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TEEAM

The Electrical and Electronics Association of Malaysia

TECHNICAL REPORT

SUITABILITY OF LED FOR ROAD LIGHTING


IN MALAYSIA

EDITION 1

FEBRUARY 2012

CONTENTS
Page
Foreword .....................................................................................................................ii
Executive Summary ...................................................................................................iii
1

Background ......................................................................................................... 1

Introduction.......................................................................................................... 2

Energy comparison of HSPV and LED luminaires ............................................... 3

Analysis of result................................................................................................ 11

Initial cost for best energy efficient solution ....................................................... 16

Lifespan and Maintenance cost comparison of HPSV and LED luminaire......... 16

Environmental impact ........................................................................................ 18

Recommendations............................................................................................. 19

Conclusion ......................................................................................................... 22

References............................................................................................................... 23
Members of Working Group on LED for Road Lighting ............................................ 24
Appendices (refer attachments)
A

LEDs in street and ambient lighting Two case studies

Cost analyses of LED luminaires in road lighting

Maintenance factor of outdoor LED lighting installation

CLO gear for HPSV The Active Reactor

FOREWORD
This Technical Report was developed by the Working Group on LED for Road
Lighting under the authority of The Electrical and Electronics Association of Malaysia
(TEEAM).
This Technical Report gives recommendations on the suitability of LED for road
lighting in Malaysia with the justification based on a comprehensive techno-economic
analysis of the current best available technology LED and HPSV lighting systems
and with public safety in mind.
This Technical Report is the first edition and will be reviewed every 4 to 6 months
depending on the development in LED technologies.

ii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This Working Group was established to study the suitability of Light Emitting Diode
(LED) light source for road lighting at this moment of its technological development,
in response to the call of many stakeholders in the road lighting industry who are
extremely concerned that untimely rush into use of this technology may cost the
federal government, state government, local government and highway operators,
dearly in providing safe road lighting and this cost will ultimately be passed back to
all Malaysians in the form of direct and indirect taxes and higher toll charges. They
are also concerned that there is no proper detailed cost and benefit justification and
comparison with the best of existing proven technology, thus creating an unhealthy
situation that is open to abuse by unscrupulous opportunists for their own benefit at
the expense of the general public.
At this stage of LED development, the conclusion of this study is as follows.

Advantage of
using LED

For 3-lane dual


carriageway
(ME1 lighting class)

For 4-lane bi-directional


carriageway
(ME2 lighting class)

1) Energy saving

No

LED use 15% more power

LED use 10% more power

2) Cost saving

No

Increase initial cost by 5


times with LED products

Increase initial cost by 2


times with LED products

3) Maintenance cost
over 20 years

No

12.5 times more with LED


products

5 times more with LED


products

4) Safety and security

No

Impact of LED on road lighting is still under deliberation.


Current lighting standards have to be respected, or
public safety will be compromised.

5) Environmental
impact

No

5 times more using LED


products

2 times more using LED


products

The result of this study can be corroborated with similar studies carried out by Kostic,
M. et al. LEDs in Street and Ambient Lighting Two case studies enclosed with
this report as Appendix A, and by Onaygil, S. et al titled Cost Analysis of LED
Luminaires in Road Lighting which is enclosed herewith as Appendix B, for
European climatic condition which is less taxing.
The Maintenance Factor (MF) for LED luminaire used in this study is calculated
using the method presented by LacBatel, C., Sergent, M. in their paper titled

iii

Maintenance Factor Of Outdoor LED Lighting Installation enclosed herewith as


Appendix C. The MF value of 0.717 obtained is at best a good estimate, thus risking
a possibility of more life cycle cost if this figure is on the high side. On the other
hand, the MF of 0.8 in the scenario presented here for HPSV solution is well
established, and maintenance budget can be easily allocated accurately to ensure
that the safe lighting level is always maintained. The MF for LED and HPSV solution
for the same luminaire cleaning interval is not the same. Detail on MF is on page 3
to 5 of this report. Henceforth, the initial lighting level of LED has to be higher than
that of HPSV solution.
The non-professional current practice of having administrators to view visually a new
lighting installation and make policy decision based on his feel is wrong and must be
stopped.
It is also established herewith that the efficiency of a lighting solution does not
depend solely on the efficacy of the light source alone. Other influencing parameters
have to be taken into consideration and fortunately well tested software tools are
already widely available to make the calculation.
Up to 9% of energy can be saved by just cleaning the luminaire every year and up to
25% of energy saving can be achieved over the lamp lifespan by using Constant
Light Output (CLO) gears or controller. (CLO for HPSV is attached in Appendix D).
Finally, during period of low traffic, up to 20% energy can be saved.

Just by

improving on our current practice of designing, operating and maintaining a


road lighting installation, a total of up to 54% energy saving can easily be
achieved.
In this study, on page 11, Table 3, it is also shown that there was also a lot of
improvement in the photometry of HPSV luminaires that an old installation using
400W luminaire can be replaced with current high performance 250W HPSV
luminaire on a one to one basis without having to shift the position of the poles. This
upgrading results in an immediate energy saving of 40%.

iv

Zhaga which is an industry wide consortium is in the process of developing industry


standard specifications for LED light engine to ensure interchangeability of light
engine from different manufacturers, provide a stable design platform for luminaire
makers and to future-proof light engines which can be second sourced and
upgraded. As Zhaga is an industry wide consortium, standard specifications develop
by Zhaga will become international standard. Luminaire in the market now are not
Zhaga compliant and will be obsolete soon, thus becoming a maintenance nightmare
in terms of availability of spare parts.
LED is still evolving at a fast rate even at this moment and will eventually become
viable as alternative lighting solution for road lighting. For this reason, this Working
Group will review the situation periodically and advise accordingly on the readiness
of LED as a good viable alternative lighting solution for road lighting. Meanwhile,
use of LED for road lighting must be assessed carefully to ensure lower total life
cycle cost and environmental impact than the existing technology. The approach
used in this study is a simple method to do so.

SUITABILITY OF LED FOR ROAD LIGHTING IN MALAYSIA

Background

In the last few years, Light Emitting Diode (LED) has been marketed aggressively as
the light source that can replace all the lamps that are now in common use claiming
that it is energy efficient, long life and green. In this time of unprecedented green
movement, this has put a lot of pressure on policy makers who are obliged to reduce
carbon emission and at the same time attracts opportunists out to capitalize from this
huge green bandwagon. However, experience with LED products for road lighting
has so far been generally negative especially the long life or reliability aspect.
Technical data of LED for road lighting did not indicate that LED is any more efficient
than other highly efficient lamps that are much cheaper, widely used and easily
available in the market. As such, involvement of government in promoting the use of
LED for road lighting using public fund without proper detailed cost and benefit
justification need to be reviewed urgently.
Under such circumstances, The Electrical and Electronic Association of Malaysia
(TEEAM), which is in the forefront in promoting green, is taking the initiative to study
the use of LED in areas of public interest. The formation of the Working Group
involving all interested parties to study the suitability of LED for road lighting is one of
such initiative.
This Working Group is established to evaluate the suitability of LED light source for
road lighting as this area of lighting is of immense public importance as it involves
(a)

the safety and security of road users,

(b)

the use of public funds to provide, maintain and operate road lighting systems,
and

(c)

the environmental impact to the manufacture, distribution, use and finally


disposal of lighting equipments and consumables.

This Working Group is made up of members from professionals, manufacturers,


operators and other stakeholders in this area of lighting and this report is open to the
public to study, dissect, evaluate and comment on its accuracy and conclusion, after
which, to be used as a guide/reference for evaluation of light sources for road
lighting so that investment in this area of lighting is based on sound technical and
financial considerations and not on loosely defined criteria such as the widely
abused word green.

Introduction

During the recent CIE 27th Session that took place from 11th to 15th July 2011 in Sun
City, South Africa, two papers on similar subject were presented. Kostic, M. et al. of
the University of Belgrade presented a comprehensive techno-economic analysis of
using LED for road and ambient lighting regarding efficiency, maintenance and
financial aspects based on the frequently declared economic life of LED of
50,000 hours with lumen depreciation factor of 0.8 (L80), conclude that LEDs
are not yet appropriate for road lighting. The full report is as shown in Appendix
A.

The other paper as attached in Appendix B, by Onagyil, S. et al. on Cost

Analysis of LED Luminaires in Road Lighting based on the economic life of 30,000
and 50,000 hours for LEDs, concludes that LED Luminaires can be feasible only if it
has higher efficacy and lower cost than recent situation. In other words, it is not
feasible now.
This Working Group evaluates the suitability of LED light source for use in road
lighting as compared to the present, widely used High Pressure Sodium Vapour
(HPSV) Light source from the energy, long life and environmental impact aspects in
the Malaysian situation.

In making the comparisons, latest technological

development in both are used to comply with the Malaysian Code of Practice (COP)
for the Design of Road Lighting, MS 825, 2007. LED is basically another type of light
source and compliance with the COP will ensure that the objectives of the specified
lighting task, especially the safety of road users, are met. Appropriate factors are
taken into consideration to allow direct comparison and where direct comparison is
not possible, cost argument is used instead.
2

Energy comparison of HSPV and LED luminaires

The energy comparison is made with luminaires from major players in road lighting,
one from US, two from Europe, one from China and compare to a HPSV luminaire
made in Malaysia.

The calculation is made from photometric data from the

manufacturers using the Ulysse software (version 2.1) developed by Schrder


specifically for road lighting simulation. In the case of the luminaire from China
where photometric data is not downloadable from the website, the calculation is from
their published data.
The comparisons are made for two typical types of road geometry that are very
common in Malaysia, namely 3-lane dual carriageway to be lit to ME1 lighting class
and 4-lane single carriageway, bi-directional traffic to be lit to ME2 lighting class. For
the 3-lane dual carriageway, comparisons are made for twin central installation and
opposite installation. For the 4-lane single carriageway, calculations are done for
opposite, opposite staggered, and single sided installation.
The maintenance factor (MF) used in Malaysia for HPSV luminaires has been
standardized at 0.8 and luminaire of IP6X are now generally used. For the purpose
of this study, we assume that luminaire cleaning is done during re-lamping and these
roads are generally in medium pollution category. This works out to be about 4
years or 17520 hours based on 12 hours operation per night. Figure 1 shows the
lumen maintenance and survival rate of high output, 4 year HPSV lamp. Table 1
shows the Luminaire Maintenance Factor (LMF) for an IP6X luminaire [MS 825: Part
1: 2007]. The MF for HPSV luminaire is the product of lumen output after 4 year
operation and LMF at 4 years which works out to be 0.8. During this period before
scheduled relamping, 8% (or average of 2% per year) of lamps MAY fail and have to
be attended to immediately in order to comply with the safe lighting standard and the
cost is accordingly taken into consideration in the calculation of maintenance cost.
As such, the Lamp Survival Factor (LSF) for road lighting is not applicable [CIE 154:
2003].

Figure 1. Lamp lumen maintenance and survival rate


(Philips SON-T PIA PLUS)

LLMF

LSF

Table 1. Luminaire maintenance factor (MS 825 : Part 1 : 2007)


Luminaire maintenance factor

Cleaning
interval

IP2X minimum

IP5X minimum

IP6X minimum

High

Medium

Low

High

Medium

Low

High

Medium

Low

months

pollutionb

pollutionc

pollutiond

pollutionb

pollutionc

pollutiond

pollutionb

pollutionc

pollutiond

12

0.53

0.62

0.82

0.89

0.90

0.92

0.91

0.92

0.93

18

0.48

0.58

0.80

0.87

0.88

0.91

0.90

0.91

0.92

24

0.45

0.56

0.79

0.84

0.86

0.90

0.88

0.89

0.91

36

0.42

0.53

0.78

0.76

0.82

0.88

0.83

0.87

0.90

Ingress protection code number of lamp housing; see BS EN 60529.

High pollution generally occurs in the centre of large urban areas and heavy industrial areas.

Medium pollution generally occurs in semi-urban, residential and light industrial areas.

Low pollution generally occurs in rural areas.

The construction of LED luminaire is different from that of a HPSV luminaire and the
MF has to consider other depreciating factors. For this, we shall use the tool to
calculate MF for LED as presented by Lac-Batel, C. and Sergent, M., Lighting
Application Specialists of Philips Lighting, during the 27th CIE Session. Their paper
is as shown in Appendix C. The MF for a LED luminaire with PMMA lens, driven at
4

350mA, in our average ambient temperature of 28C, with same cleaning interval of
4 years in medium pollution environment works out to be 0.717. The calculation is
given below.

Calculation of maintenance factor for LED street lighting installation:


The maintenance factor for LED street lighting installation is derived based on the methodology
and data presented in Appendix C.
i)

ii)

Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor (LLMF):


LLMF

Lumen depreciation for


x
25C ambient temperature
(0.936)

LLMF

0.867

Lumen depreciation for


x
driving current of 350mA
(0.934)

Relative initial
flux at 28C
(0.992)

Luminaire Maintenance Factor (LMF):


LMF

Luminaire depreciation factor for medium pollution


environment & cleaning intervals of 4 years
(0.841)

LMF

0.827

iii) MF

LLMF (0.867) x

MF

0.717

Aging of PMMA
optical lenses
(0.983)

LMF (0.827)

From the foregoing explanation, the MF for HPSV based on 4 year cleaning cycle
and re-lamping is 0.8 and for LED is 0.717. Table 2a shows the comparison for a 3lane dual carriageway, lit to ME1 lighting class, twin central installation and Table 2b
shows that of the same highway with opposite installation.

Table 2c shows

comparison for a 4-lane single carriageway, 2 lanes per traffic direction, lit to ME2
lighting class, with opposite installation, Table 2d for opposite staggered installation
and Table 2e for single sided installation. The simulation is optimized for energy
efficiency.

Table 2a. Comparison for ME1 lighting class Twin central installation
Road Details
1) Carriageway
2) Road width
3) Median
4) Road surface
Installation Details
1) Lighting system
2) Luminaire type
3) Lamp power
(W)
4) System wattage
()
(W)
5) Total luminous flux (lamp)
(klm)
6) Luminaire efficiency
(%)
7) Luminaire efficacy
(lm/W)
8) Lamp colour temperature
(K)
9) Pole arrangement
10) Mounting height
(m)
11) Pole spacing
()
(m)
12) Setback of pole
(m)
13) Overhang
(m)
14) Arm length
(m)
15) Arm inclination
16) Maintenance factor
Lighting Performance
1) Lighting criteria
Required level
2
a) Average luminance
Lave 2cd/m
b) Overall uniformity
Uo 40%
c) Longitudinal uniformity
UL 70%
d) Threshold increment
TI 10%
e) Surround ratio
SR 0.5
2) Limitation factor
Power Consumption
2
1) Energy used per unit area
{ = / (3 x 3.65 x ) }
(W/m )
2) Energy efficiency (benchmark against HPS)
(%)
3) Energy consumption per hour / km
(kWh)
4) Energy consumption per year / km
(kWh)

Dual carriageway
3 x 3.65m / carriageway
2m
R3 ; Qo = 0.07

USA
204
237
15.6
100.0
65.8
4000
12
21
1
1
2
0
0.717

LED
Europe-1
Europe-2
215
256
228
29.9
23.4
82.8
72.0
96.7
73.9
4000
4250
Twin central
12
12
34
26
1
1
0
1
1
2
5
0
0.717
0.717

China
275
23.0
-

150
176
17.5
81.0
80.5
2000

12
29
1
-1
0
5
0.717

12
26
1
2
3
5
0.8

HPSV
Malaysia
250
285
33.2
80.5
93.8
2000
Twin central
12
40
1
-1
0
5
0.8

400
450
56.5
82.4
103.5
2000
15
69
1
2
3
5
0.8

2.00
44.4
85.9
4.1
0.5
Lave

2.01
43.2
77.3
6.9
0.5
Lave

2.04
44.2
88.8
8.9
0.5
Lave

2.00
40
90.0
10
0.9
Lave

2.00
42.2
86.6
8.8
0.5
Lave

2.01
41.7
79.4
9.9
0.6
Lave

2.07
41.1
72.5
10.0
0.6
TI

1.03
-71.67
22.57
98,863

0.69
-15.00
15.06
65,958

0.80
-33.33
17.54
76,818

0.87
-45.00
18.97
83,069

0.62
-3.33
13.54
59,298

0.65
-8.33
14.25
62,415

0.60
0.00
13.04
57,130

Note:
1) In the case where luminaire is measured using total flux method, the luminaire efficiency is given as 100% with the total lumen output of luminaire equal to the lamp luminous flux quoted above.

Table 2b. Comparison for ME1 lighting class Opposite installation


Road Details
1) Carriageway
2) Road width
3) Median
4) Road surface
Installation Details
1) Lighting system
2) Luminaire type
3) Lamp power
4) System wattage
()
5) Total luminous flux (lamp)
6) Luminaire efficiency
7) Luminaire efficacy
8) Lamp colour temperature
9) Pole arrangement
10) Mounting height
11) Pole spacing
()
12) Setback of pole
13) Overhang
14) Arm length
15) Arm inclination
16) Maintenance factor
Lighting Performance
1) Lighting criteria
a) Average luminance
b) Overall uniformity
c) Longitudinal uniformity
d) Threshold increment
e) Surround ratio
2) Limitation factor
Power Consumption
1) Energy used per unit area
{ = / (3 x 3.65 x ) }
2) Energy efficiency (benchmark against HPS)
3) Energy consumption per hour / km
4) Energy consumption per year / km

Dual carriageway
3 x 3.65m / carriageway
2m
R3 ; Qo = 0.07

(W)
(W)
(klm)
(%)
(lm/W)
(K)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)

Required level
2
Lave 2cd/m
Uo 40%
UL 70%
TI 10%
SR 0.5
2

(W/m )
(%)
(kWh)
(kWh)

10
20
1
1
2
5
0.717

LED
Europe-1
256
29.9
82.6
96.5
4000
Opposite
10
34
1
1
2
5
0.717

2.02
66.7
82.7
7.1
0.5
Lave

2.03
60.4
75.2
9.6
0.5
Lave

2.02
50.2
88.4
8.1
0.5
Lave

2.01
54.0
86.1
9.9
0.6
Lave

2.04
43.6
71.5
8.3
0.6
Lave

2.02
40.7
75.4
9.4
0.6
Lave

1.08
-68.75
23.70
103,806

0.69
-7.81
15.06
65,958

0.77
-20.31
16.89
73,973

0.67
-4.69
14.67
64,240

0.65
-1.56
14.25
62,415

0.64
0.00
14.06
61,594

USA
204
237
15.6
100.0
65.8
4000

Europe-2
215
228
23.4
71.2
73.1
4250

150
176
17.5
81.0
80.5
2000

12
27
1
2
3
5
0.717

12
24
1
2
3
5
0.8

HPSV
Malaysia
250
285
33.2
82.7
96.3
2000
Opposite
12
40
1
2
3
5
0.8

400
450
56.5
83.6
105.0
2000
15
64
1
2
3
5
0.8

Note:
1) In the case where luminaire is measured using total flux method, the luminaire efficiency is given as 100% with the total lumen output of luminaire equal to the lamp luminous flux quoted above.

Table 2c. Comparison for ME2 lighting class Opposite installation


Road Details
1) Carriageway
2) Road width
3) Median
4) Road surface
Installation Details
1) Lighting system
2) Luminaire type
3) Lamp power
(W)
4) System wattage
()
(W)
5) Total luminous flux (lamp)
(klm)
6) Luminaire efficiency
(%)
7) Luminaire efficacy
(lm/W)
8) Lamp colour temperature
(K)
9) Pole arrangement
10) Mounting height
(m)
11) Pole spacing
()
(m)
12) Setback of pole
(m)
13) Overhang
(m)
14) Arm length
(m)
15) Arm inclination
16) Maintenance factor
Lighting Performance
1) Lighting criteria
Required level
2
a) Average luminance
Lave1.5cd/m
b) Overall uniformity
Uo 40%
c) Longitudinal uniformity
UL 70%
d) Threshold increment
TI 10%
e) Surround ratio
SR 0.5
2) Limitation factor
Power Consumption
2
1) Energy used per unit area
{ = / (2 x 3.65 x ) }
(W/m )
2) Energy efficiency (benchmark against HPS)
(%)
3) Energy consumption per hour / km
(kWh)
4) Energy consumption per year / km
(kWh)

Single carriageway
4 x 3.65m (2 lanes per traffic direction)
R3 ; Qo = 0.07

USA
204
237
16.0
100.0
67.5
4000
12
37
1
1
2
5
0.717

LED
Europe-1
Europe-2
211
180
224
19.5
22.9
85.9
72.1
93.1
73.7
4000
4250
Opposite
12
12
45
44
1
1
-1
-1
0
0
0
0
0.717
0.717

China
245
20.5
-

150
176
17.5
84.2
83.7
2000

12
35
1
-1
0
5
0.717

15
46
1
2
3
5
0.8

HPSV
Malaysia
250
285
33.2
82.4
96.0
2000
Opposite
15
59
1
1
2
5
0.8

400
450
56.5
83.6
105.0
2000
15
54
1
2
3
5
0.8

1.52
53.0
72.5
6.2
0.5
Lave

1.50
61.8
75.7
9.9
0.7
Lave,TI

1.52
56.7
71.4
10.0
0.5
Lave,TI

2.2
60.0
90
10.0
0.7
TI

1.50
44.5
73.9
9.8
0.5
Lave

1.50
51.3
71.5
10.0
0.7
Lave,TI

2.98
49.5
74.6
10.0
0.6
TI

0.88
-69.23
12.81
56,111

0.55
-5.77
8.00
35,040

0.70
-34.62
10.18
44,596

0.96
-84.62
14.00
61,320

0.52
0.00
7.65
33,517

0.66
-26.92
9.66
42,315

1.14
-119.23
16.67
73,000

Note:
1) In the case where luminaire is measured using total flux method, the luminaire efficiency is given as 100% with the total lumen output of luminaire equal to the lamp luminous flux quoted above.

Table 2d. Comparison for ME2 lighting class Opposite staggered installation
Road Details
1) Carriageway
2) Road width
3) Median
4) Road surface
Installation Details
1) Lighting system
2) Luminaire type
3) Lamp power
4) System wattage
()
5) Total luminous flux (lamp)
6) Luminaire efficiency
7) Luminaire efficacy
8) Lamp colour temperature
9) Pole arrangement
10) Mounting height
11) Pole spacing
()
12) Setback of pole
13) Overhang
14) Arm length
15) Arm inclination
16) Maintenance factor
Lighting Performance
1) Lighting criteria
a) Average luminance
b) Overall uniformity
c) Longitudinal uniformity
d) Threshold increment
e) Surround ratio
2) Limitation factor
Power Consumption
1) Energy used per unit area
{ = / (2 x 3.65 x ) }
2) Energy efficiency (benchmark against HPS)
3) Energy consumption per hour / km
4) Energy consumption per year / km

Single carriageway
4 x 3.65m (2 lanes per traffic direction)
R3 ; Qo = 0.07

(W)
(W)
(klm)
(%)
(lm/W)
(K)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)

Required level
2
Lave1.5cd/m
Uo 40%
UL 70%
TI 10%
SR 0.5
2

(W/m )
(%)
(kWh)
(kWh)

12
39
1
2
3
0
0.717

LED
Europe-1
192
16.8
88.8
77.7
4000
Opposite Staggered
12
44
1
1
2
5
0.717

1.53
51.2
71.1
5.4
0.5
Lave

1.50
49.7
83.2
6.9
0.5
Lave

1.55
41.8
70.0
9.7
0.5
UL

1.50
41.3
78.3
9.7
0.5
Lave

1.51
41.8
77.3
9.8
0.5
Lave

2.13
40.1
71.1
10.0
0.6
Uo,UL,TI

0.83
-66.00
12.15
53,234

0.60
-20.00
8.73
38,225

0.61
-22.00
8.96
39,245

0.50
0.00
7.33
32,120

0.51
-2.00
7.50
32,850

0.73
-46.00
10.71
46,929

USA
204
237
15.6
100.0
65.8
4000

Europe-2
211
224
22.9
72.0
73.6
4250

150
176
17.5
82.0
81.5
2000

12
50
1
2
3
0
0.717

12
48
1
2
3
5
0.8

HPSV
Malaysia
250
285
33.2
81.0
94.4
2000
Opposite Staggered
15
76
1
1
2
5
0.8

400
450
56.5
83.6
105.0
2000
15
84
1
2
3
5
0.8

Note:
1) In the case where luminaire is measured using total flux method, the luminaire efficiency is given as 100% with the total lumen output of luminaire equal to the lamp luminous flux quoted above.

Table 2e. Comparison for ME2 lighting class Single sided installation
Road Details
1) Carriageway
2) Road width
3) Median
4) Road surface
Installation Details
1) Lighting system
2) Luminaire type
3) Lamp power
4) System wattage
()
5) Total luminous flux (lamp)
6) Luminaire efficiency
7) Luminaire efficacy
8) Lamp colour temperature
9) Pole arrangement
10) Mounting height
11) Pole spacing
()
12) Setback of pole
13) Overhang
14) Arm length
15) Arm inclination
16) Maintenance factor
Lighting Performance
1) Lighting criteria
a) Average luminance
b) Overall uniformity
c) Longitudinal uniformity
d) Threshold increment
e) Surround ratio
2) Limitation factor
Power Consumption
1) Energy used per unit area
{ = / (4 x 3.65 x ) }
2) Energy efficiency (benchmark against HPS)
3) Energy consumption per hour / km
4) Energy consumption per year / km

Single carriageway
4 x 3.65m (2 lanes per traffic direction)
R3 ; Qo = 0.07

(W)
(W)
(klm)
(%)
(lm/W)
(K)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)

Required level
2
Lave1.5cd/m
Uo 40%
UL 70%
TI 10%
SR 0.5
2

(W/m )
(%)
(kWh)
(kWh)

12
17
1
2
3
5
0.717

LED
Europe-1
257
29.9
82.3
95.7
4000
Single sided
12
32
1
1
2
5
0.717

1.56
45.4
89.0
5.7
0.5
Lave

1.50
44.0
79.9
9.8
0.5
Lave

1.52
42.5
88.2
9.6
0.5
Lave

1.52
44.1
81.3
9.2
0.5
Lave

1.50
43.1
71.1
9.3
0.6
Lave

0.95
-69.64
13.94
61,062

0.55
1.79
8.03
35,177

0.65
-16.07
9.50
41,610

0.56
0.00
8.14
35,666

0.59
-5.36
8.65
37,904

USA
204
237
15.6
100.0
65.8
4000

HPSV
Malaysia

Europe-2
215
228
23.4
71.2
73.1
4250

250
285
33.2
81.2
94.6
2000

12
24
1
2
3
0
0.717

15
35
1
2
3
10
0.8

15
52
1
2
3
5
0.8

400
450
56.5
83.6
105.0
2000
Single sided

Note:
1) In the case where luminaire is measured using total flux method, the luminaire efficiency is given as 100% with the total lumen output of luminaire equal to the lamp luminous flux quoted above.

10

Finally, a comparison of retrofitting an existing lighting installation made in 1995 on a


heavily used 3-lane dual carriageway highway in the Klang valley that uses 400W
HPSV luminaires designed in the 1960s mounted on 12m mast and spaced 50m
apart, to meet M1 lighting class of CIE 115-1995, following in the format of CIE 30.2.
Table 3 shows the result of replacing the existing 400W luminaire with new
generation of HPSV luminaire and the best LED luminaire determined in earlier
comparisons.

Table 3. Comparison of retrofitting an existing installation


Road Details
1) Carriageway
2) Road width
3) Median
4) Road surface
Installation Details
1) Lighting system
2) Luminaire type
3) Lamp power
4) System wattage
5) Total luminous flux (lamp)
6) Luminaire efficiency
7) Luminaire efficacy
8) Lamp colour temperature
9) Pole arrangement
10) Mounting height
11) Pole spacing
12) Setback of pole
13) Overhang
14) Arm length
15) Arm inclination
16) Maintenance factor
Lighting Performance
1) Lighting criteria
a) Average luminance
b) Overall uniformity
c) Longitudinal uniformity
d) Threshold increment
e) Surround ratio

Dual carriageway
3 x 3.65m / carriageway
0.5m
R3 ; Qo = 0.07

(W)
(W)
(klm)
(%)
(lm/W)
(K)

HPSV
Malaysia
250
285
33.2
82.5
96.1
2000

LED
Europe-1
256.4
29.9
82.3
96.0
4000
Twin central

(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)

Required level
2
Lave 2cd/m
Uo 40%
UL 70%
TI 10% (15%)
SR 0.5

12
50
0.25
-0.25
0
5
0.8

12
50
0.25
-0.25
0
5
0.8

2.03
41.2
71.7
9.8
0.5

1.58
46.6
81.1
8.3
0.6

Analysis of result

i)

The luminaire efficacy for the 4 LED luminaire used in this study ranges from
65.8-96.7 lm/W instead of the 140-150 lm/W that we often heard.

The

reasons are:
a) LEDs are grown on a wafer substrate and then diced into tiny little LED
chips.

Unfortunately, every chip from the same wafer has different

properties and hence need to be tested and sorted into bins according to

11

colour, flux and forward voltage. Figure 2 shows an example of effect of


bin and its price.

Luminaire efficacy is therefore dependent on the

combination of bins used in its manufacture. The lesser the number of


bins used, the higher the performance and the higher the cost.

The

luminaire with the lowest luminaire efficacy could have used LEDs from
more bins while that of higher efficacy uses LEDs from lesser number of
bins.

Figure 2. Example of binning and price

b) The other factor affecting the luminaire efficacy is the driver efficiency as
the luminaire system efficacy is a product of lamp/LED efficacy and driver
efficiency.
c) Optical efficiency and thermal efficiency, which are usually reflected in the
luminaire efficiency, have a direct impact on the LED luminaire system
efficacy.

Luminaire with good thermal management and better optics

generally give a better efficiency.


ii)

The luminaire efficacy (row 7 under the Installation Details of Table 2) for
different luminaire layout is different. The highest luminaire efficacy does not
necessarily result in the most energy efficient solution.

For example, the

luminaire efficacy of the most energy efficient solution for opposite installation

12

for LED, ME1 lighting class, is 96.5lm/W while that for ME2 lighting class is
93.1lm/W.

Similarly, for HPSV system, ME2 lighting class, opposite

staggered layout, the photometry with 150W giving luminaire efficacy of only
81.5lm/W is 2% more efficient than the photometry using a 250W lamp giving
a luminaire efficacy that is 16% more at 94.4lm/W.
Comparing the Europe 1 and 2 LED luminaire for twin central, ME1 lighting
class, the difference in luminaire efficacy is 31% but the energy used per
square meter is only 16%. For opposite installation, ME1 lighting class, the
difference is 32% and 12% respectively. Herein, the photometry of Europe 2
LED luminaire is much better than that of Europe 1 for these two applications.
From the above observation, the photometry or light utilisation of the luminaire
also has a big influence on the energy usage in road lighting. It is therefore,
erroneous to conclude that high lamp efficacy or luminaire efficacy alone will
result in a more energy efficient road lighting.
iii)

For 3-lane dual carriageway where luminaire lay-out is limited to either central
median or opposite installation, the HPSV luminaire is more energy efficient
by 8% for opposite installation and 15% for central median installation as
compared to the best LED luminaire available after August 2011 in Europe.

iv)

For the 4-lane carriageway, the most energy efficient lay-out for LED
luminaire can either be single sided using a luminaire with luminaire efficacy
of 95.7lm/W (Table 2e) or opposite using a luminaire with luminaire efficacy of
93.1lm/W (Table 2c), where energy used is 0.55 watt per meter square. The
best for HPSV is opposite staggered using 0.5 watt per meter square (Table
2d), which is 10 % better than that achieved by best LED luminaire.

v)

As the MF of LED is 0.717, the initial lighting level will be nearly 40% higher
than the required level, or 2.8cd/m2 for LED system compared to 2.5cd/m2 for
HPSV for ME1 lighting class.

Energy utilisation can be improved by

increasing the MF and this is possible by cleaning the luminaire yearly


because the luminaire depreciation is 8% in the first year. Figure 3 shows the

13

system light output as a function of lighting hours for one year and four year
cleaning cycle for HPSV luminaire. With one year cleaning cycle, the MF can
be increased to 0.85 resulting in another saving of 6.25% energy. On the
other hand, MF of 0.717 seems to be the optimum for LED luminaire. From
Figure 4, for MF of 0.8, the system output of LED luminaire will be insufficient
to meet the specified lighting level by 28,000 lighting hours even after
cleaning. The economic lifespan of LED luminaire will be reduced to about
20,000 hours or about 4.5 years if MF is change to 0.8. In this case LED
lifespan is not much better than HPSV and the cost of maintenance will be
much higher given the current cost of LED, LED module and LED luminaire.
From here, it can be observed that the often quoted long lifespan of LED is
irrelevant without considering how it is used.

Figure 3. Light output as a function of lighting hours HPSV luminaire

System with
yearly cleaning
intervals
MF=0.85
LLMF

MF=0.8

Conditions:

vi)

System
without
cleaning
LSF
4)

17520 hrs (year

System with 4
years cleaning
intervals &
relamping

Assumption:

- ambient temperature

: 28C

- assuming no degradation for the glass protector

- pollution

: medium

- burning hours = 4380 hours per year (i.e. 12hrs/night)

From Figure 4, in order to ensure that the safe lighting level is maintained the
cleaning interval for LED luminaire shortens progressively with operating
hours thus presenting additional challenges in maintenance and budget
planning.
14

Figure 4. Light output as a function of lighting hours LED luminaire

System with cleaning intervals 1 year


System with proper cleaning intervals

MF=0.8

LLMF

MF=0.717
System with 4
years cleaning
intervals
System without
cleaning

Conditions:

vii)

Assumption:

- driving current

: 350mA

- assuming no degradation for the glass protector

- ambient temperature

: 28C

- burning hours = 4380 hours per year (i.e. 12hrs/night)

- pollution

: medium

- optical lens

: PMMA

It is very important to note that the MF presented in this study is for LED
operated at 350mA with PMMA lens and glass cover. From Appendix C, the
MF will be lower if LED is operated at more than 350mA, made worst with
lens made of Polycarbonate material and Polycarbonate cover.

viii)

Table 3 shows old 400W HPSV luminaire can be replaced with new
generation of 250W HPSV luminaire on a one to one basis thus saving 40%
energy directly. It is not possible to do the same with the best LED luminaire
available now and with MF of 0.8 as the maintained lighting level is only
1.58cd/m2. This comparison again reinforce that it is inaccurate to compare
luminaire for luminaire without considering the way the luminaire is to be
used.

15

Initial cost for best energy efficient solution

For ME1 lighting class, the best energy efficient solution for LED luminaire is the
same for both twin central and opposite layout using 0.69 W/m2 while that for HPSV
is twin central layout using 0.60 W/m2. Hence, initial cost is calculated for twin
central layout (Table 4).
For ME2 lighting class, the best energy option for LED luminaire is for opposite or
single-sided layout using 0.55 W/m2 energy while that for HPSV is for opposite
staggered using 0.5 W/m2. The initial cost calculation for ME2 lighting class is based
on the more cost efficient and therefore less environmental impact, single-sided
installation for LED luminaire and staggered for HPSV luminaire (Table 4).
Since the costs of design, transformer stations, feeder pillars, cables etc. are
practically equal in both cases, only poles, brackets, luminaires and lamps and their
installation were compared (Kostic, Djokic, Pojatar, 2009).

Table 4. Initial cost comparison

a) Pole height
b) Spacing

(m)
(m)

c) Pole arrangement
d) No. of pole / km
e) No. of luminaire / km
f) Cost of pole + installation
g) Cost of luminaire + installation
Total Initial Cost

(RM)
(RM)
(RM)

ME1 Lighting Class


LED
HPSV (400W)
12
15
34
69
Twin central

Twin central

30
60
1500
6000
405,000

15
30
3000
1300
84,000

ME2 Lighting Class


LED
HPSV (150W)
12
12
32
48
Opposite
Single-sided
staggered
31
42
31
42
1500
1500
6000
1200
232,500
113,400

For an energy optimised lighting solution, the LED system cost roughly
RM320,000.00 per km more for ME1 lighting class and RM120,000.00 more per km
for ME2 lighting class.

Lifespan and Maintenance cost comparison of HPSV and LED luminaire

For road lighting, the lifespan of lamp is when the system light output cannot be
economically maintained to ensure that the specified lighting class is met.

As
16

demonstrated in Figure 3 and 4, the lifespan is also dependent on the MF used


under the circumstances. In the case of LED luminaire, if MF of 0.717 is used, the
economical lifespan can be stretched to about 42,000 hours but with 5 cleaning
scheduled as shown in Figure 4. If energy efficiency takes priority, then a higher MF
of 0.8 may be used, but the economical lifespan is shortened to about 20,000 lighting
hours or 4.5 years. If MF of 0.8 is used, then the lifespan of LED luminaire is not any
better than HPS lamp. And then the whole luminaire will have to be changed. This
demonstrate that the often quoted and emphasized long lifespan of LED is
meaningless or irrelevant without considering under what circumstances it is used.
In the case of HPSV luminaire, only the lamp has to be changed and luminaire
cleaned every 4 years if we used a MF of 0.8. During this period, an 8% lamp
outage may be expected. The luminaire life span of 20 years can be expected.
(Luminaires installed on the Penang Bridge were changed after more than 22 years
with some are still in use). Table 5 shows the cost comparison for a 20 year period
for the most energy efficient LED luminaire with HPSV luminaire. To make it simple,
current rates are used.

Table 5. Maintenance cost per kilometer over 20 years (most energy efficient)
3-lane dual carriageway
Descriptions
No. of luminaire / km
No. of cleaning over 20 years
Total cleaning cost over 20 years (RM50 each)
Relamping over 20 years (times)
Cost of relamping (RM / each)
Total relamping cost over 20 years
Unscheduled relamping (8%)
Total unscheduled relamping over 20 years
Unscheduled relamping cost (RM / each)
Total unscheduled relamping cost over 20 years
Luminaire change over 20 years
Cost of luminaire
Labour to change
Total luminaire cost
Driver maintenance over 20 years (17.5%, assuming 0.2%
failure per 1000 hours when operated at component tc)
Cost of driver / control gear (RM / each)
Labour to change
Total driver maintenance cost
Maintenance cost over 20 years

Note:

LED
58
10
29,000
58
7000
300
423,400

HPSV
30
4
6,000
4
200
24,000
2.4
12
400
4,800
-

10.16
700
300
10,160
462,560

5.26
100
300
2,104
36,904

4-lane single carriageway


LED
HPSV
(single sided)
(staggered)
31
42
10
4
15,500
8,400
4
200
33,600
3.36
16.8
400
6,720
31
7000
300
226,300
5.43
700
300
5,430
247,230

7.36
100
300
2,944
51,664

At the time of preparing this report, there is no standardisation of LED or LED module
whereby the LED or LED module can be replaced irrespective of make or brand of luminaire.
LED chip development is also transforming rapidly and it is unlikely that the LEDs or LED
modules made 10 years in the future can be used to replace LED module used in todays
LED luminaire.

17

The total maintenance cost per kilometer over 20 years of LED is more than 12.5
times that of HPSV for 3-lane dual carriageway and about 5 times for 4-lane single
carriageway. Even if LED luminaire were to cost half in ten years time (possible??)
the maintenance cost is still nearly 6.5 times and 2.5 times that of HPSV.

Environmental impact

A very detailed environmental impact assessment titled Preparatory Studies for


Eco-design Requirements of EuPs was carried out by the European Union and the
Final Report completed in January 2007. Detail assessment on the energy using
products (EuPs) for road lighting was carried out for the production phase,
distribution phase, use phase and end of life (disposal) phase and conclude that
focus should be on energy efficiency in order to reduce environmental impact
(Chapter 4 and 5 of Final Report). (The Final Report has 344 pages and can be
downloaded at http://www.eup4light.net/assets/pdffiles/Final/VITOEuPStreetLighting
Final.pdf).

However, this study covers luminaire using High Intensity Discharge

(HID) lamps whereby a lifespan of 30 years has been well established.


It is also well established that more resources used will cause more environmental
impact and will be reflected in the cost of the product, installation, operation,
maintenance and finally disposal.
In the case of road lighting, we have established that comparisons should be based
on per unit length of road to be lit to the required lighting class. Our assessment
here will accordingly be based on a per km basis, whereby the initial cost covers
resources used to produce, distribute and install the luminaire, the use phase covers
the energy used per km, the maintenance cost covers the maintenance per km over
20 years and the disposal cost for the disposal phase of the luminaire.
Generally, 5% of material used in the production of a luminaire goes to the landfill at
the end of life, 90% of plastics incinerated, 9% recycled, 95% of metal and glass
recycled, 90% of Hg captured in processing of waste lamp [EuP Final Report].

18

Looking at the current construction of LED and HPSV luminaire, and in the absence
of detailed data, we assume that environmental impact for both type of luminaire
complete with gear and lamp is the same, or difference is negligible during disposal.
Therefore, the environmental impact will be the direct ratio of the number of
luminaire to be disposed. As demonstrated earlier, the lifespan of current generation
LED luminaire is about half that of HPSV luminaire. Table 6 shows environmental
impact of LED and HPSV system for the best energy efficient solution for the current
Best Available Technology (BAT) LED and HPSV lighting system.

Table 6. Environmental impact of LED and HPSV system

Description
Production, distribution & installation phase
a) Total initial cost
b) Environmental impact ratio during production, distribution &
installation phase (benchmark against HPS)
Use phase (operation & maintenance)
a) Energy consumption per year / km
Environmental impact ratio (benchmark against HPS)
b) Maintenance cost over 20 years
Environmental impact ratio (benchmark against HPS)
c) Environmental impact ratio during use phase
(benchmark against HPS)
Disposal phase
a) No. of luminaire / km
b) No. of luminaire to be disposed over 20 years
c) Environmental impact ratio during disposal phase
(benchmark against HPS)
Total environmental impact ratio (benchmark against HPS)

(RM)

(kWh)
(RM)

(nos.)
(nos.)

ME1 Lighting Class


HPSV
LED
(400W)

ME2 Lighting Class


HPSV
LED
(150W)

405,000

84,000

232,500

113,400

4.82

2.05

65,958
1.15
462,560
12.53

57,130
1
36,904
1

35,177
1.10
247,230
4.79

32,120
1
51,664
1

6.84

2.95

60
120

30
30

31
62

42
42

4
5.22

1
1

1.48
2.16

1
1

Total environmental impact of LED system is more than 5 times that of HPSV for
ME1 lighting class (3-lane dual carriageway) and more than 2 times for ME2 lighting
class (4-lane single carriageway).

Recommendations

i)

The maintenance factor used in this exercise is based on a 4 year cleaning


cycle. The energy usage can be reduced by about 9% if cleaning is done
every year. We therefore recommend that the Government make it a national
policy to clean the road luminaire every year so that road lighting design will in
future be based on yearly cleaning interval.

19

ii)

The light depreciation rate of LED is currently derived using the IESNA TM21
lumen maintenance model and there is no validated model to predict or derive
the lumen depreciation rate of LED package used in a module where there
are many other complex influencing parameters. For example, it is widely
recognized that the LED characteristics are strongly temperature dependent.
The same LED when used in different luminaire with different thermal
management could have different lifespan and lumen maintenance.

The

maintenance factor (MF) derived in this study is at most a good estimate. If it


is on the conservative side, the economic impact and environmental impact
could have been lower as the lighting level will be above the safe level for a
longer period of time. However, there remains the risk that it is too optimistic
thus risking the possibility that the safe lighting level could not be maintained.
The economic and environmental impact in this scenario will thus be higher.
Hence, it is recommended that the LED luminaire be tested for the light
depreciation rate instead of a vague estimation based on the data of LED
package.
iii)

It is erroneous to conclude that high lamp efficacy or luminaire efficacy alone


will result in a more energy efficient road lighting as the photometry or light
utilisation of the luminaire (which is also dependent on the geometrical layout)
and the maintenance practice (which in turn depends on the luminaire
specification and the pollution category) have also a big influence on the
energy usage in road lighting. As energy usage is of prime concern, we
recommend that the energy used per square meter of road surface to be lit to
a specified lighting class be the main specification and bidders are allowed to
offer an energy efficient and lowest life cycle cost lighting solution rather than
the current practice of specifying the type of lighting system, lamp power and
pole height resulting in uncertain lighting quality and poor energy efficiency.

iv)

Zhaga consortium is developing standard specifications for the interfaces of


LED light engines to enable interchangeability between products made by
diverse manufacturers. As this consortium is an industry wide cooperation,
their standard specifications will eventually be the industry standard and
become international. As such, we recommend the LED luminaire are made
20

to comply with Zhaga standard specifications for use in an ambient


temperature of 35 degree centigrade or more and humidity of not less than
90%.
v)

With the inclusion of MF in the design of road lighting, the initial lighting level
will be higher by the factor of 1/MF. Energy can further be saved by varying
the power to the lamp to compensate for the MF during the life of the lamp
thus providing a Constant Light Output (CLO) to the lit area. A saving of up to
25% for HPSV is possible with the additional benefit in increasing lamp life of
up to 100%. CLO can also be applied to LED. We therefore recommend that
CLO to be considered if the benefit outweighs its total life cycle cost.

vi)

The specified lighting class is to provide safe lighting level for peak traffic
condition which is generally at the early part of the night and about an hour
before dawn. During period of low traffic, the lighting level can be dimmed to
the appropriate level thus saving up to 20% energy use per night. Hence,
dimming should be considered if the savings is substantially more than the life
cycle cost of the dimming equipments.

vii)

LEDs of higher colour temperature generally give a higher efficacy as


compared to LEDs of lower colour temperature. Nonetheless, using LEDs of
higher colour temperature in road lighting may incur potential hazard to road
users especially during mist or rainy conditions as the contrast of the view
may be reduced if LEDs of higher colour temperature (whiter) are used.
Hence, we recommend that only LEDs with colour temperature lower than
3500K be used in road lighting for the time being while research is carried out
to study this potential safety hazard.

21

Conclusion

LED innovation and development continue to move forward in a furious pace and
can now be offered as a viable alternative lighting solution in many areas of lighting.
However, for road lighting, even with the latest Best Available Technology LED
luminaire, there is no advantage over the most energy efficient solution using the
most efficient HPSV system at this moment. The conclusion is summarised in the
following table.

Advantage of
using LED

For 3-lane dual


carriageway
(ME1 lighting class)

For 4-lane bi-directional


carriageway
(ME2 lighting class)

1) Energy saving

No

LED use 15% more


power

LED use 10% more


power

2) Cost saving

No

Increase initial cost by 5


times with LED products

Increase initial cost by 2


times with LED products

3) Maintenance cost
over 20 years

No

12.5 times more with LED


products

5 times more with LED


products

4) Safety and security

No

5) Environmental
impact

No

Impact of LED on road lighting is still under


deliberation. Current lighting standards have to be
respected, or public safety will be compromised.
5 times more using LED
products

2 times more using LED


products

The economic and environmental impact of LED luminaire for road lighting may be
substantially reduced when interchangeability of LED light engine between different
manufacturers through industry wide product standard specification, currently
undertaken by Zhaga consortium, is finalised and implemented. Coupled with more
mature level of innovation and development, LED will become a viable alternative
lighting solution for road lighting in the near future.

22

References
[1]

MS 825: Part 1: 2007, Code of practice for the design of road lighting Part 1:
Lighting of roads and public amenity areas.

[2]

Proceedings of the CIE 27th Session, 2011.

[3]

CIE 154: 2003, The maintenance of outdoor lighting systems.

[4]

Preparatory studies for Eco-design requirements of EuPs Final Report Lot


9: Public street lighting, January 2007.

23

Members of Working Group on LED for Road Lighting


Dato Ir. Lee Peng Joo (Chairman)

The Electrical and Electronics Association of


Malaysia (TEEAM)

Mr Yap Ching Kiat

Straits Design Sdn Bhd

Mr C.T. Siew

Megalux Lightings Sdn Bhd

Mr Glenn Tiong

Green Tech Lighting & Power Saving

Mr Christopher Wong

Electrical Components Sdn Bhd

Mr Graham Dennis

Lightsourcing

Engr. Narendren Rengasamy

Novabrite Lighting Sdn Bhd

Mr Ong Tiong Hin

Nexus Solid-State Lighting Sdn Bhd

Mr Steven Lee

Osram (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd

Mr Hor Jiun Yeong

Osram (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd

Dato Eddie Seow / Mr Daryl Seow

Powermicro Technology Sdn Bhd

Mr William Ooi

Siteco Lighting (M) Sdn Bhd

Mr Jon Chin

Top Ledtronics Enterprise

Ir H.P. Looi

Association of Consulting Engineers Malaysia


(ACEM)

Ir Lee Kok Chong/Ir Yau Chau Fong

The Institution of Engineers, Malaysia (IEM)

Mr Zuhrizad Zulkifli

TNB Distribution Sdn Bhd

Ms Noorfadzilah Ramlee

Public Works Department Malaysia (JKR)

Ms Ana Salmi Ahmad Salman

Public Works Department Malaysia (JKR)

Mr Mohd Quyyum Ab Rahman

Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and


Water (KeTTHA)

Pn Zaida Abdul Aziz

Malaysian Highway Authority (MHA)

24