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Chapter 23

SELECTION OF ROD MILLS, BALL

MILLS,

PEBBLE MILLS AND REGRIND MILLS


CHESTER A. ROWLAND, JR.
MANAGER, GRINDING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT
AND GRINDING MILL APPLICATIONS
ALLIS-CHALMERS CORPORATION

Compartment M i l l s
Rod and B a l l
Ball
Pebble M i l l

INTRODUCTION
Comminution i s g e n e r a l l y a f e e d prepar a t i o n s t e p f o r subsequent processing
s t a g e s ; e x c e p t i o n s b e i n g when a f i n a l
product such a s a g g r e g a t e s , s p e c i f i c a t i o n sand, P o r t l a n d Cement, and s i m i l a r
Grinding, t h e
p r o d u c t s i s produced.
f i n e product phase of comminution, req u i r e s a l a r g e c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t and
f r e q u e n t l y i s t h e a r e a of maximum usage
of power and wear r e s i s t a n t m a t e r i a l s .

Figure 6
Figure 6a
Figure 6 b

Figure 8
Overflow B a l l M i l l s
Diaphragm ( G r a t e D i s c h a r g e ) B a l l
Mills
Figure 9
I.

GENERAL MILL DESIGN


A.

Grinding i s most f r e q u e n t l y done i n rot a t i n g drums u t i l i z i n g l o o s e g r i n d i n g


media, l i f t e d by t h e r o t a t i o n of t h e
drum, t o break t h e o r e s i n v a r i o u s comb i n a t i o n s of impact,
a t t r i t i o n and
a b r a s i o n t o produce t h e s p e c i f i e d product.
Grinding media can be t h e o r e
i t s e l f (autogenous g r i n d i n g -- primary
and s e c o n d a r y ) , n a t u r a l o r manufactured
non-metallic media ( p e b b l e m i l l i n g ) o r
manufactured
m e t a l l i c media -- s t e e l
r o d s , steel o r i r o n b a l l s .

Liners

The i n t e r i o r s u r f a c e o f g r i n d i n g
m i l l s exposed t o g r i n d i n g media
a n d / o r t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g ground
a r e p r o t e c t e d from wear and c o r r o s i o n by r u b b e r , m e t a l l i c , a combin a t i o n of r u b b e r and m e t a l l i c , o r
n o n - m e t a l l i c wear r e s i s t a n t materials.
B.

Drives

Economics a t t h e time o f p l a n t des i g n and m i l l p u r c h a s e d e t e r m i n e


t h e d r i v e t o be used.

This chapter w i l l d i s c u s s general m i l l


d e s i g n and t h e s p e c i f i c d e s i g n and app l i c a t i o n of t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s of
tumbling g r i n d i n g m i l l s .
Overflow Rod M i l l s
Figure 1
P e r i p h e r a l D i s c h a r g e Rod M i l l s
F i g u r e s 2 and 3

393

The s i m p l e s t d r i v e i s t h e low
speed
synchronous
motor
with
s p e e d s i n t h e r a n g e of 150 t o 250
RPM c o n n e c t e d t o t h e m i l l p i n i o n s h a f t by e i t h e r a n a i r c l u t c h o r
f l e x i b l e coupling.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


G r i n d i n g m i l l s e s s e n t i a l l y draw
c o n s t a n t power, t h u s
are well
s u i t e d f o r u s e of s y n c h r o n o u s mot o r s w i t h power f a c t o r c o r r e c t i o n
A
c a p a b i l i t i e s a s d r i v e motors.
n e t of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 120 t o 130%
of running torque i s required t o
cascade t h e charge i n t h e s e m i l l s .
The p u l l i n t o r q u e i s a b o u t 130 t o
140%- w i t h t h e p u l l o u t t o r q u e t o
keep t h e motor i n - s t e p (in-phase)
g e n e r a l l y i n e x c e s s of 150%.
When m i l l s a r e s t a r t e d a c r o s s t h e - l i n e t h e s t a r t i n g and p u l l - i n
torques r e s u l t i n inrush c u r r e n t s
e x c e e d i n g 600% which r e s u l t i n
possibly high v o l t a g e drops.
To
d e l i v e r 130% s t a r t i n g t o r q u e t o
t h e m i l l t h e motor d e s i g n must
t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e maximum ant i c i p a t e d v o l t a g e drop.
Motor
torque d e c r e a s e s a s t h e decimal
f r a c t i o n of t h e v o l t a g e a v a i l a b l e
s q u a r e d . E.g., a m o t o r r a t e d 160%
s t a r t i n g t o r q u e w i t h a 10% s y s t e m
v o l t a g e d r o p w i l l d e l i v e r 160% x
( 1 0 0 % - 1 0 % ) ~o r 129.6% t o r q u e t o
100
i t s output shaft.
When i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e o r p r a c t i c a l t o s t a r t a f u l l y l o a d e d synchronous motor across-the-line it
i s possible t o u t i l i z e the motor's
pull-out torque t o s t a r t t h e m i l l .
By u s i n g a c l u t c h , n o r m a l l y a n a i r
c l u t c h , between t h e m o t o r and t h e
m i l l , t h e m o t o r i s b r o u g h t up t o
synchronous
speed
before
the
I f t h e motor
clutch i s energized.
h a s a n a d e q u a t e amount (175% o r
g r e a t e r ) of p u l l - o u t
torque t h e
pull-out torque s t a r t s t h e m i l l
w i t h o u t m a j o r d i s r u p t i o n s of t h e
e l e c t r i c a l s y s tem.

s p e e d r a n g e , i f power f a c t o r torr e c t i o n is not required induction


m o t o r s c a n be used; s q u i r r e l c a g e
when t h e r e i s no r e s t r i c t i o n o n
i n r u s h c u r r e n t ; s l i p r i n g when a
s l o w s t a r t and low i n r u s h c u r r e n t
A i r c l u t c h e s can ali s required.
s o b e used t o e a s e s t a r t i n g problems w i t h s q u i r r e l cage motors.
I n some a r e a s of t h e world induct i o n motors and s t a r t e r s a r e l e s s
e x p e n s i v e t h a n synchronous motors
a t a s a c r i f i c e of motor e f f i c i e n c y
and power f a c t o r c o r r e c t i o n .
Dual d r i v e s , t h a t i s two p i n i o n s
d r i v i n g one g e a r mounted on t h e
m i l l , c a n become economical f o r
b a l l m i l l s drawing more t h a n 3500
t o 4000 horsepower (2600 t o 3000
kilowatts).
A t t h i s time, s i n g l e
p i n i o n d r i v e s w i t h r a t i n g s of 6000
horsepower i s a p r a c t i c a l l i m i t .
F u r t h e r developments of t h e low
f r e q u e n c y , low speed synchronous
m o t o r s w i t h t h e r o t o r mounted on
t h e m i l l s h e l l o r a n e x t e n s i o n of
t h e m i l l t r u n n i o n s c o u l d improve
t h e c o s t p i c t u r e f o r t h e s e "gearl e s s d r i v e s " , making them p r a c t i c a l for large ball m i l l s .
C r i t i c a l s p e e d , which i s t h e speed
a t which t h e c e n t r i f u g a l f o r c e i s
sufficiently large to
cause a
s m a l l p a r t i c l e t o adhere t o t h e
s h e l l l i n e r s f o r t h e f u l l revolut i o n of t h e m i l l .
C r i t i c a l speed
i s d e t e r m i n e d from t h e f o l l o w i n g :

Where D i s m i l l d i a m e t e r i n s i d e
l i n e r s s p e c i f i e d i n meters.

Since t h e energy r e l e a s e a t i n i t i a l c a s c a d e of t h e m i l l c h a r g e i s
a n i n v e r s e f u n c t i o n of a c c e l e r a t i o n t i m e , a minimum a c c e l e r a t i o n
t i m e o f 6 t o 1 0 s e c o n d s o r more i s
recommended t o p r e v e n t damage t o
t h e m i l l o r t h e m i l l foundation.

When D i s s p e c i f i e d i n f e e t :

Using a s p e e d r e d u c e r between t h e
motor and p i n i o n s h a f t p e r m i t s using motors having speeds i n t h e
r a n g e of 600 t o 1000 RPX.
In t h i s

P e r i p h e r a l s p e e d , which doesn' t
i n f l u e n c e m i l l power b u t i s a fact o r i n l i n e r wear and t o a n e x t e n t
m e d i a w e a r , h a s t o be c o n s i d e r e d

Nc

i s c r i t i c a l speed i n RPM.

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


i n m i l l design.
It c a n b e d e t e r mined by t h e f o l l o w i n g e i t h e r a s
meters per minute o r a s f e e t per
minute.

A r o d m i l l i s a tumbling m i l l i n
which r o d s a r e t h e g r i n d i n g media.
S e e F i g u r e s 1, 2 and 3.
Rod m i l l s a r e u s u a l l y used i n wet
grinding applications.
For t h e
f i n e r c o a r s e g r i n d s wet o v e r f l o w
( F i g u r e 1) rod m i l l s a r e used and
f o r t h e c o a r s e r g r i n d s c e n t e r per i p h e r a l d i s c h a r g e rod m i l l s ( F i g u r e 3 ) a r e used.
The l a t t e r c a s e
b e i n g f o r p r o d u c t s where a minimum
of e x t r e m e f i n e s a r e d e s i r e d s u c h
a s f o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n sand.

where
Np = P e r i p h e r a l speed
D = Diameter i n s i d e l i n e r s
W = M i l l speed i n rpm

To r e l a t e c r i t i c a l s p e e d and per i p h e r a l speed a s m i l l d i a m e t e r s


i n c r e a s e , t h e a v e r a g e recommended
speed a s p e r c e n t of c r i t i c a l s p e e d
d e c r e a s e s a s shown i n
T a b l e I.
These a r e g u i d e l i n e s f o r i n i t i a l
plant design.
A c t u a l s p e e d s may
d i f f e r from t h e s e t o s u i t s p e c i f i c
o r e and economic c o n d i t i o n s t h a t
apply t o the s p e c i f i c plant.
11.

395

ROD MILLS
When g r i n d i n g t o a c o a r s e p r o d u c t
s i z e i n t h e r a n g e o f 80% p a s s i n g
2.0 mm t o 80% p a s s i n g 0.5 mm
(sometimes f i n e r ) rod m i l l s a r e
n o r m a l l y used.
The f e e d s i z e c a n
b e a s c o a r s e a s 8 0 % p a s s i n g 20 mm
and a s f i n e a s 8 0 % p a s s i n g 4 mm.

Dry g r i n d i n g i n rod m i l l s i s gene r a l l y n o t recommended.


Dry mater i a l f l o w s p o o r l y and c a u s e s rod
s w e l l i n g which l e a d s t o rod b r e a k a g e and r o d t a n g l i n g .
Dry r o d
m i l l s a r e used f o r s p e c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s such a s
g r i n d i n g coke
breeze i n
iron
ore sintering
p l a n t s f o r g r i n d i n g cement c l i n k e r
( a n energy s a v e r but h i g h c a p i t a l
c o s t ) . Dry g r i n d i n g rod m i l l s a r e
u s u a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r end p e r i p h e r a l discharge (Figure 2) but can be
c e n t e r peripheral discharge (FigExcept i n c a s e s s u c h a s
u r e 3).
cement c l i n k e r d r y r o d m i l l s a r e
i n e f f i c i e n t power w i s e and s u b j e c t
t o m e c h a n i c a l problems p a r t i c u l a r l y rod t a n g l i n g .

Table I
Average % of Critical Speed

Mill Diameter
Inside Liners

% O f Critical Speed

Meters

Feet
-

0.91-1.83

3-6

76-73

1.83-2.74

6-9

2.74-3.66

Rodpeb

Compeb

80-78

75-72

78-75

73-70

78-75

72-70

75-72

9-1 2

70-67

75-72

70-68

72-70

3.66-4.57

12-15

67-64

72-69

70-68

4.57-5.49

15-18

69-66

Rod Mil 1s

Ball Mills

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS

FIGURE 3. Center Peripheral Discharge Rod Mill.

397

Grinding of coke breeze i n iron


o r e s i n t e r plants i s a s p e c i a l application.
The coke u s u a l l y has
some moisture and the horsepower
per tonne i s higher than calculated.
Swelling
of
the rod
charges increases with increasing
moisture so i t i s necessary t o use
a lower rod charge than the normal
40% of m i l l volume. Table I1 i s a
s p e c i a l capacity t a b l e f o r grinding coke breeze.

Table I 1
Rod M i l l i n g Coke Breeze
-

G r i ndi ng

Conditions

a,

L
2

a,
Ol

L
'7 a
0s
VI

zv

a-eH
In*

I-IN

a,

3 a,

Dl

VI
-7

or
zv

a-ea-e

00
~7

I-I

a,

L
2

aJ

VI

0 Cn
'r

o r
zv

=
w?
I
nI
n
~7

Mil1
Size

Horsepower
Req'd.
Motor

Grinding
Charge
(Kilograms)

Approx.
Capacity
(TPH ) *

77
93
134
205
240
299
339
398
431
466
500

75
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
400
450
500

6,800
8,200
12,100
17,100
20,100
23,800
26,300
30,900
34,600
37,300
40,100

5-112-6
7-8-112
10-10-1 12
14-15-112
19-112-28
22-23
24-26
29-31
31-33
34-36
36-38

76
5' x 9 '
5 ' x 12'
103
6 ' x 12'
147
7'x111
207
7 ' ~ 1 3 ' 246
8 ' ~ 1 2 ' 304
8 ' x 14'
356
9 ' x 13'
407
9 ' ~ 1 4 ' 440
9-1/2'~14'
516

75
100
150
200
250
3 00
350
4 00
450
500

7,600
10,400
15,300
19,300
23,000
26,700
31,300
37,700
40,800
45,800

9-9-112
12-13-112
17-17-112
24-25
29-30
36-37
42-43
48-50
53-54
61-63

x 8'
73
x111
102
x 12'
159
~ 1 0 ' 202
x 12'
245
x 11'
300
x 13'
356
~ 1 2 ' 405
x 13'
440
x 13'
516

75
100
150
200
250
300
350
4 00
450
500

7,800
11,100
17,500,
20,500
24,800
29,100
34,500
40,400
44,000
49,900

13-112-14
19-19-112
27-28
37-38
45-46
55-57
66-67
75-76
81-82
95-97

5' x 10'
5 ' x 12'
6 ' x 12'
7 ' ~ 1 2
7 ' ~ 1 4
8 ' x 13'
9 ' ~ 1 2
9 ' ~ 1 4
9-112' x 1 3 '
9-112' x 1 4 '
9-1/2'~15'

5'
5'
6'
7'
7'
8'
8'
9'
9'
9-112'

'
'
'
'

Capacity F i g u r e s M e t r i c Tonnes Approximate f o r 28 nun x 0 Feed S i z e ,


3 mm x 0 Product S i z e

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS

398

To p r e v e n t most c o n d i t i o n s l e a d i n g
t o rod charge t a n g l i n g , t h e genera l l y recommended r e l a t i o n s h i p o f
rod l e n g t h t o m i l l diameter i n s i d e
When t h i s
l i n e r s i s 1.4 t o 1.6.
r a t i o becomes l e s s t h a n 1.25 t h e
r i s k of tangling i n c r e a s e s rapidl y . F o r r o d m i l l s l a r g e r t h a n 3.8
m e t e r s (12.5 f e e t ) i n d i a m e t e r r o d
a v a i l a b i l i t y and q u a l i t y have t o
be considered.
T a b l e 111 g i v e s
rod l e n g t h t o m i l l d i a m e t e r r a t i o s
for the
larger
diameter
rod
mills.

The m i l l l e n g t h i n s i d e end l i n e r s
measured a l o n g t h e s u r f a c e of t h e
s h e l l l i n e r s s h o u l d be 0.1 t o 0.15
m e t e r s (4" t o 6") longer than t h e
rods, so t h a t the rods w i l l f i t i n
t h e l e n g t h of t h e g r i n d i n g chamber
without tipping o r laying across
t h e charge.
A slope a s steep a s
p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be used f o r rod
m i l l head ( e n d ) l i n e r s t o p r e v e n t
u n s u p p o r t e d e n d s o f r o d s from prot r u d i n g from t h e c h a r g e and b e i n g
b r o k e n u n d e r impact from o t h e r
rods.

6.8 m e t e r s ( 2 0 f e e t ) i s a p r a c t i c a l l i m i t on t h e l e n g t h of good
quality rods ( t h a t is rods t h a t
w i l l s t a y s t r a i g h t i n t h e m i l l and
w i l l break i n t o p i e c e s t h a t w i l l
d i s c h a r g e from
the
m i l l when
worn).
This length is a function
of rod q u a l i t y and p r o d u c t i o n l i m i t s imposed by t h e r o d manufacturers.

The r o d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s g i v e n i n
Table I V can be considered a s a
minimum s p e c i f i c a t i o n . B e t t e r rod
q u a l i t y , which r e d u c e s b r e a k a g e ,
a l l o w s wearing t h e rods
to a
s m a l l e r s i z e and which c a n r e d u c e
rod operating costs, is available.
The b e t t e r q u a l i t y r o d s a r e g e n e r a l l y recommended when u s i n g 100 mm
(4") diameter rods
and/or the
l a r g e r diameter rod m i l l s .

Table I11

Rod Mil 1 Diameter

Mil 1 Diameter
Inside

Rod Length

Rod Length
25 D

L = 1.4 D

Meters

Meters

Feet
-

Meters

Feet

3.81

4.76

15.6

5.33

17.5

3.96

4.95

16.2

5.54

18.2

4.11

5.14

16.9

5.75

18.9

4.27

5.34

17.5

5.98

19.6

6.19

20.3

6.40

21.0

6.61

21.7

6.83

22.4

7.04

23.1

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


Table I V
Minimum Rod S p e c i f i c a t i o n s

G r i n d i n g m i l l rods should be hard enough t o remain s t r a i g h t throughout


t h e i r e n t i r e l i f e , y e t t h e y cannot be so b r i t t l e as t o break up a t coarse
sizes.
When rods are t o o s o f t , t h e y a r e s u b j e c t t o bending i n t h e m i l l . Bending
causes premature breakage and tanglement o f rods. Tangled rods make m i l l
c l e a n i n g d i f f i c u l t and hazardous, and cause c o s t l y downtime.
M a t e r i a1 of t h e f o l 1owing chemical a n a l y s i s i s recommended:
CHEMICAL ANALYSIS

II

Carbon
Manganese

0.60 t o 0.90%

Silicon

0.15 t o 0.30%

Sulphur

0.05% Max.

Phosphorous

0.04% Max.

II

PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS
Rods should a l s o have t h e f o l l o w i n g p h y s i c a l requirements:

Rods are t o be s p e c i a l commercial s t r a i g h t e n e d .


Rods are t o be h o t sawed t o l e n g t h where m i l l
( s t e e l ) f a c i l i t i e s permit. I f h o t sawing i s
not p o s s i b l e , use an a b r a s i v e c u t t i n g wheel
o r machine c u t b o t h ends t o proper length.

A1 1 g r i n d i n g m i l 1 rods should be 152 mm ( 6


inches) s h o r t e r i n l e n g t h t h a n t h e working
length o f the rod m i l l .

The f e e d ends of r o d s wear i n t o a


long t a p e r e d "spear-shaped" prof i l e , while the discharge ends
wear i n t o more of a c o n i c a l shape.
Approximately
the
middle
two
t h i r d s of t h e rod l e n g t h e v e n t u a l l y wears i n t o an e l l i p t i c a l shaped
section.
Small p i e c e s of broken
r o d s can accumulate i n t h e m i l l
b e f o r e being
discharged.
The

t a p e r e d wear and a c c u m u l a t i o n of
broken r o d s r e d u c e s t h e b u l k dens i t y of t h e m i l l c h a r g e , and t h u s
m i l l power.
The rod c h a r g e b u l k d e n s i t y g i v e n
i n T a b l e V c a n be used t o d e t e r mine t h e power a rod m i l l w i t h a
worn-in c h a r g e s h o u l d draw.
Bulk
density i s variable, subject t o

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


Table V
Bulk D e n s i t y Worn-In Rod Charges

Bul k Density
KG Per Cubic Meter
Lbs Per Cubic Foot
New Rods
Worn-I n Charge
M i l l Diameter
Meters

Feet

0.91-1.83

3-6

1.83-2.74

6-9

2.74-3.66

9-12

3.66-4.57

12-15

c a r e g i v e n a rod c h a r g e ( " c u l l i n g "


o u t b r o k e n and t h i n r o d s ) , and experience i n d i c a t e s m i l l diameter
a l s o has an e f f e c t on bulk d e n s i t y
of t h e worn-in c h a r g e . The l a r g e r
t h e d i a m e t e r of t h e r o d m i l l t h e
l e s s p r a c t i c a l " c u l l i n g " of t h e
c h a r g e becomes, t h u s more b r o k e n
and worn r o d s i n t h e c h a r g e r e d u c ing
the bulk density
of t h e
charge.
Rod m i l l s n o r m a l l y c a r r y a r o d
c h a r g e from 3 5 t o 40% of m i l l v o l ume.
They c a n c a r r y up t o a 45%
charge.
The l i m i t s on c h a r g e
level are:
k e e p i n g t h e f e e d end
t r u n n i o n open s o f e e d w i l l go i n t o
t h e rod
t h e m i l l and k e e p i n g
c h a r g e low enough s o r o d s w i l l n o t
work i n t o t h e d i s c h a r g e end t r u n n i o n o p e n i n g , where t h e y c a n t i p
and c a u s e r o d t a n g l i n g .
Rod m i l l s a r e n o r m a l l y f e d by
s p o u t f e e d e r s a s shown i n F i g u r e
4. To g e t t h e p r o p e r f l o w of f e e d
i n t o t h e m i l l a minimum head of
1.5 m e t e r s ( 5 f e e t ) i s r e q u i r e d
above t h e m i l l c e n t e r l i n e t o t h e
b o t t o m of t h e f e e d h o p p e r t o which
t h e feeder i s attached.

Heavy d u t y s i n g l e wave s h e l l lin e r s c a s t of e i t h e r a l l o y s t e e l


(manganese s t e e l i s n o t recommended) o r wear r e s i s t a n t a l l o y e d
c a s t i r o n a r e most f r e q u e n t l y used
i n rod m i l l s .
The number of
l i f t e r s t o the c i r c l e i s usually
e q u a l t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6.6 D i n
m e t e r s ( f o r D i n f e e t d i v i d e 6.6 D
by 3.3).
These l i n e r s have 65 mm
(2.5") t o 90 mm ( 3 . 5 " )
h i g h waves
above 65 mm t o 7 5 mm (3") l i n e r s .
Rubber b a c k i n g c a n be used between
t h e l i n e r s and s h e l l t o p r o t e c t
t h e s h e l l from washing and c o r r o sion.
However, w i t h r u b b e r backi n g c a r e must be t a k e n w i t h t h e
liner
bolt
s p e c i f i c a t i o n s and
s e a l e r assembly t o a s s u r e t h e lin e r s w i l l s t a y t i g h t and n o t move
on t h e s h e l l .
This creates leaky
l i n e r b o l t s and c a u s e s t h e b o l t
h o l e s i n t h e s h e l l t o wear i n t o a n
elongated shape.
T h e r e a r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s such a s
t h e two p i e c e l i n e r - l i f t e r d e s i g n
t h a t c a n be used i n s t e a d of t h e
s i n g l e wave l i n e r .
Rubber s h e l l
l i n e r s have been s u c c e s s f u l l y app l i e d i n t h e s m a l l e r d i a m e t e r rod

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


m i l l s running a t
slow s p e e d s .
When u s i n g rubber l i n e r s c a r e must
be g i v e n t o u s i n g good q u a l i t y
r o d s and c u l l i n g broken and t h i n
r o d s from t h e c h a r g e .
Rubber lin e r s can h e l p r e d u c e t h e n o i s e
l e v e l emanating from a rod m i l l .
End l i n e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y a t h i c k ,
smooth l i n e r c a s t of a l l o y s t e e l .
Impacting from t h e rod c h a r g e ,
which h a s a l a t e r a l movement i n
the m i l l , requires great caution

401

i n u s i n g wear r e s i s t a n t c a s t i r o n
end l i n e r s .
Rubber l i n e r s c a n be
used w i t h c a u t i o n a s t h e y c a n be
s u b j e c t t o damage from t h e s h a r p
e n d s on worn rods.
Except when
using rubber l i n e r s t h e r e should
b e a r u b b e r backing between t h e
head l i n e r s and t h e heads.
End
l i n e r s s h o u l d be smooth w i t h no
waves o r l i f t e r s a s t h e s e c a n d i s r u p t rod a c t i o n and c a u s e rod
tangling.

FIGURE 4. Spout Feeder

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


The g e n e r a l d e s i g n t r e n d i s t o
have a minimum s l o p e on end liners.
Some m i l l s l e s s t h a n 3.35
m e t e r s i n d i a m e t e r have v e r t i c a l
end l i n e r s t o h e l p keep t h e r o d s
s t r a i g h t i n the m i l l .
In l a r g e r
m i l l s t h e s l o p e i s from 3 " t o 7 "
t o keep t h e weight of t h e end lin e r s t o a w e i g h t t h a t c a n be supported i n the m i l l .
One m i l l manu f a c t u r e r h a s used end l i n e r s w i t h
a 20" s l o p e .
Overflow rod m i l l s c a n be equipped
w i t h trommels t o remove b r o k e n
p i e c e s of r o d s and tramp o v e r s i z e
from t h e rod m i l l d i s c h a r g e .
The
d i s c h a r g e end of a n o v e r f l o w rod
m i l l c a n be e n c l o s e d i n a h o u s i n g
which w i l l h e l p c o n t a i n t h e n o i s e
and s p l a s h coming from t h e m i l l .
A d o o r s h o u l d be provided a t t h e
end of t h e h o u s i n g which c a n be
opened f o r c h a r g i n g rods.
Suf f ic i e n t c l e a r space a t t h e discharge
end of t h e m i l l s h o u l d be a l l o w e d
f o r c h a r g i n g rods.
See F i g u r e
5.

The f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n i s used t o
d e t e r m i n e t h e power t h a t a rod
m i l l should draw.

KW~=
where
kWr = K i l o w a t t s per m e t r i c
t o n n e of rods
(1000 kg.)
D
= M i l l diameter i n s i d e
l i n e r s i n meters.
Vp = F r a c t i o n of m i l l
volume loaded w i t h
rods.
C,- = F r a c t i o n of c r i t i c a l
speed.
I n terms of m i l l d i a m e t e r i n f e e t
and rod c h a r g e i n s h o r t t o n s (2000
pounds) t h e e q u a t i o n becomes:

K W =~1.07D0.34
(6.3- 5.4 Vp) Ca

FIGURE 5. Rod M~lI/BallMill Installation: shows space for rod charging

(3a)

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


Table V I l i s t s many of t h e common
s i z e rod m i l l s g i v i n g speed, loading and power d a t a .
The power i s
i n horsepower a t t h e m i l l pinionshaft.
For d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h rod
m i l l s power v a r i e s d i r e c t l y a s rod
length. For d i f f e r e n c e between new
and worn l i n e r s i n c r e a s e power
draw by 6X, and ad j u s t f o r b u l k
d e n s i t y p e r Table V.
The rod compartment of a rod-ball
compartmented m i l l , s e e F i g u r e 6 ,
i s t h e same a s a n overflow rod
m i l l . When wet rod m i l l i n g a nona b r a s i v e mineral o r m a t e r i a l t o
prepare feed f o r a wet open cir-

403

c u i t b a l l m i l l and when t h e same


d i a m e t e r m i l l s can be used mechani c a l l y , i t i s f e a s i b l e t o make t h e
two
mills
into
one
multicompartment m i l l .
These m i l l s a r e
found wet g r i n d i n g cement raw mat e r i a l and a r e a l s o
used f o r
g r i n d i n g b a u x i t e i n a c a u s t i c sol u t i o n . The c a l c u l a t i o n s r e l a t i v e
t o t h e rod compartment a r e t h e
same a s f o r a s e p a r a t e rod m i l l .
Since i t i s harder t o replace rods
t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l between adding
new r o d s i s a month o r more, some
a d d i t i o n a l r e s e r v e must be added
t o a l l o w t h e rod compartment t o
perform i t s work a t a lower t h a n
normal (40%) rod charge.

FIGURE 6. RodIBall (RODPEB) Compartmented Mill

0.91 3.0 1.22


1.22 4.0 1.83
1.52 5.02.44
1.83 6.0 3.05
2.13 7.0 3.35
2.44 8.0 3.66
2.59 8.5 3.66
2.74 9.0 3.66
2.89 9.5 3.96
3.0510.04.27
3.20 10.5 4.57
3.35 11.0 4.88
3.51 11.5 4.88
3.66 12.0 4.88
3.81 12.5 5.49
3.96 13.0 5.79
4.12 13.5 5.79
4.27 14.0 6.10
4.42 14.5 6.10
4.57 15.0 6.10

4
6
8
10
11
12
12
12
13
14
15
16
16
16
18
19
19
20
20
20

Ft

Ft

Rod
Mil1
Length

Rod
Mil1
Diameter

Ft

L/D

5847
5847
5847
5847
5766
5766
5766
5766
5606
5606
5606
5606
5606
5606
5446
5446
5446
5446
5446
5446

365
365
365
365
360
360
360
360
350
350
350
350
350
350
340
340
340
340
340
340

1.0
2.25
6.91
13.1
20.0
29.0
33.0
36.0
42.7
51.5
61.4
72.5
79.7
82.7
104
120
130
147
159
171
1.13
2.58
7.95
15.0
22.8
33.2
37.7
41.1
48.8
59.0
70.1
82.8
90.7
99.8
119
137
148
169
181
194

1.27
2.9
8.89
16.8
25.6
37.4
42.5
45.5
54.9
63.8
78.9
93.5
103
112
134
154
166
190
204
219
1.1
2.48
7.62
14.4
22.0
32.0
36.4
39.7
47.1
56.8
67.7
79.9
87.8
91.1
115
132
143
162
175
188

1.25
2.84
8.76
16.5
25.1
36.6
41.6
45.3
53.8
65.0
77.3
91.3
100
110
131
151
163
186
200
214
1.4
3.2
9.8
18.5
28.2
41.2
46.8
50.1
60.5
70.3
87.0
103
1.13
123
148
170
183
209
225
241

7
23
57
114
181
275
318
344
416
507
609
735
819
906
1093
1264
1385
1580
1715
1853

1
25
61
122
194
295
341
369
446
544
653
788
878
972
11
1356
1486
1695
1840
1988

2.5
3.5
4.5
5.5
6.5
7.5
8.0
8.35
8.85
9.35
9.85
10.35
10.85
11.35
11.85
12.35
12.85
13.35
13.85
14.35

D i a (D)
Inside
New
Liners
M
Ft

8 0.76
26 1.07
641.37
128 1.68
204 1.98
310 2.29
359 2.44
388 2.55
470 2.70
5722.85
687 3.00
829 3.15
924 3.31
1023 3.46
1234 3.61
1426 3.76
1562 3.92
1783 4.07
1935 4.22
2091 4.37

Bulk
Rod Charge Weight
M i l l Power
Density
Rod
M e t r i c Tonnes
Short Tons
% Volumetric
Charge
% Volumetric Loading % Volumetric Loading
Loading
RPM % CS FPM kg/ms l b / f t 3
35
40
35
40
45
45
35 1 40 1 45

M i l l Speed

1.07 3.5 1.4 36.1 74.5 284


1.68 5.5 1.57 30.6 74.7 336
2.29 7 . 5 1 . 6 7 2 5 . 7 7 1 . 2 3 6 3
2.90 9.5 1.73 23.1 70.7 399
3.20 10.5 1.62 21.0 69.9 428
3.51 11.5 1.53 19.4 69.3 457
3.51 11.5 1.44 18.7 69.0 470
3.51 11.5 1.38 17.9 67.5 470
3.81 12.5 1.41 17.4 67.6 483
4.1113.51.4416.867.0493
4.42 14.5 1.47 16.2 66.4 501
4.72 15.5 1.50 15.9 66.8 517
4.72 15.5 1.43 15.5 66.6 528
4.72 15.5 1.37 15.1 66.4 538
5.34 17.5 1.48 14.7 66.0 547
5.64 18.5 1.50 14.3 65.6 555
5.64 18.5 1.44 14.0 65.5 565
5.94 19.5 1.46 1.3.6 64.9 570
5.94 19.5 1.41 13.3 64.6 579
5.94 19.5 1.36 13.0 64.3 586

Rod
Length
(L 1

Rod M i l 1 Power a t M i l 1 P i n i o n s h a f t (Horsepower)

Table V I

406

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


The v a r i o u s r o d m i l l m a n u f a c t u r e r s
h a v e d i f f e r e n t e q u a t i o n s f o r det e r m i n i n g t h e power
rod m i l l s
d r a w , b u t a l l come c l o s e t o t h e
same c a l c u l a t e d power d r a w , as
given i n Table V I .

which a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be nona b r a s i v e , where r o l l e r m i l l s ( F i g ure


7 ) c a n b e more e c o n o m i c a l l y
A b a l l m i l l i s a tumbling
used.
m i l l i n which m e t a l l i c b a l l s o r
s p e c i a l shapes a r e t h e grinding
media, s e e F i g u r e s 8 and 9 .

BALL MILLS

When g r i n d i n g t o i n t e r m e d i a t e prod u c t s i z e s i n t h e range of 80%


p a s s i n g 0.5 mm t o 8 0 % p a s s i n g 7 5
micrometers and t o f i n e products,
t h o s e f i n e r t h a n 80% p a s s i n g 7 5
micrometers, b a l l m i l l s a r e used
e x c e p t when d r y g r i n d i n g m a t e r i a l s

B a l l m i l l s c a n be used f o r e i t h e r
wet g r i n d i n g o r
dry grinding.
Normally e i t h e r
following u n i t
processes o r the material i t s e l f
w i l l d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r wet o r d r y
g r i n d i n g s h o u l d be used.

FIGURE 7 Roller Mill

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS

FIGURE 8. Overflow Ball Mill.

FIGURE'S. D~aphragrn(Grate) D~schargeBall MIII, Dry Grinding Type

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


The f e e d t o d r y g r i n d i n g b a l l
m i l l s must b e d r y c o n t a i n i n g l e s s
There
t h a n 1%m o i s t u r e by w e i g h t .
is a loss in
e f f i c i e n c y when t h e
feed contains s u f f i c i e n t moisture
t o s l o w down t h e f l o w r a t e o r
c a u s e c o a t i n g of
the grinding
Drying
media a n d / o r m i l l l i n e r s .
c a n be accomplished i n one of t h e
f o l l o w i n g ways :
A.

Separate
dryer-rotary-fluosolids, etc.

B.

D r y i n g i n t h e m i l l by d r a w i n g
hot gases through t h e m i l l
with a p a r t i a l or t o t a l a i r
sweeping.

C.

Combined d r y e r a n d b a l l m i l l
with the dryer
being t h e
f i r s t compartment
and t h e
b a l l m i l l t h e s e c o n d compartment.
The b a l l m i l l compartment i s a i r swept b e c a u s e
g a s e s from t h e
dryer a r e
pulled through it.

D.

Drying i n t h e a i r s e p a r a t o r
where t h e f e e d goes t o t h e
a i r s e p a r a t o r . Hot g a s e s a r e
drawn t h r o u g h t h e a i r s e p a r a t o r drying the
new f e e d .
Drying a l s o o c c u r s i n t h e
b u c k e t e l e v a t o r u s e d t o convey t h e m i l l d i s c h a r g e , w h i c h
i s h o t , and t h e new f e e d t o
the a i r separator.

E x c e p t f o r f u l l y a i r swept m i l l s ,
d r y g r i n d i n g b a l l m i l l s a r e supp l i e d w i t h low l e v e l d i s c h a r g e d i aphragms ( F i g u r e 1 0 ) .
With a i r
swept and p a r t i a l a i r swept m i l l s ,
t h e a i r volume and v e l o c i t y w i l l
be t h a t r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y t h e
coarsest particle
size desired
Classification to
from t h e m i l l .
c l o s e t h e m i l l c i r c u i t is used,
therefore the largest particle t o
b e swept from t h e m i l l w i l l b e
l a r g e r than t h e d e s i r e d product
size.
Diaphragm d i s c h a r g e m i l l s
w i l l r e q u i r e a s u f f i c i e n t a i r draw
t o keep t h e m i l l under n e g a t i v e
pressure t o prevent
d u s t from
l e a k i n g from t h e m i l l a r o u n d t h e
f e e d e r and d i s c h a r g e h o u s i n g .
Dry

use spout
grinding b a l l m i l l s
feeders ( s e e Figure 4 ) with a i r
s e a l s . A rule-of-thumb f o r d e t e r mining t h e a i r required f o r dust
control is:
5.5 c u b i c
Closed
Circuit
m e t e r s p e r hour per horsepower of m i l l power.
Open
Circuit
5.0 c u b i c
m e t e r s p e r hour p e r h o r s e power of m i l l power.
Being f r e e of t h e l i m i t s imposed
o n r o d m i l l s by t h e r o d s , b a l l
m i l l s h a v e more
variations i n
l e n g t h t o diameter r a t i o s , ranging
from s l i g h t l y less t h a n 1:l t o
some g r e a t e r t h a n 2 : l .
There a r e
n o f i x e d r u l e s o n t h e p r o p e r L/D
r a t i o s t o use a s these vary with
t h e c i r c u i t used, o r e type, feed
s i z e and o v e r a l l g r i n d i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s . T a b l e VII g i v e s some rough
g u i d e l i n e s showing, based upon
p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , t h e g e n e r a l L/D
r a t i o s used i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of
ball mills.
Depending upon t h e s i z e of make-up
b a l l s used, a d v e r s e b a l l segregat i o n , t h a t i s l a r g e b a l l s going t o
t h e d i s c h a r g e end and s m a l l b a l l s
t o t h e feed end, can occur a s t h e
L/D becomes l a r g e r .
This begins
t o o c c u r a s t h e make-up b a l l s i z e
i s l a r g e r t h a n 65 mm (2.5").
G r i n d i n g b a l l s c a n b e made of
forged o r c a s t s t e e l o r c a s t iron.
The q u a l i t y
depends
upon t h e
s o u r c e of supply.
While n o t a l ways t r u e , f r e q u e n t l y t h e b e t t e r
q u a l i t y b a l l s a r e forged s t e e l .
Generally b a l l s a r e s p h e r i c a l but
they can be i n various cylindric a l , conical or other irregular
shapes.
B a l l s vary considerably
i n hardness w i t h s o f t b a l l s having
B r i n n e l l hardnesses i n t h e range
o f 350 t o 450, a n d t h e h a r d b a l l s
h a v e h a r d n e s s e s i n e x c e s s of 700.
A rule-of-thumb
s u b j e c t t o argument is: " t h e h a r d e r t h e b a l l t h e
b e t t e r i t s l i f e " (provided it i s
n o t t o o b r i t t l e and b r e a k s o r becomes t o o h i g h l y p o l i s h e d and t o o
smooth t o n i p t h e m a t e r i a l b e i n g
ground).

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


Local economics and t h e s p e c i f i c
grinding a p p l i c a t i o n generally a r e
the deciding f a c t o r s i n s e l e c t i n g
t h e b a l l s t o use.
The b a l l s giving t h e lowest o p e r a t i n g c o s t and
b e s t performance a r e g e n e r a l l y sel e c t e d . This need n o t be t h e lowe s t priced b a l l s a v a i l a b l e nor the
ones g i v i n g t h e l o w e s t wear r a t e ,
but c a n be a compromise between
t h e two extremes.
B a l l s should be s o l i d w i t h a reasonably uniform h a r d n e s s through
the e n t i r e ball.
They s h o u l d wear
i n a r e l a t i v e l y uniform p a t t e r n .
An i n d i c a t o r of good b a l l wear i s
when t h e worn b a l l s d i s c h a r g i n g
from t h e m i l l a r e around 16 mm
(518") o r s m a l l e r i n s i z e and a r e

409

polygon shaped having a s many a s 8


t o 12 s u r f a c e s , which
c a n be
s l i g h t l y concave.
Evidence of
broken b a l l s i s found when p i e c e s
of b a l l s a r e being d i s c h a r g e d ,
some a s c i r c u l a r d i s c s , some a s
h a l f rounds, some c r e s c e n t shaped.
P i e c e s of worn o r broken b a l l s
w i t h h o l e s i n them i n d i c a t e poor
q u a l i t y b a l l s w i t h sand i n c l u s i o n s
a n d / o r blow h o l e s a n d / o r h o l l o w
centers.
For c a l c u l a t i n g t h e power t h a t a
b a l l m i l l w i l l draw, f o r g e d s t e e l
and c a s t s t e e l b a l l s a r e assumed
t o weigh 4646 k i l o g r a m s p e r c u b i c
m e t e r (290 pounds p e r c u b i c f o o t )
w i t h c a s t i r o n b a l l s weighing 4165
kg p e r m3 (260 p c f ) .

ON
PLATE)

! RING

HE AD

FIGURE 10. Discharge Diaphragm

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


Table V I I
Ball Mil 1 L I D Ratio - Application General Guidelines

Type o f G r i n d i n g

Feed 80% Passing S i z e


Micromters
5,000 t o 10,000

Wet

900 t o

Wet
Wet o r D r y

4,000

F i n e Feeds

Regrind
Open C i r c u i t

Wet o r D r y

F i n e Feeds

Dry

5,000 t o 10,000

Dry

900 t o

Top B 11 S i z e
Millimeter

4,000

B a l l m i l l s normally c a r r y a b a l l
c h a r g e o c c u p y i n g from 4 0 t o 45% of
t h e m i l l v o l u m e , b u t c a n c a r r y up
to
a 50% o r
slightly higher
charge.
F i g u r e 11 shows t h e relat i o n s h i p of m i l l power and v o l u metric loading.
F o r p l a n t capac i t y and d e s i g n purposes, b a l l
mills
are
frequently selected
b a s e d upon
carrying
40% b a l l
c h a r g e s w i t h t h e m i l l s and d r i v e s
designed t o c a r r y h i g h e r charges
i f required.
However, d r y g r i n d i n g b a l l m i l l s
n o r m a l l y c a r r y from a 3 5 t o 40%
b a l l c h a r g e w i t h a i r swept m i l l s
carrying even
a
lower charge
n e a r e r t o 30% o f m i l l volume.
P l a n t d e s i g n , c a p i t a l c o s t and
operating c o s t s a l l influence b a l l
m i l l feeder selection.
When a 45
t o 50% b a l l c h a r g e i s t o be c a r r i e d i n a wet g r i n d i n g b a l l m i l l ,
g e n e r a l l y a double scoop f e e d e r a s
This
shown i n F i g u r e 1 2 i s used.
i s a more e x p e n s i v e f e e d e r t h a n a
s p o u t f e e d e r as shown i n F i g u r e 4 ,
which c a n a l s o b e used t o feed
When a wet g r i n d i n g
ball mills.
b a l l m i l l is closed circuited with
a rake o r s p i r a l c l a s s i f i e r , a
scoop f e e d e r i s r e q u i r e d t o feed
t h e c i r c u l a t i n g load
into the
mill.
With cyclone c l a s s i f i e r s
s p o u t f e e d e r s c a n b e used.
Spout
f e e d e r s a r e used on d r y g r i n d i n g

60 t o 90

2.5 t o 3.5

40 t o 50

1.8 t o 2.0

20 t o 30

LID R a t i o

Inches

314 t o 1-114

20 t o 50

314 t o 2

60 t o 90

2.5 t o 3.5

40 t o 50

1.8 t o 2.0

m i l l s operating i n closed c i r c u i t
w i t h a i r c l a s s i f i e r s o r mechanical
a i r separators.
On open c i r c u i t wet o r d r y g r i n d i n g drum f e e d e r s a s shown on Figu r e 1 3 c a n be used.

S p o u t f e e d e r s used w i t h wet g r i n d i n g m i l l s a l l o w a r r a n g e m e n t where


t h e c l a s s i f i e r u n d e r f l o w f l o w s by
g r a v i t y i n t o t h e s p o u t f e e d e r hopper.
Therefore, t h e cyclone class i f i e r s must b e i n s t a l l e d h i g h
enough t o o b t a i n t h e head r e q u i r e d
f o r t h i s f l o w i n t o t h e hopper.
T h i s c a n r e s u l t i n h i g h pumping
h e a d s and pump power t o pump t h e
m i l l discharge t o
the cyclone
classifiers.
F i g u r e 1 4 shows a s i n g l e s t a g e
b a l l m i l l i n s t a l l a t i o n u s i n g doub l e scoop f e e d e r s w i t h cyclone
c l a s s i f i e r s i n s t a l l e d a t about the
h o r i z o n t a l c e n t e r l i n e of t h e m i l l .
Depending upon t h e
r a d i u s and
w i d t h o f t h e s c o o p s and t h e capac i t y (including c i r c u l a t i n g load)
d o u b l e s c o o p f e e d e r s consume from
2 5 t o 3 0 k i l o w a t t s ( 3 0 t o 40
horsepower).
T h i s arrangement red u c e s pumping head and power cons i d e r a b l y and must be b a l a n c e d
a g a i n s t h i g h e r maintenance c o s t
f o r t h e scoop feeder.

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS

60 -

2b

i5

i0

i5

4b

45

50

i5

66b

% OF MILL VOLUME OCCUPIED BY BALL OR PEBBLE CHARGE


FIGURE1 1. Grinding Mill Power vs Loading.

FIGURE 12. Single Scoop Feeder with Ball Charging Drum. (Double Scoop is available)

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


Make-up g r i n d i n g b a l l s a r e f e d t o
t h e m i l l a s r e q u i r e d through t h e
m i l l f e e d e r with t h e m i l l i n operation.
B a l l s may feed d i r e c t l y
through a spout, b u t should not be
f e d i n t o a scoop box because of
p o s s i b l e jamming and s e r i o u s m i l l
damage.
Scoop f e e d e r s u s u a l l y
have a c e n t r a l b a l l feed p i p e o r a
s m a l l b a l l charging drum t o accomplish this.

i n the m i l
t h e waves
b a l l s can
lifters.

For 65 mm (2.5")
and smaller
top s i z e b a l l s f o r c a s t metal
l i n e r s use d o u b l e wave l i n e r s
w i t h t h e number of l i f t e r s t o
t h e c i r c l e approximately 13.1
D i n meters ( f o r D i n f e e t
Wave
d i v i d e 13.1 D by 3.3).
h e i g h t from 40 t o 65 mm (1518" t o 2-112") above t h e liner thickness, l i n e r thickn e s s i s from 40 t o 50 mm (1518" t o 2").
Rubber l i n e r s
o f t h e i n t e g r a l molded d e s i g n
follow the c a s t metal design.
If
using
the replaceable
l i f t e r bar d e s i g n i n e i t h e r
m e t a l o r r u b b e r t h e number of
lifters
should
be
about
D i n meters ( f o r D i s
3.3
i n f e e t d i v i d e 3.3
D by
3.3) w i t h t h e l i f t e r h e i g h t
above t h e l i n e r s about t w i c e
t h e l i n e r thickness.
The u s e of d o u b l e wave lin e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when u s i n g
50 mm ( 2 " ) o r l a r g e r b a l l s ,
may show a l o s s of 5% o r s o

l power

wear
nest
When

draw u n t i l
i n and t h e
between t h e
l i n e r s , and

d o u b l e wave l i n e r s i n p a r t i c u l a r , wear w i t h circumferent i a l grooves, s l i p p i n g of t h e


c h a r g e i s i n d i c a t e d , and t h i s
warns of a c c e l e r a t e d wear.
When t h e t o p s i z e b a l l i s
s m a l l e r t h a n 65 mm (2.5") and
m i l l speed i s less t h a n 72%
of c r i t i c a l wear r e s i s t a n t
c a s t i r o n s c a n b e used.
For
other conditions alloyed c a s t
steel i s recommended.

There a r e many d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n s
and s t y l e s of b a l l m i l l l i n e r s .
A s w i t h g r i n d i n g b a l l s l o c a l economics and u l t i m a t e l y o p e r a t i n g
c o s t s determine t h e b e s t d e s i g n
and m a t e r i a l t o use.
The i n i t i a l
s e t of l i n e r s i s r a r e l y t h e f i n a l
d e s i g n s e l e c t e d . Based upon i n d i vidual experience, m i l l superint e n d e n t s develop p r e f e r e n c e s f o r
l i n e r designs.
The f o l l o w i n g i s
given a s a guide f o r the i n i t i a l
s e t of l i n e r s .

A.

413

Rubber l i n e r s a r e w e l l s u i t e d
t o t h i s same a r e a and n o t
o n l y reduce o p e r a t i n g c o s t s
but can reduce n o i s e l e v e l s .
Due t o t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e
f e e d and t h e h e a t g e n e r a t e d
i n g r i n d i n g going i n t o t h e
feed, t h e temperatures i n dry
grinding m i l l s a r e too high
t o a l l o w t h e u s e of r u b b e r
liners.
B.

S i n g l e wave l i n e r s a r e recommended f o r l a r g e r s i z e b a l l s
The
( 6 0 mmI2.5" and l a r g e r ) .
number of t h e l i f t e r s t o t h e
c i r c l e equals approximately
6.6 D i n m e t e r s ( f o r D i n
f e e t d i v i d e 6.6 D by 3.3).
The l i n e r s a r e from 50 t o 65
mm t h i c k ( 2 " t o 2.5") w i t h
t h e waves from 60 t o 75 mm
(2.5"
t o 3") above t h e lin e r s . The r e p l a c e a b l e l i f t e r
b a r d e s i g n made of e i t h e r
m e t a l o r rubber i n a b o u t t h e
same d e s i g n p r o p o r t i o n s c a n
b e used.
There c o u l d be a
l o s s i n power w i t h r u b b e r lin e r s of up t o 10%.
Rubber
l i n e r s a r e n o t recommended
when t h e b a l l s i z e i s l a r g e r
t h a n 75 mm.
Because of t h e i m p a c t i n g from
t h e l a r g e b a l l s , s i n g l e wave
liners for ball m i l l s are
u s u a l l y made
from a l l o y e d

DESIGN, INSTALLATIONOF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


s t e e l o r s p e c i a l wear r e s i s t ant alloyed c a s t irons.
Bec a u s e of t h e d i f f i c u l t y of
balancing growth
and wear
w i t h work h a r d e n i n g , mangan e s e s t e e l i s used i n f r e q u e n t l y and t h e n w i t h e x t r e m e
c a r e t o a l l o w f o r growth.

t e g r a l r a d i a l r i b s o r with
replaceable l i f t e r s o r with
both.
E.

T h e r e a r e c a s e s where d o u b l e
wave l i n e r s h a v e been used a s
replacement l i n e r s f o r s i n g l e
wave l i n e r s . T h i s r e q u i r e s a
s t u d y of wear p a t t e r n s m i l l
power, c a p a c i t y and o p e r a t i n g
costs.
C.

C l a s s i f y i n g l i n e r s h a v e been
used i n b a l l m i l l s t o p u t t h e
l a r g e r b a l l s a t t h e f e e d end
and t h e s m a l l e r b a l l s a t t h e
d i s c h a r g e end.
Spiral shell
l i n e r s s u c h a s shown i n Figu r e 9 h a v e been u s e d s u c c e s s fully.
The s p i r a l i s a n advancing s p i r a l .
The s q u a r e m i l l l i n e r a l s o
known a s a c l a s s i f y i n g l i n e r
gives a square configuration
t o t h e i n s i d e of t h e m i l l .
T h e r e a r e a s e r i e s of o f f
s e t t i n g c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l rows
which r e t a r d t h e movement of
b a l l s and a l l o w a b e t t e r mat e r i a l f l o w and f i l l i n g of
t h e b a l l charge.
There have
been s u c c e s s e s and f a i l u r e s
It
w i t h t h i s t y p e of l i n e r .
d o e s r e d u c e m i l l volume and
cause a reduction
i n the
In
power drawn by t h e m i l l .
some c a s e s a r e d u c t i o n i n
power p e r t o n n e h a s o c c u r r e d ,
improving g r i n d i n g e f f i c i e n cy.
In other cases t h e r e has
been a c o r r e s p o n d i n g reduct i o n i n c a p a c i t y w i t h t h e red u c t i o n i n power draw.

D.

End l i n e r s f o r b a l l m i l l s
conform t o t h e s l o p e o f t h e
m i l l head and c a n be made of
rubber, alloyed c a s t s t e e l o r
wear-resistant c a s t iron.
To
p r e v e n t r a c i n g and e x c e s s i v e
wear end l i n e r s
for ball
m i l l s a r e furnished w i t h in-

When a g r a t e d i s c h a r g e i s
u s e d , t h e g r a t e s and wear
p l a t e s a r e n o r m a l l y perpendic u l a r t o t h e m i l l a x i s while
t h e d i s c h a r g e pans conform t o
t h e s l o p e of t h e m i l l head.
The g r a t e s and wear p l a t e s
a r e n o r m a l l y made from a l loyed
wear-resistant
cast
s t e e l o r rubber.
They a r e
r i b b e d t o p r e v e n t r a c i n g and
e x c e s s i v e wear.
The d i s c h a r g e r s and pans a r e genera l l y made from e i t h e r wearr e s i s t a n t c a s t i r o n o r rubber, o r wear-resistant fabricated s t e e l .
S l o t p l u g g i n g c a n be a problem i n g r a t e d i s c h a r g e m i l l s .
Whether t h e g r a t e s a r e made
of m e t a l o r r u b b e r t h e s l o t s
should
have
ample r e l i e f
t a p e r e d toward t h e d i s c h a r g e
side.
T o t a l a n g l e s 7 t o 10
d e g r e e s (3.5 t o 5 d e g r e e s p e r
side)
are
commonly used.
Metal g r a t e s o f t e n have a
small lead-in
pocket o r rec e s s which c a n f i l l i n w i t h
peened m e t a l r a t h e r t h a n have
the s l o t
peen s h u t .
With t h e proper combination
of m e t a l i n t e r n a l s and rubber
s u r f a c e s , r u b b e r g r a t e s have
f l e x i b i l i t y t h a t t e n d t o make
them s e l f c l e a n i n g and y e t
n o t f a i l due
t o flexing.
Rubber g r a t e s cannot be used
i n dry grinding b a l l mills.

F.

Except when u s i n g r u b b e r liners, t h e m i l l surfaces a r e


covered with
a protective
rubber o r p l a s t i c m a t e r i a l t o
protect the
s u r f a c e s from
p u l p r a c i n g and c o r r o s i o n .
T h i s i s done i n wet g r i n d i n g
mills.
Since dry grinding
m i l l s g e t h o t due t o h e a t
from g r i n d i n g rubber l i n e r s
and r u b b e r m a t e r i a l s u s u a l l y
c a n n o t be
used.
In dry

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


g r i n d i n g m i l l s no backing mat e r i a l i s u s e d , however, a
plastic material similar to
t h a t used t o s e t c o n c a v e s i n
a primary c r u s h e r o r concave
r i n g s i n a cone c r u s h e r ; o r
z i n c i s used t o f i l l t h e
s p a c e between l i n e r s .

I n t e r m s of b a l l s i z e i n i n c h e s
and m i l l d i a m e t e r i n f e e t and
power p e r s h o r t t o n of b a l l c h a r g e
e q u a t i o n 5 becomes:

The f o l l o w i n g e q u a t i o n i s used t o
determine the
power
t h a t wet
mills
grinding
overflow
ball
s h o u l d draw.

To d e t e r m i n e t h e power t h a t a w e t
g r i n d i n g , low l e v e l g r a t e d i s c h a r g e m i l l s h o u l d draw m u l t i p l y
kWb by 1.16 and f o r a d r y g r i n d ing, f u l l grate discharge m i l l
m u l t i p l y by 1.08.

where
kWb = K i l o w a t t s p e r m e t r i c t o n n e
of b a l l s (1000 k g ) .
D
= M i l l diameter i n s i d e l i n e r s
i n meters.
= F r a c t i o n of m i l l volume
Vp
loaded w i t h b a l l s .
Cs = F r a c t i o n of c r i t i c a l s p e e d .
Ss = B a l l s i z e f a c t o r .
I n terms of m i l l d i a m e t e r i n f e e t
and power per s h o r t t o n a t (2000
pounds) of b a l l c h a r g e E q u a t i o n 4
becomes:

F o r m i l l s l a r g e r t h a n 3.3 m e t e r s
(10 f e e t ) d i a m e t e r i n s i d e l i n e r s
t h e t o p s i z e of t h e b a l l s used a f f e c t s t h e power draw by t h e m i l l .
This i s c a l l e d t h e b a l l s i z e fact o r S,.

For s p e c i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s such a s
w e t g r i n d i n g cement raw m a t e r i a l s ,
b a u x i t e i n c a u s t i c s o l u t i o n s and
other clay-like
materials consult
mill
manufacturers,
since
the
t h e s e m a t e r i a l s a f f e c t t h e power
draw by b a l l m i l l s .
Table
VIII
lists
essentially
"square" b a l l m i l l s g i v i n g m i l l
speed a s percent
of c r i t i c a l ,
w e i g h t of a 40% b a l l c h a r g e , t o p
b a l l s i z e and c a l c u l a t e d power
draw.
B a l l m i l l power c h a n g e s i n
d i r e c t proportion t o m i l l length.
The power i s horsepower a t t h e
m i l l p i n i o n s h a f t i n s i d e new s h e l l
liners.
I n c r e a s e power f o r worn
s h e l l l i n e r s by 6%. T h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t r u b b e r l i n e r s may
c a u s e from a 5 t o 10% l o s s i n m i l l
power.
The v a r i o u s b a l l m i l l manufact u r e r s have d i f f e r e n t e q u a t i o n s
f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e power b a l l
m i l l s d r a w , b u t a l l come c l o s e t o
t h e same c a l c u l a t e d power draw.

where
B

= Ball size in millimeters

M i l l diameter i n s i d e
l i n e r s i n meters.
= Kilowatts per metric
t o n n e of b a l l s .

Ss

These same e q u a t i o n s a r e used t o


c a l c u l a t e t h e power t h a t e a c h b a l l
m i l l compartment
of
a multicompartment b a l l m i l l s h o u l d draw.
The t o t a l power i s t h e sum of t h e
power c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h of t h e
s e p a r a t e compartments.

Operating d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r wet
g r i n d i n g b a l l m i l l s 5.49 m e t e r s
(18.0 f e e t ) d i a m e t e r i n s i d e s h e l l
show t h e m i l l s w i l l draw t h e c a l c u l a t e d power, however, when t h e

B a l l Mill Power a t Mill P i n i o n s h a f t (Horsepower)

Table V I I I

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


b a l l c h a r g e e x c e e d s 35% of m i l l
volume t h e m i l l s d o n o t u s e t h e
A
power f o r e f f i c i e n t g r i n d i n g .
b a l l c h a r g e between 32 and 35% i n
5.49 m e t e r s (18.0
f e e t ) diameter
wet g r i n d i n g b a l l m i l l s seems t o
be a maximum t o o b t a i n a n e f f i c i e n t use of power.
The same
problem h a s n o t o c c u r r e d i n d r y
g r i n d i n g b a l l m i l l s of t h e same
diameter.

IV.

COMPARTMENTED MILLS
Compartmented m i l l s h a v e two o r
more compartments
using b a l l s ,
p e b b l e s , o r r o d s a s g r i n d i n g media
combining two o r more g r i n d i n g
s t a g e s i n t o one u n i t .
These m i l l s
a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y popular i n t h e
cement i n d u s t r y , b u t c a n be used
wherever s t a g e m i l l i n g i s r e q u i r e d
without a n intermediate s e p a r a t i o n
o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n step. Recently,
p e r i p h e r a l d i s c h a r g e s have reapp e a r e d i n t h e Cement I n d u s t r y p e r m i t t i n g d i s c h a r g i n g ground m a t e r i a l from e a c h compartment f o r s t a g e
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n between t h e s t a g e s
of t h e compartmented m i l l s t o r e duce o v e r g r i n d i n g .
The Rodpeb M i l l , F i g u r e 6 , i s a
wet
grinding
multi-compartment
m i l l w i t h r o d s i n t h e f i r s t comp a r t m e n t and b a l l s i n t h e s e c o n d
compartment.
S e v e r a l m i n o r comp r o m i s e s a r e n e c e s s a r y when s p e c i The d i a m e t e r i s
fying t h e m i l l .
t h e same f o r b o t h compartments.
The o p e r a t i n g s p e e d i n t e r m s o f
p e r c e n t of c r i t i c a l s p e e d i s a
compromise being on t h e h i g h s i d e
f o r rod m i l l i n g and t h e low s i d e
f o r b a l l milling.
Rodpeb m i l l s
a r e most f r e q u e n t l y o p e r a t e d i n
open c i r c u i t .
The u s u a l a p p l i c a t i o n is t o grind m a t e r i a l s with
low
abrasive
characteristics.
Adding r e p l a c e m e n t r o d s and c l e a n i n g o u t broken r o d s and worn r o d s
i s more t i m e consuming t h a n i n r o d
mills.
The two p r i n c i p a l a p p l i c a t i o n s have been f o r wet g r i n d i n g
raw m a t e r i a l s f o r cement making
k i l n s and g r i n d i n g of b a u x i t e i n
caustic solutions.

The Compartmented B a l l M i l l , Figu r e 6 a c o n s i s t s o f two o r more


g r a t e d i s c h a r g e b a l l m i l l s i n ser i e s b u i l t i n t o one r o t a t i n g a s sembly.
Power drawn by t h e s e
m i l l s c a n b e as h i g h a s 12,000 HP.
M i l l d i a m e t e r s a r e a s l a r g e a s 5.5
M i l l lengths
m e t e r s (18.0 f e e t ) .
a r e a s g r e a t a s 1 5 m e t e r s (50.0
feet).
The most f r e q u e n t u s e i s
f o r d r y g r i n d i n g cement c l i n k e r t o
produce P o r t l a n d Cement. They c a n
a l s o b e used f o r d r y g r i n d i n g cement raw m a t e r i a l s when i t i s n o t
economical o r i s not p r a c t i c a l t o
use r i n g r o l l e r m i l l s ( s e e Figure
7 ).
Multi-Compartment D r y e r - M i l l .
(- F i g u r e 1 5 ) T h i s c i r c u i t u t i l i z e s
a t h r e e compartment
m i l l with
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n between t h e g r i n d ing stages.
The d r y e r ( f i r s t compartment) is located i n t e r n a l t o
t h e l a r g e diameter t r u n n i o n beari n g and m a t e r i a l i s " f l a s h d r i e d "
by h i g h volume a i r swept g a s e s .
D r y e r l i f t e r s a r e s p e c i a l l y des i g n e d t o promote d r y i n g e f f i c i e n A Double R o t a t o r m i l l s e p a cy.
r a t e s t h e d r y e r and c o a r s e g r i n d i n g compartment from
the fine
g r i n d i n g compartment by a p e r i p h e r a l discharge.
This discharge is
l a r g e enough t o h a n d l e h i g h volume
of v e n t g a s e s w i t h r e l a t i v e l y h i g h
g r a i n l o a d i n g and t h e m a t e r i a l
p r o d u c t of b o t h compartments.

Double R o t a t o r m i l l s h a n d l e moist u r e s up t o 7 % w i t h p r e h e a t e r k i l n
e x h a u s t g a s e s and up t o 1 4 t o 15%
Grit
with high temperature gases.
s e p a r a t o r s a r e u t i l i z e d t o remove
t h e coarse material before enteri n g a cyclone c o l l e c t o r which prec e d e s t h e baghouse o r e l e c t r o s t a t A i r s e p a r a t o r rei c collector.
j e c t s a r e returned t o t h e f i n e
g r i n d i n g compartment o r , i f des i r e d , a p o r t i o n c a n be r e t u r n e d
t o t h e c o a r s e g r i n d i n g end of t h e
mill.
Wet g r i n d i n g compartmented b a l l
m i l l s a r e r a r e l y used.
The p r i n c i p a l u s e i s f o r wet o p e n g r i n d i n g of cement raw m a t e r i a l s i n wet

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS

FIGURE 15. Doublerotator Mill

percent loading can be carried i n


d i f f e r e n t compartments t o balance
t h e g r i n d i n g work a s r e q u i r e d i n
each compartment.

p r o c e s s cement p l a n t s .
Because of
h i g h f u e l consumption v e r y few wet
cement p l a n t s a r e b e i n g b u i l t today. The same t y p e of m i l l c a n b e
used f o r wet open c i r c u i t g r i n d i n g
of h i g h g r a d e i r o n o r e o r c o a r s e
i r o n o r e c o n c e n t r a t e s t o make f e e d
for pelletizing.
(The more common
i r o n o r e p e l l e t i z i n g feed applicat i o n s a r e d r y g r i n d i n g open c i r cuit mills.)
The main purpose f o r
m i l l is to
t h e multi-compartment
m a i n t a i n b a l l s e g r e g a t i o n by u s e
of a d i v i s i o n head and t o h e l p
pulp flow through t h e m i l l .
Wet g r i n d i n g of cement raw m a t e r i a l s i n a compartmented b a l l m i l l
h a s proven a good a p p l i c a t i o n f o r
g r i n d i n g a i d s d e s i g n e d t o make a s
heavy a s p o s s i b l e s l u r r y t o r e d u c e
t h e amount of w a t e r t o b e d r i v e n
off i n the kiln.
Dry g r i n d i n g compartmented b a l l
m i l l s c a n c a r r y up t o 50% by v o l ume b a l l c h a r g e s b u t more f r e q u e n t l y a r e used w i t h 30 t o 35%
b a l l c h a r g e s , a n a r e a where t h e
g r i n d i n g e f f i c i e n c y seems t o b e
best.
Depending upon m i l l performance and t h e d r i v e l i m i t a t i o n s , d i f f e r e n t b a l l c h a r g e s by

To determine t h e power t h a t multicompartment m i l l s draw use t h e


e q u a t i o n s t o c a l c u l a t e t h e power
t h a t rod and b a l l m i l l draws.
When u s i n g a combined d r y e r and
g r i n d i n g m i l l , add t h e power req u i r e d f o r a r o t a r y d r y e r of t h e
same diameter and l e n g t h running
a t t h e same speed a s t h e m i l l .
Note normally r o t a r y d r y e r s run a t
c o n s i d e r a b l y lower speeds.
V.

PEBBLE MILLS
Within t h e g l a s s , ceramic, c l e a n s e r s and chemical i n d u s t r i e s t h e r e
a r e requirements principally f o r
d r y g r i n d i n g m i l l s where t h e r e i s
l i t t l e , i f any, i r o n contamination
due t o l i n e r and
media wear.
c a l l e d pebble
These m i l l s a r e
m i l l s and u s e e i t h e r n a t u r a l pebb l e s o r manufactured pebbles o r
s l u g s a s g r i n d i n g media.
The
m i l l s a r e l i n e d w i t h s i l e x blocks
o r w i t h ceramic l i n e r s .
See Figure6b.
The l i n i n g can e i t h e r be
smooth o r can be made t o have

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


Table I X
Pebble M i l 1s Power

3" Lining
Mill
H.P.
R.P.M.

4" Lining
Mill
R.P.M.
H.P.

Size o f
M i 11

1-1/4" L i n i n g
Mil1
H.P.
R.P.M.

7'
7'
7'
7'
7'
7'
7'

x 10'
x 12'
x 14'
x16'
x 18'
x 20'
x22'

82
100
117
134
151
168
185

22.0
22.0
22.0
22.0
22.0
22.0
22.0

77
92
106
120
135
149
165

22.6
22.6
22.6
22.6
22.6
22.6
22.6

71
84
97
111
124
137
151

23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0
23.0

8'
8'
8'
8'
8'
8'
8'

x 12'
x14'
x16'
x18'
x201
x 22'
x24'

139
163
186
210
234
258
282

20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0

128
149
170
191
213
234
255

20.6
20.6
20.6
20.6
20.6
20.6
20.6

120
140
159
178
197
217
235

21.0
21.0
21 .O
21.0
21.0
20.0
21.0

9'
9'
9'
9'
9'
9'
9'

x14'
x 16'
x 18'
x20'
x22'
x 24'
x26'

215
246
277
309
341
372
403

19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0
19.0

198
227
255
284
312
340
367

19.3
19.3
19.3
19.3
19.3
19.3
19.3

188
213
239
264
291
315
342

19.6
19.6
19.6
19.6
19.6
19.6
19.6

10'
10'
10'
10'
10'
10'

x 16'
x 18'
x 20'
x22'
x24'
x26'

315
355
396
436
477
518

18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0
18.0

293
329
367
403
439
474

18.3
18.3
18.3
18.3
18.3
18.3

277
310
343
378
409
444

18.6
18.6
18.6
18.6
18.6
18.6

11'
11'
11'
11'
11'
11'

x 18'
x20'
x22'
x24'
x26'
x28'

444
495
546
597
647
696

17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0
17.0

414
462
507
553
596
642

17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3

392
434
478
517
561
603

17.6
17.6
17.6
17.6
17.6
17.6

lifters.
Ceramic l i n e r s c a n be
made i n v a r i o u s wave p a t t e r n s .
These m i l l s have d i s c h a r g e d i a phragms normally made from wear
r e s i s t a n t alloyed c a s t i r o n s o r
steels.
The power t h a t t h e s e
m i l l s draw i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e
b u l k d e n s i t y of t h e media, which
i s a f u n c t i o n of t h e shape of t h e
media.

T a b l e I X shows t h e power drawn by


some t y p i c a l s i z e p e b b l e m i l l s
based upon f l i n t
p e b b l e s from
France. M i l l 40 t o 45% l o a d i n g of
media.
Power i s d i r e c t l y proport i o n t o l e n g t h and v a r i e s a s t h e
d i a m e t e r i n s i d e l i n e r s t o t h e 2.3
power.
It i s recommended t o r e f e r
s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n problems t o
t h e m i l l manufacturers.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


Pebble m i l l s can be
used f o r
e i t h e r open o r
closed c i r c u i t
grinding.
Normally t h e s e a p p l i c a t i o n s c a l l f o r dry grinding.
When
dry grinding t o the very f i n e s i z e
ranges a l l passing 10 microns o r
f i n e r some m a t e r i a l s d e v e l o p f l u i d
flow c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .
In these
c a s e s t h e m i l l should have a n
o v e r f l o w d i s c h a r g e t h e same a s i n
There a r e c a s e s where
wet m i l l s .
wet g r i n d i n g i s u s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y
when making f e e d f o r f l o t a t i o n o r
some
other
wet
beneficiation
method.
VI.

a r e d e s i g n e d f o r a 4 5 t o 50% v o l u m e t r i c charge load


b u t normal
o p e r a t i n g l e v e l i s a r o u n d 40%.
P e b b l e m i l l s a r e good a p p l i c a t i o n s
f o r r u b b e r and wear r e s i s t a n t c a s t
i r o n l i n e r s . Rubber l i n e r s u s u a l l y have s e p a r a t e l i f t e r s w h i l e t h e
wear r e s i s t a n t c a s t i r o n and c a s t
s t e e l l i n e r s a r e of t h e i n t e g r a l
s i n g l e wave d e s i g n .
With r u b b e r
t h e r e c a n b e up t o a 10% l o s s i n
t h e power drawn by t h e m i l l w i t h a
corresponding l o s s i n capacity.
The f e e d f o r s e c o n d a r y a u t o g e n o u s
m i l l s i s n o r m a l l y e i t h e r rod m i l l
product o r primary autogenous m i l l
product.
T h e r e a r e a few ins t a n c e s where i t h a s been b a l l
m i l l p r o d u c t and one c a s e where i t
was t h e p r o d u c t of a n i n t e r m e d i a t e
An
a u t o g e n o u s m i l l (lump m i l l ) .
i n t e r m e d i a t e autogenous m i l l is a
secondary type m i l l fed a coarse
size or
feed
(rod m i l l feed
s l i g h t l y l a r g e r ) which i s ground
by p e b b l e s i n t h e 100 mm ( 4 " ) t o
175 mm ( 7 " ) s i z e range.

SECONDARY AUTOGENOUS MILLS


(PEBBLE MILLS)
Secondary
autogenous
grinding
m i l l s , a l s o r e f e r r e d t o a s pebble
m i l l s , u s e p e b b l e s from t h e o r e a s
g r i n d i n g media.
The s i z e d o r e c a n
e i t h e r be screened o u t of t h e o r e
stream i n a crushing p l a n t o r can
be e x t r a c t e d from a primary autogenous m i l l .
They a r e u s e d i n s t e a d
of a b a l l m i l l when t h e p e b b l e s i n
t h e o r e make good g r i n d i n g m e d i a
and t h e wear r a t e w i l l b e l e s s
t h a n t h e r a t e a t which p e b b l e s can
be obtained.
Pebbles a r e f e d t o
t h e m i l l i n a c o n t r o l l e d manner t o
m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t power draw.
It i s g e n e r a l l y a n i n t e r r u p t e d
f e e d w i t h t h e on-off
frequency
g r e a t enough t o r e q u i r e a u t o m a t i o n
of t h e pebble f e e d i n g system.
The
a v e r a g e p e b b l e s i z e r a n g e i s from
4 0 mm ( 1 . 5 " ) t o 7 5 mm ( 3 " ) .
Secondary autogenous m i l l s genera l l y a r e used f o r w e t c l o s e d c i r c u i t grinding.
To g i v e a f l o w
g r a d i e n t through t h e m i l l they
h a v e low l e v e l g r a t e d i s c h a r g e s .
This prevents t h e tendency f o r
s m a l l p e b b l e s and pebble c h i p s t o
f l o a t on t h e s l u r r y i n t h e m i l l ,
reducing grinding e f f i c i e n c y .
M i l l power i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e
b u l k d e n s i t y of t h e p e b b l e s and of
t h e s i z e of t h e o r e media (pebbles).
M i l l speed i s u s u a l l y between 70
Mills
and 75% o f c r i t i c a l s p e e d .

VII.

REGRIND MILLS
B a l l m i l l s which a r e used t o g r i n d
rougher concentrates, middlings,
f i n a l concentrates o r t a i l i n g s a r e
c a l l e d r e g r i n d m i l l s ; because they
a r e f e d m a t e r i a l t h a t h a s been
g r o u n d , t h e n t r e a t e d i n one o r
more p r o c e s s i n g s t e p .
Relatively
s m a l l s i z e b a l l s a r e used.
They
c a n b e used i n open o r c l o s e d c i r cuit.
The d i s c u s s i o n s on b a l l
m i l l s f i t s regrind m i l l s .

V I I I . ORE TESTING FOR MILL SELECTION

A f t e r t h e grind requirements a r e
e s t a b l i s h e d , t e s t i n g f o r t h e sel e c t i o n o f comminution c i r c u i t s
and m i l l s i z e c a n b e i n i t i a t e d and
c a n d e p e n d i n g upon t h e a p p l i c a t i o n
i n c l u d e a l l o r some of t h e f o l l o w ing :

P r i m a r y Autogenous Media
Competency
- P r i m a r y Autogenous and
Semi-Autogenous P i l o t P l a n t

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DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


5.
k.

1.
m.

n.
o.
p.

F i n e s from e a c h c l a s s i fication stage.


Power drawn by e a c h m i l l (mot o r input).
Motor and d r i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f
each m i l l .
S i z e o f and t y p e of g r i n d i n g
media u s e d i n e a c h m i l l .
Speed i n rpm f o r e a c h m i l l .
L i n e r d e s i g n and c o n d i t i o n i n
each m i l l .
Media wear r a t e .

q.

r.

L i n e r wear r a t e i f t e s t i s
r u n l o n g enough t o o b t a i n lin e r wear d a t a .
% c i r c u l a t i n g load f o r each
is
close cirstage that
cuited.

During g r i n d i n g t e s t s o b t a i n samp l e s of m i l l f e e d f o r g r i n d a b i l i t y
t e s t s s o t h a t work i n d i c e s c a l c u l a t e d from t h e p i l o t p l a n t d a t a
c a n be compared t o g r i n d a b i l i t y
test r e s u l t s .
O p e r a t i n g work i n d i c e s c a n be obtained using p i l o t
p l a n t d a t a i n t h e f o l l o w i n g equation:

where
W i o = O p e r a t i n g Work I n d e x
W
= kwh p e r t o n ( c a n b e
metric, standard, o r
long)
P
= P r o d u c t s i z e which
80% p a s s e s i n
micrometers.
= Feed s i z e which
F
80% p a s s e s i n
micrometers.

The a p p l i c a t i o n o f g r i n d i n g c i r c u i t and e q u i p m e n t - r e l a t e d f a c t o r s
d i s c u s s e d l a t e r a r e a p p l i e d t o Wio
t o p u t i t o n t h e same b a s i s a s
This
g r i n d a b i l i t y test r e s u l t s .
a l l o w s a d i r e c t comparison of pil o t p l a n t test r e s u l t s and grinda b i l i t y test r e s u l t s .
In addition
t o t h e s e , be s u r e t o a p p l y motor
and d r i v e e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s s o
t h a t t h e p i l o t p l a n t m i l l power

d a t a i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e m i l l pinionshaft o r t o the m i l l shell


(measured power d a t a i s g e n e r a l l y
e l e c t r i c a l energy i n t o t h e motor).
N e t power f o r p i l o t p l a n t m i l l s i s
o b t a i n e d by o b t a i n i n g t h e t a r e
power f o r t h e m i l l a t t h e beginn i n g and end of t h e t e s t p e r i o d .
T h i s s u b t r a c t e d from t h e g r o s s
power measured g i v e s n e t power.
T h i s c a n b e used t o g e t n e t power
p e r ton.
To c o n v e r t n e t power p e r
t o n t o power a t t h e p i n i o n s h a f t
a d d 2.5% t o t h e n e t power p e r
ton.
With t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g
accurate pilot plant data, partic u l a r l y power d a t a , Bond c l o s e d
c i r c u i t grindability test results
o f t e n g i v e t h e more a c c u r a t e d a t a
f o r s e l e c t i n g r o d and b a l l m i l l s .
G r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t work s h o u l d s p a n
t h e f e e d and p r o d u c t s i z e s of t h e
proposed g r i n d i n g c i r c u i t .
The
g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t work g e n e r a l l y
recommended f o r p r i m a r y m i l l i n g
c i r c u i t s includes:
A.

Bond r o d m i l l
t e s t s a t 10 o r
Work Index.

grindability
1 4 mesh f o r

B.

For each b a l l m i l l g r i n d i n g
s t e p , a Bond b a l l m i l l g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t a t one mesh s i z e
coarser than the top s i z e
t h a t w i l l produce t h e d e s i r e d
80% p a s s i n g s i z e and a t t h e
mesh s i z e , o r j u s t f i n e r t h a n
t h e mesh s i z e , t h a t w i l l prod u c e t h e d e s i r e d 80% p a s s i n g
size.

C.

I f 50 mm x 7 5 mm ( 2 " x 3 " )
o r e lumps a r e a v a i l a b l e a n
i m p a c t c r u s h i n g Work I n d e x
test.

D.

I f 30 mm x 20 mm (1-114" x
314") o r e i s a v a i l a b l e a n
a b r a s i o n i n d e x test.

For regrind b a l l milling o r b a l l


m i l l i n g of r o u g h e r c o n c e n t r a t e s
produced i n t h e g r i n d i n g c i r c u i t
run b a l l m i l l g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t s
a s o u t l i n e d i n B above.
Since t h e

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


Bond g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t r e q u i r e s a
r a t i o of r e d u c t i o n o f a b o u t 6 : l t o
o b t a i n a c c u r a t e r e s u l t s i t may b e
n e c e s s a r y t o run t h e t e s t a t a
f i n e r s i z e t h a n r e q u i r e d by t h e
specified grind o r i f t h i s cannot
be done a s p e c i a l r e g r i n d g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t w i l l have t o be run.
T h i s w i l l g i v e a good c r o s s s e c t i o n of t h e g r i n d a b i l i t y o f t h e
o r e and w i l l a l l o w f o r a c c u r a t e
c a l c u l a t i o n s of t h e g r i n d i n g power
required.
The b a l a n c e of t h i s d i s c u s s i o n
w i l l be a n example d e m o n s t r a t i n g
t h e s e l e c t i o n of a p r i m a r y g r i n d i n g c i r c u i t and a r e g r i n d c i r c u i t
where a l l of t h e o r e i s ground t o
t h e required product s i z e i n t h e
primary c i r c u i t .
For grinding
c i r c u i t s where c o n c e n t r a t i o n i s
included i n the c i r c u i t t h e basic
a p p r o a c h i s t h e same a s g i v e n i n
the
example,
considering each
s t a g e a s a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y and adj u s t i n g f o r new f e e d r a t e s and
f e e d s i z e (which c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t t h a n t h e r a t e and p r o d u c t s i z e
from t h e p r e c e d i n g s t a g e ) .

IX.

EQUATIONS USED TO DETERMINE


GRINDING POWER
This f i r s t
step
i n selecting
grinding m i l l s i s t o determine the
power needed t o p r o d u c t t h e desired grind.
The b a s i c e q u a t i o n
used f o r t h i s i s t h e Bond Equation.

The power d e t e r m i n e d from e q u a t i o n


7 i s f o r t h e following s p e c i f i c
conditions.
A.

Rod M i l l i n g - w e t , open c i r c u i t g r i n d i n g i n a 2.44 m e t e r


( 8 ' ) diameter i n s i d e l i n e r s
rod m i l l .

B.

Ball
Milling-wet,
closed
c i r c u i t g r i n d i n g i n a 2.44
meter ( 8 ' ) diameter i n s i d e
liners ball mill.

C.

Power c a l c u l a t e d i s t h e power
required a t the pinionshaft
o f t h e m i l l , which i n c l u d e s
m i l l b e a r i n g s and g e a r p i n i o n
l o s s e s b u t does n o t i n c l u d e
motor l o s s e s o r l o s s e s i n any
o t h e r d r i v e component, s u c h
a s r e d u c e r s and c l u t c h e s .

The f e e d
T e s t s is:

for

Bond

Grindability

Rod m i l l i n g o r e c r u s h e d t o m i n u s
(0.530")
or
13,200 m i c r o m e t e r s
finer

B a l l m i l l i n g o r e crushed t o minus
3,350 micrometers ( 6
mesh) o r
f i n e r which h a v e been u s e d t o e s t a b l i s h optimum r o d and b a l l m i l l
feed s i z e s .
There a r e e i g h t e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r s
t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e c a l c u l a t e d
g r i n d i n g power t o a l l o w f o r v a r i a t i o n s from t h e s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s and optimum f e e d s i z e s .
EF1

Dry G r i n d i n g .

EF2

Open C i r c u i t B a l l M i l l i n g .

EF3

Diameter

EFq

O v e r s i z e d Feed.

EFg

Fine Grinding i n
t o product s i z e s
80% p a s s i n g 200
micrometers).

ball m i l l s
f i n e r than
mesh ( 7 5

EFg

High o r low r a t i o
t i o n rod m i l l i n g .

of reduc-

where
W
Wi
P

F
Note:

Kwh p e r s h o r t t o n .
= Work Index.
= Product s i z e i n microns
which 80% p a s s e s .
= Feed s i z e i n m i c r o n s
which 80% p a s s e s .

Efficiency

Factor.

W c a n be p e r m e t r i c t o n n e
i f t h e Work I n d e x i s o n t h e
b a s i s of m e t r i c tonnes.

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


EF7

Low R a t i o
milling.

of

EF8

Rod M i l l i n g .

reduction b a l l

The m u l t i p l i e r s f o r t h e e f f i c i e n c y
f a c t o r s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f o l lowing:

NOTE: In
s e l e c t i n g m i l l s f o r new
o p e r a t i o n s , where t h i s f a c t o r i s l e s s t h a n 1.0 i t i s
sometimes n e g l e c t e d and i s
used a s a s a f e t y f a c t o r y .
I n t h e example i t w i l l be
applied.
EFq

EFl

Dry G r i n d i n g - f o r t h e same
r a n g e of work, d r y g r i n d i n g
r e q u i r e s 1 . 3 t i m e s a s much
power a s w e t g r i n d i n g .

EF2

Open C i r c u i t G r i n d i n g -when
grinding i n
open c i r c u i t
t h e amount of
ball m i l l s ,
e x t r a power r e q u i r e d , compared t o closed c i r c u i t b a l l
m i l l i n g , i s a f u n c t i o n of
t h e d e g r e e o f c o n t r o l req u i r e d o n t h e p r o d u c t produced.
The
inefficiency
factors for
open c i r c u i t
grinding a r e given i n Table
X.
The b a s i c c a l c u l a t i o n i s
t o t h e d e s i r e d 80% p a s s i n g
s i z e p e r t h e Bond E q u a t i o n
a f t e r w h i c h t h e EF2 f a c t o r
is applied.

EF3 - D i a m e t e r E f f i c i e n c y F a c t o r using t h e base m i l l diameter


o f 2.44 m e t e r s ( 8 ' ) i n s i d e
l i n e r s , t h e diameter ef f i c i e n c y f a c t o r can be calcul a t e d from t h e f o l l o w i n g :
When D i s i n m e t e r s :

When D i s i n f e e t :

Table X I g i v e s a t a b u l a t i o n
o f t h e EF3 f a c t o r s f o r some
o f t h e more common m i l l d i ameters i n both the imperial
and m e t r i c measuring systems.

where

O v e r s i z e d Feed - when b e i n g
f e d a c o a r s e r t h a n optimum
feed, t h i s factor applies t o
rod m i l l i n g and b a l l m i l l i n g . However, t h e most f r e q u e n t u s e i s found i n conjunction with s i n g l e stage
b a l l milling.
This i s the
one e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r t h a t
i s r e l a t e d t o Work I n d e x a s
i s seen i n t h e following
equation:

F
R, = Ratio of reduction = P

(10)

Fo = Optimum f e e d s i z e
Rod m i l l i n g : FO= 16,000(%)aJ

B a l l m i l 1 i n g : F o = 4000

13 O"
(WI

(12)

Use t h e Work Index from a g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t a t t h e desired grind


F o r equaf o r W i i n e q u a t i o n 9.
t i o n 11, u s e e i t h e r t h e Work I n d e x
from a Bond impact t e s t o r a rod
m i l l g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t , whichever
i s higher.
For e q u a t i o n 12, u s e
t h e Work I n d e x from a r o d m i l l
g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t , s i n c e t h i s more
r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o a r s e f r a c t i o n of
t h e feed; i f n o t a v a i l a b l e then
use the b a l l m i l l grindability
test results.
EF5 - F i n e n e s s o f Grind F a c t o r t h i s a p p l i e s t o f i n e grindi n g when t h e 80% p a s s i n g
s i z e of t h e product is f i n e r
than 75
m i c r o m e t e r s (200
mesh).
The e q u a t i o n t o determine t h i s is:

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


Table X
Open Circuit Inefficiency Multiplier

EFg

Product Size Control


Reference % Passing

Inefficiency
Multiplier

50

1.035

60

1.05

70

1.10

80

1.20

90

1.40

92

1.46

95

1.57

98

1.70

High o r Low R a t i o of Reduct i o n Rod M i l l i n g - t h e equat i o n t o be u s e d , u n l e s s Rr


i s between Rro = -2 and Rro
=

f a c t o r does not occur very


o f t e n as i t o n l y a p p l i e s t o
b a l l m i l l i n g when t h e R a t i o
of R e d u c t i o n i s less t h a n 6 .
T h i s shows up p a r t i c u l a r l y
i n regrinding concentrates
and t a i l i n g s .
The e q u a t i o n
f o r t h i s is:

+2 i s :

EF=
~ 2 (R, - 1.35)+ 0.26
where R,, = 8

2 (R, - 1.35)

+
D

(15)
EFg

L = Rod Length
T h i s f a c t o r always a p p l i e s
t o low r a t i o s of r e d u c t i o n .
Although i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o
h i g h r a t i o s of r e d u c t i o n i s
n o t always needed, i t s h o u l d
be u t i l i z e d f o r m i l l s i z e
s e l e c t i o n whenever W i from
t h e rod m i l l and b a l l m i l l
grindability
tests exceed
7.0.

EF7

Low R a t i o of R e d u c t i o n B a l l
- t h e need t o u s e t h i s

M i l l

(16)

Rod M i l l i n g - a s t u d y of rod
m i l l o p e r a t i o n s shows t h a t
rod m i l l p e r f o r m a n c e i s a f fected
by
the attention
given t o
p r e p a r a t i o n and
feeding i n a uniform top
s i z e feed s i z e t o the m i l l
and t h e c a r e g i v e n t o maintaining
the
rod c h a r g e .
This e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r has
n o t been d e f i n i t e l y d e t e r mined.
I n s e l e c t i n g rod
m i l l s based upon power c a l culated
from g r i n d a b i l i t y
t e s t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g proced u r e h a s been recommended:

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


1)

2)

X.

When
calculating
rod
m i l l power f o r a rodmilling-only
applicat i o n , u s e a n i n e f f i c iency f a c t o r of 1.4 when
t h e f e e d i s t o be prepared w i t h open c i r c u i t
c r u s h i n g , and use 1.2
when t h e f e e d i s t o be
prepared
with
closed
c i r c u i t crushing.
The
m i l l d i a m e t e r , low o r
high r a t i o of r e d u c t i o n ,
and o v e r s i z e f e e d f a c t o r s a l s o must be applied t o the calculated
g r i n d i n g power.
When
calculating
rod
m i l l power f o r a r o d
m i l l circuit,
mill-ball
d o n o t allow
f o r improvement i n t h e b a l l
m i l l performance due t o
r e c e i v i n g rod m i l l feed.
I f t h e rod m i l l f e e d i s
produced w i t h open c i r c u i t crushing, apply a
1.2 i n e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r
t o t h e power c a l c u l a t e d
for
the
rod m i l l i n g
stage only.
I f t h e rod
m i l l feed w i l l consist e n t l y b e t h e same, s u c h
a s produced w i t h c l o s e d
c i r c u i t c r u s h i n g , do n o t
apply a rod m i l l i n e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r . The m i l l
d i a m e t e r , low o r h i g h
r a t i o o f r e d u c t i o n , and
oversize
feed f a c t o r s
s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e
calculated
grinding
power.

EXAMPLE G R I N D I N G POWER CALCULATIONS AND GRINDING MILL SELECTION


PROBLEM NO.

S e l e c t rod m i l l s , b a l l m i l l s and
pebble m i l l s a s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e
following c i r c u i t s .

Rod M i l l
Ball M i l l
Single Stage B a l l M i l l
Rod M i l l - P e b b l e ( S e c o n d a r y
Autogenous) M i l l

B a l l M i l l t o Grind P r i m a r y
Semi-Autogenous M i l l P r o d u c t
- Regrind B a l l M i l l
Feed r a t e t o t h e p r i m a r y m i l l c i r c u i t i s 500 m e t r i c t o n n e s p e r hour
including f a c t o r f o r a v a i l a b i l i t y .
Feed r a t e t o r e g r i n d m i l l i s 40
m e t r i c t o n n e s p e r hour.
Rod m i l l f e e d and f e e d f o r s i n g l e
s t a g e b a l l m i l l w i l l be p r e p a r e d
w i t h c l o s e d c i r c u i t c r u s h i n g . The
feed s i z e s f o r the various m i l l s
w i l l be:

Rod M i l l i n g :
minus 25 mm w i t h
80% p a s s i n g 18 mm.
Single stage Ball M i l l :
minus
12 mm 80% p a s s i n g 9.4 mm.
B a l l M i l l and P e b b l e M i l l f o l lowing Rod M i l l and B a l l M i l l
f o l l o w i n g Primary Autogenous o r
Semi-Autogenous M i l l :
minus 2
mm 80% p a s s i n g 1.2 mm.
Regrind B a l l M i l l :
80% p a s s i n g
210 m i c r o m e t e r s .

The c i r c u i t s a r e a l l w e t g r i n d i n g
A l l b a l l o r pebble m i l l s
type.
a r e c l o s e d c i r c u i t w i t h t h e except i o n of t h e r e g r i n d m i l l which
w i l l b e open c i r c u i t f o r t h i s example.
Pebble s i z e f o r pebble m i l l i n g
p l u s 30 mm minus 70 mm w i t h a pebb l e consumption
of
30 m e t r i c
t o n n e s p e r hour which i s 6% of t h e
c i r c u i t production r a t e .
The s p e c i f i e d g r i n d s a r e : p r i m a r y
g r i n d i n g c i r c u i t 80% p a s s i n g 175
m i c r o m e t e r s , r e g r i n d c i r c u i t 80%
passing 45 micrometers.
Bench
sults
power
sults
are:

s c a l e g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t rea r e t o b e used f o r g r i n d i n g
calculations.
The t e s t r e t o b e used i n t h e example

Bond Impact Crushing


Work I n d e x
Rod M i l l G r i n d a b i l i t y T e s t
(Wi) a t 10 mesh

.............. 11.5
......... 13.2

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


Ball M i l l Grindability Test
11.7
(Wi) a t 6 5 mesh
(Wi) a t 100 mesh
12.1
(Wi) a t 325 mesh
on regrind m i l l feed
14.0
A b r a s i o n I n d e x (Ai)
0.215

.........
........
....
........

The f o l l o w i n g d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e u s e
o f t h e Bond Work I n d e x Method t o
d e t e r m i n e t h e power r e q u i r e d t o
produce t h e d e s i r e d g r i n d .
After
t h e g r i n d i n g power h a s b e e n d e t e r mined by t h i s o r o t h e r m e t h o d s ,
t h e m i l l ( s ) t h a t w i l l draw t h e r e q u i r e d power c a n be s e l e c t e d .
For
f i n a l m i l l s i z e recommendations
a l l t h e p r o c e s s d e s i g n d a t a and
c o n t r o l l i n g economic and g e o l o g i c
f a c t o r s should be g i v e n t o grindi n g m i l l m a n u f a c t u r e r s and t h e i r
recommendations o b t a i n e d .

W i t h t h e g r o w t h of m i l l s i z e s and
c h a n g i n g economic s i t u a t i o n s new
f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g g r i n d i n g power
c a l c u l a t i o n s and m i l l s i z e s e l e c t i o n a r e becoming known and more
w i l l become known.
The g r i n d i n g
m i l l manufacturers a r e
a good
s o u r c e f o r t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s
c o n t i n u a l l y growing technology i n cluding the p r a c t i c a l application
of t h e newer a p p r o a c h e s and math
modeling being developed through
i n d u s t r i a l and a c a d e m i c r e s e a r c h .
A.

Rod M i l l s
F

P
Wi

=
=

18,000 micrometers
1,200 micrometers
13.2

2.83 kwh/s.

Efficiency Factors:
does n o t apply.

EF2

does n o t apply.

EF3

determine
after
is
calculations
pleted.

than

F, s o

EF5

does n o t apply.

EF6

w i l l n o t a p p l y assuming
r a t i o of r e d u c t i o n w i l l
b e w i t h i n Rro _f 2. Howe v e r , Rro w i l l be d e t e r mined a f t e r m i l l s i z e
selection.

EF7

does n o t apply.
The r o d m i l l f e e d w i l l
b e p r e p a r e d by c l o s e d
c i r c u i t c r u s h i n g and t h e
rod m i l l w i l l be i n a
rod mill-ball m i l l ( o r
pebble
mill)
circuit
with
no
intermediate
concentration stage so
n o EF8 f a c t o r need be
applied.
I f i t were
j u s t a rod m i l l i n g c i r c u i t o r i f t h e r e were a n
intermediate concentrat i o n s t a g e between t h e
r o d m i l l and t h e b a l l
m i l l a 1.2 f a c t o r would

Conversion s h o r t t o n t o m e t r i c
t o n n e 1.102
K i l o w a t t s t o horsepower 1.341
1.341 x 2.83 x 1.06 x 1.102 =
4.43
Hphlmetric
tonne
4.43 x 500 = 2215 HP

ton

EF1

Fo i s less
a p p l y EF4.

power
com-

R e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e V I two m i l l s
w i l l be r e q u i r e d .
The p r e l i m i n a r y
r o d m i l l s e l e c t i o n would be a 3.66
m e t e r ( 1 2 f o o t ) i n s i d e s h e l l 3.46

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


meter (11.35 f o o t ) d i a m e t e r i n s i d e
new s h e l l l i n e r s .
Referring t o
Table X I t h e EF3 ( D i a m e t e r E f f i c i e n c y ) f a c t o r i s 0.931.

R e f e r r i n g t o Table V I t h e 3.66 m x
m (15.5
4.88 m rod m i l l w i t h 4.72
f t . ) long r o d s c a l c u l a t e s t o draw
972 HP when c a r r y i n g a 40 p e r c e n t
rod c h a r g e w i t h a worn-in b u l k
d e n s i t y of 5606 kg p e r c u b i c m e t e r
(350 pounds p e r c u b i c f o o t ) .
1031
HP i s r e q u i r e d .
Therefore, inc r e a s e m i l l l e n g t h by 0.3 m e t e r s
(1 foot).

Note:

m i l l power i s d i Rod
rectly
proportional t o
rod length.

T h e r e f o r e , u s e two 3.66 m e t e r ( 1 2
f o o t ) d i a m e t e r i n s i d e s h e 1 1 3.46
meter (11.35 f o o t ) d i a m e t e r i n s i d e
new s h e l l l i n e r s by 5.18 m e t e r
(17.0 f o o t ) l o n g
overflow rod
m i l l s w i t h a 40 p e r c e n t by m i l l
volume r o d c h a r g e w i t h 5.02 m e t e r
(16.5 f o o t ) long r o d s .

429

3.46 m e t e r (11.35 f o o t ) i n s i d e
new s h e l l l i n e r by 4.88 m e t e r
(16 f o o t ) long
o v e r f l o w rod
m i l l s w i t h a 40 p e r c e n t by m i l l
volume rod c h a r g e
w i t h 4.72
meter (15.5 f o o t ) long rods.

T h e r e f o r e , EF6 a s s u m p t i o n i s a l so confirmed here.

B.

Ball M i l l s :

F
P
Wi

Rod M i l l - B a l l
M i l l Circuit

= 1,200 m i c r o m e t e r s
=
175 m i c r o m e t e r s
=

11.7 ( t h e g r i n d a b i l i t y
work i n d e x a t 100
mesh d i d n o t show
any unusual
characteristics
t h a t would require special
consideration).

= 5.47

kWh/s.

ton

The o n l y e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r
t h a t a p p l i e s i s the diameter
e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r EF3.
T h e r e f o r e , EF6 a s s u m p t i o n
firmed.

i s con-

These m i l l s a r e r e q u i r e d t o prepare b a l l m i l l feed.


With p e b b l e m i l l i n g t h e p e b b l e
p o r t i o n of t h e p r o d u c t d o e s n o t
go t h r o u g h t h e r o d m i l l t h u s t h e
r o d m i l l f e e d r a t e i s r e d u c e d by
30 m e t r i c t o n n e s p e r hour ( 6 % of
500 m e t r i c t o n n e s p e r h o u r ) .

T h e r e f o r e , u s e two 3.66 m e t e r
(12 f o o t ) diameter i n s i d e s h e l l

By r e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e V I I i t
i s obvious the m i l l i s l a r g e r
t h a n 3.81 m e t e r s (12.5 f e e t )
diameter i n s i d e l i n e r s so t h e
EF3 p e r T a b l e I X i s 0.914.

S i n c e 2 r o d m i l l s a r e required use 2 b a l l m i l l s ( 1
b a l l m i l l p e r rod m i l l ) , t h i s
i s t h e simplest c i r c u i t t o
o p e r a t e and c o n t r o l o r a u t o m a t e and r e p r e s e n t s a l o w e r
c a p i t a l c o s t than t h e one rod

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


5.79 meter (19.0 f o o t ) long
diaphragm ( g r a t e ) d i s c h a r g e
b a l l m i l l s w i t h a 40% by volume b a l l charge.

m i l l two b a l l m i l l s a l l of
t h e same d i a m e t e r c i r c u i t .

Referring t o Table V I I t h e
general guidelines indicate
t h e b a l l m i l l s s h o u l d have a n
LID i n t h e a r e a of 1.5.
Ref e r r i n g t o T a b l e V I I I a 4.12
m e t e r (13.5
f o o t ) by 3.96
m e t e r (13.0
f o o t ) overflow
b a l l m i l l w i t h a 40 p e r c e n t
by m i l l volume b a l l c h a r g e ,
new s h e l l l i n e r s and 64 mm
(2.5")
d i a m e t e r b a l l s draws
1266 HP.

3.96 x 1.46 = 5.78 m e t e r s


(18.96 f e e t )
T h e r e f o r e , u s e two 4.12 m e t e r
(13.5
f o o t ) diameter i n s i d e
s h e l l 3.93 m e t e r (12.9 f o o t )
d i a m e t e r i n s i d e new l i n e r s by
5.79 m e t e r (19.0
f o o t ) long
overflow b a l l m i l l s with a
40% by volume b a l l c h a r g e .
For lower o p e r a t i n g c o s t s ,
slightly better efficiency,
and b e t t e r m i l l a v a i l a b i l i t y
the current practice favors
o v e r f l o w b a l l m i l l s , however,
t h e r e a r e some o p e r a t o r s t h a t
p r e f e r g r a t e discharge m i l l s .
R e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e VIII a
3.96 m e t e r (13.0 f o o t ) d i a m e t e r by 3.96 m e t e r (13.0
f o o t ) diaphragm
ball m i l l
w i t h a 40% by m i l l volume
b a l l c h a r g e , new s h e l l l i n e r s
and 5 0 mm ( 2 " ) d i a m e t e r b a l l s
draws 1311 HP.

C.

Ball Mills:

Single Stage

The feed t o t h e s t a n d a r d Bond


ball m i l l grindability test
i s minus 6 mesh.
Thus, t h e
c o a r s e r f r a c t i o n of a minus
112" s i n g l e - s t a g e
ball m i l l
feed is not included i n the
feed t o t h e g r i n d a b i l i t y b a l l
mill.
The minus 112" feed t o
a s t a n d a r d Bond
rod m i l l
g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t , however,
does include the coarse fract i o n of a s i n g l e - s t a g e b a l l
m i l l feed.
To o b t a i n t h e
complete g r i n d a b i l i t y p r o f i l e
(Wi vs s i z e ) of a n o r e when
s e l e c t i n g a single-stage b a l l
m i l l , i t i s recommended t h a t
b o t h rod and b a l l m i l l grinda b i l i t y t e s t s be made.
I f there is a difference i n
t h e work
i n d i c e s obtained
from t h e rod m i l l and t h e
ball m i l l grindability tests,
which
frequently
occurs,
t h e n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e rod
m i l l test
work
index i s
h i g h e r , a two-step c a l c u l a t i o n s h o u l d be made t o d e t e r mine t h e r e q u i r e d g r i n d i n g
power. The rod m i l l work index s h o u l d be used t o calcul a t e power r e q u i r e d from t h e
p l a n t b a l l m i l l feed s i z e t o
80% p a s s i n g
2100 microns.
The c a l c u l a t i o n f o r t h e power
r e q u i r e d t o g r i n d from 2100
microns t o t h e d e s i r e d prod u c t s i z e i s made using t h e
work i n d e x from t h e b a l l m i l l
grindability test.
The sum
of t h e s e two g i v e s t h e t o t a l
u n c o r r e c t e d power per t o n required f o r grinding.

3.96 x 1.41 = 5.58 m e t e r s


(18.3 f e e t )
T h e r e f o r e , u s e two 3.96 m e t e r
(13.0
f o o t ) diameter i n s i d e
s h e l l 3.78 m e t e r (12.4 f o o t )
d i a m e t e r i n s i d e new l i n e r s by

F
P

=
=

Wi
Wi

=
=

9,400 micrometers
175 micrometers
Rod m i l l t e s t 13.2.
B a l l m i l l t e s t 11.7.

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


S t e p one:

431

(16.0 f o o t )
overflow b a l l
m i l l w i t h a 40% by m i l l volume b a l l c h a r g e , new s h e l l
l i n e r s and 64 mm ( 2 . 5 " ) d i a m e t e r b a l l s draws 2370 HP.

= 1.52 kWh/s.

ton

S t e p two:
4.88 x 1.25 = 6.1 m e t e r s
(20.0 f e e t )
= 6.29 kWh/s.

ton

T h e r e f o r e , u s e two 5.03 m e t e r
(16.5 f o o t ) d i a m e t e r i n s i d e
s h e l l 4.85 m e t e r (15.9 f o o t )
d i a m e t e r i n s i d e new l i n e r s by
6.1 m e t e r (20.0
f o o t ) long
overflow b a l l m i l l s with a
40% by volume b a l l c h a r g e .

= 5766 HP, u n c o r r e c t e d .

The a l t e r n a t e g r a t e d i s c h a r g e
m i l l c a n be a s f o l l o w s :
Ref e r r i n g t o T a b l e VIII f o r
sizing a grate discharge m i l l
a 4.72 m e t e r (15.5 f o o t ) d i a m e t e r by 4.57 m e t e r (15.0
foot) grate discharge b a l l
m i l l w i t h a 40% by m i l l v o l ume b a l l c h a r g e , new s h e l l
l i n e r s and 65 mrn (2.5") d i a m e t e r b a l l s draws 2269 HP.

Total:
=

1.52

7.81 kWh/s.

+ 6.29
ton

Efficiency Factors:

EF3

EF1

does n o t a p p l y .

EF7

does n o t a p p l y .

M i l l s w i l l be l a r g e r t h a n
3.81 meter i n d i a m e t e r s o
u s e 0.914.

Fo i s l e s s
a p p l y EF4.

than

4.57 x 1.3 = 5.93 m e t e r s


(19.5 f e e t )

F, s o

T h e r e f o r e , u s e two 4.72 m e t e r
(15.5
f o o t ) diameter i n s i d e
s h e l l 4.54 m e t e r (14.9 f o o t )
d i a m e t e r i n s i d e new l i n e r s by
6.1 m e t e r (20.0
f o o t ) long
diaphragm ( g r a t e ) d i s c h a r g e
b a l l m i l l w i t h a 40% by v o l ume b a l l c h a r g e .

EFg, EFg, EF7 and EF8 do n o t a p p l y .

D.
Use 2 m i l l s

P e r T a b l e V I I t h e L/D s h o u l d
be around 1.25.
Referring t o
T a b l e VIII a 5.03 m e t e r (16.5
f o o t ) d i a m e t e r by 4.88 m e t e r

Ball M i l l :
F o l l o w i n g Autogenous o r Semi-Autogenous P r i mary M i l l
I f t h e p r o d u c t s i z e from t h e
p r i m a r y a u t o g e n o u s o r semia u t o g e n o u s m i l l i s t h e same
the ball
a s from a rod m i l l ,
m i l l c a l c u l a t i o n and s i z e selection i s
the
same
as
B
covered
under
section

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


be done on samples of t h e
c o a r s e m a t e r i a l from t h e p r i mary c l a s s i f i e r .
In this
case, t h e b a l l m i l l feed r a t e
i s based upon t h e amount of
c o a r s e m a t e r i a l coming from
t h e p r i m a r y c l a s s i f i e r and
not on t h e feed r a t e t o t h e
circuit.

above.
I f t h e b a l l m i l l feed
s i z e i s d i f f e r e n t from t h i s ,
t h e same p r o c e d u r e a s c o v e r e d
by e i t h e r s e c t i o n B o r C
( w h i c h e v e r a p p l i e s ) s h o u l d be
used t o determine g r i n d i n g
power, a n d b a l l m i l l s i z e s e lection.
The p r o d u c t from a p r i m a r y
a u t o g e n o u s m i l l o r a semia u t o g e n o u s mil.1 c a n h a v e a
different particle size dist r i b u t i o n than a product with
t h e same 80% p a s s i n g s i z e
made i n a r o d m i l l o r f i n e
c r u s h i n g cone c r u s h e r o r i n
c r u s h i n g r o l l s and t h u s poss i b l y i t could have a d i f f e r e n t work i n d e x .
In selecting
b a l l m i l l s t o g r i n d primary
autogenous o r semi-autogenous
m i l l s product i f primary m i l l
product i s a v a i l a b l e use a
sample of t h i s f o r t h e grinda b i l i t y t e s t s necessary t o
d e t e r m i n e t h e power r e q u i r e d
f o r grinding t h i s product i n
a ball mill.
I f good p i l o t p l a n t d a t a i s
a v a i l a b l e , s o t h a t a n opera t i n g work i n d e x b a s e d upon
n e t power i s a v a i l a b l e ( s e e
E q u a t i o n 6 ) , t h i s can b e used
mill
to
determine
ball
power.
P r i m a r y a u t o g e n o u s o r semiautogenous m i l l product can
contain a sizeable quantity
of ground m a t e r i a l f i n e r t h a n
t h e desired b a l l m i l l product
size.
By f e e d i n g t h i s t o a
classification
stage, t h i s
product s i z e m a t e r i a l i s removed w i t h t h e c o a r s e m a t e r ial
from
the
classifier
(sands o r underflow) being
This
fed t o t h e b a l l m i l l .
i s b a l l m i l l feed.
It c a n
only be i d e n t i f i e d a s such
when t h e b a l l m i l l w i l l be
operated i n closed c i r c u i t
with a separate c l a s s i f icat i o n stage.
In t h i s case
t h e n , t h e g r i n d a b i l i t y work
r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e power
required f o r b a l l m i l l i n g can

The more common c i r c u i t h a s


t h e p r i m a r y m i l l p r o d u c t being fed t o t h e c l a s s i f i e r
used t o c l o s e t h e b a l l m i l l
circuit.
I n t h i s case, use
t h e p r i m a r y m i l l c i r c u i t products f o r grindability t e s t s
and p r i m a r y m i l l f e e d r a t e a s
t h e feed r a t e t o t h e b a l l
m i l l circuit.
I f s a m p l e s from p i l o t p l a n t
t e s t s a r e not available it
w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o u s e samp l e s of t h e o r e f o r g r i n d a b i l i t y t e s t s which may o r
may n o t b e t h e same a s t h e
p r o d u c t from t h e p r i m a r y aut o g e n o u s o r semi-autogenous
mill.
I n t h i s case, t h e feed
rate t o the ball m i l l is the
same a s t h e f e e d r a t e t o t h e
primary m i l l .
E.

Pebble M i l l :
(Secondary Aut o g e n o u s ) Rod
M i l l Pebble
M i l l Circuit
The c a l c u l a t i o n f o r d e t e r mining g r i n d i n g
power f o r
P e b b l e m i l l i n g ( s e c o n d a r y aut o g e n o u s ) c a n be t h e same as
f o r b a l l m i l l i n g from rod
m i l l p r o d u c t s i z e t o t h e desired specified
s i z e , neg l e c t i n g t h e diameter e f f i ciency f a c t o r i f l e s s than
1.0.

To t h i s add t h e power req u i r e d t o wear t h e p e b b l e s


down t o r o d m i l l p r o d u c t s i z e
(pebble m i l l feed s i z e ) .

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


F

= 70,000 m i c r o m e t e r s

P
Wi

= 1,200 m i c r o m e t e r s
= 13.2

= 3.31 kWh/s.

EF?-

Because b a l l s w i l l be
smaller
than
40
mm
(1.5")
and o t h e r minor
f a c t o r s n e g l e c t EF3 unl e s s m i l l diameter is
l e s s than
2.44 m e t e r
(8.0' ) d i a m e t e r i n s i d e
liners.

EF4

does not apply.

EF5

Grind
is
80 percent
p a s s i n g 45 m i c r o m e t e r s .

EF6

does n o t apply.

EF7

R r = 2 1 0 + 45 = 4.67 which i s
l e s s t h a n 6.

EF8

does n o t apply.

ton

The i n e f f i c i e n c y f a c t o r t o
allow f o r the i n e f f i c i e n t use
of power i n w e a r i n g down from
p e b b l e s i z e t o rod m i l l proFeed r a t e
d u c t s i z e i s 2.0.
f o r p e b b l e s 30 mtph.

S e l e c t two 2200 HP p e b b l e
mills.
For s p e c i f i c s i z i n g r e f e r t o m i l l manufact u r e r s f o r recommendations
a s t h e y have p r o p r i e t a r y
equations f o r c a l c u l a t i n g
m i l l power draw t a k i n g int o account t h e v a r i o u s o r e
media and p u l p f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d , which a r e p r o p r i e t a r y f a c t o r s with each
manufacturer.
F.

the controlling point.


The
R e f e r t o T a b l e X.
EF2 f a c t o r i s 1.2.

Regrind B a l l M i l l
F = 210 m i c r o m e t e r s
P = 45 m i c r o m e t e r s
Wi = 14.0

= 11.21 k ~ h / s . t o n

Efficiency Factors:
EF1

does not apply.

EF2

Many r e g r i n d o p e r a t i o n s
a r e closed c i r c u i t , but
assume t h i s one i s open
c i r c u i t and 8 0 p e r c e n t
p a s s i n g g r i n d w i l l be

Feed r a t e t o r e g r i n d m i l l 40
m e t r i c t o n n e s p e r hour.

Referring t o Table V I I t h e
L/D c a n be between 1.75 and
2.10
o r even g r e a t e r .
Ref e r r i n g t o T a b l e V I I I a 3.05
m e t e r ( 1 0 f o o t ) by 3.05 m e t e r
(10 f o o t ) overflow b a l l m i l l
w i t h a 40% by m i l l volume
b a l l c h a r g e , new l i n e r s and
5 0 mm ( 2 " ) b a l l s draws 491
HP

T h i s m i l l c o n t a i n s 37.3 metr i c t o n n e s of b a l l s .
Since
30 mm d i a m e t e r b a l l s w i l l be
used i n s t e a d of 50 mm d i a m e t e r b a l l s f o r which t h e
b a l l m i l l power was c a l c u l a t e d , t h e r e w i l l be a dec r e a s e i n t h e power t h e m i l l
w i l l draw.
Using e q u a t i o n
5

1a
m c r

(D

m c l

(D

rt

r. 0
rnrtrna
n-sr.

cr

m m

0 Eart
.E

?'3

a o

1C
m NP-ro

rt

%-

rt
rn r ( D
1 r1

P m

Oro

c c

-0

a0-(D

y
.%y=
m
m

mm

UP.3

,
"
5?
&art

c 3

a 1
r
r. a m
a 3 r1a r c
m r . r ~

c
corn
I-m 1 0 -

rn a B o
I c r (D
O W r t H

I-

r a
p,m

m
0-1r n r -i
n8
m

D
I

V Crn

I ~ Z B

V (D

CL)

C
.

ro

C
4

C C

mro

1
I

CL)

h)

C .

r r n o rn (D
g P v C O
O r . *
r t L l 0 0 3 0 - r t a m
V L l 1 o v m w V ( D cr

P O P r o m
( D r t O P .
1 0
N O .
3 - 3 Ll
Ll

w &OW

3 a

I-3
rta
P
( D P O
P, a n P O 3 1 P , 3
rt
I r
(D
B(D
co
r o- m l e m c n % w

r?t ro t r 4n

i-b

R O D , BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


m i l l volume c h a r g e w i t h new
l i n e r s and a t l e a s t a 36 perc e n t c h a r g e w i t h worn l i n e r s .
It may be d e s i r e d t o u t i l i z e
more of t h e a v a i l a b l e m i l l
volume a s t h e l i n e r s wear s o
a h i g h e r c h a r g e c a n be s p e c i f i e d f o r worn l i n e r s .
Specif i c a t i o n s can a l s o c a l l f o r
t h e d r i v e and motor t o be
rated t o allow using pinions
w i t h one l e s s and two more
teeth,
thus
allowing f o r
changing m i l l s p e e d i f i t i s
found n e c e s s a r y t o b a l a n c e
t h e c i r c u i t , i n c r e a s e capac i t y , s u i t changing o r e characteristics, etc.

XI.

SELECTION OF GRINDING MEDIA SIZES


AND ESTIMATING STEEL CONSUMPTION
The e q u a t i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n of t h e
l a r g e s t diameter rod f o r t h e i n i t i a l c h a r g e and f o r t h e make-up
c h a r g e is:

t i a l c h a r g e and
charge is:

for

t h e make-up

B = D i a m e t e r of b a l l i n m i l l i m e t e r s .
NOTE:

Except
f o r K which i s
g i v e n below a l l o t h e r t e r m s
t h e same a s f o r e q u a t i o n
17.

Ball M i l l K Factor
M i l l Type and
Grinding C i r c u i t

S t e e l o r C.I.
Balls
K

Wet-Overflow-Open C i r c u i t
Wet-Overflow-Closed C i r c u i t
Wet-Diaphragm-Open C i r c u i t
Wet-Diaphragm-Closed C i r c u i t
Dry-Diaphragm-Open C i r c u i t
Dry-Diaphragm-Closed C i r c u i t

3 50
350
330
330
335
335

W i t h B i n i n c h e s and d i a m e t e r (Dl
i n f e e t e q u a t i o n 18 becomes:

Wi =
Sg =

Cs =
D =

Diameter o f r o d i n m i l l i meters
Feed s i z e 8 0 % p a s s e s i n
microns
Work Index
Specific Gravity
F r a c t i o n o f c r i t i c a l speed.
Diameter i n s i d e s h e l l l i n e r s
i n meters.

With R i n i n c h e s and d i a m e t e r (D)


i n f e e t e q u a t i o n 17 becomes:

Table X I 1 gives t h e equilibrium


start-up
rod c h a r g e f o r t o p r o d
s i z e s from 125 mm ( 5 " ) t o 65 mm
(2.5").
The e q u a t i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n of t h e
l a r g e s t diameter b a l l f o r t h e i n i -

Table X I 1 1 g i v e s t h e equilibrium
s t a r t - u p b a l l charge f o r top b a l l
s i z e s from 1 1 5 mm (4.5") t o 4 0 mm
(1.5").
T h e s e two
equations
give the
l a r g e s t d i a m e t e r of t h e g r i n d i n g
media r e q u i r e d .
Since t h e calc u l a t e d s i z e i s not always a n
a v a i l a b l e standard s i z e s e l e c t the
nearest larger
size available.
A c t u a l o p e r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e may
d i c t a t e a change from t h e c a l c u lated size.
Theoretically i t is
always a d v i s a b l e t o use a graded
charge a s a replacement charge.
Using a g r a d e d c h a r g e o f t e n i s n o t
p r a c t i c a l . The l o s s i n e f f i c i e n c y
by n o t u s i n g a g r a d e d make-up
charge g e n e r a l l y c a n n o t b e neasured.
I n some c a s e s , i t i s o n l y
n e c e s s a r y t o add t h e l a r g e s t s i z e

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


Table X I 1
Start-Up Equil i b r i a Grinding Rod Charges, Percent Weight

Table XI11
Start-Up E q u i l i b r i a Grinding Ball Charges, Percent Weight

Make-Up
Ball s Fed
Sizes,
M = B

115
100
90
75
65
50
40
25

(4.5")
(4.0")
(3.5")
(3.0")
(2.5")
(2.0")
(1.5")
(1.0")

TOTAL Pct

115
4.5"

100
4.0"

90
3.5"

75
3.0"

65
2.5"

50
2.0"

40
1.5"

ROD, BALL, PEBBLE, REGRIND MILLS


media c a l c u l a t e d a s make-up.
Operating r e s u l t s w i l l indicate the
n e c e s s i t y of using more than one
s i z e of media i n
t h e make-up
charge.
The b e s t f i g u r e s f o r media and lin e r consumption come from a c t u a l
o p e r a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e and a s operis
generated t h i s
ating data
should be used t o e s t a b l i s h wear
rates.
Actual t e s t i n g i n l a b o r a t o r y s c a l e
equipment t o determine t h e abras i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a n o r e i s
d i f f i c u l t , and a v a i l a b l e t e s t s a r e
g u i d e s f o r e s t i m a t i n g purposes b u t
a r e n o t completely a c c u r a t e .
One
a b r a s i o n test measures t h e weight
l o s s of a s t e e l paddle continuousl y impacting f a l l i n g o r e p a r t i c l e s
f o r a p r e s c r i b e d time p e r i o d under
s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s . From t h i s i s
developed a measurement c a l l e d a n
From p l a n t
a b r a s i o n Index, A i .
data, empirical equations correl a t i n g w i t h A i were developed t o
be used t o e s t i m a t e r o d , b a l l ,
m i l l l i n e r and c r u s h e r l i n e r wear
r a t e s . These e q u a t i o n s a r e :
Wet Rod M i l l s :
Rods kglkw-hr = 0.159(A, - 0.020)0.2

(19)

L i n e r s kglkw-hr = 0.0159(A,- 0.015)0.3

(20)

Wet B a l l M i l l s :
B a l l s kglkw-hr = 0.159(A, - 0.015)0.34

(21)
L i n e r s kglkw-hr = 0.0118 (A,- 0.015)03

(22)
M u l t i p l y e q u a t i o n s 1 9 , 20, 2 1 and
22 by 2.2 t o g e t pounds per k i l o watt.
These formulas g i v e e s t i m a t e s of
wear r a t e s which can be used a s a
guide.
They a r e s u b j e c t t o such
f a c t o r s a s m i l l speeds, percent
volumetric
loading,
alloy
of
g r i n d i n g media and l i n e r s , o p e r a t ing practices, etc.
Table X I V l i s t s a v e r a g e a b r a s i o n
i n d i c e s f o r t h e more commonly o r e ,
m i n e r a l s and m a t e r i a l s ground i n
rod m i l l s , b a l l m i l l s o r pebble
mills.
T h i s c h a p t e r is a c o m p i l a t i o n of
p r e v i o u s work done by Fred C.
Bond, D. M. Kjos, D. R.
Olson, C.
A.
Rowland and o t h e r s
i n the
Section
of t h e
Grinding M i l l
Allis-Chalmers
C o r p o r a t i o n , Cement, Mining and M e t a l s Systems
It r e f l e c t s e x p e r i e n c e
Division.
gained i n o b t a i n i n g o p e r a t i n g d a t a
i n o p e r a t i n g p l a n t s and i n studying published operating data.

438

DESIGN, INSTALLATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUITS


Table X I V
Average A b r a s i o n I n d i c e s

Material
A1 umi num Oxide
Basalt
Bauxite
B e r y l 1 ium Ore
Cement C l i n k e r
Cement Raw M i x
Clay, C a l c i n e d
Copper-Nickel M a t t e
Copper-Nickel Ore
Copper Ore
Copper-Si 1 v e r Ore
Do1 omi t e
Fel d s p a r
Ferro-Chrome A1 1 oy
Ferro-Manganese
Ful l e r s E a r t h
G o l d Ore
Granite
Gravel
I r o n Ore, U n i d e n t i f i e d
Hematite
Limonite
Magnetite
Taconite
Lead Z i n c Ore
Limestone
Magnesi t e
Marble
Molybdenum Ore
N i c k e l Ore
O i l Shale
Phosphate Rock
Quartize
Schist
Shale
S i 1 ic a Rock
S i l v e r Ore
Slag
Slate
Stone
T i n e Ore
Trap Rock
Tntal

No.
Tests

Average

Range