Figure 13
Bearing

RECOMMENDED STORAGE PROCEDURES FOR KATO


GENERATORS WITH SPLIT SLEEVE RENK RING OIL
BEARINGS

NOTE: BEARINGS WILL REQUIRE DISASSEMBLY TO


PERFORM RECOMMENDED PRESERVATION PROCEDURE.

1. Generators should be stored in a clean, dry, protected


warehouse where control over temperature, dust, dew
points, shocks and vibration are reasonably maintained.

d. All external parts and surfaces subject to corrosion such


as shafts, machined fits and threaded holes should be
protected by a corrosive resistant rust inhibitor coating.

a. Storage areas should be free from shock or vibration of


2 mils maximum.

e. Generators should be protected from dust, dirt and other


foreign material with a non-flammable, non-sealed protective cover.

b. Warehouse temperatures should not be below 10o F or


over 120o F and relative humidity should be a maximum
of 60%. All generators are to have the heaters energized
during storage.
CAUTION: REMOVE ANY FLAMMABLE PROTECTIVE
COVERING MATERIAL FROM THE GENERATOR WHEN
HEATERS ARE ENERGIZED.
c. Generators with Renk split sleeve ring oil bearings will
require periodic service while in storage.
1. Bearing pump should be filled to sight glass level with
Mobil DTE Medium ISO VG-32 OR 46 oil or equivalent.
NOTE: SYNTHETIC OIL IS NOT ACCEPTABLE AS A
STORAGE LUBRICANT.
2. Shafts on two bearing generators should be rotated a
minimum of 10 revolutions every 60 days.
a. Before rotating generator shaft, manually pour 4 to 6
ounces of ISO VG-46 oil over the bearing liner to prevent
possible oil starvation during manual rotation. Manual oiling
can be accomplished by removing the sight glass at the top
of the bearing housing and funneling, pumping or pouring
the oil into the opening.
b. On applications where the generator has been coupled
to the prime mover, the prime mover/ generator may be
rotated as a complete unit.
c. When the Manufacturer requires that prime mover be
rotated at periodic intervals, the coupling grid must be
removed and the generator rotated separately.
3. For generators to be stored over 24 months, the following
procedures are recommended.
a. Drain oil from bearing pump.
b. Apply Volvoline Tectyl 846 or an equivalent product to all
metal surfaces without paint or primer, such as split lines,
spherical seats, complete liner and shaft journals.
c. Preservation with Tectyl 846 should be effective up to 12
months after initial application. After 12 months all bearing
component parts should be thoroughly inspected and the
preservation process repeated.

4. When generators are removed from storage and before


placing into service.
A. Resistance readings should be taken on all windings.
1. Any drop in resistance value greater than 50% of
the original factory reading may necessitate electrical or
mechanical drying.
2. Insulation resistance readings of less than 100 megohms
will necessitate electrical or mechanical drying.
3. Oil used during storage should be replaced with new oil
as specified in the Instruction Manual or lubrication plates
mounted on the generator.
4. All preservatives should be thoroughly cleaned from
bearing surfaces and the bearing reassembled in accordance with recommended procedures.
B. Manually pour 4-6 ounces of ISO VG-32 or 46 oil over
bearing liners through top sight glass opening before generator shaft is rotated during final alignment or before starting prime mover.
1. Any excess oil accumulated during manual lubrication
should be drained from bearing before starting prime
mover.
For detailed information and procedures on insulation resistance testing, drying windings, bearing inspection and
replacement and safety instructions, refer to the Manuals
and Instructions furnished with individual units.

PUBLICATION NUMBER 352-23009-00


PUBLICATION DATE: June 97

MAINTENANCE
SCHEDULES
KATO MOTOR, GENERATOR, OR MOTORGENERATORS (SYNCHRONOUS OR INDUCTION)

Kato Engineering

P.O. Box 8447


Mankato, MN 56002-8447
(507) 625-4011
Fax (507) 345-2798
1

Contents
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MAINTENANCE ...........................3
SERVICE CONDITIONS REDUCING INSULATION LIFE ...4
VISUAL INSPECTION METHODS .......................................5
INSULATION MAINTENANCE TESTS ................................6

INSULATION RESISTANCE TESTS AT LOW VOLTAGE .................................................. 6

CLEANING INSTRUCTIONS................................................8
FIELD SERVICE CLEANING
FIELD SERVICE CLEANING

- ASSEMBLED MACHINES............................................... 8
- DISASSEMBLED MACHINES......................................... 8

MAINTENANCE SCHEDULES ............................................9

DAILY CHECKS ................................................................................................................... 9


EVERY 2000 HOURS OR 6 MONTHS OF OPERATION .................................................... 9
EVERY 8000 HOURS OR YEARLY .................................................................................... 9
EVERY 20,000 HOURS OR 3 YEARS ................................................................................ 9
EVERY 40,000 HOURS OR 5 YEARS .............................................................................. 10

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF
MAINTENANCE
Rotating electric machines are complex structures
that are subjected to mechanical, electrical, thermal
and environmental stresses of varying magnitude. Of
the various components, the insulation systems are
the most susceptible to aging or damage due to these
stresses. The service life of an electric machine will,
therefore, largely depend on the serviceability of the
insulations systems. Adequate inspection and testing
programs are advocated to assure that the equipment
is maintained in satisfactory condition to minimize the
possibility of in-service failure.
A regular maintenance and inspection program can
provide an evaluation of the present condition of
the equipment and indicate potential long term
problems. The extent to which a maintenance program is pursued will depend on application, environmental conditions, and the operators own experience and philosophy. A regular maintenance program involving periodic disassembly and knowledgeable visual examination of the equipment, together
with the application of electrical tests is strongly recommended. It should be recognized that over potential tests can damage insulation that is contaminated
or in marginal condition. Where there is uncertainty,
refer to I.E.E.E. Standard 432-1992 or consult with
Kato Engineering Co.

SERVICE CONDITIONS
REDUCING INSULATION
LIFE

(D) Short-circuit forces or line starting

Electric machines and their insulation systems are


subjected to mechanical, electrical, thermal and environmental stresses that give rise to many deteriorating inuences. The most signicant of these are the
following:

(G) Thermal cycling

(E) Erosion by foreign matter


(F) Damage by foreign objects

THERMAL AGING: This is the normal service temperature deteriorating inuence on insulation.
OVER-TEMPERATURE: This is the unusually high
temperature of operation caused by conditions such
as overload, high ambient temperature, restricted
ventilation, foreign materials deposited on windings
or winding faults.
OVERVOLTAGE: This is an abnormal voltage higher
than the normal service voltage such as caused by
switching or lightning surges. Operating above rated
nameplate voltage will reduce insulation life.
CONTAMINATION: This deteriorates electrical insulation by conducting current over insulated surfaces
or by attacking the material reducing electrical insulation quality or physical strength or by thermally insulating the material that causes the material to operate
at higher than normal temperatures. Such contaminants include the following:
(A) Water or extreme humidity
(B) Oil or grease including unstable anti-wear and
extreme pressure lubricants
(C) Conducting and nonconducting dusts and particles
(D) Industrial Chemicals such as acids; solvents and
cleaning solutions.
PHYSICAL DAMAGE: This contributes to electrical
insulation failure by opening leakage paths through
the insulation. Physical damages includes the following:
(A) Physical shock
(B) Vibration
(C) Over-speed

IONIZATION EFFECTS: Ionization (corona), which


may occur at higher operating voltages is accompanied by several undesirable effects such as chemical
action, heating and erosion.

VISUAL INSPECTION
METHODS
To achieve maximum effectiveness, a visual inspection program should be directed initially to those
areas that have been shown by previous experience
to be most prone to the forms of damage or degradation caused by the inuences listed. The most
suspect areas for deterioration or damage to which
inspection should be directed are:
GROUND INSULATION:
Ground insulation is generally dened as that insulation intended to isolate the current carrying components from the noncurrent bearing components.
SUPPORT INSULATION:
Support insulation, such as block, slot wedges,
etc. are usually made from compressed laminates
of brous materials, polyester or similar felt pads
impregnated with various types of bonding agents.
DETERIORATION OR DEGRADATION OF INSULATION FROM THERMAL AGING:
Examination of coils reveal general pufness, swelling into ventilation ducts or a lack of rmness of the
insulation, suggesting a loss of bond with consequent
separation of the insulation layers from themselves or
from the winding conductors or turns.
ABRASION:
Coil and connection surfaces may be damaged by
abrasion or contamination from other sources, such
as chemicals or abrasive or conducting substances.
CRACKING:
Cracking or abrasion of insulation may result from
prolonged or abnormal mechanical stress. In stator
windings, looseness of the bracing structure is a certain guide to such phenomena and can itself cause
further mechanical or electrical damage if allowed to
go unchecked.
EROSION:
Erosion may be caused by foreign substances
impinging against coil insulation surfaces.

Exciter Armature

INSULATION
MAINTENANCE TESTS

1. Disconnect the exciter armature leads from the


rotating rectiers. Disconnect the machine eld leads
from the positive and negative rectier heat sinks.

Insulation tests are conducted for two reasons:

2. Never apply megger to rotating rectiers. Connect


the leads of exciter armature to one clamp of a 500
volt megger and connect the other clamp to suitable
connection on the shaft.

(1) To discern existing weakness or faults


(2) To give some indication of expected service reliability

3. Record the megohm reading after one minute of


applying 500 volts

INSULATION RESISTANCE TESTS AT


LOW VOLTAGE
These tests are usually made on all or parts of an
armature or eld circuit to ground. They primarily
indicate the degree of contamination of the insulating
surfaces or solid insulation by moisture and other
conducting inuences and will not usually reveal complete or uncontaminated ruptures.
Insulation resistance tests are based on determining
the current through the insulation and across the
surface when a direct voltage is applied. The current
is dependent on the voltage and time of application,
the area and thickness of the insulation and on temperature and humidity conditions during the test.
The insulation resistance test is used to determine
the insulation condition prior to application of more
extensive testing measures. Refer to the following
electrical measurement procedures for testing detail.
Contact Kato Engineering or refer to I.E.E.E Std.
432-1992 when more extensive insulation tests are
required.

4. One minute reading must be a minimum of 1


megohm. If not, refer to dry out procedures.
5. Ground the exciter leads to the shaft after disconnecting the megger.

Machine Rotor Winding


1. Connect the positive and negative leads to one
clamp of the 500 volt megger and connect the other
clamp to the shaft.
2. Record the megohm reading after one minute of
applying 500 volts.
3. One minute reading must be a minimum of 1
megohm. If not, refer to dry out procedures.
4. Ground the eld leads to the shaft after disconnecting the megger.

Machine Stator
1. Disconnect power connections and all control
apparatus from the machine terminals.

Exciter Field (Stator)


1. Disconnect the exciter leads from the terminals in
the terminal box.

2. Measure insulation resistance of each phase separately with the two other phases shorted to the frame.

2. Connect exciter leads to one clamp of 500 volt


megger and connect the other clamp to the machine
frame.
3. Apply 500 volts from the megger and measure the
resistance reading after one minute. The minimum
reading should be 1.0 megohm. If not, refer to dry
out procedures.
4. Short the exciter eld leads to the machine frame
for several minutes after the megger has been disconnected. This will allow the voltage build up to be
properly discharged.

3. Use a 500 volt megger connected between the


lead of the phase to be measured and machine
frame. The minimum one minute insulation resistance
(corrected to 40 C) should not be less than that
given by the following formula:
Resistance
in megohms = Rated machine voltage +1000
1000
If less than above, refer to dry out procedure.
4. Ground the leads to the frame after the one minute
megger test.

NOTE: The insulation resistance value increases with


decreasing winding temperatures. All readings must
be referenced to winding temperatures. Use Figure
1 for converting megger readings to other temperatures.
Drying Methods
If the insulation resistance readings are below the
recommended minimum values specied previously,
use one of the dry out methods described below.
The method selected should be based on the size
and location of the unit, and available equipment with
experienced personnel.
Remove voltage regulator and cover all inlet and
discharge openings. Provide an opening at the top of
the machine, preferably at the fan end, for moisture
to evaporate. Monitor winding temperatures. DO NOT
APPLY HEAT TOO RAPIDLY. Winding temperature
should be raised gradually at a rate of 10 C per hour
up to 93C (200F). Measure insulation resistance at
one hour intervals. Typically the insulation resistance
will slowly drop while the temperature is coming up,
and then gradually increase and level out.

Figure 1

CLEANING INSTRUCTIONS
Proper maintenance of electrical equipment requires
periodic visual examination of the machine and windings and appropriate electrical and thermal checks.
Insulation surfaces should be examined for cracks
and accumulations of dirt and dust to determine
required action. Lower than normal insulation resistance can be and indication that conductive contaminant is present. The contaminant may be carbon,
salts, metal dusts or virtually any dirt saturated with
moisture. These contaminants develop a conductive
path to produce shorts or grounds with subsequent
failure. Cleaning is also advisable if heavy accumulation of dirt and dust can be seen or are suspected to
be restricting ventilation as manifested by excessive
heating.
Caution:
Without visual, electrical or thermal evidence that
dirt is present, cleaning should not be initiated
since unnecessary winding deteriorat-ion may
occur.
If harmful dirt accumulations are present, a variety of
cleaning techniques are available. The one selected
will depend on;
(1) The extent of the cleaning operation to be undertaken
(2) The type of enclosure and the voltage rating of the
machine involved.
(3) The type of dirt to be removed

FIELD SERVICE CLEANING


ASSEMBLED MACHINES
Where cleaning is required at the installation and
complete disassembly of the machine is unnecessary
or not feasible, dry dirt, dust or carbon should rst be
picked up by a vacuum cleaner to prevent the redistribution of the contaminant. A small nonconducting
nozzle or tube connected to the vacuum cleaner may
be required to reach dusty surfaces or to enter into
narrow openings. After most of the dust has been
removed, a small brush can be afxed to the vacuum
nozzle to loosen and allow removal of dirt more rmly
attached.
After the initial cleaning with vacuum, compressed air
may be used to remove the remaining dust and dirt.
Compressed air used for cleaning should be clean
and free of moisture or oil. Air pressure or velocity
should be adequately controlled to prevent mechani8

cal damage to the insulation.


Disassembly of the machine and more effective
cleaning by a qualied Kato Technician may be
required if the above described eld service cleaning
procedure don't yield effective results.

DISASSEMBLED MACHINES
An initial insulation-resistance reading should be
taken on the machine to check electrical integrity.
A minimum reading of one to ve megohms would
be expected with severely contaminated machines. A
zero reading may indicate an insulation breakdown
requiring repair, not just cleaning.
The high pressure hot water wash method of cleaning, which sprays a high velocity jet of hot water and
water containing a mild detergent is normally effective in cleaning windings including those subjected to
ooding or salt contamination. The detergent spray
is followed by multiple sprays with clean water to
remove or dilute the detergent. The machine should
then be dried until normal insulation resistance values
are obtained at room temperature. Solvents are effective for removing oil or grease and may be required if
water or detergent is not adequate.

insulation for cracking or physical damage. (Same as


2000 hour check)

MAINTENANCE
SCHEDULES FOR KATO
MOTOR, GENERATOR, OR
MOTOR-GENERATORS
(SYNCHRONOUS OR
INDUCTION)

3. Check all exposed electrical connections for tightness.


4. Check transformers, fuses, capacitors and lightning arrestors for loose mounting or physical
damage.
5. Check all lead wires and electrical connections for
proper clearance and spacing.

Note: Bearing Checks follow this section.

6. Check insulation resistance to ground on all


machine windings:
A. Main rotating assembly
B. Main stator assembly
C. Exciter and PMG stationary elds
D. Exciter armature assembly

DAILY CHECKS
1. Check and record operating temperatures on
machine bearings.

7. Check space heaters for proper operation.


8. Check exciter armature for proper rotating rectier
connection tightness.

2. Check and record operating temperatures on


machine stator windings.
3. Check and record machine vibration levels.

EVERY 20,000 HOURS OR 3 YEARS OF


OPERATION

4. Check control panel voltmeter for proper stability


and voltage output.

1. Remove machine outlet box cover and visually


inspect stator output leads

5. Monitor power factor and machine loading during


normal operation.

2. Visually inspect stator output leads, protective


sleeving and insulation for cracking or physical
damage. (Same as 9000 hour check).

EVERY 2000 HOURS OR 6 MONTHS OF


OPERATION

3. Check all exposed electrical connections for tightness.

1. Remove machine outlet box cover.and visually


inspect stator output leads, protective sleeving and
insulation for cracking or physical damage.

4. Check transformers, fuses, capacitors and lightning arrestors for loose mounting or physical
damage.

2. Check all exposed electrical connections for tightness.

5. Check all lead wires and electrical connections for


proper clearance and spacing.

3. Check transformers, fuses, capacitors and lightning arrestors for loose mounting or physical
damage.

6. Check insulation resistance to ground on all


machine windings.

4. Check all lead wires and electrical connections for


proper clearance and spacing.

A. Main rotating assembly


B. Main stator assembly
C. Exciter and PMG stationary elds
D. Exciter armature assembly

5. Clean inside of outlet box, air screens, bearing


housings and air bafes with compressed air and
electrical solvent.

7. Visually inspect machine windings for


oil; grease, or dirt contamination. Excessive contamination may necessitate surface cleaning with compressed air and electrical solvent.

EVERY 8000 HOURS OR YEARLY


1. Remove machine outlet box cover.and visually
inspect stator output leads, protective sleeving and
9

EVERY 40,000 HOURS OR 5 YEARS


1. Disassemble machine including rotor removal.
2. Check insulation resistance to ground on all
machine windings.
A. Main rotating assembly
B. Main stator assembly
C. Exciter and PMG Stationary elds
D. Exciter armature assembly
3. Clean machine windings using compressed air and
electrical solvent or de-greaser and high pressure hot
water wash dependent upon severity of contamination.

10

BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS

SLEEVE OIL TYPE BEARINGS

DAILY CHECKS

DAILY CHECKS

1. Check oil sight glass for proper levels. Oil should


be between 1/2 and 3/4 level of sight glass.
2. Visually check sleeve bearing housings for signs
of oil weepage.
3. Check and record operating temperatures on
sleeve oil bearings.

1. Visually inspect bearings and seals for excess


lubricant.
WEEKLY CHECKS
1. Check and record vibration levels if continous
monitoring is available.

WEEKLY CHECKS
1. Visually inspect bearing seals for oil leaks.

EVERY 2000 HOURS OR 6 MONTHS OF OPERATION

EVERY 2000 HOURS

1. Check machine vibration and bearing conditon


levels with spectrum analyzer or shock pulse. This
type of measurement should measure spike energy
on the ball or roller bearings.

1. Inspect bearing oil for proper levels and clarity.


EVERY 8000 HOURS OR YEARLY

EVERY 7500 HOURS OR YEARLY

1. Replace oil with with ISO VG 46 turbine grade


mineral oil or equivelant.

1. Visually inspect bearings, and check seals for


excess lubricant.
2. Check machine vibration levels same as
2000/2500 hours of operation. Vibration spectrum
and Spike Energy.

EVERY 20000 HOURS OR 3 YEARS OF OPERATION


1. Perform sleeve bearing inspection to include
removal of upper bearing housing and bearing liner.
Inspect bearing liner, shaft journal and seal surfaces
for wear. Reassemble per Kato Engineering procedure for sealing of sleeve oil bearings.
2. Replace oil with with ISO VG 46 turbine grade
mineral oil or equivelant.

EVERY 15,000 HOURS OR 3 YEARS


1. Same as 8000 hours or 1 year of operation.
EVERY 30,000 HOURS OR 5 YEARS
1. Install new factory replacement bearings.
2. Pack bearing with the type and amount of grease
specied on the lubrication plate mounted on the
machines or consult the machine manual.
3. Monitor unit vibration and spike energy levels after
installation.

11

EVERY 40000 HOURS OR 5 YEARS.


1. Inspect bearing shaft journals, liners, and oil seals.
2. Replace bearing liners or oil seals. Reseal bearing assembly per Kato sleeve bearing manual.
3. Replace oil with with ISO VG 46 turbine grade
mineral oil or equivelant.

Kato Engineering

P.O. Box 8447


Mankato, MN 56002-8447
(507) 625-4011
Fax (507) 345-2798

12

Instruction Manual
Publication 350-01015-00, 09/28/09

Installation Operation Maintenance

AC Center Air Generator

Kato Engineering Inc.


P.O. Box 8447
Mankato, MN USA
56002-8447
Tel: 507-625-4011
Fax: 507-345-2798
Email: katoengineering@emerson.com
www.kato-eng.com
Page 1

Table of Contents
Introduction.........................................................................4
Foreword..................................................................................................4
Safety instructions....................................................................................4
Ratings/description...................................................................................4

Construction and Operating Principles............................6


Stator.........................................................................................................6
Rotor..........................................................................................................7
Bearings....................................................................................................8
Connection boxes.....................................................................................8
Excitation system......................................................................................9
PMG system............................................................................................11

Installation..........................................................................12
Receiving inspection...............................................................................12
Unpacking and moving............................................................................12
Location...................................................................................................12
Base design............................................................................................12
Assemble to prime mover, alignment......................................................13
Two-bearing alignment............................................................................13
Foot deflection.........................................................................................15
Doweling.................................................................................................15
Electrical connections.............................................................................15
Space heaters.........................................................................................15
Inspection before startup.........................................................................15

Operation............................................................................17
Note: Because of rapid changes in designs
and processes and the variability of Kato
Engineerings products, information in this
manual must not be regarded as binding
and is subject to change without notice.
The image on the front cover is representative only. Several variations are available
within the range of generators covered
within this manual.

Initial startup: generators w/auto & manual control.................................17


Initial startup: generators w/auto control only.......... ...............................17
Restoring residual magnetism/field flashing............................................18
Continuous operation..............................................................................19
Idling........................................................................................................20
Parallel operation....................................................................................20

Maintenance.......................................................................23
Schedules...............................................................................................23
Maintenance procedures........................................................................25
Visual inspection methods of windings...................................................25
Cleaning..................................................................................................26
Insulation resistance tests at low voltage................................................27
Dry out procedures..................................................................................28
Bearing lubrication..................................................................................29
Rectifier tests..........................................................................................29
Disassembly............................................................................................31
Overall disassembly...............................................................................31
Exciter armature and PMG removal.......................................................31

Page 2

Bearing removal......................................................................................32
Assembly.................................................................................................34
Bearing installation..................................................................................35
Overall assembly.....................................................................................35
Exciter armature and PMG installation....................................................37

Troubleshooting Guide.....................................................39
Storage...............................................................................42
List Of Equipment Required.............................................43
Torque Table.......................................................................44

Page 3

Introduction
Foreword
This manual contains instructions for installing, operating and
maintaining Kato Engineering AC brushless revolving field generators.
These generators are manufactured in many sizes and ratings and with
various options.
Lubrication information, electrical connection drawings, dimensional
drawings and parts listings for your model are contained in the manual
package as supplementary information and are the specific source of
information for making connections and ordering replacement parts.
Information about optional components of your generator may also be
contained as a supplement.
Please read this manual in its entirety before unpacking, installing, and
operating your generator.

Safety instructions
In order to prevent injury or equipment damage, everyone involved in
installation, operating and maintenance of the generator described in this
manual must be qualified and trained in the current safety standards that
govern his or her work.
While common-sense prevention of injury or equipment damage
cannot be completely defined by any manual (nor built into any piece
of equipment), the following paragraphs define warnings, cautions, and
notes as they are used in this manual:
Warning: Warnings identify an installation, operating or maintenance
procedure, practice, condition, or statement that, if not strictly followed,
could result in death or serious injury to personnel.
Caution: Cautions identify an installation, operating or maintenance
procedure, practice, condition, or statement that, if not strictly followed,
could result in destruction of or damage to equipment or serious
impairment of system operation.
Note: Notes highlight an installation, operating or maintenance
procedure, condition, or statement and are essential or helpful but are not
of known hazardous nature as indicated by warnings and cautions.

Ratings/description
Nameplates, which are located on the side of the generator, include
serial and model number as well as rating information and bearing and
lubrication information.

Page 4

Figure 1: Typical center air generator

Page 5

Construction and Operating Principles


Enclosures
The standard design is open drip proof. The following options may apply
to your unit:

Air filtered
Air-to-air heat exchanger cooled (TEAC/CACA)
Air-to-water heat exchanger cooled (TEWAC/CACA)
Weather protected II
IP 22, 23,25,44,54
Sealed windings

See your drawings included in the drawing section for details on your
unit.

Stator
The stator consists of the supporting frame, core, and armature windings.
The stator core is made from laminations, thin sheets of electrical steel,
which are stacked and held in place by steel end rings and support
bars. The rings and bars are welded to or are part of the steel frame.
Base mounting plates are welded to the bottom of the frame. The base
mounting plates allow the assembly to be mounted on the genset base.
Some stators are made of rolled steel with foot gussets. See Figure 2.

Figure 2: Generator frame

Page 6

The windings (coils) are constructed of layered and insulated copper


wire. The coils are inserted in the core slots, connected together, and
the entire assembly is vacuum-pressure impregnated with resin. Stator
leads terminate in standard connection lug or strap terminals for ease of
connection to the load.

Rotor
The main rotor assembly is the revolving field. It consists of windings
in a core, which is in turn mounted on a steel shaft. The exciter armature
assembly and permanent magnet generator (PMG) rotor are also mounted
on the shaft as are the fan(s) and other optional accessories. The core
consists of laminations, thin sheets of electrical steel, which are stacked
together. The core makes the salient poles. See Figure 3.
The rotor windings consist of insulated magnet wire wound around
each pole. V-blocks or spreader bars between each pole keep the rotor
windings in place. Damper windings consist of copper or aluminum rods
that are inserted through each pole surface and are brazed to copper or
aluminum damper end plates at each end of the lamination stack.

Figure 3: Generator rotor

The end plates are brazed to adjacent poles to form a continuous damper
winding. The ends of the windings are supported with bars or aluminum
pole shoes. Some designs have neither end shoes or plates. The rotor is
vacuum-pressure impregnated with resin.
The shaft is made from high-strength rolled or forged steel and machined
to accommodate all the rotating generator components. Keyways in the
shaft ensure precise positioning of the rotor, fans, exciter armature, and
PMG rotor as well as drive couplings. On the exciter side, the shaft has
a slot or hole in its centerline for running the revolving field leads to the
rectifier.

Page 7

Bearings
The sleeve bearings may be self lubricated or force fed from a separate
oil system. Temperature detectors monitor the operating conditions of
the bearing and lubrication system. The sleeve bearing is self-aligning.
See bearing manual for details. RTDs are provided to monitor bearing
temperature during operation. A non-conducting liner insulates the
bearing against shaft currents. See your bearing manual under seperate
cover for more information. See Figure 4.

Figure 4: Sleeve bearing

Connection boxes
The main lead connection box houses the load lead terminals, and may
be located either side or on top. In addition, the generator may have
auxiliary connection boxes for connecting temperature detector outputs,
space heater connectors, and sensing outputs. See your drawings for
details. See Figure 5.

Figure 5: Typical terminal box

Page 8

Excitation system
The excitation system consists of the exciter stator assembly and the
exciter armature assembly. See Figure 6.
The exciter stator assembly consists of windings in a core. The core is
made from steel laminations that are stacked and welded together. The
main exciter stator coils are placed in slots in the core and form alternate
north and south poles. The entire assembly is either mounted to the end
bracket or mounted in a frame, which is mounted to the end bracket. The
stator is a stationary field, which is powered by the voltage regulator.
The assembly consists of two subassemblies: the exciter armature and
the rotating rectifier. The exciter armature assembly contains steel
laminations that are stacked and keyed on the shaft or onto a sleeve,
which is keyed to the generator shaft. A three-phase winding is inserted
into slots in the laminations. The coils are held in place by insulating
wedges. The coil extensions are braced with tape. Output leads from the
winding are connected to the rotating rectifier assembly.

Figure 6: Excitation system

The rotating rectifier is a three-phase, full wave bridge rectifier,


converting the AC from the exciter armature to DC, which is transferred
to the revolving field windings. Two aluminum steel plates, each
containing three rotating rectifier diodes, are mounted on each side of
an insulating hub to form the negative and positive terminals. The plates
also act as heat sinks for the diodes.
Excitation system functional overview: Exciter field control is
established by the strength of the exciter field current developed by
the voltage regulator system. The DC voltage and current levels of the
exciter field signal from the voltage regulator varies depending upon the
generator output voltage and the loading of the output lines. See Figure
7.

Page 9

Figure 7: Overview of excitation system

Page 10

PMG rotor
(field)

PMG stator
(armature)

Power input

Exciter
armature (AC)

Voltage
regulator

Rectifier

Exciter stator
(field)
Main rotor (DC)

Main stator
(armature)

Output leads

Shaft

Prime mover

PMG system
The permanent magnet generator (PMG) system consists of the PMG
stator and PMG rotor:
The PMG stator is a stationary armature and is located within the stator
assembly that also contains the exciter stator or is a separate stator
mounted next to the exciter stator. The PMG stator consists of steel
laminations. The laminations are held in place by steel compression rings
and are welded to the frame bars of the exciter-PMG frame. The PMG
windings are placed in slots in the laminations. Insulating wedges are
inserted at the top of each slot to hold the coils in position.
The PMG rotor consists of rectangular permanent magnets and cast pole
tips secured to a steel hub with nonmagnetic stainless steel bolts. The
PMG rotor is keyed to the shaft and secured with a nut and lock washer.
PMG system overview: The PMG system functions as a pilot exciter,
providing power to the automatic voltage regulator power supply. The
PMG is an AC generator that uses permanent magnets in the rotor instead
of electromagnets to provide the magnetic field. See Figure 8.

Figure 8: PMG

Page 11

Warning: Be alert at all times when


installing, operating and maintaining the
generator. Avoid contact with the uninsulated
metal parts of the generator. Most injuries
occur from faulty ground connections on
portable electrical equipment and failure to
ground stationary equipment.
Test all portable devices frequently to
prove that a solid electrical circuit exits
from the metal frame though the grounding
conductor, in the electrical cord, to the
grounding contact in the attachment plug.
Do not use electrical equipment with frayed,
burned or damaged cords. Always take
extreme care when moving the generator.
Be careful to not strike objects or personnel.
Apply lifting force to structural points
specifically provided for lifting. Do not use
the enclosure lifting holes to lift the whole
unit. Use lifting means adequate for the
weight. Observe lifting notices attached
to the generator. Failure to observe these
instructions can result in injury and damage
to the generator.
Caution: Do not attempt to transport a
single-bearing generator without maintaining
proper rotor support and with the exciter
rotor assembly removed. Failure to observe
this warning can result in equipment
damage.
Caution: Blocking or restriction of normal air
flow into or out of the generator may cause
damage to the electrical windings.

Installation
Receiving inspection
Before accepting a shipment, examine the packaging for any sign of
damage that might have occurred during transit. Report any damage to
the transportation company and Kato Engineering.

Unpacking and moving


If the generator is received during cold weather, reduce condensation on
cold surfaces and failure due to wet windings by allowing the generator
to reach room temperature before removing the protective packing.
Unpack the generator carefully to avoid scratching painted surfaces.
Do not remove the protecting lubricant from the shaft end. Inspect for
loosely mounted components and the presence of moisture. Inspect
to make certain foreign material, such as crating nails, loose bolts
or packing material, which may have fallen into the machine during
unpacking, is removed. If damage is noted, determine the extent of
damage and immediately notify the transportation company claims office
and Kato Engineering. Be sure to give complete and accurate details
when reporting damage.
Move the generator by attaching an overhead hoist to the eyebolts
installed on the generator frame or by lifting the generator from
underneath the skid with a forklift.

Location
Install the generator in an area so it complies with all local and industrial
regulations. Locate it in a clean, dry, well-vented area or area that is
suitable for the generator enclosure. Make sure it is easily accessible for
inspection and maintenance.
Protect generators operating intermittently in very damp locations with
space heaters. Slowly warm generators placed in operation after being
subjected to very low temperatures to prevent excessive condensation.
Check winding resistance before placing the generator in operation (see
page 27).

Base design
The type of base to be used will depend upon the nature of the
installation site. However, the generator base must be rigid, level, and
free from vibration. Mounting holes must be larger than the fasteners to
allow for alignment.

Page 12

Assemble to prime mover, alignment

Notes: Mounting of the indicators must


allow complete rotation of the prime mover.

Two-bearing alignment
Follow the tolerances specified by the coupling manufacturer when they
are less than described in this manual.
Use shims, if necessary, between the mounting pad and the base to
properly level and align the generator to the prime mover.
Install the coupling(s) on the generator and engine drive shafts in
accordance with coupling manufacturer installation procedures. Use a
straight edge and a thickness gauge for rough alignment as shown in
Figure 9. Check for angular and parallel alignment as follows:
Straight edge

Use dial indicators that are rigid so indicator


sag wont be a factor. Using the shortest
offset distance of the indicator bracket will
reduce the effects of indicator droop or sag.
During alignment, you may also need to
compensate for engine expansion due to
heating. Generator expansion is generally
not considered a factor.
If the genset is moved to a different
location, check alignment before startup.
Caution: Do not pry on the generator fan.
Caution: Generators equipped with sleeve
oil bearings must have oil added to the
bearing prior to rotation. See the bearing
manual.

Thickness gauge

Figure 9: Rough alignment

Angular alignment: Fasten a dial indicator to one of the coupling halves,


and scribe the position of the dial button on the face of the opposite
coupling half as shown in Figure 10. Rotate both shafts simultaneously,
keeping the finger or button on the indicator at the reference mark on the
coupling hub. Note the reading on the indicator dial at each one quarter
revolution.
A variation of readings at different positions will indicate how the
machine needs to be adjusted to obtain a maximum misalignment of
0.001 inch for each inch of the coupling hubs radius, total indicator
runout. Place or remove slotted shims from under the front or rear engine
or generator mounting pads and/or shift the front or back half of one
component from side to side until the components are properly aligned.
Tighten the mounting bolts, and recheck alignment.

Page 13

Dial indicator

Figure 10: Angular alignment

Parallel alignment: Fasten a dial indicator to one of the coupling halves,


and scribe the position of the dial button on the top of the opposite
coupling half as shown in Figure 11. Rotate both shafts simultaneously,
keeping the finger or button on the indicator at the reference mark on the
coupling hub. Note the reading on the indicator dial at each one quarter
revolution. A variation of readings at different positions will indicate how
the machine needs to be adjusted to obtain a maximum misalignment of
0.002 inch. Place or remove slotted shims from under all of the engine
or generator mounting pads and/or shift one component from side to side
until the components are properly aligned. Tighten the mounting bolts,
and recheck alignment.
Dial indicator

Figure 11: Parallel alignment

Page 14

Foot deflection
After alignment, check for foot deflection or soft foot condition on
each shim location to eliminate distortion of the generator frame. Do
this by loosing one mounting bolt at a time and checking deflection
after retightening. Deflection at the shim location from shims under
compression to a loosened condition must not exceed 0.003 inch.

Doweling
In case the mounting bolts loosen during operation, doweling will
prevent movement of the generator. Dowel as follows:
Check the alignment after the generator has been in operation for at least
48 hours. If alignment is not satisfactory, realign.
Drill holes through the footpads and into the base in two mounting pads
opposite each other. Drill the holes slightly smaller than the dowel pin.
Ream the holes to the proper diameter for the pin. Clean out chips, and
install the pins.

Electrical connections
If the generator was subjected to a rapid change in temperature, freezing
or wet conditions during shipment or storage, measure the insulation
resistance of each winding and dry the generator, if necessary, as
described in the maintenance section.
Make all electrical connections (main load, temperature monitoring
device, space heater, AVR) in accordance with local regulations and
national/international electrical code requirements. Check the electrical
diagrams provided with the generator or manual. The main terminals
need to be properly spaced for the load connections. Refer to Table 3 for
the proper torque values for the connections.
Grounding points are provided for properly grounding the system to
the generator frame. The grounding wire must be sized to national/
international code requirements.

Space heaters
To prevent water condensation during long periods of downtime, connect
the space heaters so they start when the generator is turned off and stop
when the generator is switched on. Refer to the electrical diagrams for
the space heater characteristics.

Inspection before startup


After electrical connections have been made, perform the following
checks:

Page 15

Warning: The space heaters are designed


to be energized when the generator is
shut down. They are hot enough to cause
skin burns. terminals for power at the
space heaters are live during operation.
Disconnect power to the space heaters
Warning: If necessary, remove the covers
around the space heaters to reduce the risk
of fire.

Check all the connections to the electrical diagrams provided.

Secure all covers and guards.

Turn the rotor slowly with the appropriate starting mechanism (bar
the engine or flywheel) through one revolution to see if the rotor
turns freely.

Check the bearings to see they are properly lubricated.

Determine the direction of the engine rotation, and make sure that it
matches the rotation of the generator.

Make sure the power requirements comply with the data on the
generator nameplate.

Make sure that the engine-generator set is protected with an adequate


engine governor and against excessive overspeed.

Make sure the output of the generator is protected with an overload


protection device, such as circuit breakers or fuses, sized in
accordance with national/international electrical code and local
electrical code standards. Fuses need to be sized using the lowest
possible current rating above the full-load current rating (115% of
rated current is commonly recommended).

Remove tools and other items from the vicinity of the generator.

Page 16

Operation
Initial startup: generators with both automatic and
manual voltage control

Caution: Do not make connections or otherwise make contact with the generator leads
or other devices connected to them unless
the genset is stopped and the phase leads
are grounded.

1. Disconnect the generator output from the load by opening the main
circuit breaker.
2. Turn the manual voltage adjust rheostat fully counterclockwise.
3. Put the auto-manual switch in the manual position.
4. Start the prime mover, and bring the set to rated speed. Turn the
manual voltage adjust rheostat to reach rated voltage. Close the
output circuit breaker, and apply load in steps until the rated load is
reached. Adjust the manual adjust rheostat as necessary to obtain the
desired output voltage.
5. Gradually reduce load, and adjust the rheostat accordingly until no
load is reached. Open the circuit breaker, and stop the prime mover.
6. Actuate the auto voltage rheostat. Then start the genset, and bring it
to rated speed. Adjust the voltage to the desired value.
7. Close the output circuit breaker. Then check the generator voltage
and voltage regulation. Apply load in steps until the rated load is
reached.
8. Check for vibration levels at no load and rated load. A slight increase
is normal. As the load is maintained for 2-3 hours, the vibration
levels will gradually increase and reach a final level.

Initial startup: Generators with automatic voltage control


only (generator has an automatic voltage regulator (AVR)
with no auto-manual switch)
1. Disconnect the generator output from the load by opening the main
circuit breaker.
2. Turn the voltage adjust rheostat fully counterclockwise. Start the
prime mover, and bring the set to rated speed. Turn the voltage adjust
rheostat to obtain the desired voltage.
3. Close the output circuit breaker, and apply load in gradual steps
until the rated load is reached. Note the voltage regulation with the
changes in load steps.
4. Check for vibration levels at no load and rated load. A slight increase
is normal. As the load is maintained for 2-3 hours, the vibration
levels will gradually increase and reach a final level.
Page 17

Caution: Do not actuate the auto-manual


switch with full load applied to the generator.
Whenever possible, stop the generator
before switching.

Caution: Refer to the voltage regulator


manual for complete details and possible
additional instructions. Damage to the rotating diodes, generator, and voltage regulator
can be caused if the regulator is operated
improperly.
Caution: Operating the unit beyond nameplate values may cause equipment damage
or failure.

Note: If the polarity of the exciter is reversed


by flashing the field, it may be corrected by
interchanging the battery leads.

Restoring residual magnetism/field flashing


The direct current necessary to magnetize the revolving field is obtained
from the exciter. Upon starting the generator, current and voltage is
induced into the exciter by the magnetic lines of force set up by residual
magnetism of the exciter field poles. Residual magnetism of the exciter
field poles may be lost or weakened by a momentary reversal of the field
connection, a strong neutralizing magnetic field from any source, or nonoperation for a long time. If the generator fails to generate voltage after
it has come up to rated speed, it may be necessary to restore residual
magnetism.

- 12 or 24 V
battery

+
3 amp or
larger diode

FF+

Voltage
regulator

EF1

EF2

Figure 12: Field flashing setup with the field wires


connected to the regulator

To restore the small amount of residual magnetism necessary to begin the


voltage build up, connect a 12 or 24-volt battery to the exciter field coil
circuit and flash as follows:
1. Open the output circuit breaker, and stop the engine.
2. Disconnect the exciter field coil wires EF1 at the terminal EF1 and
EF2 at the terminal EF2, and connect the battery positive lead to the
field coil lead EF1.
3. Flash the field by touching the battery lead to the field coil circuit
terminal EF2.
4. Disconnect the battery leads.
5. Reconnect the field coil lead EF1 to terminal EF1, and reconnect the
field coil lead EF2 to terminal EF2.
6. Start the generator, and check for voltage build up. Reflash if
the generator output voltage does not build up, or flash with the
generator running, the field coil wires connected to the regulator, and
a 3-amp or larger diode off the positive terminal of the battery per
Figure 12.

Page 18

Continuous operation
Operate the generator within the nameplate values . If the generator is
operated below the rated power factor and voltage, decrease the kVA to
prevent overheating of the field and stator windings. Consult the factory
for derating factors if the application requires the unit to be operated
beyond nameplate values.
Rotor overheating may occur when the generator is carrying excessive
unbalanced loads. Negative sequence currents flowing in the field pole
face cause the rotor heating. For a general guide to the allowable phase
unbalance, see Figure 13, Guide to allowable phase unbalance (which is
based on a 10% equivalent negative sequence current).
The guide is used in the following manner: Find the point where the
vertical line (determined by the maximum current in any of the phases
and expressed in percent of rated current) crosses the horizontal line
(determined by the minimum current in any of the phases and expressed
in percent of rated current). Ensure the point where these two lines
intersect is within the permissible allowable unbalance region for safe
operation of the generator.

Min. current in any phase (% of rated)

100

80

Allowable
unbalance

60

Excessive
unbalance

40

20

20

40

60

80

100

Max. current in any phase (% of rated)

Figure 13 Guide to allowable phase unbalance

Loss of field excitation can result in the unit operating out of


synchronization with the system when operating in parallel. This has the
effect of producing high currents in the rotor, which will cause damage
very quickly. Protective relays should be considered to open the circuit
breaker.

Page 19

Idling
Unless the voltage regulator has V/Hz protection built in, having the
generator set in operating mode while idling the engine can cause
permanent equipment damage. If engine adjustments require that
the engine be run at idle speed and the regulator does not have V/Hz
protection, make the generator regulating system inoperative during
idling by one of the following methods:
When the generator is provided with a voltage shutdown switch, be sure
the switch is set to the idle position while the engine is running at idle
speed.
Where the generator set is provided with field circuit breakers, set the
circuit breaker to the off position while the generator is running at idle
speed.
Where the generator set is provided with an automatic/manual control
switch that has an off position, switch it to off while the engine is
running at idle speed.
Where the generator set does not have any of the above options, remove
the wires from the voltage regulator input power terminals when the
engine is running at less than rated speed.

Parallel operation
For the generator to operate in parallel with a system in operation, the
phase sequence of the generator must be the same as that of the system.
Use transformers to reduce the voltage to an acceptable level, and then
use a phase rotation meter or incandescent lamp method, described in
electrical machinery handbooks, for a phase sequence check.
The output voltage at the paralleling point must be the same each instant,
which requires that the two voltages be of the same frequency, same
magnitude, same rotation, and in coincidence with each other.
Voltmeters indicate whether the voltage magnitude is the same, and
frequency meters indicate whether the frequencies are the same. Whether
the voltages are in phase and exactly at the same frequency is indicated
by a synchroscope or by synchronizing lamps.
A synchroscope can be used to indicate the difference in phase angle
between the incoming machine and the system. The generator can be
paralleled by using incandescent lamps connected as shown in Figure 14.
The voltage rating of the series lamps must equal the voltage rating of the
transformer-low voltage winding.

Page 20

System bus

Load
switch

Synchronizing
lamps

Load lines from the incoming generator

Figure 14: Synchronizing paralleled generators with test lamps

Each prime mover in the system must have the same speed regulating
characteristics, and the governors must be adjusted to give the same
speed regulation as determined by applying load that is proportional to
the full load rating of the generator.
The voltage regulator must include paralleling circuitry. In addition, the
voltage, droop settings and the V/Hz regulation characteristics must be
the same for all the voltage regulators. This will allow the generators to
properly share reactive loads.
If cross-current compensation is used, paralleling current transformers
must give the same secondary current.
Current transformer secondary windings provide reactive kVA droop
signal to the voltage regulator. Accidental reversal of this electrical
wiring will cause the voltage to attempt to rise with load rather than
droop. If this occurs during paralleling, stop the unit and reverse the
wires at the voltage regulator terminals.
If the set is provided with a unit/parallel switch, set the switch to the
parallel position on the unit being synchronized.
Synchronize the generator by adjusting the speed (frequency) slightly
higher than the system. Observe the synchroscope or the lamps. The
lamps should fluctuate from bright to dark at the rate of one cycle every
2 to 3 seconds. When the generator is in phase (the lights will be dark),
close the circuit breaker. Immediately after closing the breaker, measure
the line current kVAR of the generator. The readings must be within
the rating of the unit. A high ammeter reading accompanied by a large
kW reading indicates faulty governor control. A high ammeter reading
accompanied by a large kVAR unbalance indicates problems with the
voltage regulator. Adjusting the cross current or voltage droop rheostat
should improve the sharing of kVAR.

Page 21

To shut down the generator operating in parallel, gradually reduce the


kW load by using the governor to reduce speed. When kW load and
line current approach 0, open the generator circuit breaker. Operate
the generator unloaded for several minutes to dissipate the heat in the
windings. Refer to the prime mover manual for shutdown and cool-down
procedures.

Page 22

Maintenance
Schedules
A regular preventive maintenance schedule will ensure peak
performance, minimize breakdowns and maximize generator life. The
schedule listed below is a guide for operating under standard conditions.
Specific operating conditions may require reduced or increased
maintenance intervals. Also, if there is a different or more specific
schedule for your generator than the schedule provided below, it will be
included as a supplement to the manual package.
Every day
Visually check generator bearing housings for any sign of oil seepage.
Check the operating temperatures of the generator stator windings.
Check the control panel voltmeter for proper stability and voltage output.
Monitor the power factor and generator loading during operation.
With generators that have sleeve oil bearings, check the operating
temperatures and sight glass levels (if applicable).
Every week
Visually inspect the bearing exterior for dirt, and clean if necessary.
Inspect any generator air filters for build up of contaminants, and clean or
replace as required
Every 2000 hours or 6 months of operation
Remove generator outlet box cover. Visually inspect the stator output
leads and insulation for cracking or damage. Check all exposed electrical
connections for tightness. Check transformers, fuses, capacitors, and
lightning arrestors for loose mounting or physical damage. Check all lead
wires and electrical connections for proper clearance and spacing.
Clean the inside of the outlet box, air screens, bearing housings, and air
baffles with compressed air and electrical solvent if needed.
With generators that have ball or roller bearings, check machine
vibrations and bearing condition with a spectrum analyzer or shock
pulse.
Regrease the regreaseable-type bearings. With generators that have
sleeve oil bearings, inspect bearing oil for proper levels and clarity.
Every 8000 hours or 1 year of operation
Check insulation resistance to ground on all generator windings,

Page 23

Warning: Do not service the generator


or other electrical machinery without deenergizing and tagging the circuits as out of
service. Dangerous voltages are present,
which could cause serious or fatal shock.

including the main rotating assembly, the main stator assembly, the
exciter field and armature assemblies, and the optional PMG assembly.
Check the space heaters for proper operation.
Check the rotating rectifier connection tightness.
With generators that have sleeve oil bearings, replace the bearing oil.
Every 20,000 hours or 3 years of operation
With generators that have sleeve oil bearings, perform a sleeve bearing
inspection to include the removal of the upper bearing housing and
bearing liner to inspect the liner, shaft journal, and seal surfaces for wear
or scoring.
Remove the endbrackets, and visually inspect the generator end windings
for oil or dirt contamination. Excessive contamination may necessitate
surface cleaning with compressed air and electrical solvent.
Inspect the fan and fan hub for damage.
Every 30,000 hours or 5 years of operation
(Contact Kato Engineering for assistance)
Disassemble the generator (this includes rotor removal).
Clean the generator windings using either (depending upon the severity
of contamination) 1) compressed air and electrical solvent or 2) degreaser and high pressure hot water wash. Dry the windings to acceptable
resistance levels (see the dry out procedure).
Inspect the rotor shaft bearing journals for wear or scoring.
With generators that have ball or roller bearings, replace the bearings.
With generators that have sleeve bearings, replace the bearing liners and
oil seals.

Page 24

Maintenance procedures
Visual inspection methods of windings
Electric machines and their insulation systems are subjected to
mechanical, electrical, thermal and environmental stresses that give rise
to many deteriorating influences. The most significant of these are the
following:
Thermal aging: This is the normal service temperature deteriorating
influence on insulation.
Over temperature: This is the unusually high temperature of operation
caused by conditions such as overload, high ambient temperature,
restricted ventilation, foreign materials deposited on windings, and
winding faults.
Overvoltage: This is an abnormal voltage higher than the normal service
voltage, such as caused by switching or lightning surges or non-linear
loads. Operating above rated nameplate voltage will reduce insulation
life.
Contamination: This deteriorates electrical insulation by 1) conducting
current over insulated surfaces 2) by attacking the material to reduce
electrical insulation quality or physical strength, or by 3) thermally
insulating the material so the generator operates at higher than normal
temperatures. Such contaminants include water or extreme humidity, oil
or grease including unstable anti-wear and extreme pressure lubricants,
conducting and non-conducting dusts and particles, industrial chemicals
such as acids, solvents, and cleaning solutions.
Physical damage: This contributes to electrical insulation failure by
opening leakage paths through the insulation. Physical damages can be
caused by physical shock, vibration, over-speed, short-circuit forces or
line starting, out-of-phase paralleling, erosion by foreign matter, damage
by foreign objects and thermal cycling.
Ionization effects: Ionization (corona), which may occur at higher
operating voltages, is accompanied by several undesirable effects such as
chemical action, heating, and erosion.
To achieve maximum effectiveness, a direct visual inspection program
initially to those areas that are prone to damage or degradation caused
by the influences listed above. The most suspect areas for deterioration
or damage are 1) ground insulation, which is insulation intended to
isolate the current carrying components from the non-current bearing
components, and 2) support insulation, which includes blocks and slot
wedges and are usually made from compressed laminates of fibrous
materials, polyester, or similar felt pads impregnated with various types
of bonding agents. Check for the following:

Page 25

Deterioration or degradation of insulation from thermal aging:


Examination of coils reveal general puffiness, swelling into ventilation
ducts, or a lack of firmness of the insulation, suggesting a loss of bond
with consequent separation of the insulation layers from themselves or
from the winding conductors or turns.
Abrasion: Abrasion or contamination from other sources, such as
chemicals and abrasive or conducting substances, may damage coil and
connection surfaces.
Cracking: Cracking or abrasion of insulation may result from prolonged
or abnormal mechanical stress. In stator windings, looseness of the
bracing structure is a certain sign of such phenomena and can itself cause
further mechanical or electrical damage if allowed to go unchecked.
Erosion: Foreign substances impinging against coil insulation surfaces
may cause erosion.
Warning: When using cleaning solvents,
ensure adequate ventilation and user
protection.

Cleaning
Exterior: Wipe loose dirt from the exterior with a clean, lint-free cloth.
Remove stubborn accumulations of dirt with a detergent or solvent
that wont damage the paint or metal surfaces. Use a vacuum to clean
ventilating ports.
Windings, assembled machines: Where cleaning is required at the
installation site and complete disassembly of the machine is unnecessary
or not feasible, pick up dry dirt, dust or carbon with a vacuum cleaner to
prevent the redistribution of the contaminant. A small non-conducting
nozzle or tube connected to the vacuum cleaner may be required to reach
dusty surfaces or to enter into narrow openings. After most of the dust
has been removed, a small brush can be affixed to the vacuum nozzle to
loosen and allow removal of dirt that is more firmly attached.
After the initial cleaning with a vacuum, compressed air may be used to
remove the remaining dust and dirt. Compressed air used for cleaning
must be clean and free of moisture or oil. Air pressure or velocity must
be adequately controlled to prevent mechanical damage to the insulation.
Disassembly of the machine and more effective cleaning by a qualified
Kato technician may be required if the above described field service
cleaning procedures do not yield effective results.
Windings, disassembled machines: Take an initial insulation resistance
reading on the machine to check electrical integrity. The high pressure
hot water wash method of cleaning, which sprays a high velocity
jet of hot water and water containing a mild detergent, is normally
effective in cleaning windings, including those subjected to flooding
or salt contamination. Use multiple sprays with clean water to remove
or dilute the detergent following the detergent spray. Dry the machine

Page 26

until acceptable insulation resistance values are obtained at room


temperature. See the insulation resistance procedures below for minimum
recommended values.
Electrical contacts: Clean electrical contacts, switch contacts and
terminals with an approved contact cleaner. Do not file contacts.
Insulation resistance tests at low voltage
Insulation tests are conducted for two reasons: to discern existing
weakness or faults or to give some indication of expected service
reliability.
Insulation resistance tests are based on determining the current through
the insulation and across the surface when a DC voltage is applied. The
leakage current is dependent upon the voltage and time of application,
the area and thickness of the insulation, and the temperature and
humidity conditions during the test.
The insulation resistance test is used to determine the insulation
condition prior to application of more extensive testing measures. Refer
to the following electrical measurement procedures for testing detail.
Contact Kato Engineering.
Exciter field (stator) and PMG armature (stator)
1. Disconnect the exciter leads from the terminals in the terminal box or
the voltage regulator.
2. Connect exciter leads to one clamp of 500-volt megger, and connect
the other clamp to the generator frame.
3. Apply 500 V from the megger, and measure the resistance reading
after 1 minute. The reading must be a minimum of 50 megohm. If it
is not, refer to the cleaning or dry out procedures.
4. Ground the exciter field leads to the generator frame for several
minutes after the megger has been disconnected. This will allow the
voltage build up to be properly discharged.
Exciter armature
1. Disconnect the exciter armature leads from the rotating rectifiers.
2. Connect the leads of the exciter armature to one clamp of a 500-volt
megger, and connect the other clamp to a suitable connection on the
shaft.
3. Apply 500 V from the megger, and measure the resistance reading
after 1 minute. The reading must be a minimum of 50 megohms. If it
is not, refer to the cleaning or dry out procedures.

Page 27

Caution: The insulation resistance tests are


usually made on all or parts of an armature
or field circuit to ground. They primarily
indicate the degree of contamination of the
insulating surfaces or solid insulation by
moisture and other conducting influences
and will not usually reveal complete or
uncontaminated ruptures.
Note: The insulation resistance value
increases with decreasing winding
temperatures. All readings must be
corrected to winding temperatures. Use
Table 1 for converting megger readings to
other temperatures (e.g., 100 megohms at
50 C is converted to 170 megohms: 1.7 x
100).
Winding
Temp
(C)

Conversion
factor

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120

0.23
0.37
0.6
1
1.7
2.7
4.5
7.5
14
23
38
61

Table 1: Temperature conversion


factor for resistance readings
Warning: Never apply the megger to the
rotating rectifier, the voltage regulator, or
generator accessories (e.g., temperature
detectors, space heaters).
Note: New generators should measure
about 100 megohms of insulation resistance when meggered. Generators that
read 50 megohms or less should be dried
out according to the dry out procedures
here. Generators with insulation resistance
readings of 10 megohms or less must be
cleaned and then dried out.

4. Ground the exciter leads to the shaft after disconnecting the megger.
This will allow the voltage build up to be properly discharged.
Main rotor
1. Disconnect the generator field leads from the positive and negative
terminals of the rotating rectifier assembly.
2. Connect the positive and negative leads to one clamp of the 500-volt
megger, and connect the other clamp to the shaft.
3. Apply 500 V from the megger, and measure the resistance reading
after 1 minute. The reading must be a minimum of 50 megohms. If it
is not, refer to the cleaning or dry out procedures.
4. Ground the field leads to the shaft after disconnecting the megger.
This will allow the voltage build up to be properly discharged.
Main stator
1. Disconnect power connections and all control apparatus from the
generator terminals.
2. Measure insulation resistance of each phase separately with the two
other phases shorted to the frame.
3. Use a 500-volt megger connected between the lead(s) of the phase to
be measured and generator frame. The minimum 1-minute insulation
resistance must not be less than 50 megohms.
4. Ground the leads to the frame after the 1-minute megger test. This
will allow the voltage build up to be properly discharged.
Caution: Do not apply heat too rapidly. It
could damage the windings.

Dry out procedures


If the insulation resistance readings are below the recommended minimum values specified previously, use one of the dry out procedures
described below. Select the procedure based on the size and location
of the unit, available equipment, and experience of personnel. Before
drying, remove the voltage regulator, and cover all inlet and discharge
openings. Provide an opening at the top of the machine, preferably at the
fan end, for moisture to evaporate.
Drying with external heat: Place heat lamps, space heaters (in addition
to the ones already supplied) or a steam pipe near the windings. Monitor
winding temperatures. Raise winding temperature gradually at a rate
of 50 F (28 C) per hour up to 200 F (93 C). Measure insulation
resistance at 1-hour intervals. Typically the insulation resistance will
slowly drop while the temperature is coming up, and then gradually
increase and level out.

Page 28

Drying with AC current in the armature: Short circuit the generator


terminals. Provide DC excitation to the brushless exciter field winding.
Insert a current transformer and an ammeter to read full load current.
Run the generator at rated speed. Apply excitation to the exciter field
until rated current is developed. Monitor winding temperatures until they
stabilize. Continue running until insulation resistance values level off.
Monitor winding temperatures. Raise winding temperature gradually at
a rate of 50 F (28 C) per hour up to 200 F (93 C). Measure insulation
resistance at 1-hour intervals. Typically, the insulation resistance will
slowly drop while the temperature is coming up and then gradually
increase and level out.
Bearing lubrication
Sleeve bearings: Lubricate the bearings in accordance with the
lubricating instructions attached to the generator and the bearing
lubrication instructions, which are provided in the manual package as
supplementary material.
Roller bearings: In applications where regreaseable bearings are used,
grease fill fittings and relief valves are incorporated into the bearing
housing. Lubricate the bearings in accordance with the lubricating
instructions attached to the generator.
Rectifier tests
If a failure of a rectifier is suspected, remove the exciter cover. Remove
the nut and washer holding the rectifier in the heat sink, and remove the
diode lead wire. Lift the rectifier from the heat sink (see figure 20 for
an overview). Test the entire rectifier with an ohmmeter or test lamp as
follows:
Negative
Positive

Positive

Figure 20: Rectifier

Ohmmeter: Connect the ohmmeter leads across the rectifier in one


direction (see Figure 21). Note the meter reading. Reverse the leads, and
note the meter reading. The meter should indicate a low resistance when
the leads are across the rectifier in one direction and a high resistance
when the leads are across the rectifier in the opposite direction. A low
resistance in both directions indicates a short. A high resistance in
bothdirections indicates an open rectifier.
Test lamp: Connect the leads of a test lamp, consisting of standard
flashlight batteries and a flashlight and built, as shown in Figure 22,
across the rectifier in one direction. Then reverse the leads. The light
Page 29

should light in one direction but not the other. If the light lights in both
directions, the rectifier is shorted. If the light does not light in either
direction, the rectifier is open.
Replace defective rectifiers with rectifiers of the same operating
characteristics as rectifiers installed in the generator at the factory.
Order rectifiers by part number, including the model and type of exciter

Cathode

Ohmmeter

Anode
Reverse

Standard

as well as the diode


generator serialdiode
number.
Figure 21: Testing the rotating rectifier with an
ohmmeter

Caution: Do not pound on the rectifier or


armature windings.

Surge protectors may be included on the rotating rectifier assembly.


Disconnect one lead of the surge protector, and connect the leads of
an ohm meter or makeshift test lamp, consisting of standard flashlight
batteries and a flashlight and built as shown in Figure 21, across the surge
protector in either direction.. If the light comes on, the surge protector
is defective. Order surge protectors by part number, including the model
and type of exciter as well as the generator serial number. Following
replacement, make sure that the revolving field, exciter armature, and
rotating diode leads are properly secured.

Figure 22: Test lamp

Page 30

Assembly and disasembly of generator

Note: The following procedures are meant


to be a general guide. Procedures for your
unit may vary.

Diasassembly
Remove outlet box covers and disconnect generator load leads. Tag
leads and terminals to make certain leads are correctly connected when
unit is reassembled. Disconnect the other electrical connections (current
transformers, potential transformers, RTDs, AVR and governor power
supply inputs and outputs, space heaters).
Shut down the oil supply system, and disconnect it from the generator. (if
applicable).

Warning: Ensure the generator has stopped


and is de-energized before disassembly.
Warning: Use a hoist and slings or chains
to support components during removal. Use
lifting devices that are selected for generator
component weights. Be extremely careful
not to damage components.

Remove bolts from coupling to separate the coupling halves.


Remove bolts securing generator base pads to engine-generator base or
foundation.
If required, move generator to location affording sufficient room for disassembly. Attach slings or chains to lifting eye bolts to move generator.
See section Installation for handling precautions.
Remove exciter cover. Disconnect alternator field leads, remove exciter
armature and PMG retaining bolts. Remove the PMG rotor. The rotor
should be removed by grasping the inside magnets and then pulling
quickly and sharply straight back, overcoming the magnetic pull of the
PMG rotor toward the PMG armature. Wrap PMG rotor in plastic to
avoid contamination with metal filings.
Remove clips securing exciter field leads to exciter frame, generator
frame and generator endbell.

Caution: Ensure the generator field wires


are flat in the wireway so they dont tear
during pulling. Do not pull on the edges of
the heat sinks or on the exciter armature
windings.

Warning: Pull the exciter-PMG frame-stator


straight out. The assembly may pull toward
the PMG.

Disconnect the leads from snubber where they terminate at the rectifier.
Remove the exciter armature retaining bolts (on the end of the shaft), and
remove the rotor washer. Then remove the snubber assembly.
Remove the exciter armature and rectifier as a unit in the following
manner:
a.

Disconnect the generator field (rotor) leads from the positive


(+) and negative (-) exciter armature lead terminals located on
the rotating rectifier assembly.

b.

Using a hoist and strap, slide out and remove the exciter
armature and rectifier assembly, which is keyed onto the shaft.

Remove the exciter-PMG frame-stator.


a.

Connect a hoist to the lifting eyes.

Page 31

Caution: Do not pull on the edges of the


rectifier or on the exciter armature windings.

b.

Unbolt the exciter support brackets where they attach to the


exciter-PMG frame-stator. (If applicable).

Remove the exciter-PMG frame-stator mounting bolts, and remove the


exciter-PMG frame-stator.
.
a.
On the lockwasher, pry up the tab that is bent down in a notch
of the locknut. Then unscrew the nut with a spanner wrench, and
remove the lockwasher.
b.

Pull the PMG straight back. Take care not to cock the PMG
when pulling it off.

c.

Wrap the PMG rotor in plastic to avoid contamination with


metal filings.

Remove the opposite-drive end bracket.


Caution: Make sure that the work place is
clean. Contamination and damage to the
bearing, especially of the running surfaces,
reduce operating quality and could lead to
premature damage or failure.

Note: The outside seal carrier on the drive


end bearing does not have split line bolts.

Dismantle the bearings.


a.

Twist the knob on the spring-loaded holders, and pull the


RTDs out of the bearing hangers.

b.

Disconnect the grounding brush, and dismantle the grounding


brush bracket assembly from the inside of the drive end bearing.

c.

Dismantle all air tubes and oil supply lines.

d.

Remove the bracket over the bearing on the opposite-driveend side.

Dismantle the outboard seal carrier and inboard seal carrier.

f.

Loosen the bolts that connect the carriers to the housing, and
remove them.

g.

Loosen and remove the split line bolts.

h.

Remove simultaneously, in the axial direction, both the top


and bottom halves of the seal carriers.

i.

Remove the garter springs and the gap seal and labyrinth seal.

j.

Remove the gasket.

Dismantle the top half of the bearing housings.


a.

Remove the split-line bolts.

Page 32

If necessary, tap the bearing housing lightly with a rubber or fiber mallet
to loosen it. On the opposite-drive-end side, lift the top part of the
bearing housing until it can be moved in an axial line over the bearing
liner without touching it, and then move it out. On the DE side lift the
housing out and over the top of the generator.
On the opposite-drive-end side, unscrew the split line screws in the
bearing liners. Screw in two lifting eyes in the top, and lift the top half
off the bearing liners.
On the opposite-drive-end side, remove the bottom halves of the bearing
liners.
Lift the shaft up slightly (about 0.005 inch) on both ends of the rotor
to the point where the shaft and bottom half of the bearing liner do not
touch each other.

Caution: Be careful to not damage running


surfaces.

Warning: Before transport or lifting bearing


components, check if the eye bolts are tight.
Insecure eyebolts could result in the part
coming loose and falling Make sure the
eyebolts are not exposed to bending stress,
otherwise they could break. Make sure the
lifting equipment does not contact the seal
and running surfaces of the shaft.

Rotate the bottom half of the liner 180 so it is facing upward (where the
top half of the liner was). Move the shaft as necessary.
Slide the liner forward so it rests on the bottom bearing housings top
surface.

Note: On the DE side, you can remove


the bearing liners after the rotor has been
removed.

Use lifting eyes and hoist to remove the liner. Lower the shaft.
Remove the bottom half of the bearing housings from the frame.
Remove the fan blade clamps and blades on the drive end
Remove the opposite-drive end baffle.

Caution: Make sure the RTD is removed


before rotating the bearing liner.

Float out the rotor.


Fit a pipe over the shaft. Depending upon the space available, you may
have to use a pipe that can be assembled, adding an additional piece
during each stage of movement outward. See Figure 23.
a.

Attach slings around the pipe on one end and around the shaft
on the opposite end.

b.

Lift up the rotor, and move it out, gently resting the rotor on
the stator as the slings are moved down the pipe for the next
lifting stage.

Remove the drive-end side bearing liners from the shaft.

Page 33

Caution: Make sure the pipe is strong


enough to support the weight of the rotor
and that it does not have rough edges on
the inside, which could damage the shaft.
To prevent tension on the shaft, put slings
around the largest shaft step possible. Make
sure the rotor does not hit the stator.

Caution: Make sure all components are


clean before assembly. Make sure all
gaskets have not deteriorated and are
positioned correctly.

Assembling the generator:


Use standard torque specifications per Table 5 unless otherwise specified.
Install the bearing liners on the drive-end side of the shaft.

Caution: Make sure the pipe is strong


enough to support the weight of the rotor
and that it does not have rough edges on
the inside, which could damage the shaft.
To prevent tension on the shaft, put slings
around the largest shaft step possible. Make
sure the rotor does not hit the stator.

a.

Make sure the surfaces are clean. Apply STP Oil Treatment
over the running surface on the shaft where the liner will sit.

b.

Make sure the engraved numbers on the top and bottom halves
correspond and are on the same side. Mate the top liner over the
bottom liner on the shaft.

c.

Put Loctite 242 on the split line screws, insert the screws, and
tighten.

Float in the rotor.


a.

Move the rotor up and in line with the stator. Fit a pipe over
the drive end of the rotor. Depending upon the space available,
you may have to use a pipe that can be disassembled,
taking off an additional piece during each stage of movement
inward.

b.

Attach slings around the pipe on one end and around the shaft
on the opposite end.

c.

Lift up the rotor, and move it in, gently resting the rotor on the
stator as the slings are moved down the pipe

Put a bead of premium siliconized acrylic latex caulk (or equivalent)


over the opposite-drive-end baffle mating surface, and install the baffle

Figure 23: Floating the rotor

Page 34

Caution: Make sure all components are


clean before assembly.

Assemble the bearings as follows:


Carry out these operations very carefully as to not damage the shaft or
bearing components.

Note:: Torque fasteners to the values specified in Table 5 unless otherwise specified.

Install the liner insulators on the inside diameter of the top and bottom
bearing housing of both bearings. Each housing gets two insulators.
a.

Fit up the insulators in the liner seat, and crease the outside
edge over the lip.

b.

Trim the top of the insulators flush with the mating surface (of
the top and bottom halves of the housing).

c.

Make sure the insulator surface is clean. Mix Metallon twopart epoxy in equal parts, and brush it over the track.

d.

Peel the backing off, and put the insulators in place. Press
them tightly on the track, and place the liners (or fixtures) in the
housings to maintain good compression. Let the epoxy set for 12
hours. Make sure it has no voids or air bubbles.

Install the bottom bearing housings. Before installing, brush Nox rust on
frame mating surfaces that will fit into bearing housing.
a.

On the opposite-drive-end side, lift up the ends of the shaft


slightly, so the bearing housing clears the shaft, and
bolt it in place on the frame.

b.

On the drive end side, lift the housing up and bolt it into place
on the frame.

Install the bottom half of the bearing liners on the opposite-drive-end


side.
a.

Lift the shaft up slightly (about 0.005 inch) on both ends of the
rotor to the point where shaft and bottom half of the liner do not
touch each other.

b.

Make sure the surfaces are clean. Apply STP Oil Treatment
over the running surface on shaft where the liner will sit.

c.

Set the liner on the shaft so it rests on the housing. Use


eyebolts for lifting. The ID numbers on the lining face outward.

d.

Remove the lifting eyes from the liner. Move the rotor gently
from side to side and up and down as necessary, and slide the

Page 35

Caution: Remove all impurities or other


objects such as screws, nuts, etc., from
the bearing components. If left inside,
they could lead to bearing damage. To
prevent contamination, cover the bearing
components when they are not being
worked on.

Note: If no fixture is available to compress


the insulators, use the top liner for both
halves of the bearing. Make sure all tubes
and fasteners are in the liner to ensure a
smooth surface.

e.

liner down into the housing. If the liner doesnt turn easily, check
the position of the shaft and the alignment of the housing.
Lower the shaft onto the liner.
Install the top half of the bearing liner on the drive end side.

a.

Apply STP Oil Treatment on the running surface of the shaft


where the top half of the liner will sit.

b.

After making sure the engraved numbers on the top and


bottom halves correspond and are on the same side, place the top
liner over the bottom liner.

c.

Put Loctite 242 on the split line screws, insert the screws, and
tighten.

Install the top bearing housings.


a.

Apply STP Oil Treatment on the top of the bearing liner.

b.

Spread Loctite 587 Blue on the bottom housing where it will


mate with the top housing.

c.

Put the top housing in place, making sure the dowel pin in
the inside diameter of the top housing lines up with the pin hole
in the bearing liner. Put Loctite 242 on the split lines screws,
and fasten the housings together, leaving the screws snug but not
tight.

Torque the split line screws to 1100 ft-lbs.


Install the seal carrier assemblies.
a.

Cut the gasket, if necessary to fit it over the shaft. Coat it with
Loctite Hi-Tack gasket sealant or equivalent, and fit it over the
shaft.

b.

Attach the gap seal and labrinyth seal with tha labrinyth seal
nearest the bearings. Put the two halves of the seals together,
and slip the garter springs around the seals to fasten them. (The
outside seal carrier on the drive end only gets a labrinyth).

c.

Put Curil-T on the inside diameter of the seal carriers where


they will contact the seals, (one bead in the narrow (inside)
groove and one bead in each of the three wider (outside)
grooves. Also put Curil-T on the surface of the labyrinth seal on
both sides of the spring.

d.

Use Loctite 587 Blue to caulk the mating surface of the


bottom seal carrier (where it mates with the top half). Put gasket

Page 36

sealant on the flange surface of the seal carrier where it will mate
with the bearing hanger. Also, put gasket sealant on the mating
surface of the bearing hanger.
e.

Set the top half of the seal carrier over the seals. Make sure the
notch in the top of the seal lines up with the opening in the seal
carrier. Attach the bottom half of the seal. Put Loctite 242 on the
threads of the two split line screws. Add a flat washer, insert, and
tighten.

f.

Slide the seal carrier assembly up against the gasket and


bearing hanger. Bolt (with flat and lock washer) the seal carriers
to the bearing hanger, and tighten.

Install the air tube and oil supply lines.


Install the RTDs in the spring-loaded holders.
Before operating the generator, start the oil flow to the bearings, and
follow the startup procedure to ensure the bearing is functioning properly
and so that damage to the bearing doesnt occur.
Brush Nox rust on frame mating surface that will fit into the oppositedrive end bracket (which fits over the top of the top bearing housing),
and attach the opposite-drive end bracket and tighten.
Install the PMG rotor.
a.

Paint the shaft journal that the PMG rotor butts against with
Nox rust. Put a coat of standard grease on journal that the P rotor

Exciter armature Minimum air


diameter (in.)
gap (in.)
5 3/4
9 7/8
12 1/2
16 1/4

0.014
0.014
0.018
0.035

Table 2: Exciter air gap

b.

Put the lock washer over the shaft. Put on the locknut on, and
tighten it with a spanner wrench until it doesnt move anymore.
Bend one tab of the locknut over to lock the locknut into place .

Attach the exciter-PMG frame-stator.


a.

Apply Nox rust to the machined surface on the bearing hanger


where the exciter-PMG frame-stator will mount.

b.

Attach the exciter-PMG frame-stator to the bearing hanger


mounting surface and exiter brackets.

Check the air gap between the PMG rotor and PMG stator.
a.
b.

Measure completely around the gap between the PMG rotor


and PMG stator with a feeler gauge.
Keep the gage at the tightest point, and turn the generator over
to measure the air gap as the rotor turns.

Page 37

Note: To measure air gap, measure completely around the gap between the exciter
armature and exciter field with a feeler
gauge. Keep the gauge at the tightest point,
and turn the generator over to measure the
air gap as the rotor turns.
Caution: Do not pry on the fan.

Attach the exciter armature assembly.


a.
Brush Nox rust on the lock nut and the exposed PMG shaft
journal.
b.

Put the armature key in the slot on the shaft.

c.

Position the exciter armature-rotating rectifier assembly in line


with the shaft, and turn the assembly to the position where the
keyway in the exciter sleeve is in line with the key in the
generator shaft.

d.

With hand force, push the armature assembly over the shaft,
so the end of the sleeve is against the shoulder on the shaft. It
may be necessary to tap lightly on the exciter sleeve in
order to move the assembly over the key. Use a fiber or
rubber mallet. If installation is still a problem, use a heat
gun to expand the exciter sleeve.

Caution: Do not pound on the rectifier.

Check the air gap between the exciter armature and exciter stator.
a.

Measure completely around the gap between the exciter


armature and exciter stator with a feeler gauge.

b.

Keep the gage at the tightest point, and turn the generator over
to measure the air gap as the rotor turns. Minimum air gap is
0.035 inch.

Connect the field leads to the rotating rectifier.


Put the snubber assembly on the end of the armature. Install the washer
and bolt it to the armature sleeve. Then install the speed pickup gear.
Line up the bolt holes and with the washer and snubber assembly, and
bolt in place. Connect the snubber leads to the terminals of the rectifier.
Attach the exciter cover.
Install the fan blades and fan blade clamps on the drive end.
Connect the air temperature RTDs.
Mount the generator to the prime mover, and make the electrical
connections as described earlier..
Connect the oil supply lines.

Page 38

Troubleshooting Guide
(corrective maintenance)

Warning: Problems left uncorrected can


result in injury or serious damage, which can
result in costly repairs and downtime.

Between regular preventive maintenance inspections, be alert for


any signs of trouble. Correct any trouble immediately. See Table
3 for symptoms, causes and remedies.

Symptom

Cause

Remedy

No Voltage

Open voltage regulator, circuit breaker or


fuses

Check. Reset the circuit breaker or replace


fuses if open.

Overvoltage, undervoltage, or overload


devices tripped (when protective devices
are incorporated into the circuit)

Check for the cause of the abnormal condition.


Correct any deficiencies. Reset devices.
Check the generator nameplate for nominal
operating values.

Open circuit in exciter field

Check continuity of shunt field and leads


to voltage control. (Use ohmmeter or
Wheatstone bridge) If open in field coils,
remove exciter field assembly and return
assembly to factory for repair.

Loss of residual magnetism in exciter


field poles

Restore residual magnetism or flash field. When


the voltage regulator is a model that requires
flashing, install an automatic field flashing
system.

Open circuit in stator windings

Check for continuity in the windings. Return the


generator to the factory for repair if open.

Malfunction of automatic voltage


regulator

See troubleshooting of voltage regulator.


Correct deficiencies.

Short-circuited generator output leads

Clear lead to restore voltage buildup.

Open in rotating rectifiers

Check rotating rectifiers, and replace if


open.

Open in generator field

Check for continuity and return rotor to


factory for repair if field coils are open.

Shorted or grounded surge protector

Check for shorts or grounds. Replace .

Shorted or grounded rotating rectifier

Check for shorts grounds. Replace or repair.

Shorted or grounded exciter armature

Check for shorts or grounds. Replace or repair.

Shorted leads between the exciter armature


and generator field

Test and repair.

Incorrect stator connections

Check the connections, and reconnect

Low voltage

Table 3: Troubleshooting

Page 39

Symptom

Cause

Remedy

Low voltage
(cont.)

Improper adjustment of voltage adjust


rheostat

Adjust rheostat.

Excessive load

Reduce load. With three-wire, single-phase and


four-wire, three-phase generators, the load on
each leg must be as evenly balanced as possible
and must not exceed the rated current on any leg.

Line loss

Increase the size of the line wire.

High resistance connections (hot)

Make better connections.

Shorted main or exciter field

Test the field coils for possible short by


checking resistance with an ohmmeter or
resistance bridge. Return the rotor assembly
to the factory for repair if field coils are shorted.

Low power factor

Reduce inductive (motor) load. Some AC


motors draw approximately the same
current regardless of load. Do not use
motors of larger horsepower rating than
is necessary to carry the mechanical
load.

Weak field due to operating in a warm


temperature

Improve the ventilation of the generator.


Field current can be increased providing
the generator temperature rating
stamped on the nameplate is not
exceeded.

Defective rectifiers in rectifier assembly


(stationary)

Check rectifier assembly. Replace


defective fuses or rectifiers.

Excessive load

Reduce load to rated value.

Bearing overheating

Inspect the bearing.

Improper speed of engine driven


generator set due to defective governor,
ignition system, or carburetor

Check and correct deficiencies.

Voltage regulator not operating properly

Check the regulator. Adjust, repair or replace.

Prime mover speed fluctuating

Check frequency and voltage of incoming


power when the generator set is motor
driven. Check engine governor on
engine-driven generator sets.

Loose internal or load connections

Tighten all connections.

Generator overloaded

Reduce load to rated value.

DC excitation voltage fluctuating

Trace DC excitation circuit. Correct any


defects.

Overspeed

Correct speed of prime mover.

Voltage regulator not operating properly

Check the regulator. Adjust, repair or replace.

Improper adjustment of voltage adjust


rheostat or voltage regulator

Adjust rheostat and/or voltage regulator.

Voltage regulator not operating properly

Check the regulator. Adjust, repair or replace.

Fluctuating
voltage

High voltage

Page 40

Symptom

Cause

Remedy

Overheating

Clogged ventilating screens and air


passages

Clean all screens and air passages.

Dry or defective bearings

Inspect bearings.

Coupling misaligned

Align the generator set.

Generator field coils shorted or


grounded

Test field coils for shorts. Replace


shorted rotor or return it to the factory for
repair.

Unbalanced load or overload, low PF

Adjust load to nameplate rating.

Defective or dry bearings

Inspect bearings.

Misalignment of generator and prime


mover

Align the generator set.

Generator not properly mounted

Check mounting. Correct defective


mounting.

Transfer of vibration from another


source

Isolate the generator set from the source of


vibration.

Vibrations

Page 41

Caution: The insulation resistance tests are


usually made on all or parts of an armature
or field circuit to ground. They primarily
indicate the degree of contamination of the
insulating surfaces or solid insulation by
moisture and other conducting influences
and will not usually reveal complete or
uncontaminated ruptures.
Note: The insulation resistance value
increases with decreasing winding
temperatures. All readings must be
corrected to winding temperatures. Use
Table 4 for converting megger readings to
other temperatures (e.g., 100 megohms at
50 C is converted to 170 megohms: 1.7 x
100).
Winding
Temp
(C)

Conversion
factor

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120

0.23
0.37
0.6
1
1.7
2.7
4.5
7.5
14
23
38
61

Storage of Kato Generators


If the generator is not installed in its operating location as soon as
received, store it in a clean, dry area, not subject to vibrations or
sudden temperature or humidity changes.
Make sure the storage area temperature is between 10 F (-12o C.)
and 120 F (49o C.) and the relative humidity is less than 60%.
If possible, storage should be in an ambient temperature of
approximately normal room temperature.
Protect the shaft from corrosion by applying an anti-corrosion
agent. Cover the unit with a durable cover.
Prepare units that cannot be stored in a temperature and humidity
controlled area as follows:

Install desiccant bags in the exciter cover and inside the


end bells.
Vacuum seal the unit in a covering of plastic or other
material designed for that purpose.
Adequately tag the generator to ensure that preservative
greases and desiccant bags are removed before the unit is
placed in operation.
If space heaters are supplied, energize them to keep
condensation from the windings.

Table 4: Temperature conversion


factor for resistance readings
Warning: Never apply the megger to the
rotating rectifier, the voltage regulator, or
generator accessories (e.g., temperature
detectors, space heaters).
Note: New generators should measure
about 100 megohms of insulation resistance when meggered. Generators that
read 50 megohms or less should be dried
out according to the dry out procedures
here. Generators with insulation resistance
readings of 10 megohms or less must be
cleaned and then dried out.

For storage longer than 2 months, rotate the shaft a minimum of 10


revolutions every 60 days. Note: Units with automatic lubrication
system should activate lube system before turning the shaft. Units
with a manual prelube pump; actuate before rotating the shaft.
Units with no prelube, remove access glass or top vent and pour
oil into bearing before rotating the shaft.
When the unit is taken out of storage, check the insulation
resistance on all windings. Clean the shaft of anti-corrosion agent.

Page 42

List of Equipment Required for Installation and


Maintenance:
Test equipment
Ammeter
Multimeter
Thermometer
Megger
Resistive Bridge

Notes
Clamp-on, 0 to 500 amp range for measuring of electrical current.
Digital, for measuring voltage, current, frequency and resistance.
For measuring temperature in Celsius
To measure insulation resistance.
To measure resistance of windings.

Special tools
Bearing puller
Exciter puller

For changing bearing.


For pulling exciter armature

Standard tools
Cable tool
Flashlight
Grease gun
Hammer
Lamp (incandescent)
Screwdrivers
Screwdrivers
Wrench
Wrench
Wrench set
Wrench set
Wrench set
Vacuum

Crimping
As required
For lubricating bearings
Soft-faced
Safety light
Standard, sized as required
Phillips, sized as required
Adjustable, 12-inch
Torque 0 to 100 ft-lb
Allen, 1/8 to 1/2 inch
Socket, 1/4 to 1 inch with 3/8 and 1/2 inch drive
Standard, open-end/box-end combination sized 1/4 to 1 inch
Electric with nonmetallic nozzle

Materials
Air
Corrosion inhibitor
Covering material
Detergent
Gloves
Gloves
Heaters
Plastic
Rags
Water
Tags

Compressed, dry.
Nox-Rust VC #10 Oil or equivalent
Waterproof desiccant bags for protection from
moisture during long-term equipment storage
As required for cleaning
Chemical-protective
Electrical-protective
Space Heater, for eliminating excess moisture in damp areas and dry
out of motor or generator windings
Protection for long-term storage
As required for cleaning
Warm and clean, for cleaning
Warning and cautions

Page 43

Grade 2
Size

Grade 2

Grade 8

Grade 5

ASTM & SAE grade markings

Class 10.9
Class 8.8
Metric grade markings
1-NM = 0.737 ft-lbs. = 8.85 in-lbs.

in-lbs.

ft-lbs

Min.

Max.

4-40

3.3

6-32

Min.

Max.

4.7

0.4

0.5

6.1

8.7

0.7

1.0

8-32

12.5

17.8

1.0

1.5

1.4

2.0

Size

10-32

20.8

29.7

1.7

2.5

2.3

3.4

50.4

72.0

4.2

6.0

5.7

8.1

5/16-18

92.4

132.0

7.7

11.0

10.4

14.9

3/8-16

159.6 228.0

13.3

19.0

18.0

25.8

7/16-14 252.0 360.0

21.3

30.0

28.5

40.7

1/2-13

31.5

45.0

42.7

61.0

9/16-12

378.0 540.0

46.2

66.0

62.6

89.5

5/8-11

65.1

93.0

88.3

126.1

3/4-10

105.0 150.0 142.4 203.4

7/8-9

141.4 202.0 191.7 273.9

Grade 8

ft-lbs

N-M

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

1/4-20

60

84

6.8

9.5

5/16-18

120

192

10

16

13.5

3/8-16

228

336

19

28

7/16-14

360

528

30

1/2-13

540

804

45

9/16-12

792

1152

5/8-11

1104

3/4-10

Size

in-lbs.

ft-lbs

Min.

Max.

10-32

36

49

21.7

1/4-20

72

144

25.8

38

5/16-18

156

276

44

40.7

59.7

3/8-16

324

67

61

90.8

7/16-14

480

66

96

89.5

130.2

1/2-13

1608

92

134

124.7 181.7

2052

2724

171

227

231.8 307.8

7/8-9

3372

4368

281

364

381

1-8

5160

6432

430

536

583

in-lbs.

Min.

N-M
Min.

Max.

4.1

5.5

12

8.1

16.3

13

23

17.6

31.2

444

27

37

36.6

50.2

720

40

60

54.2

81.3

780

1020

65

85

88.1

115.2

9/16-12

1140

1500

95

125

128.3 169.5

5/8-11

1560

2040

130

170

176.8 230.5

493.5

3/4-10

2760

3600

230

300

311.8

726.7

7/8-9

4320

5760

660

480

488.1 650.8

1-8

6720

8640

560

720

759.3 976.2

Class 8.8
Size

Max.

1/4-20

Grade 5
in-lbs.

Min.

N-M

Max.

406.7

Class 10.9

ft-lbs

N-M

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

M4

20

32

1.7

2.7

2.3

3.6

M5

40

64

3.3

5.4

4.5

7.3

M6

65

113

5.4

9.4

7.3

M8

168

264

14

22

M10

324

516

27

M12

612

900

51

M14

960

1428

Size

in-lbs.

ft-lbs

N-M

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

M4

22

36

1.8

2.5

4.1

M5

46

74

3.8

6.2

5.2

8.4

12.8

M6

77

122

6.4

10.2

8.7

13.8

20

30

M8

192

288

16

24

22

32

43

38

58

M10

384

576

32

48

43

66

75

69

101

M12

672

996

56

83

77

112

1080

1554

80

119

109

161

M14

90

132

122

179

M16

126

184

170

250

M16

140

206

190

279

M18

183

243

248

330

M18

205

271

277

368

M20

263

341

357

463

M20

294

381

398

517

M22

367

457

497

619

M22

409

510

554

691

M24

465

580

631

787

Table 5: Recommended lubricated torque values. (If no lubricant is used, increase values by 25%.)
Page 44

Instruction Manual
Publication 351-01002-00A, 09/23/05

Installation Operation Maintenance

KCR 760 Voltage Regulator

Kato Engineering Inc.


P.O. Box 8447
Mankato, MN USA
56002-8447
Tel: 507-625-4011
Fax: 507-345-2798
Email: katoengineering@lsusa.com
www.kato-eng.com
Page 1

Table of Contents
Note: Because of rapid changes in designs
and processes and the variability of Kato
Engineerings products, information in this
manual must not be regarded as binding
and is subject to change without notice.

Introduction...................................................................... 4
Foreword............................................................................................... 4
Safety instructions................................................................................. 4
Ratings/description............................................................................... 4

Features, options and specifications...........................4


Overview................................................................................................4
Standard features and options.............................................................. 5
Specifications........................................................................................ 7

Operating principles.......................................................10
Installation...................................................................... 16
Mounting..............................................................................................16
Interconnection....................................................................................16
Single phase 100 to 600 Vac sensing................................................. 16
Three-phase 100 to 600 Vac sensing..................................................16
Input power..........................................................................................20
Output power....................................................................................... 20
Grounding........................................................................................... 20
External voltage adjust rheostat.......................................................... 20
Connection to reactive voltage droop................................................. 21
UFL circuit 50/60 and 400 Hz selector J1........................................... 25
Voltage regulator fuse......................................................................... 25
Accessory items................................................................................. 25

Operation........................................................................ 30
Adjustments........................................................................................ 30
Field flashing....................................................................................... 30
Single unit initial operation.................................................................. 32
Parallel operation................................................................................ 34

Maintenance....................................................................37
Preventive maintenance......................................................................37
Corrective maintenance...................................................................... 37
Operational test...................................................................... 38
Troubleshooting...................................................................................38

Page 2

Figures and Tables


Figure 1: Standard UFL operational threshold for 50/60 Hz system.............9
Figure 2: Effect of timed gating signal on SCR phase angle...................... 13
Figure 3: Outline drawing............................................................................17
Figure 4: Single phase sensing schematic................................................. 18
Figure 5: Three-phase sensing schematic..................................................19
Figure 6: Interconnection............................................................................22
Figure 7: Parallel operation, reactive voltage droop mode......................... 23
Figure 8: Parallel operation, cross-current compensation mode................ 24
Figure 9: Circuit board schematic (with UFL or volts-per-Hz).................... 26
Figure 10: Circuit board schematic (with flat regulation option)................. 27
Figure 11: UFL electrical schematic........................................................... 28
Figure 12: Operational test........................................................................ 39
Table 1: Voltage across under frequency limit terminals TP1-TP2, 60 Hz..31
Table 2: Voltage across under frequency limit terminals TP1-TP2, 50 Hz..31
Table 3: Replacement parts list.................................................................. 37
Table 4: Troubleshooting............................................................................ 40

Page 3

Introduction
Foreword
This manual contains instructions for installing, operating and
maintaining Kato Engineering KCR 760 voltage regulators.
Please read this manual in its entirety before installing, operating, and
servicing your regulator.

Safety instructions
In order to prevent injury or equipment damage, everyone involved
in installation, operating and maintenance of the equipment described
in this manual must be qualified and informed of the current safety
standards that govern his or her work.
While common-sense prevention of injury or equipment damage
cannot be completely defined by any manual (nor built into any piece
of equipment), the following paragraphs define warnings, cautions, and
notes as they are used in this manual:
Warning: Warnings identify an installation, operating or maintenance
procedure, practice, condition, or statement that, if not strictly followed,
could result in death or serious injury to personnel.
Caution: Cautions identify an installation, operating or maintenance
procedure, practice, condition, or statement that, if not strictly followed,
could result in destruction of or damage to equipment or serious
impairment of system operation.
Note: Notes highlight an installation, operating or maintenance
procedure, condition, or statement and are essential or helpful but are not
of known hazardous nature as indicated by warnings and cautions.

Features options and specifications


Overview
The KCR 760 voltage regulator is designed for operation with brushless
synchronous generators. The voltage regulator controls generator voltage
by regulating the amount of current it supplies the exciter field.
The KCR 760 voltage regulator consists of transformers, transistors,
silicon diodes, silicon controlled rectifiers (SCRs), integrated circuits,
resistors, and capacitors. The regulators is relatively unaffected by
humidity, temperature, vibration, or shock and is not subject to wear from
moving parts. Solid-state field flashing components rather than relays
are used in the field flashing and underfrequency circuits, eliminating the
possibility of contact arcing or contact failure.

Page 4

Standard features and options


Features provided in standard KCR 760 voltage regulators, options
available in this series, and various accessories that can be supplied
with the generator set voltage regulating system are described in the
paragraphs that follow. Where options are specified in the purchase order,
the required circuitry changes are made within the regulator at the factory
while accessories are parts that mount external to the regulator.
Standard sensing: The basic KCR 760 regulator uses single phase 50/60
Hz sensing. The sensing transformer has a multi-tap primary permitting
operation at sensing voltages of 100 to 600 Vac. The standard regulator
includes an underfrequency limit circuit that decreases voltage in
proportion to the decrease in frequency when speed drops below the UFL
operational threshold. The UFL in standard 50/60 Hz sensing regulators
is adjusted with an operational threshold of 48 Hz for a 50 Hz application
and 58 Hz for a 60 Hz application.
Optional sensing: When specified in the purchase order the regulator
can be supplied with the following variations in sensing circuitry:
-

Three phase 50/60 Hz, 100 to 600 Vac sensing.

UFL set 49.5/59.5 Hz for use with turbocharged engines.

Volts-per-hertz circuitry in place of UFL for applications where


voltage must be proportional to frequency over a speed range from
rated rpm down to approximately 1/2 rated speed.

400 Hz, single or three-phase, 100 to 600 Vac with 385 Hz UFL
operational threshold.

400 Hz with UFL threshold higher or lower than 385 Hz.

50/60 Hz or 400 Hz, single or three-phase 100 to 600 Vac with flat
regulation for a motor-generator set or variable frequency/constant
voltage applications. Regulators with flat regulation will not include
UFL or V/Hz circuitry.

Standard input power and dc output: Standard KCR 760 regulator


uses single-phase, 120 Vac 10% input power and has rated maximum
continuous output of 65 Vdc, 10 A; 90 Vdc, 15 A one-minute field
forcing.
Optional input power and dc output: When specified in the purchase
order, the KCR 760 regulator may be modified to operate from single
phase, 240 Vac 10% input power and thereby have rated maximum
continuous output of 125 Vdc, 10 A; 180 Vdc, 15 A one-minute field
forcing.

Page 5

Field flashing: KCR 760 voltage regulators include solid-state field


flashing circuitry.
Standard fuse: Standard KCR 760 regulators are supplied with a 15 A
normal blow fuse in the input power circuitry within the regulator. This
fuse provides voltage regulator overload protection.
Optional fuse: In applications where the system does not include a field
circuit breaker and generator field protection is required, a smaller fuse
may be used. For generator field protection, fuse amperage should be one
and a half to two times the exciter field current with rated load connected
to the generator. Fuse amperage must not exceed 15 A or two thirds open
circuit forcing. The fuse must be normal blow type. Do not install a timedelay type fuse.
Standard voltage adjust: KCR 760 voltage regulators are provided with
an internal voltage range adjust potentiometer and an auto voltage adjust
rheostat for remote mounting. The auto voltage adjust rheostat permits
adjustment of generator voltage approximately 10% from the nominal
sensing voltage.
Wide-range voltage adjust: For applications where voltage must be
adjusted more than 10% from nominal, wide range voltage adjust
circuitry can be provided with the generator set. This accessory is
designed for remote mounting and is electrically connected between the
generator sensing lines and the regulator sensing terminals.
Parallel operation components: KCR 760 voltage regulators include a
parallel operation reactive voltage droop transformer (T2) and a parallel
voltage droop potentiometer (R4). For parallel operation each generator
must be equipped with a current transformer for sensing reactive current.
The transformer may have either a 1 A or 5 A secondary. When a 1 A
current transformer is used, the secondary leads connect to regulator
terminals CT and CT1. When a 5 A current transformer is used, the
secondary connects to regulator terminals CT and CT5.
Electromagnetic interference filters: When specified in the purchase
order the KCR 760 regulator can be supplied with EMI filters as an
external accessory.
Input power load isolation or voltage matching transformers: Load
isolation and voltage matching transformers are accessory items that
mount external to the voltage regulator. Load isolation transformers are
available with 120 V primary/120 V secondary (for use with standard
120 Vac input power voltage regulators), or 240 Vac primary/240 Vac
secondary (for use with 240 Vac input power regulators). Load isolation
transformers are recommended for any application where frequency of
the input power to the regulator is different from the sensing frequency,

Page 6

such as 400 Hz motor-generator applications where regulator input power


is taken from 50/60 Hz motor-generator set input power lines. Voltage
matching transformers are available for applications where available
voltage is different from the voltage regulator rated input voltage.
Field circuit breaker: When specified in the purchase order, the
generating system can be provided with a field circuit breaker for
generator field protection.
Voltage shutdown switch: When specified in the purchase order, the
generating system can be supplied with a switch that electrically connects
in the line that supplies input power to the regulator. This protective
device is recommended for engine driven generator applications not
provided with field circuit breaker or underfrequency protection.
Automatic/manual voltage control: When specified in the purchase
order, the generating system can be supplied with an automatic/manual
voltage control module. This accessory includes a full wave rectifier and
a variable transformer (variac) for manual voltage control and a threeposition switch. The switch allows the generator to be controlled either
automatically by the voltage regulator or manually. The OFF position
provides voltage shut-down by de-energizing both the voltage regulator
and the manual voltage control rectifier.

Specifications
Power output:
-

65 Vdc, 10 A; maximum continuous output; 90 Vdc, 15 A one-minute


field forcing where the regulator is constructed for 120 Vac input.

125 Vdc, 10 A; maximum continuous output; 180 Vdc, 15 A one-minute


field forcing where the regulator is constructed for 240 Vac input.

Power input: Single phase, 50/60 Hz, 120 Vac 10%; or single phase,
50/60 Hz, 240 Vac 10%.
Sensing: Standard regulators are constructed for single phase 100 Vac to
600 Vac sensing. Three phase 100 Vac to 600 Vac available as optional
feature. Special voltage or frequency is available as an optional feature.
V/Hz sensing available as optional feature.
Voltage adjustment range: 10% is standard. Wide-range voltage
adjust is available as an optional accessory.

Page 7

Field resistance:
-

6.5 minimum, 100 maximum for a standard 65 Vdc regulator.

12.5 minimum, 200 maximum for an optional 125 Vdc


regulator.

Burden resistance: Sensing: 6 VA maximum. Input power: 2400 VA


maximum for 240 Vac input; 1200 VA maximum for 120 Vac input.
Paralleling: 10 VA maximum.
Paralleling: 1 A for 6% droop or 5 A for 6% droop on current
transformer. For 1 A, connect to terminals CT common and CT1; for 5 A
connect to terminal CT common and CT5. Factory adjusted 4% droop.
Fuse: 15 A maximum, ABC type fuse for voltage regulator protection.
Underfrequency protection: Except where flat regulation, V/Hz
sensing or UFL with special operational threshold is specified in the
purchase order, the underfrequency limit (UFL) circuit will provide
underfrequency protection by reducing voltage in proportion to
frequency. The UFL operational threshold where limiting starts is as
follows (see also Figure 1):
-

Standard:
58 Hz for 60 Hz system
48 Hz for 50 Hz system
385 Hz for 400 Hz system

Optional for use with generator driven by turbocharged engine:


59.5 Hz for 60 Hz system
49.5 Hz for 50 Hz system
395 Hz for 400 Hz system

Regulator accuracy: Voltage regulation is maintained within 0.5%


over full range of generator loading and for generator speed variations of
up to 5%.
Regulator response: Less than 17 milliseconds.
Thermal stability: Less than 0.5 percent for 40 change in ambient
temperature.
Operating temperature: -40 C to 60 C.
Storage temperature: -60 C to +85 C.
Power dissipation: Less than 35 W at maximum continuous rating
during single generator operation; less than 45 W at maximum
continuous rating during parallel generator operation.
Page 8

Figure 1: Standard UFL operational threshold for 50/60 Hz system

Shock: Tested to withstand up to 20 gs in each axis.


Vibration: Tested to withstand 1.2 gs from 6 to 26 Hz; 0.32 in. double
amplitude from 26 to 52 Hz; 5 gs from 53 to 150 Hz.
Construction: Steel chassis with welded seams; zinc plated according
to specification QQ-2-325, Type 11, Class 2; circuit board is silicon resin
conformal coated.
Dimensions: 11.5 in. (292 millimeters) x 8.5 in. (216 millimeters) x 4.75
in. (121 millimeters).
Weight: 13 pounds (5.9 kilograms).
Mounting: The voltage regulator may be mounted in any position
providing that sufficient space is retained about the unit for satisfactory
cooling, and shock and vibration do not exceed regulator specifications.

Page 9

Operating Principles
General: Parts comprising the KCR 760 voltage regulator are shown on
the electrical schematics.
A standard single-phase sensing KCR 760 voltage regulator with
underfrequency limit or V/Hz sensing circuitry is described in the
paragraphs that follow. When the regulator has either three-phase sensing
or is designed for flat regulation the following difference will apply:
-

When the three-phase sensing option is included the regulator will


have two sensing transformers (T1 and T3) with interconnected
primary windings and interconnected secondary winding.

When the regulator is designed for flat regulation the regulator will
not have the UFL or V/Hz circuitry and the voltage applied to the
reference side of the first stage differential amplifier in the error
detector will be the voltage across Zener diode Z1.

Voltage regulator circuits: The voltage regulator senses the generator


voltage, compares a rectified sample of that voltage with a reference
voltage, and supplies the field current required to maintain the
predetermined ratio between the generator voltage and the reference
voltage. Transformer T1 is the sensing transformer in a standard
single-phase sensing KCR 760 voltage regulator while a KCR 760
voltage regulator designed for three-phase sensing includes two
sensing transformers (T1 and T3). The sensing circuitry also includes a
transformer (T2) and potentiometer (R4). Transformer T2, potentiometer
R4, and an external current transformer provide means of attaining
reactive kVA load sharing during parallel generator operation. The
parallel operation components do not affect voltage regulator operation
when the generator is operated singly.
On regulators equipped with underfrequency limit (UFL) or V/Hz option,
this circuitry interacts with the regulator sensing and error detector in a
manner that decreases voltage during underspeed operation. A solid-state
flashing circuit operates each time the generator is started. The flashing
circuit de-energizes when generator voltage has built up to about 70%
of rated voltage output. Most of the circuits are contained on a printed
circuit board. Parts that are individually mounted on the regulator
case are the sensing transformer(s), parallel operation transformer T2,
choke L1, nominal voltage range set adjust R2, stability adjustment R6,
capacitors C32, C33, & C34, parallel voltage droop potentiometer R4,
the power stage, and a fuse. External voltage adjust rheostat VAR is
provided for installation on a control panel.
Sensing circuit during single generator operation: The voltage sensing
transformer(s) provides a voltage proportional to the generator voltage
output. This voltage is fed across the primary of T2 to a full-wave
rectifier comprised of silicon diodes D3, D4, D17, D18, D23, and D24.
Page 10

The rectified voltage is filtered by resistor R3, choke L1, and capacitor
Cl. The dc signal from the filter is applied to the error detector and the
underfrequency limit.
Shorting the secondary parallel operation transformer T2, either by
using the jumper bar across CT and CT1, or turning R4 to its full
counterclockwise position or setting the UNIT/PARALLEL switch to
UNIT, eliminates the effect of T2 during single generator operation.
Sensing circuit during parallel generator operation in reactive
voltage droop compensation mode: Generators interconnected for
reactive voltage droop compensation will proportionally share inductive
reactive loads during parallel operation by a decrease in generator
system voltage. This method of kVAR load sharing is described in the
paragraphs that follow.
The sensing transformer(s) provides a voltage proportional to the
sensing voltage. A current transformer (CT) installed in line two of
the generator develops a signal that is proportional in amplitude and
phase to the line current. This signal develops a voltage across the
slide-wire parallel voltage droop adjust potentiometer R4. The setting
R4 determines how much of this voltage is applied to the primary
transformer T2.
The voltage developed in the secondary of the sensing transformer(s)
and the voltage developed in the secondary of T2 add vectorially. This
action provides a voltage to the sensing diodes that is the vector sum of
the stepped down sensing voltage and the parallel current transformer
signal through T2. The sensing rectifier dc output is filtered and applied
to the error detector and underfrequency limit.
When a resistive (unity power factor) load is connected to the generator,
the voltage that appears across the droop potentiometer leads the sensing
voltage by 90 degrees, and the vector sum of the two voltages is nearly
the same as the original sensing voltage; consequently, almost no change
occurs in generator output voltage.
When lagging power factor (inductive) load is connected to the
generator, the voltage across the droop potentiometer becomes more
in phase with the sensing voltage, and the combined vectors of the two
voltages result in a larger voltage being applied to the sensing rectifiers.
Since the action of the regulator is to maintain a constant voltage at the
sensing rectifiers, the regulator reacts by decreasing the generator output
voltage.
When a leading power factor (capacitive) load is connected to the
generator, the voltage across the droop potentiometer becomes out of
phase with the sensing voltage, and the combined vectors of the two
voltages result in a smaller voltage being applied to the sensing rectifiers.
Then the regulator reacts by increasing the generator voltage.
Page 11

During parallel operation of two or more generators interconnected


for reactive voltage droop, if field excitation on one of the generators
becomes excessive and causes a circulating current to flow between the
generators, the circulating current will appear as an inductive load to the
generator with excessive excitation and a capacitive load to the other
generator(s). The parallel components R4 and T2 will cause the voltage
regulator of the generator with excessive field excitation to decrease the
generator voltage while the voltage regulators of the other generator(s)
will increase the generator voltage.
Sensing circuit during parallel generator operation in parallel crosscurrent compensation mode: Parallel cross-current compensation
allows two or more paralleled generators to share inductive reactive loads
with no droop or decrease in the generator system output voltage when
the line currents are proportional and in phase. This is accomplished by
the action and circuitry described previously for parallel reactive voltage
droop compensation and the interconnection of the current transformer
secondaries in a closed series loop. Circulating currents cause the system
to react as described previously for parallel voltage droop compensation.
A unit/parallel switch connected in each generator system eliminates the
series resistance of the CTs in the generator sets that are shut down from
the CTs of the generator sets that are operating.
Error detector: The error detector circuitry consists of a voltage adjust
circuit, a voltage divider, a two-stage differential amplifier, and an
internal minor feedback filter. The voltage adjust circuit consists of an
external voltage adjust rheostat VAR, a voltage range adjustment R2, and
fixed resistor R1. Full travel of the external voltage adjust provides 10%
adjustment of the generator output voltage from nominal. The voltage
range adjustment R2 establishes the maximum and/or minimum voltage
adjust limit of VAR. The voltage adjust circuit and a voltage divider
consisting of resistors R5 and R71 determine the input signal to the first
differential amplifier.
The first differential stage is comprised of transistors Q1, Q2, & Q12,
resistors R9 through R18, R21, R22, R23, R83, & R93, capacitors
C3, C23, C30, & C31, ferrite beads L2 & L3, Zener diode Z1, and the
circuitry within the underfrequency limit. Underfrequency limit (UFL)
provides a reference voltage to the base of transistor Q2 as described
in the UFL circuit description. During generator operation at rated
frequency the reference signal is constant and identical to the Zener
voltage. Voltage from the sensing circuit, which is proportional to the
generator voltage, is applied to the base of transistor Q1. When Q1 base
voltage is different from the reference voltage applied to the base of
Q2, there will be a difference in Q1 collector current with respect to Q2
collector current.
The current from the collector of transistor Q1 is divided by resistors
R9 and R16 and injected into the base of the second stage differential
amplifier transistor Q3. Similarly, the current from the collector of
Page 12

transistor Q2 is divided by resistors R14 and R15 and injected into the
second stage differential amplifier transistor Q4. Resistors R10 and
C3 help to prevent oscillations at high frequencies. The second stage
differential amplifier amplifies the output of the first stage differential
amplifier. Components included in the second stage differential
amplifier are transistors Q3 and Q4, and resistors R24 through R27. The
collector voltage of transistor Q3 controls the phase control circuit. The
minor feedback filter consists of resistor R8 and capacitor C2. The filter
removes any remaining ac from the dc signal.
Phase control circuit: One of T1s secondary windings, diodes D1, D2,
D21 & D22, resistors R87 & R88, capacitors C20, C21, & C22, supply
power to the first and second differential stage and the underfrequency
limit stage. The phase control circuit consists of diodes D5 and D6,
resistors R28 through R32, & R80, capacitors C20, C21, & C22, Zener
diode Z2, and programmable unijunction transistor (PUT) Q5.
The phase control circuit is a ramp-and-pedestal control that regulates
the phase angle of the power controller circuit SCRs by controlling the
turn on signal it supplies to the gate of the SCRs. An exponential ramp
voltage that starts from a voltage pedestal provides the turn on gating
signal. Because the ramp voltage starts from the voltage pedestal, a
small change in the amplitude of the pedestal voltage results in a large
change in SCR phase angle as shown in Figure 2.

ac input power to
the regulator

SCR phase angle

ramp voltage

pedestal voltage

voltage required to
fire SCR

Note: This drawing is for illustration


only. Do not use it to make voltage
measurements.
Figure 2: Effect of timed gating signal on SCR phase angle
Page 13

The amplitude of the pedestal voltage is determined by the collector


current of second stage differential amplifier transistor Q3. Zener
diode Z2 serves as a voltage clamp and resistors R31 and R32 are a
voltage divider, which determines the threshold of the programmable
unijunction transistor Q5. The output of PUT Q5 is applied to the gate
of the power controller SCRs through resistors R43 & R44 and didoes
D15 & D16 and an amplifying stage that is comprised of transistor Q11,
diode D10, resistors R46 & R81, and capacitor C24.
Power stage (power controller): The power stage supplies the generator
exciter field current. The power stage consists of an SCR/diode bridge
rectifier. The power stage input is either single phase 120 Vac or single
phase 240 Vac depending on regulator design. The output of the power
stage is regulated by the turn on gating signal that its SCRs receive
from the phase control circuit. The circuit includes a free wheeling diode
for field discharge of the inductive exciter field load and a fuse (Fl) in its
input power line.
Field flashing circuit: The field flashing circuit includes SCR1, field
effect transistor (FET) Q6, transistors Q7 through Q10, resistors R34
through R42, R82, and R85, Diodes D7, D11, & D29, and capacitors
C25 & C27. Transistors Q8 and Q9, diode D7, and resistors R36, R37,
R38, R40, & R41 comprise a Schmidt trigger circuit. The Schmidt
trigger turns on when an increasing voltage is present with magnitude
approximately 70% of the nominal 24 Vdc output of the sensing
rectifiers, and turns off when a decreasing voltage is present with
magnitude of approximately 30% of the nominal output of the sensing
rectifier.
When the Schmidt trigger is off, FET Q6 is on. This action turns
on transistors Q10 and Q7, which supply current to fire slave SCR1
located on the circuit board. Slave SCR1 fires the silicon controlled
rectifiers SCR1 and SCR2 in the regulator power controller circuit
which, when on, supply current to the exciter field. When the Schmidt
trigger turns on, FET Q6 turns off. This action turns off transistors Q10
and Q7, which removes the gating signal to slave SCR1 and in turn the
gating signal of the flashing circuit from the power controller SCRs.
Resistor R70 and capacitor C19 provide assistance in the firing of the
power stage SCRs. Capacitor C8 and resistor R45 assist in limiting
conducted EMI. Diodes D8, D9 and those in the power stage supply
power to the flashing and phase control circuits.
Stability control: The stability circuit is a rate feedback RC network.
It consists of capacitors C4 and C5, resistors R7, R19, and R20, and
stability adjust potentiometer R6. This RC network injects a stabilizing
signal from the regulator output which helps to prevent generator voltage
oscillation.
Underfrequency limit (UFL): The UFL provides a reference voltage to
the error detector which is constant when the generator output frequency
Page 14

is higher than a predetermined limiting frequency. When the generator


is operating slower than the predetermined UFL operational threshold,
the UFL will provide the error detector with a reference voltage that is
proportionally lower.
The reference voltage to the UFL is supplied by Zener diode Z1. The
UFL operational threshold for standard 50 Hz, 60 Hz, and 400 Hz KCR
760 regulators are given above. The operation of the various components
comprising the UFL assembly is described in the paragraphs that follow.
The voltage from the sensing transformer is rectified by diodes D19 and
D21, and the rectified signal is applied to a Schmidt trigger consisting
of operational amplifier IC2A, resistors R47 through R51, and capacitor
C29. A 24 Vdc peak-to-peak square wave is generated at the output of
IC2A at double the frequency of the sensing voltage.
The 24 Vdc square wave from the Schmidt trigger is fed to the first
stage of a two-stage monostable multivibrator IC1 and associated
parts, where it is decreased to a 5 Vdc peak-to-peak square wave at
double the frequency of the sensing voltage. The 5 Vdc square wave
is applied to the second stage of the monostable multivibrator. The
monostable multivibrator output pulse is uniform in amplitude and
duration for each input pulse. Thus, the average voltage level of the
collective pulses at the output of the monostable multivibrator is
directly proportional to the frequency of the pulses. The monostable
multivibrator output is fed into a four-pole Butterworth low pass filter
comprised of operational amplifier IC2B and IC2C, resistors R60
through R66, and capacitors C13 through C18. This filtering circuit
does the actual averaging of the collective pulses from the monostable
multivibrator. Amplifier gain is set at level where its output equals the
Zener reference at rated 60 Hz or 400 Hz operation by resistors R65,
R66, and capacitor C16. When operated at rated frequency of 50 Hz,
the circuit is set for 50 Hz operation by removing jumper J1. This
action adds R57 to the circuit.
Diode D12 and integrated circuit IC2D form a voltage clamping circuit.
If the voltage from the Butterworth filter is equal to that of the Zener
reference, the UFL output to the error detector will be the same as the
Zener reference and the UFL will have no effect on regulator operation.
However, when the voltage from the filter decreases as occurs during
underspeed operation of the generator, the reference voltage applied
to the error detector is less than the Zener reference. This action will
cause the error detector differential signal to proportionally increase
in a manner that results in a proportionally later turn-on signal to the
regulator output SCRs. The regulator then decreases excitation and a
lowering of generator output voltage occurs.
Resistors R54 & R56, potentiometer R55, and capacitor C12 determine
the underfrequency limit operational threshold. Zener diode Z3 and
capacitors C9 and C10 protect the integrated circuits from damage
should excessive voltage spikes occur.
Page 15

Note: The underfrequency limit circuitry is


not included when the regulator includes
the flat regulation option. Where regulator
is supplied with the V/Hz sensing option,
operation and construction of the V/Hz
circuitry is similar to the underfrequency
limit.

Installation
Mounting: The voltage regulator can be mounted in any position without
affecting its operating characteristics. The voltage regulator is convection
cooled. Retain sufficient space around the regulator for heat dissipation
and for making electrical connections and controls adjustments. Mount
the voltage regulator in any location where shock and vibration are not
excessive and the ambient temperature does not exceed its ambient
operational limits.
Warning: De-energize the generator set
starting circuit before making repairs,
connecting test instruments or removing or
making connections to or within the voltage
regulator. Dangerous voltages are present
at the voltage regulator terminal boards
and within the voltage regulator when the
generator set Is running. These include
the sensing voltage, power to the voltage
regulator, and the voltage regulator output.
Accidental contact with live conductors
could result in serious electrical shock or
electrocution.
Caution: Do not use a megger or high
potential test equipment when testing
the voltage regulator. Disconnect
interconnecting conductors between the
generator and voltage regulator when
testing the generator or exciter with a
megger or high potential test equipment.
The high voltage developed by megger or
high potential test equipment will destroy the
solid state components within the voltage
regulator.
Caution: Never open the regulator sensing
circuit while power is applied to the regulator
input power terminals. Loss of sensing
voltage will result in maximum regulator
output.

Interconnection: Connect the regulator to the generator system as


instructed in this section and as shown in the connection diagram
provided with the generator set. See Figure 3 for an overall outline
drawing that shows the location of regulator mounting provision
and parts of the voltage regulator. See Figures 4 to 11 for a typical
interconnection diagrams and electrical schematics of the voltage
regulator. Use 14 gauge or larger wire for connections to the voltage
regulator.
Single-phase 100 to 600 Vac sensing (terminals El and E3): The
standard KCR 760 voltage regulator designed for single phase sensing
has an internal sensing transformer (T1) as shown in Figure 4. This
transformer is provided with taps on the primary winding for sensing
voltages of 100 to 139, 200 to 228, 216 to 265, 375 to 458, 432 to 528,
and 540 to 600 Vac. The transformer primary winding taps are identified
with the corresponding nominal voltages, which are 120, 208, 240, 416,
480, and 600. Vac. To obtain proper operation the internal wire from
voltage regulator terminal E3 must be connected onto the correct primary
tap on transformer T1. Electrical wires within the regulator connect to
the sensing transformer secondary winding as shown in Figure 4.
Three-phase 100 to 600 Vac sensing (terminals El, E2, and E3): When
the regulator is designed for three-phase sensing, it includes two sensing
transformers (T1 and T3) as shown in Figure 5.
Except when otherwise specified in the purchase order, the regulator
sensing transformers will both include multi-tap primary winding for
use with the sensing voltages described in the single phase 100 to 600
Vac sensing procedure.
To properly operate, connect the internal wire from voltage regulator
terminal E3 to the correct primary winding tap on transformer T1,
and connect the internal wire from voltage regulator terminal E2 to
the corresponding primary winding tap on transformer T3. Connect
electrical wires within the regulator to the sensing transformers
secondary winding as shown in Figure 5.

Page 16

Figure 3: KCR 760 outline drawing

Page 17

Notes:
Sensing: Using sensing
terminals E1 and E3, the
internal wire form E3 must
connect to the tap on T1
that matches the generator voltage.
Parallel operation: An
external current transformer is required for
parallel operation. Where
the current transformer
has a 1 A secondary, connect to terminals CT and
CT1. Where the current
transformer has a 5 A
secondary, connect to terminals CT and CT5. For
single generator operation, remove the droop
signal by adjusting R4 to
0 resistance measured
across terminals CT and
CT1.
Fuse F1: Has normal
blow: 15 A maximum for
voltage regulator protection.
Input power: For 120 Vac
input with 65 Vdc output:
install circuit board jumper
J3. For 240 Vac input with
125 Vdc output, remove
the circuit board jumper
J3.

Figure 4: KCR 760 single-phase sensing schematic

Page 18

Notes:
Sensing: Uses terminals
E1, E2, E3 and sensing
transformers T1 and T3.
The wire from E2 must
connect to the tap on T3
that matches the generator
voltage. The wire from E3
must connect to the tap
on T1 that matches the
generator voltage.
Parallel operation: An
external current transformer is required for
parallel operation. Where
the current transformer
has a 1 A secondary, connect to terminals CT and
CT1. Where the current
transformer has a 5 A
secondary, connect to terminals CT and CT5. For
single generator operation,
remove the droop signal by
adjusting R4 to 0 resistance measured across
terminals CT and CT1.
Fuse F1: Has normal blow:
15 A maximum for voltage
regulator protection.
Input power: For 120 Vac
input with 65 Vdc output:
install circuit board jumper
J3. For 240 Vac input with
125 Vdc output, remove
the circuit board jumper J3.

Figure 5: KCR 760 three-phase sensing

Page 19

Note: Jumper wire J3 on the regulator


circuit board is installed when regulator input
power is 120 Vac 10% and removed when
input power is 240 Vac 10%.

Input power (terminal P1 and P2): Before making electrical


connections, refer to the wiring diagram provided with the generator.
Connect input power as follows.
- When the regulator is designed for 120 Vac 10% input power and
65 Vdc maximum continuous output, connect single-phase 120 Vac
power to terminals P1 and P2. Refer above for recommended use of
load isolation and voltage matching transformers.
- When the regulator is designed for 240 V ac 10% input power and
125 Vdc maximum continuous output, connect single-phase 240 Vac
power to terminals P1 and P2. Refer above for recommended use of
load isolation and voltage matching transformers.
- When the regulating system is supplied with electromagnetic
interference filters, connect as shown on the wiring diagram
provided with the generator set.
Output power (terminals F+ and F-): Be sure regulator output matches
the generator exciter rating. The KCR 760 voltage regulator designed for
120 Vac input is designed for 65 Vdc maximum continuous output. The
KCR 760 voltage regulator designed for 240 Vac input is designed for
125 Vdc maximum continuous output.
Maintain correct polarity between the regulator output and exciter field.
Make sure field resistance for the 65 Vdc regulator is not less than 6.5
and field resistance for the 125 Vdc regulator is not less than 12.5 .
Make sure the field circuit is not grounded and/or opened or shorted
during operation of the generator set.
Because the regulator output leads are not connected to any part of
the system except the exciter field, they are not filtered. To minimize
conducted EMI the keep the leads as short as possible and shielded.
Effective shielding can be attained by routing both leads through 0.5
inch conduit. In general, do not leave unshielded more than 1 to 2 feet
of field leads. If the voltage regulator is installed within the generator
outlet box, it is possible to achieve satisfactory results with short
unshielded leads.
Grounding: A good electrical power ground is not necessarily a good
electromagnetic interference ground. Make the ground leads as short
as possible, preferably of copper strap with a width of 1/5 the length.
Grounding the chassis to earth ground makes all grounds common.
External voltage adjust rheostat (terminals R1 and R2): Terminals
R1 and R2 are provided for connection of the voltage adjust rheostat. The
rheostat provides adjustment of the regulated generator voltage 10% of

Page 20

nominal. It is provided as a separate item for panel mounting. Connecting


wires from the rheostat attach to terminals R1 and R2. A jumper wire
must be connected between rheostat terminal 2 and rheostat terminal 1 as
shown in Figure 6.
Connection to reactive voltage droop terminals CT, CT1, and CT5
Parallel operation: When generators will be operating in parallel, install
the current transformer in Phase B from each generator and connect as
follows:
-

Current transformer (1 A secondary): Connect secondary leads to


CT common and CT1. Be sure to maintain correct polarity. Make
certain the jumper, when supplied, is removed from across CT and
CT1.

Current Transformer (5 A secondary): Connect secondary leads to


CT common and CT5. Be sure to maintain correct polarity. Make
certain the jumper, when supplied, is removed from across CT and
CT1.

Reactive voltage droop or cross-current compensation: The regulating


system may be connected for parallel operation in either the reactive
voltage droop or cross-current compensation mode. Connect according to
either reactive voltage droop or cross-current compensation.
-

Reactive voltage droop: Connect the current transformer to the


respective regulator (see Figure 7).

Cross-current compensation: For cross-current, connect each CT


to its respective regulator. Then connect the finish of the first CT to
the start of the third CT, etc. Continue until all CTs are connected in
series and connect the finish of the last CT to the start of the first CT
(see Figure 8).

On parallel cross-current compensation applications consisting


of two or more generators, use a unit/parallel switch if all the
generators are not always on the bus. If the switch is not used,
a voltage droop will be introduced into the system, which will
cause the voltage of the incoming generator to fluctuate prior to
paralleling. This is due to the unloaded generator parallel CT not
supplying its compensating signal, but allowing a voltage drop to
occur across it. Ideally, the switch is an auxiliary on the generator
output circuit breaker that opens when the breaker is closed.

Page 21

Notes:
1) For single-phase sensing, terminals are E1 and E3. See Figures 2 and 3.
2) The field must not be opened, shorted or grounded while the generator is operating.
3) The external voltage adjust must have a jumper across its terminals 1 and 2.
4) Input power standard KCR 760 voltage is 120 Vac; optional 240 Vac. Maximum
continuous output is 65 Vdc for a 120 Vac input and 125 Vdc for a 240 Vac input. See
Figures 4 and 5.
5) A current transformer is required for generators operating in parallel. The connection is shown on this drawing: 1 A current transformer and reactive voltage droop
compensation. See Figures 2 and 3.
6) Ground the neutral in accordance with applicable electrical codes.

Figure 6: KCR-760 interconnection

Page 22

Regulator 1

Note: Single-phase sensing terminals E1


and E3. Three-phase sensing terminals E1,
E2, and E3.

Generator 1

Note: Remove the jumper bar across terminals CT and CT1 before parallel operation
is attempted. Where the CT has a 1 A secondary, connect to terminals CT and CT1
as shown. When the CT has a 5 A secondary, connect to terminals CT and CT5.

Regulator 2

Generator 2

Regulator 3

Note: When more than three generators will


be operated in parallel, continue connections as shown.

Generator 3

Figure 7: Parallel operation, reactive voltage droop mode

Page 23

Regulator 1

Note: Single-phase sensing terminals E1


and E3. Three-phase sensing terminals E1,
E2, and E3.

Generator 1

Note: Remove the jumper bar across terminals CT and CT1 before parallel operation is
attempted. Where the CT has a 1 A secondary, connect to terminals CT and CT1 as
shown. Where the CT has a 5 A secondary,
connect to terminals CT and CT5.

Regulator 2

Generator 2

Regulator 3

Note: When more than three generators will


be operated in parallel, continue connections as shown.

Generator 3

Figure 8: Parallel operation, cross-current compensation mode

Page 24

Generator operating singly: When generators are not operating parallel


and reactive voltage droop is not required, use one of the following
methods to eliminate the effect of the parallel operation transformer
within the voltage regulator.
-

Install a unit/parallel switch across the current transformer


secondary, and close switch during single generator operation.

Set the voltage droop resistor R4 to its minimum droop position.

Where the generator will be operating singly, install a jumper across


terminals CT and CT1.

UFL circuit 50/60 and 400 Hz selector J1: The underfrequency limit
components or V/Hz components are located on the voltage regulator
circuit board (see Figure 9). Parts comprising the UFL or V/Hz
components are shown in Figure 11. A jumper wire J1 eliminates the
effect of resistor R57. Removing the jumper J1 places R57 in the circuit.
60 or 400 Hz operation: Make certain the jumper wire is installed across
area marked J1. Wire is mounted on component side of circuit board and
ends of jumper wire are soldered on foil side of the circuit board.
50 Hz operation: Make certain the jumper wire is removed from across
area marked J1. Remove J1 by cutting each end of the jumper wire.
Voltage regulator fuse: The voltage regulator contains a 15 A normal
blow fuse in the voltage regulator input power circuit (see Fig. 1, 2
and 3). In applications where voltage regulator power requirements are
reduced, as when used with small generators where excitation is less than
given, a smaller fuse may be used. Never install a fuse larger than 15 A
and never install a delay-type fuse.
Accessory items: Accessory items provided with the generator system
must be connected as shown on the wiring diagram provided with the
generator set and the accessory item drawing or instruction. Observe
the precautions and general procedures that follow when connecting
accessory items.
Voltage shutdown (engine idle switch): The system can be equipped with
a switch to allow removal of excitation in an emergency or when the
prime mover must be operated at reduced speeds. This switch must be
placed in the input power line to the regulator (terminal P1 or P2).
Field circuit breaker: The field circuit breaker must be of the type that
has separate terminals for the thermal element and the contacts.
The circuit breaker thermal element receives heat from either the field
current or generator line current. Where it is heated by field current, the
thermal element connects between the voltage regulator output and the

Page 25

Warning: A fire hazard can exist if the


voltage regulator fuse is larger than 15 A or
if a delay-type fuse is used.
Note: On generator systems that include
the auto/manual voltage control option, the
OFF position on the AUTO/OFF/MANUAL
selector switch provides voltage shutdown.
On generator systems that include a field
circuit breaker, manually tripping the circuit
breaker OFF provides voltage shutdown.
Caution: Never install the voltage shutdown
switch in the exciter field circuit as the
voltage regulator dc output (terminals
F+ and F-) must not be opened during
operation. To do so would produce inductive
arcing that could destroy the exciter or
voltage regulator output power bridge.
Caution: Never open the dc output
(terminals F+ and F-) during operation.
To do so would produce inductive arcing
that could destroy the exciter or voltage
regulator. Therefore, never place circuit
breaker contacts in the exciter field circuit.

Page 26

From sensing
choke. See Figures
2 and 3.

From stability control. See Figures 2


and 3.

To voltage range
adjust and voltage
adjust. See Figures
2 and 3.

To field F +. See
Figures 2 and 3.

To field F +. See
Figures 2 and 3.

To field F +. See
Figures 2 and 3.

To field F +. See
Figures 2 and 3.

Figure 9: KCR 760 (with UFL or volts-per Hz) circuit board schematic

Note: For a schematic of UFL


circuitry, see Figure 11.

From sensing
transformers. See
Figures 2 and 3.

Note: Install jumper J3 when input is


120 Vac, and remove it when input is
240 Vac.

From sensing
choke. See Figures
2 and 3.

From stability control. See Figures 2


and 3.

To voltage range
adjust and voltage
adjust. See Figures
2 and 3.

To field F +. See
Figures 2 and 3.

To field F +. See
Figures 2 and 3.

To field F +. See
Figures 2 and 3.

To field F +. See
Figures 2 and 3.

From sensing
transformers. See
Figures 2 and 3.

Page 27

Note: With jumper J3, install when


input is 120 Vac, and remove when
input is 240 Vac.

Figure 10: KCR 760 (with flat regulation option) circuit board schematic

Figure 11: UFL electrical schematic

Page 28

exciter field. Where it is heated by generator line current, the thermal


element connects to a current transformer located in one of the generator
load lines.
Auto/manual voltage control: The auto/manual voltage control option
includes the components described below. Connect the auto/manual
voltage control module as shown on the wiring diagram provided with
the generator.
-

Three-position selector switch: When this switch is set to the AUTO,


power is fed across the switch contacts to the regulator input power
terminal P1 and P2. When the switch is set to MAN, power is fed
across the switch contacts to the manual voltage control circuit
rectifiers. OFF position opens input power to both the voltage
regulator and the manual voltage control rectifiers.

Manual voltage control circuit: The manual voltage control circuit


consists of a full wave rectifier assembly and a manual voltage
control variac. The manual voltage control variac controls generator
output whenever the generator set is operated in the manual voltage
control mode of operation.

Page 29

Operation
Caution: Before initial operation, verify
that the regulator is connected for the
application. See wiring diagram provided
with the generator set and review the
procedures given above.

Adjustments: The adjustments pertaining to the voltage regulator and


system operation are described in the paragraphs that follow and, except
where noted, adjustment is made during initial operation and normally
does not have to be repeated during the life of the voltage regulator.
Generator voltage adjust rheostat (VAR): This adjustment is
provided to control the generator voltage. When set to its maximum
counterclockwise position, minimum generator voltage is obtained.
Maximum generator voltage is obtained when the rheostat is set to its
maximum clockwise position.
Nominal voltage range set adjust (R2): This adjustment is provided
to extend the limits of the generator voltage adjust rheostat (VAR).
Normally R2 is set to provide the generator voltage adjust rheostat with
an adjustment range of 10% of rated voltage. R2 is located on the
regulator. Loosen the 1/2 inch locknut before attempting to adjust R2
(with a small screwdriver). Retighten the locknut after adjustment is
complete.
Stability adjustment (R6): Stability control R6 provides for stable
regulating operation by controlling the amount of feedback that is
applied to the error detector stage. Turning the control counterclockwise
decreases the amount of the stability feedback, making the regulator
respond faster.
This control is located on top of the cover, mounted below the heat
sink and above the RANGE adjust. Loosen the 9/16 inch hex-head
locknut that keeps the control shaft from turning due to vibration before
attempting to adjust R6 (with a screwdriver). Retighten the locknut after
adjustment is complete.
Operate the generator at rated frequency, no load, the point at which the
stability adjustment is most critical. Adjust STABILITY by first rotating
the control fully clockwise with screwdriver. One end of the screwdriver
slot will point to 2 oclock; this end is the pointer. Set the STABILITY
by rotating pointer counterclockwise to 10 oclock. This setting normally
ensures good stability, but may not provide optimum response time for
the generator.
If the generator voltage oscillates (hunts), turn the control clockwise past
the point where oscillation stops. If faster response is required, rotate
the control counterclockwise until the voltage becomes unstable, and
then rotate clockwise until the voltage is stable. Optimum adjustment
is attained when generator voltage is stable and response is satisfactory
at no-load and also during operation under any load up to the full load
rating of the generator.

Page 30

Parallel voltage droop potentiometer (R4): This adjustment is provided


to control the voltage droop signal of generators operating parallel. It
is located on the regulator chassis. Maximum voltage droop is attained
when the potentiometer is set to its maximum clockwise position. Adjust
each generator that will be operated parallel for identical voltage droop
as described in the parallel operation procedure that follows. Make the
adjustment by loosening the locknut with a 1/2 inch wrench, adjusting
the droop with a screwdriver and then tightening the locknut after the
adjustment has been made.
Underfrequency Adjustment (R55): This adjustment is included in
voltage regulators provided with the underfrequency limit option. R55
is adjusted at the factory as listed above or as requested in the generator
purchase order.
-

Adjusting the underfrequency limit when the generator


frequency can be set to the desired breakpoint:
1. Connect a voltmeter between the circuit board
terminals TP1 and TP2.
2. Run generator at the desired underfrequency limit set
point (for example 58 Hz).
3. Adjust R55 for 0 volts as indicated on the meter.
Adjusting the underfrequency limit when generator
frequency can not be adjusted.
1. Connect a voltmeter between the circuit board
terminals TP1 (negative) and TP2 (positive).
2. Run the generator at rated speed and voltage.
3. Determine the desired underfrequency limit setting voltage
from Table 1 for 60 Hz generators or Table 2 for 50 Hz
generators.
4. Adjust R55 until the voltage between TP1-TP2 equals the test
voltage given in the appropriate table. EXAMPLE: With unit
running at 60 Hz and where limiting is desired at about 55 Hz,
the voltage across TP1-TP2 should be -0.438 Vdc.

Manual voltage control variac: This control is included in generators


equipped with the automatic/manual voltage control option. During
generator operation using the manual voltage control mode, the mode
selector is set to MAN and generator voltage output is controlled by the
manual voltage control variac. In order to maintain generator output
voltage at a constant level during operation in the manual voltage control
mode, adjust the manual voltage control variac each time a change in
load occurs (either added or shed).

Page 31

Note: Where the generator will be


operating singly and use of reactive voltage
droop circuitry is not desired, either set R4
to the minimum droop position or install
a jumper or unit/parallel switch across
terminals CT and CT1.

Operational
threshold

dc voltage
TP1-TP2

60 Hz
59 Hz
58 Hz
57 Hz
56 Hz
55 Hz

0.000
-0.087
-0.169
-0.265
-0.350
-0.438

Table 1: Voltage across underfrequency limit terminals TP1TP2 with a 60 Hz generator


and rated sensing voltage
Note: The jumper wire must be across
J1 on a 60 Hz system. Measured voltage
must be negative. Slight variation in
operating threshold may exist due to
circuit and meter tolerances.

Operational
threshold

dc voltage
TP1-TP2

50 Hz
49 Hz
48 Hz
47 Hz
46 Hz
45 Hz

0.000
-0.107
-0.210
-0.315
-0.425
-0.553

Table 2: Voltage across underfrequency limit terminals TP1TP2 with a 50 Hz generator


and rated sensing voltage
Note: The jumper wire J1 must be
removed during 50 Hz operation.
Measured voltage must be negative.
Slight variation in operating threshold
may exist due to circuit and meter
tolerances.

Caution: Do not attempt to flash the exciter


field while the generator set is running. Be
careful to observe polarity when connecting
flashing source. Accidental polarity reversal
will destroy the voltage regulator power
stage.

Field flashing: The voltage regulator contains an internal solid state field
flashing circuit. A minimum of about 6 Vac at the regulator input power
terminals is required for operation of the flashing circuit. Usually the
exciter field poles retain sufficient magnetism to allow circuit operation
and generator voltage buildup However, if flashing is required, stop the
generator, and then flash the field as given in the procedure that follows:
1. Connect the negative lead of a 12 or 24 Vdc flashing source onto
regulator terminal F-. Do not remove any other wires from terminal
F-.
2. Slide the positive lead of the flashing source onto the regulator
terminal F+. Only a few seconds flashing should be necessary.
3. Slide the flashing source positive lead off terminal F+. Then remove
the flashing source negative lead from terminal F-, and tighten the
terminal.
4. Start the generator, and check for satisfactory voltage buildup.

Caution: Before operating the generator for


the first time, double check to make certain
all wiring connections are made correctly.
Review the wiring diagrams provided
with the generator set, the installation
instructions above and the preceding
adjustment procedures.

Single unit initial operation: When the generator set is equipped with
the automatic/manual voltage control option, normal operation of the
generator set is the automatic voltage control mode. During generator
set operation in the automatic voltage control mode, generator output
voltage is pre-established during no-load operation by adjustment of
the external voltage adjust rheostat and automatically maintained at the
amplitude under all load conditions from no-load to full rated load by the
voltage regulator.

Note: Deviation in generator output voltage


approximately 10% of rated can be
corrected by adjusting the voltage adjust
rheostat and if necessary, the voltage range
set adjust.

Automatic mode operation: Review the preceding adjustment and


single unit operation procedures. The general procedure for single unit
automatic mode operation is as given in the procedure that follows:
1. If the generator set is equipped with the auto/manual control option,
set the selector switch to AUTO.
2. Turn the voltage adjust rheostat to about one-half of the way
between the maximum counterclockwise and maximum clockwise
positions.
3. Open the output circuit breaker. Do not apply load until satisfactory
no-load operation is attained.
4. If a voltage shutdown switch or field circuit breaker is used, close
the switch to connect input power to the voltage regulator.
5. On generators that will be operated parallel and if the sets are
equipped with unit/parallel switches, close the switch on all
generators.
6. Start the prime mover and bring up to rated speed.
7. Verify generator voltage. Any of the following conditions can occur.
- No voltage buildup: If this condition exists, the exciter may not
have sufficient residual magnetism. Residual magnetism may be
restored by flashing the field as described in the Field Flashing
instructions.
- Overvoltage (+15% or more): If this condition occurs, open
the shutdown switch immediately and/or stop the prime mover.
Determine the cause of overvoltage.

Page 32

8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

16.
17.
18.

Undervoltage (-15% or more): If this condition occurs, open


the shutdown switch immediately and/or shut down the prime
mover. Determine the cause of undervoltage.
- Undervoltage by operation of the underfrequency limit circuit
(UFL): Undervoltage by operation of the underfrequency
circuit can occur if the prime mover governor is not adjusted to
maintain rated speed or when the underfrequency limit circuit is
adjusted to operate at a frequency that is very close to the rated
frequency of the generator.
- Voltage begins to build up and then collapses: If this condition
exists, stop the prime mover and determine the cause of collapse.
If necessary refer to troubleshooting procedure.
- Oscillating voltage (hunting): If this condition occurs, be sure
prime mover speed is not fluctuating. Then, if this condition
persists, adjust the stability adjust (R6) as given in the stability
adjustment section above.
Operate the generator set for about 1/2 hour.
After about 1/2 hour of satisfactory operation, close the output circuit
breaker and connect the load.
Be sure the generator output voltage is correct and stable. Verify that
steady voltage regulation is satisfactory.
Remove the load.
If the generator will be operating parallel, adjust the parallel
operation potentiometer R4 as given in the steps that follow. To stop
the unit see step 19.
If the generator set is equipped with a unit/parallel switch, open the
switch.
Monitor no-load voltage.
Apply inductive load, and note the droop in generator voltage.
A droop of about 6% is attained when R4 is turned to complete
clockwise position for maximum resistance and the current
transformer secondary current is one ampere connected to terminals
CT and CT1 or 5 amperes connected to terminals CT and CT5.
If droop is more than is required, turn R4 counterclockwise. If droop
is less than is required, turn R4 clockwise.
Repeat steps 14 through 16 as necessary to obtain required droop
signal.
To stop the unit, remove the load, open the output circuit breaker,
and then stop the prime mover.

Manual mode operation: This test applies only to generator sets


equipped with the auto/manual voltage control option. Normal
operation of the generator set is in the automatic voltage control mode.
The manual voltage control mode provides a means of operating the
set should the voltage regulator fail. Test the manual control for proper
operation during the initial operation of the set and determine whether
cause of system malfunctions is due to a faulty generator or a faulty
voltage regulator as follows:

Page 33

1. Perform the preceding automatic mode operating procedure.


2. Open the output circuit breaker and, if it is running, stop the prime
mover.
3. If it is included, close the unit/parallel switch.
4. Set the auto/off/manual selector switch to MAN.
5. Set manual voltage adjust variac to the complete counterclockwise
position.
6. Start the prime mover, and bring it up to rated speed.
7. Turn the manual voltage adjust variac to the position where the
correct generator voltage is measured by the generator voltmeter.
8. Turn the manual voltage adjust variac to the position where
voltmeter indicates generator voltage is about 5% higher than rated.
9. Close the output circuit breaker, and apply load.
10. Measure the output voltage. If it is not correct, adjust the manual
voltage adjust variac.
11. Repeat steps 8 and 10 each time the load is increased.
12. Before shedding load, decrease generator voltage about 5% below
rated.
13. Adjust manual voltage adjust variac to position where the voltmeter
indicates generator is producing required voltage.
14. Repeat steps 12 and 13 each time any part of the load is shed.
15. Remove the load and open generator circuit breaker.
16. Set voltage adjust rheostat for rated generator output voltage.
17. Stop the prime mover.
18. Set the auto/off/manual switch to AUTO.
Caution: In generating systems equipped
with the automatic/manual voltage control
option, always make parallel operation in
the automatic voltage control mode. Never
attempt to parallel generators when the
mode switch is set to MAN.

Parallel operation: The paragraphs that follow describe the procedures


to operate two or more generators in parallel.
Metering: In order to attain satisfactory paralleling and to check for
proper parallel operation all generators should be equipped with the
following monitoring equipment:
1. ac voltmeter to measure generator output voltage (one per set)
2. ac voltmeter to measure bus voltage (one per system)
3. ac ammeter (one per set)
4. Power factor or kVAR meter (one per set)
5. kW meter (one per set)
6. Exciter field current dc ammeters (one per set)
7. Synchroscope or a set of lights to indicate when units are in phase
Checks before initial parallel operation: Before initial parallel operation,
review the procedures and checks that follow:
1. Verify that each generator is connected to the bus with the same
phase rotation as that of the bus. Use a phase rotation test instrument
or an induction motor of known rotation during the initial single unit
operation procedure.
2. Verify that the voltage regulating system of each generator is
equipped with the parallel signal sensing transformer.
3. Make certain the paralleling signal at regulator terminals CT and
CT1 or CT5 have the proper phase rotation with that of the sensing
Page 34

voltage at terminals El and E3. In applications where units are


connected for reactive voltage droop, verify that the connection is
made as shown in Figure 7. Cross-current compensation application
requires interconnection of the system as shown in Figure 8.
4. Prior to operation, set the parallel voltage droop potentiometer R4
on all regulators for identical droop. This can be accomplished by
individually testing each generator set, one at a time, as given in the
single unit initial operation procedure.
Preliminary parallel operation: Before attempting to parallel two or
more generator sets, test individual sets to ensure that paralleling features
function properly. The test that follows may be used.
1. On generating systems equipped with the auto/manual control
option, verify that the switch is set to AUTO.
2. Verify that the jumper bar has been removed from across the
regulator terminals CT and CT1.
3. On generating systems equipped with unit/parallel switches, verify
that the switch on the generator set being tested is set to PAR (open),
and be sure that the switch for each remaining generator is set to
UNIT (closed).
4. Place the generator in operation as described in the section single
unit initial operation.
5. Apply 25% to 100% unity power factor load to the set under
test. The generator voltage should change less than 1%, and the
frequency should decrease if the governor is set for droop operation.
6. Apply a 25% to 100% 0.8 P.F. inductive load. Voltage should droop.
If the voltage rises instead of drooping, reverse the CT leads. If
droop is not correct adjust parallel droop resistor R4 as described
in the parallel voltage droop resistor adjustment procedure at the
beginning of this section.
Paralleling generators: Review and understand these instructions and
those contained in preceding paragraphs before attempting to parallel.
1. Set auto/off/manual switch on all generators to AUTO (generator set
equipped with automatic/ manual voltage control option).
2. On generating systems equipped with unit/parallel switches, set the
switch on unit being started (generator set No. 1) to PARALLEL
(open). Set the switch on the remaining generator sets to UNIT
(closed).
3. Start generator set No. 1.
4. Adjust the generator voltage and frequency to nominal.
5. Apply the load.
6. Verify satisfactory voltage regulation, and make certain frequency is
not fluctuating.
7. Repeat steps 1 and 2 on generator set No. 2.
8. Start generator set No. 2.
9. Adjust generator set No. 2 frequency and voltage to nominal.
10. Adjust the speed of generator set No. 2 slightly higher than that of
generator set No. 1.

Page 35

Note: If kVAR or power factor meters


are available, adjust the voltage adjust
rheostats for equal or proportional kVAR
or power factor readings. If the generators
are equipped with power factor meters,
alternately adjust the speed and voltage
on No. 2 until the ammeter readings are
proportional and the power factor readings
are equal.
Note: To obtain best results, make final
adjustments with full load on the bus.
Note: The best adjustment is obtained
when each generator supplies the same
percent of its rated current, the power
factor readings are equal, or the sum of the
ammeter currents is minimum.

11. Observing the synchroscope (or lights), when generator No. 2 is in


phase with generator No. 1, close the circuit breaker for generator
No. 2.
12. Immediately after closing the circuit breaker, measure the line
current of generator No. 2. It should be well within the rating of
the generator. Also, immediately after closing the circuit breaker,
observe the kW or power factor meters. The following conditions
could occur:
- A high ammeter reading accompanied by a large kW unbalance:
When this condition exists, the speed governor is either not
adjusted correctly or is faulty.
- A high ammeter reading accompanied by a large kVAR
unbalance: When this condition exists, the voltage regulating
system is either not adjusted correctly or is faulty.
13. Adjust the speed of generator set No. 2 to the point where each
generator is carrying the desired share of kW load.
14. Adjust the voltage of generator No. 2 until the ammeter readings of
both generators are near minimum.
15. With full load applied, readjust the speed and voltage of generator
No. 2 until the desired load division is obtained.
16. In applications where three or more generators are to be operated
parallel, repeat preceding steps 7 through 15 for generator set No. 3,
then No. 4, etc.
Shutting down one or more generators operating in parallel: Before
dropping one or more generators operating parallel from the line bus,
reduce the total load on the bus to equal to or less than the combined
capacity of the generators remaining on the bus. Shut down one or more
of generator sets operating parallel as follows:
1. Reduce load to combined capacity of generators remaining on the
bus.
2. On systems where the prime mover governor is equipped with a
manual speed adjust, shift the load to generators remaining on the
bus by reducing the speed of the generator set being dropped from
the bus.
3. Close its unit/parallel switch (on generator sets equipped with a unit/
parallel switch).
4. Shutdown the prime mover.
5. In applications where three or more generators are operated parallel,
repeat preceding steps 1 through 4 for each generator set being taken
off the bus.

Page 36

Maintenance
Preventive maintenance: Inspect the regulator periodically to ensure
that air flow is not restricted. Dirt, dust, and other foreign material may
be removed using low pressure (25 to 50 PSI) compressed air. Check the
connections between the regulator and system periodically to ensure they
are tight and free of corrosion.
Corrective maintenance: Make repairs to the regulator by following
the figures in this manual. Due to a protective conformal coating, do not
attempt repairs on the printed circuit board.
Refer to Table 3 for a list of replacement parts.
On generator sets equipped with the auto/manual voltage control option,
operation of the generator set in the automatic voltage control mode can
be compared to how well it operates in the manual voltage control mode.
Faulty operation in the automatic mode and satisfactory operation in the
manual mode indicates a problem in the voltage regulator while, if faulty
operation in both the automatic and manual voltage control mode occurs,
the problem is probably within the exciter or generator.
Key No.

R2
R4
R6
T1, T3
L1
T2
VAR

Description
Circuit board (It is better to replace the entire AVR)
Terminal strip
Fuse holder
Fuse, ABC 15 A
Potentiometer 500 , 25 W, wire wound
Potentiometer 5 , 25 W, wire wound
Potentiometer, 5000 , 25 W, wire wound

Part number
Contact the factory
531-30311-13
516-10035-00
515-01215-31
867-35075-09
867-15075-29
867-45075-79

Qty
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Transformer (sensing)
Filter choke
Cross-current transformer
Power block 600 V, 25 A
External voltage adjust potentiometer, 250

855-63619-02
859-61010-00
855-11610-02
851-33620-70
867-32522-80

1
1
1
1
1

Table 3: Replacement parts list

Page 37

Voltage regulator operational test: Use the following test procedure to


determine if the regulator is basically operational:
1. Connect regulator as shown in Figure 12.
2. Connect internal wire from terminal E3 to the tap on the sensing
transformer T1 that matches the input power described in step 6.
3. Connect jumper across terminals CT and CT1.
4. Adjust the external voltage adjust for maximum resistance (complete
counterclockwise position). If the light is on when voltage adjust
is turned to its complete counterclockwise position, the problem is
likely in the regulator.
5. Connect light bulb across terminals F+ and F- and wires to terminals
E1, E3, P1, and P2 as shown in Figure 12.
6. Connect to 120 Vac power source when regulator full load output
rating is 65 Vdc. Connect to 240 Vac power source when regulator
full load output rating is 125 Vdc.
7. Turn the external voltage adjust clockwise. Before reaching the
maximum clockwise position, the bulb should come on to near full
brilliance.
8. At the regulating point a small change in adjustment of the external
voltage adjust rheostat should turn the light on or off. If the light does
not come on, the problem is likely in the regulator.
9. Before installing back in the generating system, connect the regulator
as it was before steps 2 through 7.
Note: Incorrect electrical connections
between the generator system and the
regulator and poor electrical connections
are often the cause of system malfunction.
Before assuming a failure of the generator
or regulator has occurred, check wiring
against the wiring diagrams provided with
the generator set and the instructions given
above. Also make certain all connections
are tight and free of corrosion.

Troubleshooting: Between regular preventive maintenance inspections,


be alert for any signs of trouble. Correct any trouble immediately. See
Table 4 for typical symptoms, causes, and remedies.

Page 38

Note: The internal wire from E3 must


connect to the 120 Vac tap on transformer
T1.
Note: 120 Vac may be used to test
voltage regulators designed for 120 Vac or
240 Vac input power.

Jumper

Light bulb
External voltage
adjust

120 Vac power


source
Figure 12: KCR 760 operational test

Page 39

Symptom

Cause

Remedy

Voltage does
not built
up to rated
value

Shutdown switch is open

Close the switch.

Fuse is blown

Replace the fuse. If the fuse blows repeatedly,


determine the cause of the overload.

Auto/off/manual switch is on OFF

Set to the switch to AUTO.

Field circuit breaker is open

Close the circuit breaker.

No input power to terminals P1 and P2

Verify wiring.

Inaccurate generator voltmeter

Verify using a test voltmeter. Calibrate or replace


a faulty meter.

Voltage too low at terminals P1 and P2

Verify wiring.

Low residual voltage (or reverse residual)

Flash the field per the procedure.

Internal wire from the sensing terminals on


the regulator is not connected to the correct
tap on the sensing transformer(s)

Verify wiring.

No connection or poor connection between


the exciter field and the regulator terminals
F+ and F-

Correct the wiring, and check the connections.

Prime mover not up to rated speed

Bring the prime mover up to rated speed.

Open or incorrectly connected external


voltage adjust rheostat

Verify wiring.

Voltage range adjust R2 is set too low

Refer to the setting procedure.

Potentiometer R89 out of adjustment

The adjustment is factory set. If it is accidently


adjusted during operation, contact Kato
Engineering.

Faulty regulator power stage

Test. If it is faulty, replace the voltage regulator or


power module.

Faulty printed circuit board

Replace the voltage regulator.

Defective rectifiers in the exciter, defective


exciter windings, or defective generator

Verify operation of the exciter and/or the


generator. Refer to the generator instruction
manual for additional information.

Generator output heavily loaded

Remove excessive load.

Voltage
builds up
until flashing circuitry
operates
and then
oscillates
between
approximately 1/3
to 2/3 rated
voltage

Faulty printed circuit board

Replace voltage regulator.

Voltage is
high and not
controllable
with the voltage adjust
rheostat

No voltage to sensing terminals on the


regulator

Verify wiring.

Page 40

Voltage is
high and not
controllable
with the voltage adjust
rheostat
(cont.)

Open sensing transformer

Verify wiring, and check for open windings.

Automatic/off/manual switch set to MAN

Set to Auto for automatic voltage regulation.

External voltage adjust rheostat shorted

Verify wiring. Use an ohmmeter to test resistance


across the rheostat. Replace shorted rheostat.

Internal wire from sensing terminals on the


regulator is not connected to the correct tap
on the sensing transformer(s)

Verify the nominal sensing voltage from the


generator and wiring to the sensing transformers.

Faulty regulator circuit board

Replace the voltage regulator.

Faulty regulator power stage SCRs or diodes Replace the power module or the voltage
regulator.
Voltage high,
controllable
with voltage adjust
rheostat

Poor regulation

Internal wire from terminals) E2 and E3 to


the wrong tap on the sensing transformer(s)
T1 and T3

Verify the nominal generator voltage. Correct the


wiring.

Improper connection of the sensing to the


regulator sensing terminals

Verify wiring to the voltage regulator.

Single-phase sensing applied to a regulator


designed for three-phase sensing

Connect three-phase sensing.

Voltage range adjust R2 set too high

Adjust R2 per the procedure.

R89 adjustment is off

Factory set. If accidently turned, contact Kato


Engineering.

Generator voltmeter is inaccurate

Connect a test voltmeter to check operation of


the generator output. Calibrate or replace the
meter.

Faulty regulator power stage

Replace the voltage regulator or power module.

Faulty regulator circuit board

Replace the voltage regulator.

Voltage at regulator terminals P1 and P2 are


too low at the nominal generator voltage

Input voltage for standard KCR 760 voltage


regulators is 100 to 139 Vac for a unit with 65
Vdc output and 200 to 240 Vac for a unit with 125
Vdc output.

Jumper not installed across terminals CT


and CT1 while the generator is operating
singly

Install a jumper.

Unit/parallel switch in PARALLEL during


single generator operation

Switch to UNIT.

Unit/parallel switch of the generator not on


the bus set to PAR position

Set the switch of the generators not on the bus to


UNIT.

The prime mover is not up to rated speed, or


the prime mover speed is fluctuating

Bring the prime mover up to rated speed and/or


adjust the governor.

Unbalanced load

Balance the load.

Exciter field resistance is too low and /or the


exciter field volts are too low

Add a series resistor. Resistance must not be


less than 6.5 for a 65 Vdc continuous full-load
rated regulator or 12.5 for a 125 Vdc regulator.
The voltage applied to the exciter field at no load
must not be less than 10 Vdc. Best operation
occurs when the voltage is about 20 Vdc during
no-load operation. The resistor must not limit
regulator output during full load operation.

Page 41

Poor regulation (cont.)

Faulty regulator circuit board

Replace the circuit board.

Faulty regulator power stage diodes or SCRs Replace the voltage regulator or power module.
Poor voltage
stability

Stability adjust R6 not adjusted to provide


sufficient stabilizing signal.

Adjust R6 per the procedure.

Frequency unstable.

Adjust the prime mover or the governor.

No-load field voltage and/or resistance is too


low

Add a series resistor. Resistance must not be


less than 6.5 for a 65 Vdc continuous full-load
rated regulator or 12.5 for a 125 Vdc regulator.
The voltage applied to the exciter field at no load
must not be less than 10 Vdc. Best operation
occurs when the voltage is about 20 Vdc during
no-load operation. The resistor must not limit
regulator output during full-load operation.

Voltage at regulator input power terminals P1 Input voltage for standard KCR 760 voltage
and P2 is too low
regulators is 100 to 139 Vac for a unit with 65
Vdc output and 200 to 240 Vac for a unit with 125
Vdc output.
Voltage fluctuated to a point where flashing
circuit energizes or de-energizes

Replace the circuit board or the voltage regulator.

Fault in the exciter or generator

Verify the exciter and generator operation.

Stability adjust R6 maladjusted

Adjust R6 per procedure.

Slow prime mover response

Check the speed governor operation, and adjust


as necessary.

Exciter field resistance too high

Refer to the specifications given. Resistance


must not limit regulator output.

Voltage regulator capacity is less than


exciter requirements

Refer to the regulator specifications.

Generator and/or prime mover are


overloaded

Reduce load to rated.

Underfrequency
limit (UFL)
operates at
too high or
too low of a
frequency

Prime mover needs adjustment.

Verify governor operation, and adjust as required.

Incorrect use of 50/60 or 400 Hz selector J1

Correct the use of jumper J1 per procedure.

Wrong voltage regulator

Contact Kato Engineering.

UFL threshold adjust (R55) not adjusted


correctly

Adjust R55 per procedure.

No droop
compensation can be
obtained
for parallel
generators

Jumper across terminals CT and CT1

Remove the jumper.

Voltage
recovery
slow on load
change

Page 42

No droop
compensation can be
obtained
for parallel
generators
(cont.)

Unit/parallel switch closed (set to UNIT)

Set the switch on the generator sets to PAR.


Leave the switch on UNIT on any generators that
will remain shutdown.

Parallel droop adjust R4 set to minimum


droop

Turn R4 clockwise to increase droop.

Parallel CT does not supply the correct


secondary current

When a 1 A CT is used, connect to the regulator


terminals CT and CT1. Terminals CT and CT5
are for use with a 5 A CT. Determine rated line
current and voltage, and consult the factory.
Verify the number of turns on the generator line
through transformer are correct.

Voltage rises
instead of
droops on
application
of inductive
load

Wrong polarity between the parallel CT


secondary leads and the regulator terminals

Interchange leads at terminals CT and CT1.


Where a 5 A CT is used, terminals will be CT
and CT5.

Parallel
generators
do not divide
reactive
kVAR load
equally
resulting in
circulating
reactive
current
between
generators

Terminals CT and CT1 or CT5 shorted by


jumper or unit/parallel switch

Remove the jumper. Set the unit/parallel switch


to PAR.

Unequal adjustment of voltage droop


potentiometers

Adjust for equal droop

Droop potentiometers on generators


operating parallel are set at different droop
positions

Adjust R4 on all generators for identical droop


per the procedure.

Wrong parallel CT or wrong ampere turns


through the CT primary

Consult Kato Engineering.

Parallel CT is not in the correct generator


line

Verify the wiring.

Parallel CT polarity is reversed

Interchange the CT secondary leads at the


regulators terminals. CT and CT1 are for use
with a 1 A CT. CT and CT5 are for use with a 5
A CT.

Parallel
Improper setting of the governor power
generators
sensing
do not evenly
divide kW
load

Adjust the governor.

Table 3: Troubleshooting

Page 43

Publication Number: 351-02014-00


Publication Date: September 1990
Revised: March 1998

INSTRUCTION MANUAL
FOR
DIODE FAULT DETECTOR
Part Number: 508-00118-40
508-00118-41
508-00118-42
508-00118-44
508-00118-45
508-00118-46 (7-95)
508-00118-47 (7-99)
508-00118-50 (12-95)
508-00118-52 (3-98)

KATO ENGINEERING
P.O. BOX 8447
MANKATO, MN 56002-8447
(507) 625-4011
FAX (507) 345-2798

DIODE FAULT DETECTOR ASSEMBLY


OPERATION
The diode fault detector (DFD) protects the generator exciter against damage due to diode
failures such as open, shorted, or leaky exciter diodes. The detector can be connected such
that the failure will sound an alarm or remove excitation from the generator and open the
generator circuit breaker. Kato Engineering recommends that the DFD be connected to an
alarm on an open diode and to shut down the generator excitation when a shorted diode is
detected.
SPECIFICATIONS
Input Power: Single phase, 120 VAC or 240 VAC, 50-180 Hz, 10 VA
Field Current: 7.5 Amps DC maximum
Output Contact Ratings: 1.5 Amps maximum @ 24VDC or 115VAC
CONNECTIONS (Figure 1)
The voltage regulator and DFD are powered from a PMG (permanent magnet generator) or
generator to provide a continuous power source. Four form C (SPDT) relay contacts are
provided for customer use.
CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION (Figure 2)
The AC components of the exciter field current are coupled to the DFD circuit board by input
transformer T2. The 4 pole, band-pass filter selectively amplifies the fundamental frequency
of the exciter output frequency. In normal operation, the generator exciter diodes induce
negligible exciter frequency content into the exciter field current. When an exciter diode
opens, the energy at the exciter frequency coupled into the exciter field current doubles.
When an exciter diode becomes shorted, the exciter frequency content increases by approximately ten times. The rectifier converts this signal to a dc voltage. The level detector compares this dc voltage to the trip level set by the sensitivity control. The appropriate level
detector changes state and signals the relay driver when an exciter diode failure has occurred. The open diode relay driver has a three second time delay before the relay is actuated and the yellow LED is illuminated. The shorted diode relay driver has less than a second
time delay before the relay is actuated and the red LED is illuminated.
MOUNTING
This unit can be mounted in any position.

ADJUSTMENTS
If the DFD was supplied and tested with the generator, it will function properly without further
adjustment. If the DFD was supplied separately, it will be necessary to set the dip switches
located on the circuit board, as described below. It may also be necessary to reduce the sensitivity of the DFD once the generator is operating, as described in the CHECKOUT section. The
switch settings are determined from the number of exciter poles, the generator speed (RPM),
and the power source frequency. To determine the number of exciter poles, match the first four
digits of the Exciter Field Assembly part number to the chart below. The Assembly part number
can be found on the Bill of Material or the Replacement Parts List supplied with the generator
instruction manual.
Exciter Field
No. of
Assembly No.
Exciter Poles
230-9xxxx-xx *
4,8,14
230-1xxxx-xx
14
230-2xxxx-xx
28
230-3xxxx-xx
24
230-6xxxx-xx
14
* Consult factory Refer Kato S/N
The power source for the DFD must be either the PMG, if one is included, or the generator.
Determine the generator RPM and the frequency of the PMG, if included, or the frequency of
the generator (if it does not have a PMG), from the generator nameplate. Divide the RPM by
the power source frequency to obtain one of the values in the header of the chart below. The
correct switch setting appears at the intersection of that column with the row corresponding to
the number of exciter poles.
Dip Switch Settings
RPM
POWER SOURCE FREQ.

NUMBER
OF
EXCITER
POLES

4
8
12
14
24
28

(GENERATOR OR PMG)

60
5,6,9
4,5,8
3,6,8,9
3,5,7,8,9,10
2,5,7,8
2,4,6,7,8,9

30
6,7,10
5,6,9
4,7,9,10
4,6,8,9,10,11
3,6,8,9
3,5,7,8,9,10

20
6,11,12
5,10,12
5,6,9
5,6,7,9,12
4,5,8
4,5,6,8,11,12

15
7,8,11
6,7,10
5,8,10,11
5,7,9,10,11,12
4,7,9,10
4,6,8,9,10,11

12
7,9
6,8
6,7,8,9
5,9,10
5,6,7,8
4,8,9

10
7,12
6,11,12
6,7,10
6,7,8,10,12
5,6,9
5,6,7,9,12

5
8,12
7,12
7,8,11
7,8,9,11
6,7,10
6,7,8,10,12

The dip switch position numbers indicated above are in the closed or on position.
The dip switch position numbers not indicated above are in the open or off position.

CHECKOUT
To be sure that the diode fault detector will function properly, perform the following checkout
procedure.
1. Start the generator set. Verify that the green status LED is on and that the diode fault
detector will not trip under normal full load operation.
2. If the DFD trips showing an open or shorted diode condition, shut down the generator and
verify that there are no open or shorted diodes. If the DFD tripped on an open diode condition
and upon inspection none was found, turn the adjustment for R1 on the DFD circuit board 1
turn counterclockwise. Restart the generator set and verify that the DFD does not trip showing an open diode condition. This procedure may have to be repeated a number of times.
3. Shut down the generator.
WARNING
BE SURE THE GENERATOR IS SHUT DOWN BEFORE ATTEMPTING TO INSPECT,
TROUBLESHOOT, OR REPAIR THE EXCITER DIODE ASSEMBLY. FAILURE TO FOLLOW THIS WARNING COULD RESULT IN SERIOUS INJURY OR ELECTROCUTION.
4. Disconnect one exciter diode lead to simulate an open diode condition.
NOTE: There is an insulated terminal where the heatsink outer edge is marked red. Remove
hardware and install exciter diode lead and reassemble all hardware (See Figure 4, page 7).
5. Restart the generator. The diode fault detector should detect the open diode indicated by
the yellow LED lighting and trip to actuate controls that shut down the generator. Remember
to reconnect the diode before restarting the generator set, observing the WARNING above.
If the diode fault detector fails to trip the generator controls, shut down the generator and
contact a Kato Engineering Representative for further instructions.
REPAIR AND REPLACEMENT
Because of the difficulty of making repairs on a conformal coated printed circuit board, replacement rather than repair is recommended. If a replacement diode fault detector is required, order from Kato Engineering Company, Parts and Service Department. Please be
sure to specify the Kato part number when ordering.

Figure 4