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ADAPTIVE MISSILE GUIDANCE USING GPS

SEMINAR REPORT-2012

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1.

WHAT IS MISSILE?
The word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, literally meaning "to send". They

are basically rockets which are meant for destructive purposes only. Rocket-powered missiles
are known as rockets if they lack post-launch guidance or missiles or guided missiles if they
are able to continue tracking a target after launch. Cruise missiles typically use some form of
jet engine for propulsion.

Missiles are often used in warfare as a means of delivering destructive force (usually
in the form of an explosive warhead) upon a target. Aside from explosives, other possible
types of destructive missile payloads are various forms of chemical or biological agents,
nuclear warheads, or simple kinetic energy (where the missile destroys the target by the force
of striking it at high speed). Sometimes missiles are used to deliver payloads designed to
break infrastructure without harming people. For example, in the Persian Gulf War cruise
missiles were used to deliver reels of carbon filament to electricity stations and switches,
effectively disabling them by forming short circuits. Missiles which spend most of their
trajectory in un-powered flight, and which don't use aerodynamics to alter their course, are
known as ballistic missiles (because their motion is largely governed by the laws of ballistics).
These are in contrast to cruise missiles, which spend most of their trajectory in powered flight.

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1.2. MISSILE COMPONENTS:


Guided missiles are made up of a series of subassemblies. The major sections are
carefully joined and connected to each other. They form the complete missile assembly. The
major components of a missile are:

The guidance and control section


The target detector section
The rocket motor section.
Armament Section
Propulsion Section

Target detection: The target detector (TD) is a narrow-beam, active-optical, proximity fuse
system. The purpose of the TD is to detect the presence of an air target within the burst range
of the missile warhead and generate an electrical firing signal to the S&A device. They detect
the presence of a target and determine the moment of firing. When subjected to the proper
target influence, both as to magnitude and change rate, the device sends an electrical impulse
to trigger the firing systems.
Rocket motoring section: The rocket motor consists of components that propel and stabilize
the rocket in flight. Not all rocket motors are identical, but they do have certain common
components. These components are the motor tube, propellant, inhibitors, stabilizing rod,
igniter, and nozzle and fin assembly. The motor tube supports the other components of the
rocket. Presently, all motor tubes are aluminum. The forward end contains the head closure
and threaded portion for attachment of the warhead. The center portion of the motor tube
contains the propellant. The section is the combustion chamber and contains the igniter,
propellant grain, stabilizing rod, and associated hardware. The nozzle and fin assembly
attaches to the aft end by a lock wire in a grove inside the tube. The aft end of the motor tube
is threaded internally to accept the nozzle and fin assembly.
Armament section: The armament system contains the payload (explosives) and fusing.

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Fig.1.1. components of a missile

Warhead: The warhead is an annular blast fragmentation warhead that consists of a case
assembly, two booster plates, an initiator, high explosive, and fragmentation rods. Detonation
of the booster pellets placed inside the warhead system produces high explosion, causing
warhead detonation.
Fusing: The fusing and firing system is normally located in or next to the missile's warhead
section. It includes those devices and arrangements that cause the missile's payload to
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function in proper relation to the target. There are two general types of fuzes used in guided
missilesproximity fuzes and contact fuzes.
Propulsion Section: Guided missiles use some form of jet power for propulsion. There are
two basic types of jet propulsion power plants used in missile propulsion systemsthe
atmospheric (air-breathing) jet and the thermal jet propulsion systems. The basic difference
between the two systems is that the atmospheric jet engine depends on the atmosphere to
supply the oxygen necessary to start and sustain burning of the fuel. The thermal jet engine
operates independently of the atmosphere by starting and sustaining combustion with its own
supply of oxygen contained within the missile.
1.3. TYPES OF MISSILES
1. Surface To Surface
a. V-1 & V-2 land based.
b. Land based strategic missile.
c. Sea based strategical missile.
d. Cruise missile.
2. Air Launched Missile
3. Surface To Air Missile
1.4. INTRODUCTION TO MISSILE GUIDANCE:
Guided missile systems have evolved at a tremendous rate over the past four decades,
and recent breakthroughs in technology ensure that smart warheads will have an increasing
role in maintaining our military superiority. On ethical grounds, one prays that each warhead
deployed during a sortie will strike only its intended target and those innocent civilians will
not be harmed by a misfire. From a tactical standpoint, our military desires weaponry that is
reliable and effective, inflicting maximal damage on valid military targets and ensuring our
capacity for lighting fast strikes with pinpoint accuracy. Guided missiles systems help fulfill
all of these demands.

CHAPTER 2
CONCEPT OF MISSILE GUIDANCE

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Missile guidance concerns the method by which the missile receives its commands to
move along a certain path to reach a target. On some missiles, these commands are generated
internally by the missile computer autopilot. On others, the commands are transmitted to the
missile by some external source.

Fig.2.1. concept of missile guidance

The missile sensor or seeker, on the other hand, is a component within a missile that
generates data fed into the missile computer. This data is processed by the computer and used
to generate guidance commands. Sensor types commonly used today include infrared, radar,
and the global positioning system. Based on the relative position between the missile and the
target at any given point in flight, the computer autopilot sends commands to the control
surfaces to adjust the missiles course.

CHAPTER 3
TYPES OF MISSILE GUIDANCE
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Many of the early guidance systems used in missiles where based on gyroscope
models. Many of these models used magnets in their gyroscope to increase the sensitivity of
the navigational array. In modern day warfare, the inertial measurements of the missile are
still controlled by a gyroscope in one form or another, but the method by which the missile
approaches the target bears a technological edge. On the battlefield of today, guided missiles
are guided to or acquire their targets by using:

Radar signal
Wires
Lasers (or)
Most recently GPS

3.1. MISSILE GUIDANCE USING RADAR SIGNAL


Many machines used in battle, such as tanks, planes, etc. and targets, such as
buildings, hangers, launch pads, etc. have a specific signature when a radar wave is reflected
off of it. Guided missiles that use radar signatures to acquire their targets are programmed
with the specific signature to home in on. Once the missile is launched, it then uses its
onboard navigational array to home in on the preprogrammed radar signature. Most radar
guided missiles are very successful in acquiring their targets; however, these missiles need a
source to pump out radar signals so that they can acquire their target. The major problem with
these missiles in todays battlefield is that the countermeasures used against these missiles
work on the same principles that these missiles operate under. The countermeasures home in
on the radar signal source and destroy the antenna array, which essential shuts down the radar
source, and hence the radar guided missiles cannot acquire their targets.

3.2. MISSILE GUIDANCE USING WIRES


Wire guided missiles do not see the target. Once the missile is launched, the missile
proceeds in a linear direction from the launch vehicle. Miles of small, fine wire are wound in
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the tail section of the missile and unwind as the missile travels to the target. Along this wire,
the gunner sends navigational signals directing the missile to the target. If for some reason the
wire breaks, the missile will never acquire the target. Wire guided missiles carry no
instrument array that would allow them to acquire a target. One strong downside to wire
guided missiles is the fact that the vehicle from which the missile is fired must stay out in the
open to guide the missile to its target. This leaves the launch vehicle vulnerable to attack,
which on the battlefield one wants to avoid at all costs.

3.3. MISSILE GUIDANCE USING LASERS


In modern day weaponry the buzzwords are fire and forget. Under this principle many
modern day laser weapons were designed. Laser guided missiles use a laser of a certain
frequency bandwidth to acquire their target. The gunner sights the target using a laser; this is
called painting the target. When the missile is launched it uses its onboard instrumentation to
look for the heat signature created by the laser on the target. Once the missile locates the heat
signature, the target is acquired, and the missile will home in on the target even if the target is
moving. Despite the much publicized success of laser guided missiles, laser guided weapons
are no good in the rain or in weather conditions where there is sufficient cloud cover. To
overcome the shortcomings of laser guided missiles presented in unsuitable atmospheric
conditions and radar guided missiles entered GPS as a method of navigating the missile to the
target. So, before going to GPS guided missile we will have an introduction to GPS.

CHAPTER 4
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)
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GPS, which stands for Global Positioning System, is the only system today able to
show us our exact position on the Earth anytime, in any weather, anywhere. GPS satellites, 24
in all, orbit at11, 000 nautical miles above the Earth. Ground stations located worldwide
continuously monitor them. The satellites transmit signals that can be detected by anyone with
a GPS receiver. Using the receiver, you can determine your location with great precision.

4.1. GPS SEGMENTS


The Global Positioning System is comprised of three segments: satellite constellation,
ground control/monitoring network and user receiving equipment. Formal GPS Joint Program
Office (JPO) programmatic terms for these components are space, operational control and
user equipment segments, respectively.
1. The satellite constellation contains the satellites in orbit that provide the ranging
signals and data messages to the user equipment.
2. The operational control segment (OCS) tracks and maintains the satellites in space.
The OCS monitors satellite health and signal integrity and maintains the orbital
configuration of the satellites. Furthermore, the OCS updates the satellite clock
corrections and ephemerides as well as numerous other parameters essential to
determining user position, velocity, and time (PVT).
3. Lastly, the user receiver equipment performs the navigation, timing or other related
functions (e.g. surveying).

4.1.1. Gps Satellite Constellations


The satellite constellation consists of the nominal 24-satellite constellation (the first
was launched in 1978 and the 24th in 1994). They transmit signals (at 1575.42 MHz) that can
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be detected by receivers on the ground. The satellites are positioned in six Earth-centered
orbital planes with four satellites in each plane. This means that signals from six of them can
be received 100 percent of the time at any point on earth. The nominal orbital period of a GPS
satellite is one half of a sidereal day or 11 hr. 58 min. The orbits are nearly circular and
equally spaced about the equator at a 60 degree separation with an inclination relative to the
equator of nominally 55 degrees. The orbital radius is approximately 26,600 km (i.e.,
distance from satellite to center of mass of the earth).
GPS satellites transmit two low power radio signals, designated L1 and L2. Civilian
GPS uses the L1 frequency of 1575.42 MHz in the UHF band. A GPS signal contains three
different bits of information a pseudo-random code, ephemeris data and almanac data. The
pseudo-random code is simply an I.D. code that identifies which satellite is transmitting
information.
Several different notations are used to refer to the satellites in their orbits. One
particular notation assigns a letter to each orbital plane (i.e., A, B, C, D, E, and F) with each
satellite within a plane assigned a number from 1 to 4. Thus, a satellite referenced as B3 refers
to satellite number 3 in orbital plane B. A second notation used is a NAVSTAR satellite
number assigned by the U.S. Air Force. This notation is in the form of a space vehicle number
(SVN) 11 to refer to NAVSTAR satellite 11.
4.1.2. Operational Control Segment (OCS)
The OCS has responsibility for maintaining the satellites and their proper functioning.
This includes maintaining the satellites in their proper orbital positions (called station
keeping) and monitoring satellite subsystem health and status. The OCS also monitors the
satellite solar arrays, battery power levels, and propellant levels used for maneuvers and
activate spare satellites. The overall structure of the operational ground/control segment is as
follows: Remote monitor stations constantly track and gather C/A and P(Y) code from the
satellites and transmit this data to the Master Control Station, which is located at Falcon Air
Force Base, Colorado Springs. There is also the ground uplink antenna facility, which
provides the means of commanding and controlling the satellites and uploading the navigation

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messages and other data. The unmanned ground monitor stations are located in Hawaii,
Kwajalein in the Pacific Ocean, and Diego Garcia in the Indian
Ocean, Ascension Island in the Atlantic and Colorado Springs, Continental United States.
Ground antennas are located in these areas also. These locations have been selected to
maximize satellite coverage.

Fig.2.1. Location of GPS ground stations


4.1.3. User Receiving Equipment
The user receiving equipment, typically referred to as a GPS receiver, processes the Lband signals transmitted from the satellites to determine PVT. There has been a significant
evolution in the technology of GPS receiving sets since they were initially manufactured in
the mid-70s. Initially, they were large, bulky and heavy analog devices primarily used for
military purposes. With todays technology, a GPS receiver of comparable or more capability
typically weighs a few pounds or ounces, and occupies a small volume. The smallest of
todays are those of a wrist watch size, while the largest is a naval shipboard unit (weighing
about 32 kgs). The basic structure of a receiver is the antenna, the receiver and processor, the
display and a regulated dc power supply. These receivers can be mounted in ships, planes and
cars, and provide exact position information, regardless of weather conditions.
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4.2. GPS OPERATION


The basic idea behind GPS is to use satellites in space as reference points for locations
on earth. With GPS, signals from the satellites arrive at the exact position of the user and are
triangulated. This triangulation is the key behind accurate location determining and is
achieved through several steps.

4.2.1. Determining Your Position


Suppose we measure our distance from a satellite and find it to be 11,000 miles (how
it is measured is covered later). Knowing that we're 11,000 miles from a particular satellite
narrows down all the possible locations we could be in the whole universe to the surface of a
sphere that is centered on this satellite and has a radius of 11,000 miles. Next, say we measure
our distance to a second satellite and find out that it's 12,000 miles away. That tells us that
we're not only on the first sphere but we're also on a sphere that's 12,000 miles from the
second satellite, i.e. somewhere on the circle where these two spheres intersect. If we then
make a measurement from a third satellite and find that we're 13,000 miles from that one,
which narrows our position down even further, to the two points where the 13,000 mile sphere
cuts through the circle that's the intersection of the first two spheres.

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Fig.4.1. the two possible locations

So by ranging from three satellites we can narrow our position to just two points in
space. To decide which one is our true location we could make a fourth measurement. But
usually one of the two points is a ridiculous answer (either too far from Earth or moving at an
impossible velocity) and therefore can be rejected without a measurement.
4.2.2. Measuring Your Distance
How the satellites actually measure the distance is quite different from determining
your position and essentially involves using the travel time of a radio message from the
satellite to a ground receiver. To make the measurement we assume that both the satellite and
our receiver are generating the same pseudo-random code at exactly the same time. This
pseudo-random code is a digital code unique to each satellite, designed to be complex enough
to ensure that the receiver doesn't accidentally sync up to some other signal. Since each
satellite has its own unique Pseudo-Random Code this complexity also guarantees that the
receiver won't accidentally pick up another satellite's signal. So all the satellites can use the
same frequency without jamming each other and it makes it more difficult for a hostile force
to jam the system, as well as giving the DOD a way to control access to the system. By
comparing how late the satellite's pseudo-random code appears compared to our receiver's
code, we determine how long it took to reach us. Multiply that travel time by the speed of
light and you obtain the distance between the receiver and the satellite. However this calls for
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precise timing to determine the interval between the code being generated at the receiver and
received from space. On the satellite side, timing is almost perfect due to their atomic clocks
installed within each satellite. However as it would be extremely uneconomical for receiver to
use atomic clocks a different method must be found.
GPS solves this problem by using an extra satellite measurement for the following
reason: If our receiver's clocks were perfect, then all our satellite ranges would intersect at a
single point - our position. But with imperfect clocks, a fourth measurement will not intersect
with the first three satellite ranges. So the receiver's computer will then calculate a single
correction factor that it can subtract from all its timing measurements that would cause them
all to intersect at a single point. That correction brings the receiver's clock back into sync with
universal time, ensuring (once the correction is applied to all the rest of the receivers
measurements) precise positioning.

4.2.3. Error Correction


As would be expected, a variety of different errors can occur within the system, some
of which are natural, whilst others are artificial. First of all, a basic assumption, the speed of
light, is not constant as this value changes as the satellite signals travel through the
atmosphere. As a GPS signal passes through the charged particles of the ionosphere and then
through the water vapor of the troposphere it gets slowed down, and this creates the same kind
of error as bad clocks. This problem is tackled by attempting to use modeling of the
atmospheric conditions of the day, and using dual-frequency measurement, i.e. comparing the
relative speeds of two different signals. Another problem is multipath error; this is when the
signal may bounce off various local obstructions before it gets to our receiver. Sophisticated
signal rejection techniques are used to minimize this problem.

There are also potential problems at the satellites. Minute time differences can occur
within the onboard atomic clocks, and sometimes position (ephemeris) errors can occur.
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These other errors can be magnified by a high GDOP "Geometric Dilution of Precision" This
is where a receiver picks satellites that are close together in the sky, meaning the intersecting
circles that define a position will cross at very shallow angles. That increases the grey area or
error margin around a position. If the receiver picks satellites that are widely separated the
circles intersect at almost right angles and that minimizes the error region. Obviously good
receivers determine which satellites will give the lowest GDOP.
Finally up to recently there was another, man-made source of errors. The U.S. was
very mindful of the fact that terrorists and unfriendly governments could use the accurate
positioning provided by GPS and so intentionally degraded GPSs accuracy. This policy is
called Selective Availability or SA. This involves the DOD introducing some "noise" into the
satellite's clock data which, in turn, adds noise (or inaccuracy) into position calculations. The
DOD may also have been sending slightly erroneous orbital data to the satellites which they
transmit back to receivers on the ground as part of a status message. Together these factors
made SA the biggest single source of inaccuracy in the system. Military receivers used a
decryption key to remove the SA errors and so they were considerably more accurate.
However, effective May 2, 2000 selective availability has been eliminated. The recent terrorist
attacks on America have not changed this position. This is due to the fact that civilian uses of
GPS have become critical across the world, and because the United States Department of
Defense now has the technology to localize the control system to deny GPS signals to selected
areas

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DIFFERENTIAL GPS

Using a modified form of GPS called Differential GPS (originally initiated by the U.S.
Coast Guard to counter the accuracy degradation caused by Selective Availability) can
significantly reduce the above errors. Even with SA eliminated, DGPS continues to be a key
tool for highly precise navigation on land and sea. DGPS can yield measurements accurate to
a couple of meters in moving applications and even better in stationary situations. Differential
GPS involves the co-operation of two receivers, one that's stationary and another that's roving
around making position measurements.
As each GPS receivers use timing signals from at least four satellites to establish a
position then each of those timing signals is going to have some error or delay depending on
what sort of problems have occurred it on its journey down to Earth. Since each of the timing
signals that go into a position calculation has some error, that calculation is going to be a
compounding of those errors.
However if two receivers are fairly close to each other, say within a few hundred
kilometers, the signals that reach both of them will have travelled through virtually the same
slice of atmosphere, and so will have virtually the same errors.
This means that you could use have one receiver to measure the timing errors and then
provide correction information to the other receivers that are roving around. This allows
virtually all errors to be eliminated from the system.
The reference station operates by receiving the same GPS signals as the roving
receiver but instead of working like a normal GPS receiver it uses its known position to
calculate timing, rather than using timing signals to calculate position. Essentially determining
what the travel time of the GPS signals should be, and compares it with what they actually
are. The difference is an "error correction" factor. The receiver then transmits this error
information to the roving receiver so it can use it to correct its measurements.
Since the reference receiver has no way of knowing which of the many available
satellites a roving receiver might be using to calculate its position, the reference receiver
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quickly runs through all the visible satellites and computes each of their errors. Then it
encodes this information into a standard format and transmits it to the roving receivers. The
roving receivers can then apply the corrections for particular satellites they are using. The
United States Coast Guard and other international agencies are establishing reference stations
all over the place, especially around busy harbors and waterways.
There are also different kinds of DGPS, for use when users dont need precise
positioning immediately. This is termed Post Processing DGPS, and is used when the roving
receiver just needs to record all of its measured positions and the exact time it made each
measurement. Then later, this data can be merged with corrections recorded at a reference
receiver for a final clean-up of the data, meaning you dont need the radio link required in
real-time systems. Another form of DGPS, called Inverted DGPS, which is used to save
money when operating a large fleet of users. With an inverted DGPS system the users would
be equipped with standard GPS receivers and a transmitter and would transmit their standard
GPS positions back to the tracking station (the main office). Then at the tracking station the
corrections would be applied to the received positions.

5.1. WORKING OF DGPS


1.) Technique called differential correction can yield accuracies within 1 -5 meters, or even
better, with advanced equipment.
2.) Differential correction requires a second GPS receiver, a base station, collecting data at a
stationary position on a precisely known point (typically it is a surveyed benchmark)
.3.) Because physical location of base station is known, a correction factor can be computed
by comparing known location with GPS location determined by using satellites.
4.) Differential correction process takes this correction factor and applies it to GPS data
collected by the GPS receiver in the field. -- Differential correction eliminates most of errors.

CHAPTER 6
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WORKING OF INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM

Inertial navigation relies on devices onboard the missile that senses its motion and
acceleration in different directions. These devices are called gyroscopes and accelerometers.

Fig.6.1. Mechanical, fiber optic, and ring laser gyroscopes

The purpose of a gyroscope is to measure angular rotation, and a number of different


methods to do so have been devised. A classic mechanical gyroscope senses the stability of a
mass rotating on gimbals. More recent ring laser gyros and fiber optic gyros are based on the
interference between laser beams. Current advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems
(MEMS) offer the potential to develop gyroscopes that are very small and inexpensive. While
gyroscopes measure angular motion, accelerometers measure linear motion. The accelerations
from these devices are translated into electrical signals for processing by the missile computer
autopilot. When a gyroscope and an accelerometer are combined into a single device along
with a control mechanism, it is called an inertial measurement unit (IMU) or inertial
navigation system (INS).

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Fig.6.1. inertial navigation concept

The INS uses these two devices to sense motion relative to a point of origin. Inertial
navigation works by telling the missile where it is at the time of launch and how it should
move in terms of both distance and rotation over the course of its flight. The missile computer
uses signals from the INS to measure these motions and insure that the missile travels along
its proper programmed path. Inertial navigation systems are widely used on all kinds of
aerospace vehicles including weapons, military aircraft, commercial airliners, and spacecraft.
Many missiles use inertial methods for midcourse guidance, including AMRAAM, Storm
Shadow, Meteor, and Tomahawk.

CHAPTER 7
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ROLE OF SATELLITE IN MISSILE GUIDANCE

7.1. SATELLITE GUIDED WEAPONS


The problem of poor visibility does not affect satellite-guided weapons such as JDAM
(Joint Direct Attack Munitions), which uses satellite navigation systems, specifically the GPS
system. This offers improved accuracy compared to laser systems, and can operate in all
weather conditions, without any need for ground support. Because it is possible to jam GPS,
the bomb reverts to inertial navigation in the event of losing the GPS signal.
Inertial navigation is significantly less accurate; JDAM achieves a CEP of 13 m under
GPS guidance, but typically only30 m under inertial guidance. Further, the inertial guidance
CEP increases as the dropping altitude increases, while the GPS CEP does not. The precision
of these weapons is dependent both on the precision of the measurement system used for
location determination and the precision in setting the coordinates of the target. The latter
critically depends on intelligence information, not all of which is accurate. However, if the
targeting information is accurate, satellite-guided weapons are significantly more likely to
achieve a successful strike in any given weather conditions than any other type of precision
guided munitions.

7.2. MISSILE GUIDANCE USING GPS


The central idea behind the design of DGPS/GPS/inertial guided weapons is that of
using a 3-axis gyro/accelerometer package as an inertial reference for the weapon's autopilot,
and correcting the accumulated drift error in the inertial package by using GPS PPS/P-code.
Such weapons are designated as "accurate" munitions as they will offer CEPs (Circular Error
Probable) of the order of the accuracy of GPS P -code signals, typically about 40ft.

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Fig.7.1. Global Positioning System used in ranging navigation guidance

The next incremental step is then to update the weapon before launch with a DGPS
derived position estimate, which will allow it to correct its GPS error as it flies to the target,
such weapons are designated "precise" and will offer accuracies greater than laser or TV
guided weapons, potentially CEPs of several feet. For an aircraft to support such munitions it
will require a DGPS receiver, a GPS receiver and interfaces on its multiple ejector racks or
pylons to download target and launch point coordinates to the weapons. The development of
purely GPS/inertial guided munitions will produce substantial changes in how air warfare is
conducted. Unlike a laser-guided weapon, a GPS/inertial weapon does not require that the
launch aircraft remain in the vicinity of the target to illuminate it for guidance - GPS/inertial
weapons are true fire-and-forget weapons, which once released, are wholly autonomous, and
all weather capable with no degradation in accuracy. Existing precision weapons require an
unobscured line of sight between the weapon and the target for the optical guidance to work.

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CHAPTER 8
APPLICATIONS OF GPS

GPS is the most powerful navigation system used in a miracle of military, commercial,
civil, and scientific application. GPS has already been incorporated into naval ships,
submarines, and military aircraft.
1.) Navigation System Timing and Ranging (NAVSTAR) GPS is now available at any time, in
any weather, and at any place on or above the earth. NAVSTAR also provides precise time
within a millionth of a second to synchronize the atomic clocks used in various military
applications.
2.) GPS is even used in locating the present position of living and non-living things; this is the
concept which is used in famous GOOGLE EARTH.

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CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSIONS

The proliferation of GPS and INS guidance is a double-edged sword. On the one hand,
this technology promise a revolution in air warfare not seen since the laser guided bomb, with
single bombers being capable of doing the task of multiple aircraft packages. In summary,
GPS-INS guided weapons are not affected by harsh weather conditions or restricted by a wire,
nor do they leave the gunner vulnerable for attack. GPS guided weapons, with their
technological advances over previous, are the superior weapon of choice in modern day
warfare.

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REFERENCES

1. GPS Theory and Practice. B. Hofmann - Wellenhof, H. Lichtenegger, and J. Collins.


Springer-Verlag Wien. New York. 1997. Pg. [1-17, 76]

2. Technological Strategy Of Using GPS: An Analysis- Dr.S.S.Riaz Ahamed /International


Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Vol.1(1), 2009, 8-16

3. http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/pubs/gps/icd200/icd200cw1234.pdf
4. E.D. Kaplan, Understanding GPS: Principles and Applications.
5. http://www.aero.org/news/current/gpsorbit.html.
6. http://www.trimble.com/gpsorbit.html.

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