Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12

CCB 3072

PROCESS INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL LABORATORY

MAY 2014
LAB REPORT
LAB INSTRUCTOR: Mohamed

EXPERIMENT
GROUP
GROUP MEMBERS

LAB INSTRUCTOR
DATE OF EXPERIMENT
DATE OF SUBMISSION

CONTROL VALVE CHARACTERISTIC


10
NOORSYAKIRAH BINTI CHE JALIR
KINOSRAJ A/L KUMARAN
SITI HALIZAH BT ABU BAKAR
NORHAMIZAH HAZIRAH BINTI AHMAD JUNAIDI
Mohamed
22TH JULY 2014
5ST AUGUST 2014

15277
15352
15578
15647

TABLE OF CONTENT
NO

CONTENT

PAGES

1.0

Introduction

2.0

Objectives

3.0

Methodology

4-7

4.0

Result

8-10

5.0

Discussion

11-12

6.0

Conclusion

12

7.0

References

12

8.0

Appendices

13

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Control valves are valves used to control conditions such as flow, pressure, temperature,
and liquid level by fully or partially opening or closing in response to signals received from
controllers that compare a "set point" to a "process variable" whose value is provided
by sensors that monitor changes in such conditions. Control Valve is also termed as the Final
Control Element. Only three common types of control valve will be focused in this
experiment.
In this experiment, students will be able to learn three types of control valve that are
widely used in industry which are linear control valve, equal percentage control valve, and
finally is quick opening control valve. They are used differently under certain situation and
condition. For example, the quick opening control valve is to be used in the situation where
pressure accumulated is high and may cause explosion if no reaction taken. The quick
opening control valve will release the pressure in this kind of condition and hence saves the
situation. Meanwhile for equal percentage control valve, small opening of the valve can
result in more flow. For instance, 30% opening may produce 80% flow which is larger than
the actual opening control. This control valve is the cheapest and easiest among these three
types of control valve. Lastly, linear control valve is suitable to be used when the steam is
coming from no pressure drops.
The difference in valve opening between these valves is caused by the physical shape of the
plug and seat arrangement, sometimes referred to as the valve 'trim'. Typical trim shapes
for spindle operated globe valves are compared in the figure below:

2.0 OBJECTIVE
In this experiment, students are expected to learn:
a. To classify three common types of control valve characteristics used in real life
b. To determine the characteristic curves for each of the control valve type
3.0 METHODOLOGY
1. Calibration of thermocouples
a. Experimental Setup and Procedure
Thermocouples can be calibrated up to 6500C using the constant temperature bath (Figure
8.5)

Figure 8.5 Calibration of Thermocouple


A platinum resistance thermometer together with Model 756301 digital thermometer is used as the
Master Standard Unit. A thermocouple together with UM330 digital indicator is used as the Unit
Under Test.
1. Connect the equipment as shown in Figure 8.5.Use a Type K thermocouple as the UUT.
2. Set the constant temperature bath temperature to 400C and allow the temperature to
stabilize. We can consider the temperature to be stabilized if the MSU reading does not
change for say 5 minutes. Note the MSU reading and the UUT reading.
3. Select a minimum of FIVE (5) bath temperatures between 400C and 3000C to develop a
calibration curve for the type K thermocouple. After each change wait for about 15 minutes
for the temperature to stabilize. Record all the relevant data.
4. Repeat the experiment for the type J thermocouples.

2. Step response of thermocouples


In this section the dynamic response of the thermocouple is determined by step testing. The
experimental setup for performing step response testing is shown in figure 8.8.

Figure 8.8 Step response of thermocouples


Experimental Set-up and Procedure
1. Connect the equipment as shown in figure 8.8
2. Keep the thermocouple in the air outside the constant temperature bath.
3. Adjust the bath temperature at say 700C.
4. Suddenly dip the thermometer into the bath and keep it there. This way we are introducing
a step change
5. Note the change in temperature with respect to time.
6. After the temperature reading has become constant, do the reverse step by suddenly taking
out the thermometer from the bath and keeping it in the air. Wait till the temperature again
stabilizes.
3. Thermocouple transmitter
The function of the temperature transmitter is to convert the mV output given by different types of
thermocouples to standard 4-20 mA output. Yokogawa YTA110 transmitter will be calibrated in this
experiment. In this experiment distributor is introduced to supply 24 VDC to the transmitter and
convert its 4-20 mA output to 1-5 V.
a. Experimental Set-up and Procedure

Figure 8.11 Thermocouple Transmitter Calibration


1. Connect the equipment as shown in figure 8.11.

2. Adjust the bath temperature for 400C. After the temperature has stabilized read the value
given by the digital thermometer and the digital indicator.
3. Repeat the experiment by selecting a minimum of FIVE (5) bath temperatures between 400C
and 3000C
4. Record all relevant data.
4. Resistance thermometer transmitter
a. Experimental Set-up and Procedure
Two and three wire connections in resistance thermometers

Figure 8.13 Resistance thermometer connections


1. Make connections as shown in figure 8.13 for 3 wire connection
2. Disconnect the lead wires from the YTA110 transmitter. Measure the resistance of the lead
wire (terminal B and B) using the wheatstone bridge. The lead wire resistance for terminal A
and B is same as lead wire resistance for terminal B and B.
3. Reconnect the two lead wires to the transmitter YTA 110.
4. For the three wire connection read the output of the transmitter on UM330 Digital Indicator.
5. Connect brain terminal to the transmitter. Change sensor type from 3 wire to 2 wire.
6. Read the output of the transmitter on UM330 Digital indicator.
7. Adjust the temperature bath for 500C.
8. Repeat step 1 to 6 with the lead wires in the temperature bath.
9. Record all relevant data.

5. Resistance thermometers
a. Experimental Set-up and Procedure

Figure 8.15 Calibration of resistance thermometer up to 3000C


1. Connect the equipment as shown in figure 8.15. Use a 2 wire resistance thermometer as the
UUT. Short circuit terminal 2 and 3 at the back of UM330.
2. Set the constant temperature bath to 400C and allow the temperature to stabilize. We can
consider the temperature to be stabilized if the MSU reading does not change for say 5
minutes. Note the MSU reading and the UUT reading
3. Select a minimum of FIVE (5) bath temperatures between 400C and 3000C to develop a
calibration curve for the 2 wire resistance thermometer. After each change wait for about 15
minutes for the temperature to stabilize. Record all the relevant data
4. Repeat the experiments for the 3 wire resistance thermometer. Record all relevant data.

3.0 RESULTS
1. Linear Valve
P = 2psi
Flow meter
(L/min)
0.98
7.95
20.09
36.6
48.81
51.75
50.12
36.27
18.7
2.64

Flow Rate vs Valve Opening graph


60
50
Flow Rate (L/min)

Valve
opening
0
14
36
64
85.7
99.9
90.7
59.9
31.1
5

40
30
20
10
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Valve Opening (%)

P = 0.5 psi
Flow meter
(L/min)
0.98
9.36
21.38
42.49
52.68
52.79
50.56
40.96
32.17
3.97

Flow Rate vs Valve Opening graph


60
50
Flow Rate (L/min)

Valve
opening
(%)
0
10
20.5
50.4
90.7
83.3
70.5
40.8
29
1.8

40
30
20
10
0
0

20

40

60

Valve Opening (%)

80

100

2. Equal Percentage Valve


P = 2 psi
Flow meter
(L/min)
1.04
2
3.38
8.29
29.65
50.38
18.97
9.79
6.12
2.76

Flow rate vs Valve Opening graph


60
50
Flow rate (L/min)

Valve
opening
(%)
0
6.7
20.4
47.5
75.2
98.3
62.7
49.8
37.7
12

40
30
20
10
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

Valve Opening (%)

P = 0.5 psi

0
10.3
15.3
31
73
99
85.1
63.7
34.1
3.7

Flow
meter
(L/min)
1.09
2.38
2.91
4.74
13.27
16.34
15.71
12.38
5.4
1.8

Flow rate vs Valve Opening graph


Flow Rate (L/min)

Valve
opening (%)

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0

20

40

60
Valve Opening (%)

80

100

120

3. Quick Opening Valve


P = 2 psi
Flow meter
(L/min)
1.13
1.16
29.03
44.47
51.64
52.35
53.27
49.73
27.86
4.76

Flow Rate vs Valve Opening graph


60
50
Flow Rate (L/min)

Valve
opening
(%)
0
3.6
19
35.2
67.5
94.2
83.5
44.5
18.8
2

40
30
20
10
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Valve Opening (%)

P = 0.5 psi
Flow meter
(L/min)
2.24
12.07
47.86
50.91
58.2
59.76
59.6
59.14
53.78
10.14

Flow Rate vs Valve Opening graph


70
60
Flow Rate (L/min)

Valve
opening
(%)
0
2.7
20.8
45
65.9
99.3
80.9
73.1
30
1.4

50
40
30
20
10
0
0

20

40

60
Valve Opening (%)

10

80

100

120

4.0 Discussion
As stated in the objectives, we want to determine and compare the characteristic of a linear control
valve, equal percentage control valve, and quick opening control valve. All the graphs can be
referred on the result section. We have done 2 times of different pressure for this particular
experiment. For this part of the experiment, we kept the differential pressure transmitter reading at
2psig. This is because when there is a constant pressure drop maintained across the valve, the
characteristic of the valve alone controls the flow, thus resulting to the characteristic known as
inherent flow characteristic.
All the 3 graphs if combine together will show us that linear type of valve will show that the flowrate
percentage are increases linearly as the valve opening is drawn wider (Graph 1). However, for Equal
percentage valve, the flowrate increases slowly as the valve is open more bigger. We can also see
that the flowrate is increases gradually after 50% opening (Graph 3). For the third valve, which is
quick opening valve the flowrate increases drastically and are seem to approach the maximum
flowrate at about 70% opening (Graph 5). Also not forgotten, the experiment was done by keeping
the upstream pressure indicator reading to 0.5kgf/cm2. Theoretically, valves of any size or inherent
flow characteristic, when subjected to the same volumetric flow rate and differential pressure will
have the same orifice pass area. However, different valve characteristics will give different valve
openings for the same pass area.
On the other hand we also conducted our second experiment where the pressure is constant at 0.5
psig. We still study about the 3 types of opening. The first one produce Graph 2 shows that the
flowrate are going up as the opening become larger. But we can see that a small change on the
opening almost does not give effect on the flowrate. Differently from Graph 4, the flowrate line
almost seems linear. At 100% opening the flowrate reach it maximum at 62 L/min. Lastly, the Graph
6 shows that the air was increasing and it almost reach the maximum flowrate (constant) from 75%
opening. We can likely say that, for quick opening valve, the valve just need to be slightly open.
At the end we are able to study the 3 types of controller and how it is function. This is important as
we want to make sure that our plant is safe and environmental friendly. We can prevent explosion,
fire or accidents to happen in the plant.

11

ERRORS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

impossibility of maintaining the differential pressure and upstream pressure at 2 psig and
0.5kgf/cm2, respectively. The values were constantly fluctuating and the method used to
keep the pressure values at this rate was a bit tiresome. It was therefore important for the
success of the experiment to have someone constantly watch the values and ensure that
they are within the acceptable range.

parallax error. Even though the differential pressure transmitter was digital, the upstream
pressure indicator was not. Therefore, maintaining the upstream pressure at 0.5kgf/cm 2
catered for some error due to parallax. The ingenuity of the results depended partly on
whether the student assigned on reading the pressure indicator was not under the influence
of parallax.

5.0 CONCLUSION
In conclusion, we were able to accomplish the objectives of this experiment which were to
calibrate Type K, and Type J thermocouples, able to analyze the principles of a thermocouple
transmitter and calibration of a thermocouple transmitter and we are also achieve to calibrate
Platinum Resistance thermometers. From the result that we get, we can say that the measurement
for temperature for type K is the best by using MMU because is more sensitive and less percentage
error if we compare with UUT. For second experiment, we can conclude as thermocouple J get more
accurate reading by using UUT compare to the thermocouple K. From our 3rd experiment, It is found
that 2-wire has the least percentage error while 3-wire ans MSU has also the same percentage error.
2-wire has the least percentage error due to its less amount of resistance. Lesser amount of
resistance results in high sensitivity thus lowering the error. For our 4th experiment, two-wire
configurations are the simplest resistance thermometer configuration. It is used when high accuracy
is not required. The resistance of the connecting wires is always included with that of the sensor
leading to errors of the signal. Three-wire configuration: this configuration can be used to minimize
the effects of lead resistances. The two leads to the sensor are on adjoining arms and there is a lead
resistance in each arm of the bridge and therefore the lead resistance is cancelled out. Due to some
errors that happen during the experiment, some of our result will not be same as the theoretical.

6.0 REFERENCES
Coughanowr, D. R, Process System Analysis and Control, 2nd edition McGraw Hill New York
1991.
Emerson Process Management "Control valve handbook, fourth edition, Fisher Controls International
LLC, 2005.

12